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Sample records for alveolar breath sampling

  1. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

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    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  2. The relationship between alveolar oxygen tension and the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity.

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    Kanner, R E; Crapo, R O

    1986-04-01

    The effects of alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) on the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) were quantified and a factor was derived to accommodate for differences in PAO2 over commonly encountered altitudes and/or varying concentrations of oxygen in the test gas mixture (FIO2) We performed duplicate measurements of DLCO in 7 normal subjects with 6 different oxygen fractions (0.176, 0.196, 0.211, 0.22, 0.25, and 0.27). The PAO2 for each test was measured as the PO2 in the alveolar gas sample bag. DLCO varied inversely with PAO2 and changed by 0.35% for each mmHg change in PAO2 (r = -0.62, p less than 0.001). At an FIO2 of 0.25, PAO2 varied between subjects and was highly correlated with each subject's residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001). We suggest that laboratories can adjust the measured DLCO when PAO2 is not congruent to 120 mmHg by the following formula: DLCO (corrected = DLCO (measured) x [1.0 + 0.0035 (PAO2 - 120)].

  3. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

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    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  4. Noninvasive measurement of mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension and Bohr's dead space during tidal breathing.

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    Koulouris, N G; Latsi, P; Dimitroulis, J; Jordanoglou, B; Gaga, M; Jordanoglou, J

    2001-06-01

    The lack of methodology for measuring the alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA,CO2) has forced investigators to make several assumptions, such as that PA,CO2 is equal to end-tidal (PET,CO2) and arterial CO2 tension (Pa,CO2). The present study measured the mean PA,CO2 and Bohr's dead space ratio (Bohr's dead space/tidal volume (VD,Bohr/VT)) during tidal breathing. The method used is a new, simple and noninvasive technique, based on the analysis of the expired CO2 volume per breath (VCO2) versus the exhaled VT. This curve was analysed in 21 normal, healthy subjects and 35 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients breathing tidally through a mouthpiece apparatus in the sitting position. It is shown that: 1) PA,CO2 is similar to Pa,CO2 in normal subjects, whilst it is significantly lower than Pa,CO2 in COPD patients; 2) PA,CO2 is significantly higher than PET,CO2 in all subjects, especially in COPD patients; 3) VD,Bohr/VT is increased in COPD patients as compared to normal subjects; and 4) VD,Bohr/VT is lower than the "physiological" dead space ratio (VD,phys/VT) in COPD patients. It is concluded that the expired carbon dioxide versus tidal volume curve is a useful tool for research and clinical work, because it permits the noninvasive and accurate measurement of Bohr's dead space and mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension accurately during spontaneous breathing.

  5. A multislice single breath-hold scheme for imaging alveolar oxygen tension in humans.

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    Hamedani, Hooman; Kadlecek, Stephen J; Emami, Kiarash; Kuzma, Nicholas N; Xu, Yinan; Xin, Yi; Mongkolwisetwara, Puttisarn; Rajaei, Jennia; Barulic, Amy; Wilson Miller, G; Rossman, Milton; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R

    2012-05-01

    Reliable, noninvasive, and high-resolution imaging of alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (p(A)O(2)) is a potentially valuable tool in the early diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Several techniques have been proposed for regional measurement of p(A)O(2) based on the increased depolarization rate of hyperpolarized (3) He. In this study, we explore one such technique by applying a multislice p(A)O(2) -imaging scheme that uses interleaved-slice ordering to utilize interslice time-delays more efficiently. This approach addresses the low spatial resolution and long breath-hold requirements of earlier techniques, allowing p(A)O(2) measurements to be made over the entire human lung in 10-15 s with a typical resolution of 8.3 × 8.3 × 15.6 mm(3). PO(2) measurements in a glass syringe phantom were in agreement with independent gas analysis within 4.7 ± 4.1% (R = 0.9993). The technique is demonstrated in four human subjects (healthy nonsmoker, healthy former smoker, healthy smoker, and patient with COPD), each imaged six times on 3 different days during a 2-week span. Two independent measurements were performed in each session, consisting of 12 coronal slices. The overall p(A)O(2) mean across all subjects was 95.9 ± 12.2 Torr and correlated well with end-tidal O(2) (R = 0.805, P < 0.0001). The alveolar O(2) uptake rate was consistent with the expected range of 1-2 Torr/s. Repeatable visual features were observed in p(A)O(2) maps over different days, as were characteristic differences among the subjects and gravity-dependent effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Multiscale CT-Based Computational Modeling of Alveolar Gas Exchange during Artificial Lung Ventilation, Cluster (Biot and Periodic (Cheyne-Stokes Breathings and Bronchial Asthma Attack

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    Andrey Golov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An airflow in the first four generations of the tracheobronchial tree was simulated by the 1D model of incompressible fluid flow through the network of the elastic tubes coupled with 0D models of lumped alveolar components, which aggregates parts of the alveolar volume and smaller airways, extended with convective transport model throughout the lung and alveolar components which were combined with the model of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport between the alveolar volume and the averaged blood compartment during pathological respiratory conditions. The novel features of this work are 1D reconstruction of the tracheobronchial tree structure on the basis of 3D segmentation of the computed tomography (CT data; 1D−0D coupling of the models of 1D bronchial tube and 0D alveolar components; and the alveolar gas exchange model. The results of our simulations include mechanical ventilation, breathing patterns of severely ill patients with the cluster (Biot and periodic (Cheyne-Stokes respirations and bronchial asthma attack. The suitability of the proposed mathematical model was validated. Carbon dioxide elimination efficiency was analyzed in all these cases. In the future, these results might be integrated into research and practical studies aimed to design cyberbiological systems for remote real-time monitoring, classification, prediction of breathing patterns and alveolar gas exchange for patients with breathing problems.

  7. Mechanical breath profile of airway pressure release ventilation: the effect on alveolar recruitment and microstrain in acute lung injury.

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    Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Emr, Bryanna; Smith, Bradford; Roy, Shreyas; Jain, Sumeet; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Bates, Jason; Marx, William; Nieman, Gary; Gatto, Louis A

    2014-11-01

    Improper mechanical ventilation settings can exacerbate acute lung injury by causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury. It is therefore important to establish the mechanism by which the ventilator induces lung injury to develop protective ventilation strategies. It has been postulated that the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury is the result of heterogeneous, elevated strain on the pulmonary parenchyma. Acute lung injury has been associated with increases in whole-lung macrostrain, which is correlated with increased pathology. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation on alveolar microstrain remains unknown. To examine whether the mechanical breath profile of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), consisting of a prolonged pressure-time profile and brief expiratory release phase, reduces microstrain. In a randomized, nonblinded laboratory animal study, rats were randomized into a controlled mandatory ventilation group (n = 3) and an APRV group (n = 3). Lung injury was induced by polysorbate lavage. A thoracotomy was performed and an in vivo microscope was placed on the lungs to measure alveolar mechanics. In the controlled mandatory ventilation group, multiple levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; 5, 10, 16, 20, and 24 cm H2O) were tested. In the APRV group, decreasing durations of expiratory release (time at low pressure [T(low)]) were tested. The T(low) was set to achieve ratios of termination of peak expiratory flow rate (T-PEFR) to peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% (the smaller this ratio is [ie, 10%], the more time the lung is exposed to low pressure during the release phase, which decreases end-expiratory lung volume and potentiates derecruitment). Alveolar perimeters were measured at peak inspiration and end expiration using digital image analysis, and strain was calculated by normalizing the change in alveolar perimeter length to the original length. Macrostrain was measured by volume

  8. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

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    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  10. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

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    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  11. Glass bottle sampling solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry for breath analysis of drug metabolites.

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    Lu, Yan; Niu, Wenqi; Zou, Xue; Shen, Chengyin; Xia, Lei; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2017-05-05

    Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach which may be applied to disease diagnosis and pharmacokinetic study. In the case of offline analysis, the exhaled gas needs to be collected and the sampling bag is often used as the storage vessel. However, the sampling bag usually releases some extra compounds, which may interfere with the result of the breath test. In this study, a novel breath sampling glass bottle was developed with a syringe needle sampling port for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Such a glass bottle scarcely liberates compounds and can be used to collect exhaled gas for ensuing analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS analysis was carried out to investigate the breath metabolites of myrtol, a multicompound drug normally used in the treatment of bronchitis and sinusitis. Four compounds, α-pinene, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole were found in the exhaled breath of all eight volunteers who had taken the myrtol. While for other ten subjects who had not used the myrtol, these compounds were undetectable. In the SPME-GC-MS analysis of the headspace of myrtol, three compounds were detected including α-pinene, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole. Comparing the results of breath and headspace analysis, it indicates that 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole in the breath is the metabolite of 1,8-cineole. It is the first time that this metabolite was identified in human breath. The study demonstrates that the glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS method is applicable to exhaled gas analysis including breath metabolites investigation of drugs like myrtol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a new simple collection device for sampling of microparticles in exhaled breath.

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    Seferaj, Sabina; Ullah, Shahid; Tinglev, Åsa; Carlsson, Sten; Winberg, Jesper; Stambeck, Peter; Beck, Olof

    2018-03-12

    The microparticle fraction of exhaled breath is of interest for developing clinical biomarkers. Exhaled particles may contain non-volatile components from all parts of the airway system, formed during normal breathing. This study aimed to evaluate a new, simple sampling device, based on impaction, for collecting microparticles from exhaled breath. Performance of the new device was compared with that of the existing SensAbues membrane filter device. The analytical work used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The new device collected three subsamples and these were separately analysed from eight individuals. No difference was observed between the centre position (0.91 ng/sample) and the side positions (1.01 ng/sample) using major phosphatidylcholine (PC) 16:0/16:0 as the analyte. Exhaled breath was collected from eight patients on methadone maintenance treatment. The intra-individual variability in measured methadone concentration between the three collectors was 8.7%. In another experiment using patients on methadone maintenance treatment, the sampling efficiency was compared with an established filter device. Compared to the existing device, the efficiency of the new device was 121% greater for methadone and 1450% greater for DPPC. The data from lipid analysis also indicated that a larger fraction of the collected material was from the distal parts. Finally, a study using an optical particle counter indicated that the device preferentially collects the larger particle fraction. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the new device for collecting non-volatile components from exhaled breath. The performance of the device was superior to the filter device in several aspects.

  13. Single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle using Cartesian sampling.

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    Wetzl, Jens; Schmidt, Michaela; Pontana, François; Longère, Benjamin; Lugauer, Felix; Maier, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim; Forman, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate a single-breath-hold approach for Cartesian 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle with a nearly isotropic resolution of [Formula: see text] and a breath-hold duration of [Formula: see text]19 s against a standard stack of 2-D CINE slices acquired in multiple breath-holds. Validation is performed with data sets from ten healthy volunteers. A Cartesian sampling pattern based on the spiral phyllotaxis and a compressed sensing reconstruction method are proposed to allow 3-D CINE imaging with high acceleration factors. The fully integrated reconstruction uses multiple graphics processing units to speed up the reconstruction. The 2-D CINE and 3-D CINE are compared based on ventricular function parameters, contrast-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness measurements. Visual comparisons of corresponding short-axis slices of 2-D and 3-D CINE show an excellent match, while 3-D CINE also allows reformatting to other orientations. Ventricular function parameters do not significantly differ from values based on 2-D CINE imaging. Reconstruction times are below 4 min. We demonstrate single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging in volunteers and three example patient cases, which features fast reconstruction and allows reformatting to arbitrary orientations.

  14. Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags

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    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3–12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag’s filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20–40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

  15. Purinergic signalling links mechanical breath profile and alveolar mechanics with the pro-inflammatory innate immune response causing ventilation-induced lung injury.

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    Hasan, Djo; Blankman, Paul; Nieman, Gary F

    2017-09-01

    Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP molecules act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and activate the pro-inflammatory response of the innate immunity through purinergic receptors on the surface of the immune cells. This results in lung tissue inflammation, capillary leakage, interstitial and alveolar oedema and lung injury reducing the production of surfactant by the damaged AT II cells and deactivating the surfactant function by the concomitant extravasated serum proteins through capillary leakage followed by a substantial increase in alveolar surface tension and alveolar collapse. The resulting inhomogeneous ventilation of the lungs is an important mechanism in the development of ventilation-induced lung injury. The high levels of extracellular ATP and the upregulation of ecto-enzymes and soluble enzymes that hydrolyse ATP to adenosine (CD39 and CD73) increase the extracellular adenosine levels that inhibit the innate and adaptive immune responses rendering the host susceptible to infection by invading microorganisms. Moreover, high levels of extracellular adenosine increase the expression, the production and the activation of pro-fibrotic proteins (such as TGF-β, α-SMA, etc.) followed by the establishment of lung fibrosis.

  16. Purinergic signalling links mechanical breath profile and alveolar mechanics with the pro-inflammatory innate immune response causing ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hasan (Djo); P. Blankman (Paul); G.F. Nieman (Gary F.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSevere pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high

  17. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiliasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasihuddin, S.; Alawi, Malak H.; Abdulshakoor, Bothania M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a patient with plmonary alveolar microlithiliasis who was admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with chest pain, shortness of breath dry cough and swelling of lower limbs.The patient underwent chest radiolgraphs and computerized tomography scan showing multiple diffuse, almost symmetrical bilateral micronodulor opacities of calicific density. The diagnosis was confirmed after percuraneous lung biopsy from the patient. Cardiokinetics, diuretics and oxygen were administerd with slight improvement. (author)

  18. Respiratory Motion Correction for Compressively Sampled Free Breathing Cardiac MRI Using Smooth l1-Norm Approximation

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    Muhammad Bilal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformed domain sparsity of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has recently been used to reduce the acquisition time in conjunction with compressed sensing (CS theory. Respiratory motion during MR scan results in strong blurring and ghosting artifacts in recovered MR images. To improve the quality of the recovered images, motion needs to be estimated and corrected. In this article, a two-step approach is proposed for the recovery of cardiac MR images in the presence of free breathing motion. In the first step, compressively sampled MR images are recovered by solving an optimization problem using gradient descent algorithm. The L1-norm based regularizer, used in optimization problem, is approximated by a hyperbolic tangent function. In the second step, a block matching algorithm, known as Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS, is exploited to estimate and correct respiratory motion among the recovered images. The framework is tested for free breathing simulated and in vivo 2D cardiac cine MRI data. Simulation results show improved structural similarity index (SSIM, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and mean square error (MSE with different acceleration factors for the proposed method. Experimental results also provide a comparison between k-t FOCUSS with MEMC and the proposed method.

  19. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  20. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

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    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    analysis is now used to diagnose and monitor asthma, check for transplant organ rejection, detect lung cancer and test for Helicobacter pyloriinfection-and the list is growing. A major milestone in the scientific study of breath was marked in the 1970s when Linus Pauling demonstrated that there is more to exhaled breath than the classic gases of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour-a lot more. Based on the gas-liquid partition chromatography analysis, Pauling reported the presence of 250 substances in exhaled breath. We now have the technology to test for any and all of these components. The field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century and the utility of breath analysis in health care is advancing quickly. The science is rapidly expanding, the technology is improving and several new applications have been developed or are under commercial development. Breath analysis may rely on both direct (on line) and indirect (off line) reading methods: in the on-line method, breath analysis is immediately available, whereas the use of indirect methods generally involves collecting and trapping the breath sample and subsequently transferring it to an analytical instrument for analysis. Various kinds of breath samples have been used in biological monitoring, including mixed expired air and end expired air: end exhaled air represents the alveolar air concentration and mixed exhaled air represents the gas mixture coming from the dead space of the bronchial tree and the alveolar gas-exchange space. Exhaled breath analysis is an area where the modern day advances in technology and engineering meet the ever expanding need in medicine for more sensitive, specific and non-invasive tests which makes this area a major front in the interface between medicine and engineering. A major breakthrough over the past decade has been the increase in breath-based tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Devices measuring common breath gases

  1. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea.

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    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-06-28

    To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P lactose doses in both groups. Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  2. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  3. Analysis of human exhaled breath in a population of young volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Božidarka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath can provide information about the current physiological state of an individual, such as clinical conditions and exposure to exogenous pollutants. The blood-borne VOCs present in exhaled breath offer the possibility of exploring physiological and pathological processes in a noninvasive way. However, the field of exhaled breath analysis is still in its infancy. We undertook this study in order to define interindividual variation and common compounds in breath VOCs of 48 young human volunteers. Alveolar breath samples were analyzed by automated thermal desorption, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID and electron capture detector (ECD using SUPELCO standards with 66 compounds. Predominant compounds in the alveolar breath of analyzed subjects are ethylbenzene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (over 50% of the subjects. Isopropyl alcohol, propylene, acetone, ethanol were found as well. We detected substituted compounds in exhaled breath. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172001

  4. Sampling and mass spectrometry approaches for the detection of drugs and foreign contaminants in breath for homeland security applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid

  5. Multibreath alveolar oxygen tension imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin; Hamedani, Hooman; Kadlecek, Stephen; Xin, Yi; Shaghaghi, Hoora; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Rossman, Milton D; Rizi, Rahim R

    2016-10-01

    This study tested the ability of a multibreath hyperpolarized HP (3) He MRI protocol to increase the accuracy of regional alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ) measurements by lessening the influence of gas-flow artifacts. Conventional single-breath PA O2 measurement has been susceptible to error induced by intervoxel gas flow, particularly when used to study subjects with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both single-breath and multibreath PA O2 imaging schemes were implemented in seven human subjects (one healthy, three asymptomatic smokers, and three COPD). The number and location of voxels with nonphysiologic PA O2 values generated by intervoxel gas flow were compared between the two protocols. The multibreath scheme resulted in a significantly lower total percentage of nonphysiologic PA O2 values (6.0%) than the single-breath scheme (13.7%) (P = 0.006). PA O2 maps showed several patterns of gas-flow artifacts that were present in the single-breath protocol but mitigated by the multibreath approach. Multibreath imaging also allowed for the analysis of slow-filling areas that presented no signal after a single breath. A multibreath approach enhances the accuracy and completeness of noninvasive PA O2 measurement by significantly lessening the proportion of nonphysiologic values generated by intervoxel gas flow. Magn Reson Med 76:1092-1101, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Marital status and sleep-disordered breathing in a sample of middle-aged French men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teculescu, D; Hannhart, B; Virion, J M; Montaut-Verient, B; Michaely, J P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that unmarried (single) men have more sleep-disordered breathing symptoms due to a higher prevalence of obesity and a less healthy lifestyle than men living with a partner. Men (499) aged 23-66 years completed a structured questionnaire, had standard anthropometric measurements and a simple, noninvasive nose-throat examination. Of the 499,496 subjects answered the question concerning their marital status; 86% of them were married or lived with a partner (reference group) and the other 14% had never been married, divorced, or widowed ("single" group, considered at risk). Single subjects were younger, included slightly more smokers (30 vs. 23%) and more subjects with a history of chronic bronchitis, and less frequently had a large soft palate. The prevalence of sleep-disordered symptoms was not significantly different between the two groups. However, a study involving a larger number of subjects with information regarding alcoholic consumption may be needed to further evaluate this question.

  7. Study of exhaled breath condensate sample preparation for metabolomics analysis by LC-MS/MS in high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Peralbo, M A; Calderón Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) requires an unavoidable sample preparation step because of the low concentration of its components, and potential cleanup for possible interferents. Sample preparation based on protein precipitation (PP), solid-phase extraction (SPE) by hydrophilic and lipophilic sorbents or lyophilization has demonstrated that the analytical sample from the last is largely the best because lyophilization allows reconstitution in a volume as small as required (preconcentration factors up to 80-times with respect to the original sample), thus doubling the number of detected compounds as compared with the other alternatives (47 versus 25). In addition, PP and/or SPE cleanup are unnecessary as no effect from the EBC components removed by these steps appears in the chromatograms. The total 49 EBC compounds tentatively identified and confirmed by MS/MS in this research include amino acids, fatty acids, fatty amides, fatty aldehydes, sphingoid bases, oxoanionic compounds, imidazoles, hydroxy acids and aliphatic acyclic acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of alveolar topology on acinar flows and convective mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

    2014-06-01

    Due to experimental challenges, computational simulations are often sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport in the pulmonary acinus. Commonly, these are performed using generic alveolar topologies, including spheres, toroids, and polyhedra, to mimic the complex acinar morphology. Yet, local acinar flows and ensuing particle transport are anticipated to be influenced by the specific morphological structures. We have assessed a range of acinar models under self-similar breathing conditions with respect to alveolar flow patterns, convective flow mixing, and deposition of fine particles (1.3 μm diameter). By tracking passive tracers over cumulative breathing cycles, we find that irreversible flow mixing correlates with the location and strength of the recirculating vortex inside the cavity. Such effects are strongest in proximal acinar generations where the ratio of alveolar to ductal flow rates is low and interalveolar disparities are most apparent. Our results for multi-alveolated acinar ducts highlight that fine 1 μm inhaled particles subject to alveolar flows are sensitive to the alveolar topology, underlining interalveolar disparities in particle deposition patterns. Despite the simplicity of the acinar models investigated, our findings suggest that alveolar topologies influence more significantly local flow patterns and deposition sites of fine particles for upper generations emphasizing the importance of the selected acinar model. In distal acinar generations, however, the alveolar geometry primarily needs to mimic the space-filling alveolar arrangement dictated by lung morphology.

  9. Exhaled human breath measurement method for assessing exposure to halogenated volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, J D; Lindstrom, A B

    1997-05-01

    The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of blood-borne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sampling and analysis of breath is preferred to direct measurement from blood samples because breath collection is noninvasive, potentially infectious waste is avoided, and the measurement of gas-phase analytes is much simpler in a gas matrix rather than in a complex biological tissue such as blood. To exploit these advantages, we have developed the "single breath canister" (SBC) technique, a simple direct collection method for individual alveolar breath samples, and adapted conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical methods for trace-concentration VOC analysis. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the techniques for making VOC measurements in breath, to present some specific applications for which these methods are relevant, and to demonstrate how to estimate exposure to example VOCs on the basis of breath elimination. We present data from three different exposure scenarios: (a) vinyl chloride and cis-1,2-dichloroethene from showering with contaminated water from a private well, (b) chloroform and bromodichloromethane from high-intensity swimming in chlorinated pool water, and (c) trichloroethene from a controlled exposure chamber experiment. In all cases, for all subjects, the experiment is the same: preexposure breath measurement, exposure to halogenated VOC, and a postexposure time-dependent series of breath measurements. Data are presented only to demonstrate the use of the method and how to interpret the analytical results.

  10. Alveolar Thin Layer Flows and Surfactant Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Ahmad; Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary surfactants play a vital role in everyday respiration. They regulate surface tension in the lungs by diffusing through the hypophase, a liquid layer that lines the interior surface of the alveoli, and adsorbing to the existing air-fluid interface. This decreases the equilibrium surface tension value by as much as a factor of 3, minimizing breathing effort and preventing lung collapse at the end of exhalation. Given that the hypophase thickness h lies within the range 0.1 μm < h <0.5 μm , and that the average alveolar radius R is 100 μm , for some purposes the hypophase may usefully be modeled as a fluid layer on a flat sheet representing the alveolar wall. Moreover, because of the large aspect ratio, the lubrication approximation can be applied. The aim of the present work is to study the interaction between the straining of the alveolar wall and the fluid flow in the hypophase. The analysis is governed by the relative magnitudes of the time scales of surfactant diffusion, adsorption, desorption, viscous dissipation and sheet straining. Cases of particular interest include non-uniform surfactant concentration at the interface, leading to Marangoni flows and a non-uniform hypophase thickness profile. The analytical formulation and numerical simulations are presented. This work is motivated by a need to understand alveolar deformation during breathing, and to do so in a way that derives from improved understanding of the fluid mechanics of the problem.

  11. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  12. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  14. Free-breathing volumetric fat/water separation by combining radial sampling, compressed sensing, and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, Thomas; Feng, Li; Sodickson, Daniel K; Chandarana, Hersh; Block, Kai Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Conventional fat/water separation techniques require that patients hold breath during abdominal acquisitions, which often fails and limits the achievable spatial resolution and anatomic coverage. This work presents a novel approach for free-breathing volumetric fat/water separation. Multiecho data are acquired using a motion-robust radial stack-of-stars three-dimensional GRE sequence with bipolar readout. To obtain fat/water maps, a model-based reconstruction is used that accounts for the off-resonant blurring of fat and integrates both compressed sensing and parallel imaging. The approach additionally enables generation of respiration-resolved fat/water maps by detecting motion from k-space data and reconstructing different respiration states. Furthermore, an extension is described for dynamic contrast-enhanced fat-water-separated measurements. Uniform and robust fat/water separation is demonstrated in several clinical applications, including free-breathing noncontrast abdominal examination of adults and a pediatric subject with both motion-averaged and motion-resolved reconstructions, as well as in a noncontrast breast exam. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced fat/water imaging with high temporal resolution is demonstrated in the abdomen and breast. The described framework provides a viable approach for motion-robust fat/water separation and promises particular value for clinical applications that are currently limited by the breath-holding capacity or cooperation of patients. Magn Reson Med 78:565-576, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Sánchez Infante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La proteinosis alveolar pulmonar es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, caracterizada por alteración en el metabolismo del surfactante, lo que determina su acumulación anormal en el espacio alveolar. Es una enfermedad extremadamente rara. Se han reportado solamente 500 casos en la literatura. Se describió por primera vez en 1958. Se presenta un caso de proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en un lactante de 2 meses, con desnutrición proteico energética, que ingresa por dificultad respiratoria e hipoxemia, y, con imágenes radiológicas de tipo retículo-nodulillar, en vidrio deslustrado, en el cual se plantea inicialmente el diagnóstico de bronconeumonía. Ante la evolución desfavorable y no respuesta al tratamiento, se realizó un estudio para descartar enfermedades pulmonares crónicas. El paciente fallece y se confirma el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica. Se realiza una revisión del tema.The pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by surfactant metabolism alteration determining its abnormal accumulation in the alveolar space. It is a disease very rare and in literature only 500 cases have been reported; it was described for the first time in 1958. This is a case presentation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in an infant aged 2 months with energetic protein malnutrition admitted due to respiratory difficulty and hypoxemia and with radiologic images of the reticulonodulillary, in frosting glass, where initially is made the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. In the face of unfavorable evolution and no response to treatment, a study was conducted to rule out chronic pulmonary diseases. Patient died confirming the diagnosis according to the pathologic anatomy. A review on subject is carried out.

  16. Alveolar inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Viglio, Simona

    2010-01-01

    and ceramide accumulation. We sought to investigate CF lung inflammation in the alveoli. METHODS: Lung tissue from 14 CF patients and four healthy individuals was analyzed for numbers of effector cells, elastin and collagen concentrations, inflammatory markers and density of Pseudomonas aeruginosa....... Additionally, desmosine and isodesmosine concentrations were determined in 52 urine specimens from CF patients to estimate the burden of elastase activities in respiratory secretions. RESULTS: Elastin concentration was significantly decreased and collagen significantly increased in CF alveolar tissues...... as compared to age-matched, healthy individuals. Elastin split products were significantly increased in urine samples from patients with CF and correlated inversely with age, indicating local tissue remodelling due to elastin degradation by unopposed proteolytic enzymes. Alveolar inflammation was also...

  17. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  18. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  19. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  20. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  1. Free-breathing Sparse Sampling Cine MR Imaging with Iterative Reconstruction for the Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Mass at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Dösch, Christina; Zenge, Michael O; Schmidt, Michaela; Nadar, Mariappan S; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of left ventricle (LV) analysis with a two-dimensional real-time cine true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence featuring sparse data sampling with iterative reconstruction (SSIR) performed with and without breath-hold (BH) commands at 3.0 T. Materials and Methods Ten control subjects (mean age, 35 years; range, 25-56 years) and 60 patients scheduled to undergo a routine cardiac examination that included LV analysis (mean age, 58 years; range, 20-86 years) underwent a fully sampled segmented multiple BH cine sequence (standard of reference) and a prototype undersampled SSIR sequence performed during a single BH and during free breathing (non-BH imaging). Quantitative analysis of LV function and mass was performed. Linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and paired t testing were performed. Results Similar to the results in control subjects, analysis of the 60 patients showed excellent correlation with the standard of reference for single-BH SSIR (r = 0.93-0.99) and non-BH SSIR (r = 0.92-0.98) for LV ejection fraction (EF), volume, and mass (P 3.0 T is noninferior to the standard of reference irrespective of BH commands. LV mass, however, is overestimated with SSIR. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  2. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  3. The effect of varying alveolar carbon dioxide levels on free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, A H; Hurford, D P

    1990-05-01

    A recent study suggested that students who have increased minute ventilation receive poorer grades. The present study was interested in determining the role alveolar carbon dioxide (CO2) levels play with cognitive abilities. A free recall task was used to examine list learning under two conditions of alveolar CO2 level: normal and decreased. The results suggested that decreased alveolar CO2 level affect the participant's ability to rehearse and recall information. It was concluded that conditions that reduce alveolar CO2 levels, such as hyperventilation resulting from stress, nervousness, or inappropriate breathing habits, can lead to poorer learning. If these conditions produce a habitual breathing pattern, the academic performance of the individual may suffer.

  4. Clinical Feasibility of Free-Breathing Dynamic T1-Weighted Imaging With Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Combination of Variable Density Sampling and Compressed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Yu, Mi Hye; Chang, Won; Park, Jin-Young; Nickel, Marcel Dominik; Son, Yohan; Kiefer, Berthold; Lee, Jeong Min

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of free-breathing dynamic T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) using Cartesian sampling, compressed sensing, and iterative reconstruction in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. A total of 51 patients at high risk of breath-holding failure underwent dynamic T1WI in a free-breathing manner using volumetric interpolated breath-hold (BH) examination with compressed sensing reconstruction (CS-VIBE) and hard gating. Timing, motion artifacts, and image quality were evaluated by 4 radiologists on a 4-point scale. For patients with low image quality scores (XD]) reconstruction was additionally performed and reviewed in the same manner. In addition, in 68.6% (35/51) patients who had previously undergone liver MRI, image quality and motion artifacts on dynamic phases using CS-VIBE were compared with previous BH-T1WIs. In all patients, adequate arterial-phase timing was obtained at least once. Overall image quality of free-breathing T1WI was 3.30 ± 0.59 on precontrast and 2.68 ± 0.70, 2.93 ± 0.65, and 3.30 ± 0.49 on early arterial, late arterial, and portal venous phases, respectively. In 13 patients with lower than average image quality (XD-reconstructed CS-VIBE) significantly reduced motion artifacts (P XD reconstruction showed less motion artifacts and better image quality on precontrast, arterial, and portal venous phases (P < 0.0001-0.013). Volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination with compressed sensing has the potential to provide consistent, motion-corrected free-breathing dynamic T1WI for liver MRI in patients at high risk of breath-holding failure.

  5. Diet-derived changes by sourdough-fermented rye bread in exhaled breath aspiration ion mobility spectrometry profiles in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Raatikainen, Olavi

    2017-12-01

    The potential of utilising exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles in studying diet-derived metabolic changes was examined. After a four-week initial diet period with white wheat bread (WW), seven participants received in randomised order high-fibre diets containing sourdough whole grain rye bread (WGR) or white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (WW + BRB), both for 4 weeks. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analysed with ChemPro ® 100i analyser (Environics OY, Mikkeli, Finland) at the end of each diet period in fasting state and after a standardised meal. The AIMS signal intensities in fasting state were different after the WGR diet as compared to other diets. The result suggests that WGR has metabolic effects not completely explained by the rye fibre content of the diet. This study encourages to utilise the exhaled breath VOC profile analysis as an early screening tool in studying physiological functionality of foods.

  6. A Unifying model of perfusion and motion applied to reconstruction of sparsely sampled free-breathing myocardial perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    The clinical potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is currently limited by respiratory induced motion of the heart. This paper presents a unifying model of perfusion and motion in which respiratory motion becomes an integral part of myocardial perfusion...... quantification. Hence, the need for tedious manual motion correction prior to perfusion quantification is avoided. In addition, we demonstrate that the proposed framework facilitates the process of reconstructing DCEMRI from sparsely sampled data in the presence of respiratory motion. The paper focuses primarily...... on the underlying theory of the proposed framework, but shows in vivo results of respiratory motion correction and simulation results of reconstructing sparsely sampled data....

  7. Bioanalysis of underivatized amino acids in non-invasive exhaled breath condensate samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Pyszka, Magdalena; Okońska, Magdalena; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Bączek, Tomasz

    2018-03-23

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is receiving increased attention as a novel, entirely non-invasive technique for collecting biomarker samples. This increased attention is due to the fact that EBC is simple, effort independent, rapid, can be repeated frequently, and can be performed on young children and patients suffering from a variety of diseases. By having a subject breathe tidally through a cooling system for 15-20 min, a sufficient amount of condensate is collected for analysis of biomarkers in clinical studies. However, bioanalysis of EBC involves an unavoidable sample preparation step due to the low concentration of its components. Thus, there is a need for a new and more sensitive analytical method of assessing EBC samples. While researchers have considered analyses of single and small quantities of amino acids - for example, those connected with leukemia - no one has previously attempted to simultaneously analyze a panel of 23 amino acids. Moreover, the present study is well-justified, as prior studies focusing on single amino acids and leukemia at the moment of diagnosis and during chemotherapy (33 days of treatment) are inconsistent. In the present study, amino acids were separated using an XBridge Amide column (3 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM of ammonium buffer in water with a pH of 3 (Phase A) and 10 mM ammonium buffer in acetonitrile (Phase B) under gradient program elution. The analytes were detected in electrospray positive ionization mode. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method exhibited limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range of 0.05-0.5 ng/mL, and good linearity, with the determination coefficient (R 2 ) falling between 0.9904 and 0.9998. The accuracy in human exhaled breath condensate samples ranged between 93.3-113.3% for the 23 studied amino acids, with intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation (CVs) of 0.13-9.92% and 0.17-10.53%, respectively. To demonstrate the liquid

  8. [Alveolar ventilation and recruitment under lung protective ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putensen, Christian; Muders, Thomas; Kreyer, Stefan; Wrigge, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    Goal of mechanical ventilation is to improve gas exchange and reduce work of breathing without contributing to further lung injury. Besides providing adequate EELV and thereby arterial oxygenation PEEP in addition to a reduction in tidal volume is required to prevent cyclic alveolar collapse and tidal recruitment and hence protective mechanical ventilation. Currently, there is no consensus if and if yes at which price alveolar recruitment with high airway pressures should be intended ("open up the lung"), or if it is more important to reduce the mechanical stress and strain to the lungs as much as possible ("keep the lung closed"). Potential of alveolar recruitment differs from patient to patient but also between lung regions. Potential for recruitment depends probably more on regional lung mechanics - especially on lung elastance - than on the underlying disease. Based on available data neither high PEEP nor other methods used for alveolar recruitment could demonstrate a survival benefit in patients with ARDS. These results may support an individualized titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres used for recruitment taking into consideration the regional effects. Bedside imaging techniques allowing titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres to prevent end-expiratory alveolar collapse (tidal recruitment) and inspiratory overinflation may be a promising development.

  9. Improved abdominal MRI in non-breath-holding children using a radial k-space sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun Hae; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su Mi [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Radial k-space sampling techniques have been shown to reduce motion artifacts in adult abdominal MRI. To compare a T2-weighted radial k-space sampling MRI pulse sequence (BLADE) with standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric abdominal imaging. Axial BLADE and respiratory-triggered turbo spin echo sequences were performed without fat suppression in 32 abdominal MR examinations in children. We retrospectively assessed overall image quality, the presence of respiratory, peristaltic and radial artifact, and lesion conspicuity. We evaluated signal uniformity of each sequence. BLADE showed improved overall image quality (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 2.59 ± 0.59, P < 0.001), reduced respiratory motion artifact (0.51 ± 0.56 vs. 1.89 ± 0.68, P < 0.001), and improved lesion conspicuity (3.54 ± 0.88 vs. 2.92 ± 0.77, P = 0.006) compared to respiratory triggering turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. The bowel motion artifact scores were similar for both sequences (1.65 ± 0.77 vs. 1.79 ± 0.74, P = 0.691). BLADE introduced a radial artifact that was not observed on the respiratory triggering-TSE images (1.10 ± 0.85 vs. 0, P < 0.001). BLADE was associated with diminished signal variation compared with respiratory triggering-TSE in the liver, spleen and air (P < 0.001). The radial k-space sampling technique improved the quality and reduced respiratory motion artifacts in young children compared with conventional respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequences. (orig.)

  10. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Sánchez Infante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La proteinosis alveolar pulmonar es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, caracterizada por alteración en el metabolismo del surfactante, lo que determina su acumulación anormal en el espacio alveolar. Es una enfermedad extremadamente rara. Se han reportado solamente 500 casos en la literatura. Se describió por primera vez en 1958. Se presenta un caso de proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en un lactante de 2 meses, con desnutrición proteico energética, que ingresa por dificultad respiratoria e hipoxemia, y, con imágenes radiológicas de tipo retículo-nodulillar, en vidrio deslustrado, en el cual se plantea inicialmente el diagnóstico de bronconeumonía. Ante la evolución desfavorable y no respuesta al tratamiento, se realizó un estudio para descartar enfermedades pulmonares crónicas. El paciente fallece y se confirma el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica. Se realiza una revisión del tema.

  11. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, Franco Javier; Vallejo, Alejandro; Parra, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, resulting in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the sand storm in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

  12. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  13. Standardisation and application of the single-breath determination of nitric oxide uptake in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Hsia, Connie C W; Hughes, J Michael B; Borland, Colin D R; Guénard, Hervé; van der Lee, Ivo; Steenbruggen, Irene; Naeije, Robert; Cao, Jiguo; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2017-02-01

    Diffusing capacity of the lung for nitric oxide ( D LNO ), otherwise known as the transfer factor, was first measured in 1983. This document standardises the technique and application of single-breath D LNO This panel agrees that 1) pulmonary function systems should allow for mixing and measurement of both nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases directly from an inspiratory reservoir just before use, with expired concentrations measured from an alveolar "collection" or continuously sampled via rapid gas analysers; 2) breath-hold time should be 10 s with chemiluminescence NO analysers, or 4-6 s to accommodate the smaller detection range of the NO electrochemical cell; 3) inspired NO and oxygen concentrations should be 40-60 ppm and close to 21%, respectively; 4) the alveolar oxygen tension ( P AO 2 ) should be measured by sampling the expired gas; 5) a finite specific conductance in the blood for NO (θNO) should be assumed as 4.5 mL·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·mL -1 of blood; 6) the equation for 1/θCO should be (0.0062· P AO 2 +1.16)·(ideal haemoglobin/measured haemoglobin) based on breath-holding P AO 2 and adjusted to an average haemoglobin concentration (male 14.6 g·dL -1 , female 13.4 g·dL -1 ); 7) a membrane diffusing capacity ratio ( D MNO / D MCO ) should be 1.97, based on tissue diffusivity. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  14. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L; Buchvald, Frederik; Mortensen, Jann; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio. These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  15. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Thomas

    Full Text Available The diffusing capacity (DL of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc. DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO. This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO, involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values.The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children.DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS statistical method.A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio.These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  16. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  17. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Omar I; Kirby, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually arising in the soft tissues of the lower limbs in adults and in the head and neck region in children. It presents primarily as a slowly growing mass or as metastatic disease. It is characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration, der(17)t(X:17)(p11:q25), resulting in fusion of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) with alveolar soft part sarcoma critical region 1 (ASPSCR1) at 17q25. This translocation is diagnostically useful because the tumor nuclei are positive for TFE3 by immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion transcript on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than detection of TFE3 by immunohistochemical stain. Cathepsin K is a relatively recent immunohistochemical stain that can aid in the diagnosis. The recent discovery of the role of the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion protein in the MET proto-oncogene signaling pathway promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation offers a promising targeted molecular therapy.

  18. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  19. Minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in green iguanas and the effect of butorphanol on minimum alveolar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in green iguanas and effects of butorphanol on MAC. Prospective randomized trial. 10 healthy mature iguanas. in each iguana, MAC was measured 3 times: twice after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and once after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). A blood sample was collected from the tail vein for blood-gas analysis at the beginning and end of the anesthetic period. The MAC was determined with a standard bracketing technique; an electrical current was used as the supramaximal stimulus. Animals were artificially ventilated with a ventilator set to deliver a tidal volume of 30 mL/kg (14 mL/lb) at a rate of 4 breaths/min. Mean +/- SD MAC values during the 3 trials (2 without and 1 with butorphanol) were 2.0 +/- 0.6, 2.1 +/- 0.6, and 1.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different from each other. Heart rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were also not significantly different among the 3 trials. Mean +/- SD heart rate was 48 +/- 10 beats/min; mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was 22 +/- 10 mm Hg. There were no significant differences in blood-gas values for samples obtained at the beginning versus the end of the anesthetic period. Results suggest that the MAC of isoflurane in green iguanas is 2.1% and that butorphanol does not have any significant isoflurane-sparing effects.

  20. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Ahishali, B.; Rozanes, I.

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis is rare. We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  1. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavstvedt, S.; Bolin, A.; Henrikson, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    Four hundred and six individuals from an unselected sample from the County of Stockholm aged 18 to 65 years in 1970 were examined radiographically in 1970 and 1980. The differences in proximal alveolar bone height were recorded, attention being paid to the divergences in projection between the two investigations. The mean of the alveolar bone differnce was 5.5% of the mean root length, which corresponds to an average annual bone loss of 0.09 mm. Ninety per cent of the individuals had a difference in alveolar bone height of less than 10% of the root length, that is an average bone loss of 1.6 mm or less during 10 years. By linear regression analysis it was shown that the difference in alveolar bone height is a function of the initial bone loss; that is, the greater the initial bone loss, the greater the alveolar bone loss during the 10-year period. The result of the regression analysis may facilitate predictions of alveolar bone loss

  2. Alveolar ridge keratosis - a retrospective clinicopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar ridge keratosis (ARK) is a distinct, benign clinicopathological entity, characterized by a hyperkeratotic plaque or patch that occurs on the alveolar edentulous ridge or on the retromolar trigone, considered to be caused by chronic frictional trauma. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the clinicopathological features of 23 consecutive cases of ARK. Material and methods The 23 biopsy samples of ARK were selected and pathological features were revised (keratosis, acanthosis, surface architecture, and inflammation). Factors such as the patient’s gender, age, anatomical location, tobacco and alcohol use were analyzed. Results Sixteen out of the 23 cases studied were men and 7 women with a mean age of 55.05 (age ranged from 17 to 88 years). Thirteen cases had a history of tobacco habit, amongst whom, 4 also presented alcohol consumption. All the cases presented only unilateral lesions. Nineteen cases involved the retromolar trigone while 4 cases involved edentulous alveolar ridges. When observed microscopically, the lesions were mainly characterized by moderate to important hyperorthokeratosis. Inflammation was scanty or absent. In four of the cases, the presence of melanin pigment in the superficial corium or in the cytoplasm of macrophages was detected. None of the cases showed any features of dysplasia. Conclusion Our results reveal that ARK is a benign lesion. However, the high prevalence of smokers amongst the patients might suggest that some potentially malignant disorders such as tobacco associated leukoplakia may clinically mimic ARK. PMID:23587097

  3. Free-breathing contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial k-space sampling for paediatric abdominopelvic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandarana, Hersh; Block, Kai T.; Winfeld, Matthew J.; Lala, Shailee V.; Mazori, Daniel; Giuffrida, Emalyn; Babb, James S.; Milla, Sarah S. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the image quality of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial and conventional Cartesian k-space acquisition schemes in paediatric patients. Seventy-three consecutive paediatric patients were imaged at 1.5 T with sequential contrast-enhanced T1-weighted Cartesian (VIBE) and radial gradient echo (GRE) acquisition schemes with matching parameters when possible. Cartesian VIBE was acquired as a breath-hold or as free breathing in patients who could not suspend respiration, followed by free-breathing radial GRE in all patients. Two paediatric radiologists blinded to the acquisition schemes evaluated multiple parameters of image quality on a five-point scale, with higher score indicating a more optimal examination. Lesion presence or absence, conspicuity and edge sharpness were also evaluated. Mixed-model analysis of variance was performed to compare radial GRE and Cartesian VIBE. Radial GRE had significantly (all P < 0.001) higher scores for overall image quality, hepatic edge sharpness, hepatic vessel clarity and respiratory motion robustness than Cartesian VIBE. More lesions were detected on radial GRE by both readers than on Cartesian VIBE, with significantly higher scores for lesion conspicuity and edge sharpness (all P < 0.001). Radial GRE has better image quality and lesion conspicuity than conventional Cartesian VIBE in paediatric patients undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic MRI. (orig.)

  4. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  5. Physiology in Medicine: Understanding dynamic alveolar physiology to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Josh; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Andrews, Penny; Aiash, Hani; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2017-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a serious clinical problem with the main treatment being supportive in the form of mechanical ventilation. However, mechanical ventilation can be a double-edged sword: if set improperly, it can exacerbate the tissue damage caused by ARDS; this is known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To minimize VILI, we must understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tissue damage at the alveolar level. In this Physiology in Medicine paper, the dynamic physiology of alveolar inflation and deflation during mechanical ventilation will be reviewed. In addition, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of VILI will be reviewed, and this knowledge will be used to suggest an optimal mechanical breath profile (MB P : all airway pressures, volumes, flows, rates, and the duration that they are applied at both inspiration and expiration) necessary to minimize VILI. Our review suggests that the current protective ventilation strategy, known as the "open lung strategy," would be the optimal lung-protective approach. However, the viscoelastic behavior of dynamic alveolar inflation and deflation has not yet been incorporated into protective mechanical ventilation strategies. Using our knowledge of dynamic alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar and alveolar duct size and shape during tidal ventilation) to modify the MB P so as to minimize VILI will reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  7. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  8. Low Levels of IGF-1 Contribute to Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessich, Jamie L.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana; Ashare, Alix

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are major contributors to lung innate immunity. Although alveolar macrophages from CFTR−/− mice have impaired function, no study has investigated primary alveolar macrophages in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and our prior studies demonstrate a relationship between IGF-1 and macrophage function. We hypothesize that reduced IGF-1 in CF leads to impaired alveolar macrophage function and chronic infections. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained from 8 CF subjects and 8 healthy subjects. Macrophages were isolated from BAL fluid. We measured the ability of alveolar macrophages to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Subsequently, macrophages were incubated with IGF-1 prior to inoculation with bacteria to determine the effect of IGF-1 on bacterial killing. We found a significant decrease in bacterial killing by CF alveolar macrophages compared to controls. CF subjects had lower serum and BAL IGF-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Exposure to IGF-1 enhanced alveolar macrophage macrophages in both groups. Finally, exposing healthy alveolar macrophages to CF BAL fluid decreased bacterial killing, and this was reversed by the addition of IGF-1, while IGF-1 blockade worsened bacterial killing. Our studies demonstrate that alveolar macrophage function is impaired in patients with CF. Reductions in IGF-1 levels in CF contribute to the impaired alveolar macrophage function. Exposure to IGF-1 ex vivo, results in improved function of CF alveolar macrophages. Further studies are needed to determine whether alveolar macrophage function can be enhanced in vivo with IGF-1 treatment. PMID:23698746

  9. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    lung volume with each breath will, in time, lead to unstable alveoli and pulmonary damage. Reducing the change in lung volume by increasing the PEEP, even with high inflation pressure, prevents alveolar instability and reduces injury. We speculate that ventilation with large changes in lung volume over time results in surfactant deactivation, which leads to alveolar instability.

  10. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport capacity in reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, L B; Golden, J A; Finkbeiner, W E; Matthay, M A

    1999-03-01

    Reperfusion lung injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of the alveolar epithelium in the setting of reperfusion lung injury. Simultaneous samples of pulmonary edema fluid and plasma were collected from eight patients with severe post-transplantation reperfusion edema. The edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was measured, an indicator of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. The initial edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was > 0.75 in six of eight patients, confirming the presence of increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Graft ischemic time was positively correlated with the degree of permeability (r = 0.77, p mean +/- SD). Alveolar fluid clearance was calculated from serial samples in six patients. Intact alveolar fluid clearance correlated with less histologic injury, rapid resolution of hypoxemia, and more rapid resolution of radiographic infiltrates. The two patients with no net alveolar fluid clearance had persistent hypoxemia and more severe histologic injury. This study provides the first direct evidence that increased permeability to protein is the usual cause of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation, with longer ischemic times associated with greater permeability to protein in the transplanted lung. The high rates of alveolar fluid clearance indicate that the fluid transport capacity of the alveolar epithelium may be well preserved in the allograft despite reperfusion lung injury. The ability to reabsorb fluid from the alveolar space was a marker of less severe reperfusion injury, whereas the degree of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability to protein was not. Measurement of alveolar fluid clearance may be useful to assess the severity of reperfusion lung injury and to predict outcome when pulmonary edema develops after lung transplantation.

  11. True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

  12. Intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.; Prat, J.; Lopez, J.I.; Velilla, O.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975 Dail and Liebow described the clinical and pathological characteristics of a pulmonary tumor which they dominated intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor (IVBAT). Our aim is to acquaint radiologists with the existence of this tumor by describing the radiologic findings in 2 patients with IVBAT, 1 with hepatic involvement ant the other with pulmonary osteoarthropathy. (author). 7 refs.; 2 figs

  13. The Alveolar Microenvironment of Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Does Not Modify Alveolar Macrophage Interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, R. Thomas; Jarman, Elizabeth R.; North, James C.; Pridmore, Alison; Musaya, Janelisa; French, Neil; Zijlstra, Eduard E.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Read, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that HIV infection results in activation of alveolar macrophages and that this might be associated with impaired defense against pneumococcus. We compared alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes in 131 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from HIV-infected and healthy controls using inflammatory gene microarrays, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the pattern of macrophage activation associated with HIV infection and the effect of this activation on defense against pneumococcus. We used gamma interferon (IFN-γ) priming to mimic the cellular milieu in HIV-infected lungs. InnateDB and BioLayout 3D were used to analyze the interactions of the upregulated genes. Alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected adults showed increased gene expression and cytokine production in a classical pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage from HIV-infected subjects showed excess CD8+ lymphocytes with activated phenotype. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was increased in macrophages from HIV-infected subjects, but function was similar between the groups; lung lavage fluid did not inhibit TLR function in transfected HeLa cells. Alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected subjects showed normal binding and internalization of opsonized pneumococci, with or without IFN-γ priming. Alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected subjects showed classical activation compared to that of healthy controls, but this does not alter macrophage interactions with pneumococci. PMID:23576675

  14. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  15. Impact of sleep disordered breathing on behaviour among elementary school-aged children: a cross-sectional analysis of a large community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dale L; Gozal, David; Hunter, Scott J; Philby, Mona F; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children has been associated with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, but the associations between SDB severity and the type and severity of behavioural disruption are unclear.1022 children aged 5-7 years old prospectively underwent sleep studies and behavioural assessments through completion of standardised instruments. Participants were subdivided into four categorical groups based on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; measured per hour of total sleep time (hTST)), i.e. Group 1: nonsnoring and AHI hTST -1 ; Group 2: habitual snoring and AHI hTST -1 ; Group 3: habitual snoring and AHI 1-5 hTST -1 ; and Group 4: habitual snoring and AHI >5 hTST -1 , followed by comparisons of behavioural functioning across the groups.All 10 behavioural variables differed significantly between Group 1 and all other groups. Post hoc comparisons indicated that Group 2 was the most impaired for most behavioural measures. Furthermore, differences between Group 2 and more severe sleep pathology conditions were rarely significant.This large community-based paediatric cohort confirms earlier findings highlighting a significant impact of SDB on behavioural regulation, with the greatest impact being already apparent among habitually snoring children. Thus, a likely low asymptote exists regarding SDB behavioural impact, such that further increases in severity do not measurably increase parent-rated difficulties with behavioural regulation relative to controls. Our findings do support the need for considering early intervention, particularly among those children manifesting a behavioural impact of SDB. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  16. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Sweden people in all age groups now have more remaining teeth than previosly. An investigation has been made to identify some predictors of alveolar bone loss in a 10-year period in subjects with at least 20 remaining teeth. The material consisted of 349 individuals, examined radiographically, clinically and by interview in 1970 and in 1980. These subjects, born in 1904-1952, constituted a subgroup, with regard to remaining teeth, of an unselected sample of the population of the old county of Stockholm. In the unselected sample statistically significant predictors of alveolar bone loss found in a stepwise multiple regression analysis were 1) alveolar bone loss in 1970, 2) age, 3) number of lost teeth and 4) Russell's Periodontol Index (PI). In the subgroup the predictors were in the order 1) Russell's PI and 2) smoking. The prediction values (R 2 ) of further variables were marginal. The analyses showed that there was an interaction between PI and smoking, implying that the effect of smoking on alveolar bone loss was increased in individuals with high PI values. Furthermore, a tendency was found for a dose-response effect of tobacco consumption. This tendency almost disappeared when controlling for PI

  17. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  18. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  19. The Effect of mechanical resistive loading on optimal respiratory signals and breathing patterns under added dead space and CO2 breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shyan-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to investigate how the respiratory resistive loading affects the behaviour of the optimal chemical-mechanical respiratory control model, the respiratory signals and breathing pattern are optimized under external dead space loading and CO2 breathing. The respiratory control was modelled to include a neuro-muscular drive as the control output to derive the waveshapes of instantaneous airflow, lung volume profiles, and breathing pattern, including total/alveolar ventilation, breathing frequency, tidal volume, inspiratory/expiratory duration, duty cycle, and arterial CO2 pressure. The simulations were performed under various respiratory resistive loads, including no load, inspiratory resistive load, expiratory resistive load, and continuous resistive load. The dead space measurement was described with Gray’s derivation, and simulation results were studied and compared with experimental findings.

  20. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  1. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.

  2. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  3. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  4. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-03-05

    Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and/or peptic ulcer, as compared

  5. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentr...

  6. Breath-hold duration in man and the diving response induced by face immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, J A; Lundgren, C E

    1988-09-01

    The objective of this study in 5 selected volunteer subjects was to see whether the circulatory diving response which is elicited by breath holding and by cold water on the face would affect the duration of maximal-effort breath holds. Compared to control measurements (breath holding during resting, breathing with 35 degrees C water on the face) breath holding with the face cooled by 20 degrees C water caused a 12% reduction of heart rate, 6% reduction of cardiac output, 33% reduction in [corrected] forearm blood flow, and 9% rise in mean arterial blood pressure, but there was no difference in breath-hold duration (control and experimental both 94 s). There were also no differences in time of appearance of the first involuntary respiratory efforts during breath holding, in alveolar gas exchange, or in breaking-point alveolar O2 and CO2 tensions. When the diving response was magnified by a brief bout of exercise so that there was a 19% [corrected] reduction in heart rate, 23% reduction in cardiac output, and 48% reduction in forearm blood flow, breath-hold duration was still unaffected by face cooling. Compared to intermittent immersions, continuous exposure of the face to cold water abolished the diving response, probably by a cold adaptation of facial thermal receptors. These results with cooling of the face only are consistent with our earlier finding that there was a negative correlation between the duration of a maximal-effort breath hold and the diving response during whole-body submersion in cold water.

  7. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  8. Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis: CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, A.H. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Dietemann, J.L. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Filippi de la Palavesa, M.M. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Klinkert, A. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Kastler, B. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Gangi, A. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Jacquet, G. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital, Besancon (France)); Cattin, F. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Besancon (France))

    1994-05-01

    Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis is uncommon. We report a patient with right frontal lobe and palpebral lesions secondary to a primary hepatic focus with secondary lesion in the lung. The intracranial and palpebral cystic masses were totally removed and both proved to be alveolar hydatid cysts. An unusual feature in this case is CT and MRI demonstration of dural and bony extension. (orig.)

  9. Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis: CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, A.H.; Dietemann, J.L.; Filippi de la Palavesa, M.M.; Klinkert, A.; Kastler, B.; Gangi, A.; Jacquet, G.; Cattin, F.

    1994-01-01

    Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis is uncommon. We report a patient with right frontal lobe and palpebral lesions secondary to a primary hepatic focus with secondary lesion in the lung. The intracranial and palpebral cystic masses were totally removed and both proved to be alveolar hydatid cysts. An unusual feature in this case is CT and MRI demonstration of dural and bony extension. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Loercher, U. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Kitz, R. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Zielen, S. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Ahrens, P. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Koenig, R. [Inst. of Human Genetics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    Two asymptomatic Turkish sibs are presented, a 4-year-old boy and his 7-year-old sister, with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT demonstrated wide-spread intra-alveolar calcifications in both lungs. The lesions were sharply defined and less than 1 mm in diameter. CT documented a high concentration of microliths along the bronchovascular bundles, the intralobular fissue and the (sub)pleural lung parenchyma. The combination of bronchoalveolar lavage and roentgenographic appearance in high resolution CT are characteristic and pathognomonic, and can confirm the diagnosis. The more severe changes in the elder sib and the radiographic controls suggest that the pulmonary disease may be progressive in our patients. The described family of consanguineous, unaffected parents with two affected and one healthy child confirmed the autosomal recessive inheritance of PAM (McKusick 265100). In addition, the affected girl had autosomal recessive Waardenburg-anophthalmia syndrome (McKusick 206920), raising the question of whether this is a chance occurrence or possibly a contiguous gene syndrome. (orig.)

  11. An unclassified Eubacterium taxon in acute dento-alveolar abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, W G; Lewis, M A; Cheeseman, S L; Absi, E G; Bishop, P A

    1994-02-01

    The microflora of pus samples aspirated from 50 acute dento-alveolar abscesses was examined. A total of 143 bacterial strains was isolated, consisting predominantly of Prevotella spp., alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. An unclassified asaccharolytic Eubacterium taxon was encountered in 17 (34%) of the abscesses. This taxon was found to have a positive association with Fusobacterium spp. and a negative association with alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus spp.

  12. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullin, Christian; dal Monego, Simeone; Larsson, Emanuel; Mohammadi, Sara; Krenkel, Martin; Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania; Lorenzon, Andrea; Markus, Andrea; Napp, Joanna; Salditt, Tim; Accardo, Agostino; Alves, Frauke; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites.

  13. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  14. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  15. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  16. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  17. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  18. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  19. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullin, Christian, E-mail: christian.dullin@med.uni-goettingen.de [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Monego, Simeone dal [Cluster in Biomedicine, AREA Science Park Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Larsson, Emanuel [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Mohammadi, Sara [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Krenkel, Martin [University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania [IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste (Italy); Lorenzon, Andrea [Cluster in Biomedicine, AREA Science Park Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Markus, Andrea [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Napp, Joanna [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Salditt, Tim [University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Accardo, Agostino [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Alves, Frauke [University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Tromba, Giuliana [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an approach to increase the sensitivity of lung computed tomography (CT) imaging by utilizing in-line phase contrast CT in combination with single-distance phase-retrieval algorithms and a dedicated image-processing regime. As demonstrated here, functional CT imaging can be achieved for the assessment of both structural alterations in asthmatic mouse lung tissue and the accumulation pattern of instilled barium-sulfate-labelled macrophages in comparison with healthy controls. Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites.

  20. Alveolar graft in the cleft lip and palate patient: Review of 104 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella-Camps, María L.; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting is a vital part of the rehabilitation of cleft patients. The factors that have been most frequently associated with the success of the graft are the age at grafting and the pre-grafting orthodontic treatment. Objectives: 1) Describe the cases of alveolar bone grafts performed at the Maxilofacial Unit of Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (HSJD); and 2) Analyze the success/failure of alveolar grafts and related variables. Material and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study using a sample of 104 patients who underwent a secondary alveolar graft at the Craniofacial Unit of HSJD between 1998 and 2012. The graft was done by the same surgeon in all patients using bone from the iliac crest. Results: 70% of the patients underwent the procedure before the age of 15 (median 14.45 years); 70% of the graft patients underwent pre-graft maxillary expansion. A total of 100 cases were recorded as successful (median age of 14.58 years, 68 underwent pre-graft expansion) and only 4 were recorded as failures (median age of 17.62 years, 3 underwent pre-graft expansion). We did not find statistically significant differences in age at the time of grafting or pre-surgical expansion when comparing the success and failure groups. We found the success rate of the graft to be 96.2%. Conclusions: The number of failures was too small to establish a statistically significant conclusion in our sample regarding the age at grafting and pre-grafting expansion. The use of alveolar bone grafting from the iliac crest has a very high success rate with a very low incidence of complications. Existing controversies regarding secondary bone grafting and the wide range of success rates found in the literature suggest that it is necessary to establish a specific treatment protocol that ensures the success of this procedure. Key words:Alveolar graft, cleft lip and palate, alveolar cleft, alveolar defect. PMID:24880440

  1. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J.; Tytgat, K. M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F. A.; Bowen, B. M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R. L.; Riddell, R. H.; Hunt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared

  2. Disruption of sorting nexin 5 causes respiratory failure associated with undifferentiated alveolar epithelial type I cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyoung Im

    Full Text Available Sorting nexin 5 (Snx5 has been posited to regulate the degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor and the retrograde trafficking of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. Snx5 has also been suggested to interact with Mind bomb-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the activation of Notch signaling. However, the in vivo functions of Snx5 are largely unknown. Here, we report that disruption of the Snx5 gene in mice (Snx5(-/- mice resulted in partial perinatal lethality; 40% of Snx5(-/- mice died shortly after birth due to cyanosis, reduced air space in the lungs, and respiratory failure. Histological analysis revealed that Snx5(-/- mice exhibited thickened alveolar walls associated with undifferentiated alveolar epithelial type I cells. In contrast, alveolar epithelial type II cells were intact, exhibiting normal surfactant synthesis and secretion. Although the expression levels of surfactant proteins and saturated phosphatidylcholine in the lungs of Snx5(-/- mice were comparable to those of Snx5(+/+ mice, the expression levels of T1α, Aqp5, and Rage, markers for distal alveolar epithelial type I cells, were significantly decreased in Snx5 (-/- mice. These results demonstrate that Snx5 is necessary for the differentiation of alveolar epithelial type I cells, which may underlie the adaptation to air breathing at birth.

  3. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  4. Alveolar ridge keratosis--a retrospective clinicopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Lorenzo; Martinelli-Kläy, Carla P; Martinelli, Celso R; Lombardi, Tommaso

    2013-04-16

    Alveolar ridge keratosis (ARK) is a distinct, benign clinicopathological entity, characterized by a hyperkeratotic plaque or patch that occurs on the alveolar edentulous ridge or on the retromolar trigone, considered to be caused by chronic frictional trauma. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the clinicopathological features of 23 consecutive cases of ARK. The 23 biopsy samples of ARK were selected and pathological features were revised (keratosis, acanthosis, surface architecture, and inflammation). Factors such as the patient's gender, age, anatomical location, tobacco and alcohol use were analyzed. Sixteen out of the 23 cases studied were men and 7 women with a mean age of 55.05 (age ranged from 17 to 88 years). Thirteen cases had a history of tobacco habit, amongst whom, 4 also presented alcohol consumption. All the cases presented only unilateral lesions. Nineteen cases involved the retromolar trigone while 4 cases involved edentulous alveolar ridges. When observed microscopically, the lesions were mainly characterized by moderate to important hyperorthokeratosis. Inflammation was scanty or absent. In four of the cases, the presence of melanin pigment in the superficial corium or in the cytoplasm of macrophages was detected. None of the cases showed any features of dysplasia. Our results reveal that ARK is a benign lesion. However, the high prevalence of smokers amongst the patients might suggest that some potentially malignant disorders such as tobacco associated leukoplakia may clinically mimic ARK.

  5. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  6. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  7. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  8. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  9. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  10. [Cleft lip, alveolar and palate sequelae. Proposal of new alveolar score by the Alveolar Cleft Score (ACS) classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molé, C; Simon, E

    2015-06-01

    The management of cleft lip, alveolar and palate sequelae remains problematic today. To optimize it, we tried to establish a new clinical index for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Seven tissue indicators, that we consider to be important in the management of alveolar sequelae, are listed by assigning them individual scores. The final score, obtained by adding together the individual scores, can take a low, high or maximum value. We propose a new classification (ACS: Alveolar Cleft Score) that guides the therapeutic team to a prognosis approach, in terms of the recommended surgical and prosthetic reconstruction, the type of medical care required, and the preventive and supportive therapy to establish. Current studies are often only based on a standard radiological evaluation of the alveolar bone height at the cleft site. However, the gingival, the osseous and the cellular areas bordering the alveolar cleft sequelae induce many clinical parameters, which should be reflected in the morphological diagnosis, to better direct the surgical indications and the future prosthetic requirements, and to best maintain successful long term aesthetic and functional results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Nested-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchial alveolar swabs, frozen tissues and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded swine lung samples: comparative evaluation with immunohistochemical findings and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs or frozen (tissue pieces. M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

  12. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  13. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo

    1972-01-01

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  14. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone.

  17. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  18. Bone graft healing in alveolar osteoplasty in patients with unilateral lip, alveolar process, and palate clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Dariusz; Wójcicki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Secondary osteoplasty by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting is the most common procedure used in the reconstruction of the continuity of the maxillary alveolar process. The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively the effect of certain factors on the course of the bone graft healing process in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the lip, alveolar process, and palate. The investigations involved 62 children aged 8 to 14 years (mean age, 11 years) with unilateral complete cleft of the lip, alveolar process, and palate operated on at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój from November 2007 to April 2009. All the procedures consisted in the reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar process by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting from the iliac bone. The analysis was performed on the basis of computed tomography scans presenting maxillary alveolar processes in the horizontal cross-sectional planes performed on the second or third postoperative day and after 6 months. They were used as the basis for the measurement of the volume and density (condensation) of the bone graft, the surface of its adhesion to the maxillary alveolar bone, and the volume and density of the healed bone. The following correlation coefficients were determined: between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the volume of the healed bone, between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the density of the healed bone, and between the density of the graft and the volume of the healed bone. Increasing the surface of the graft adhesion to the bone ridges of the alveolar cleft contributes to increased volume of the healed bone and slows down the increase in its density (on 6-month follow-up). Crushing of the bone graft increases its resorption and reduces volume of the healed bone.

  19. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  20. Alveolar Ridge Carcinoma. Two Cases Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupo Triguero, Raul J; Vivar Bauza, Miriam; Alvarez Infante, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Two cases with alveolar ridge carcinoma due to prosthetist traumatism are discussed in this paper, after 9 and 10 years of using dental prosthesis. Both patients began with disturbance in the alveolar ridge. The clinical examination and biopsy showed a well differenced carcinoma. The treatment was radical surgery and radiotherapy in the first patient, and conservative surgery with radiotherapy in the second case .The patients had xerostomia after radiotherapy and the woman had difficulties with mastication. The advantages and disadvantages of the treatment were discussed, focused on the prevention and treatment for oral

  1. Study of possible changes brought about by plutonium oxide in the acid phosphatase activity of alveolar macrophages of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouvroy, Huguette

    1970-06-01

    This report describes the various techniques used for determining the acid phosphatase activity of alveolar rabbit macrophages after inhalation of radioactive plutonium oxide particles, exposure of the animals, removal and sampling of the alveolar cells, and technical dosage. The results obtained are presented; they do not make it possible, in this particular case, to affirm that an important change in the enzymatic activity studied occurs. (author) [fr

  2. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  3. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  4. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  6. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  7. Breath-to-breath variability of exhaled CO2 as a marker of lung dysmaturity in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouzas, Sotirios; Theodorakopoulos, Ilias; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2017-12-01

    The concept of diffusional screening implies that breath-to-breath variations in CO 2 clearance, when related to the variability of breathing, may contain information on the quality and utilization of the available alveolar surface. We explored the validity of the above hypothesis in a cohort of young infants of comparable postmenstrual age but born at different stages of lung maturity, namely, in term-born infants ( n = 128), preterm-born infants without chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI; n = 53), and preterm infants with moderate/severe CLDI ( n = 87). Exhaled CO 2 volume (V E,CO2 ) and concentration (F E,CO2 ) were determined by volumetric capnography, whereas their variance was assessed by linear and nonlinear variability metrics. The relationship between relative breath-to-breath change of V E,CO2 (ΔV E,CO2 ) and the corresponding change of tidal volume (ΔV T ) was also analyzed. Nonlinear F E,CO2 variability was lower in CLDI compared with term and non-CLDI preterm group ( P variability was attributed to the variability of V T ( r 2 = 0.749), whereas in term and healthy preterm infants this relationship was weaker ( r 2 = 0.507 and 0.630, respectively). The ΔV E,CO2 - ΔV T slope was less steep in the CLDI group (1.06 ± 0.07) compared with non-CLDI preterm (1.16 ± 0.07; P variability that can be quantified by nonlinear variability metrics and may reflect the degree of lung dysmaturity. In infants with moderate/severe chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI), the variability of the exhaled CO 2 is mainly driven by the variability of breathing, whereas in term-born and healthy preterm infants this relationship is less strong. The slope of the relative CO 2 -to-volume change is less steep in CLDI infants, suggesting that dysmature lungs are less efficient in eliminating CO 2 under tidal breathing conditions.

  8. Influence of smoking and obesity on alveolar-arterial gas pressure differences and dead space ventilation at rest and peak exercise in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Sven; Ittermann, Till; Koch, Beate; Schäper, Christoph; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry; Könemann, Raik; Ewert, Ralf; Hansen, James E

    2013-06-01

    Besides exercise intolerance, the assessment of ventilatory and perfusion adequacy allows additional insights in the disease pathophysiology in many cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. Valid measurements of dead space/tidal volume ratios (VD/VT), arterial (a') - end-tidal (et) carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) pressure differences (p(a'-et)CO2) and (p(et-a')O2), and alveolar (A)-a' O2 pressure differences (p(A-a')O2) require using blood samples in addition to gas exchange analyses on a breath-by-breath-basis. Smoking and nutritional status are also important factors in defining disorders. Using a large healthy population we considered the impact of these factors to develop useful prediction equations. Incremental cycle exercise protocols were applied to apparently healthy volunteer adults who did not have structural heart disease or echocardiographic or lung function pathologies. Age, height, weight, and smoking were analysed for their influence on the target parameters in each gender. Reference values were determined by regression analyses. The final study sample consisted of 476 volunteers (190 female), aged 25-85 years. Smoking significantly influences p(A-a')O2 and p(a'-et)CO2 at rest and peak exercise, and VD/VT during exercise. Obesity influences upper limits of VD/VT, p(a'-et)CO2 and p(et-a')O2 at rest as well as p(A-a')O2 and p(et-a')O2 at exercise. Reference equations for never-smokers as well as for apparently healthy smokers considering influencing factors are given. Gender, age, height, weight, and smoking significantly influence gas exchange. Considering all of these factors this study provides a comprehensive set of reference equations derived from a large number of participants of a population-based study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  10. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  11. Iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, non-randomised, descriptive study is to characterise the neurosensory deficit and associated neurogenic discomfort in 52 patients with iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). All patients were examined and followed up according to a protocol...

  12. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  13. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  15. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  16. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you: Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ...

  17. A systematic review of breath analysis and detection of volatile organic compounds in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Titlestad, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    research area is breath analysis, with several published attempts to find exhaled compounds as diagnostic markers. The field is broad and no review of published COPD breath analysis studies exists yet. We have conducted a systematic review examining the state of art and identified 12 suitable papers, which...... in breath sampling technologies, the selection of appropriate control groups, and a lack of sophisticated (and standardized) statistical data analysis methods. No cross-hospital/study comparisons have been published yet. We conclude that future efforts should (also) concentrate on making breath data...... analysis more comparable through standardization of sampling, data processing, and reporting....

  18. Influence of the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system on the energetically optimum breathing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J H; Milic-Emili, J

    1993-01-01

    We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work (WI) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while WI was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both WI and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the WI criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.

  19. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  20. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  1. Alternatives to Autologous Bone Graft in Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction: The State of Alveolar Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fan; Leland, Hyuma; Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Auslander, Allyn; Maniskas, Seija; Swanson, Jordan; Urata, Mark; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey; Magee, William

    2018-05-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction has historically relied on autologous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG), but donor site morbidity, pain, and prolonged hospitalization have prompted the search for bone graft substitutes. The authors evaluated bone graft substitutes with the highest levels of evidence, and highlight the products that show promise in alveolar cleft repair and in maxillary augmentation. This comprehensive review guides the craniofacial surgeon toward safe and informed utilization of biomaterials in the alveolar cleft.A literature search was performed to identify in vitro human studies that fulfilled the following criteria: Level I or Level II of evidence, ≥30 subjects, and a direct comparison between a autologous bone graft and a bone graft substitute. A second literature search was performed that captured all studies, regardless of level of evidence, which evaluated bone graft substitutes for alveolar cleft repair or alveolar augmentation for dental implants. Adverse events for each of these products were tabulated as well.Sixteen studies featuring 6 bone graft substitutes: hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), calcium phosphate, recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and rhBMP7 fit the inclusion criteria for the first search. Through our second search, the authors found that DBM, TCP, rhBMP-2, and rhBMP7 have been studied most extensively in the alveolar cleft literature, though frequently in studies using less rigorous methodology (Level III evidence or below). rhBMP-2 was the best studied and showed comparable efficacy to ICBG in terms of volume of bone regeneration, bone density, and capacity to accommodate tooth eruption within the graft site. Pricing for products ranged from $290 to $3110 per 5 mL.The balance between innovation and safety is a complex process requiring constant vigilance and evaluation. Here, the authors profile several bone graft substitutes that demonstrate the most

  2. Estudo da Incidência de Fungos Isolados de Amostras de Lavado Bronco Alveolar, Biópsia Transbrônquica e de Escarro / Study of the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy and sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Gabrielle Lins de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a incidência de fungos isolados de amostras de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e escarro de pacientes assistidos no Hospital Otávio de Freitas. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo descritivo com análise dos registros de 756 pacientes que realizaram exame direto e culturas de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e/ou escarro no Laboratório de Micologia Médica do Hospital Otávio de Freitas em Recife-PE, no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2015. Foram também analisados os resultados das sorologias para Aspergillus realizadas no mesmo período no Laboratório de Imunodiagnóstico de Micoses Sistêmicas do Departamento de Micologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Resultados: Foram isolados 248 (54,14% Candida albicans, 119 (25,98% Candida sp. e 41 (10,04% espécies Candida não albicans, 33 (7,21% Aspergillus fumigatus, dois (0,44% A. niveus, um (0,22% A. niger, 3 (0,65% A. japonicus, dois (0,44% A. flavus, duas (0,44% Paecilomyces variotii, um (0,22% Rhizomucor sp. e um (0,22% Rhizopus sp. Conclusões: Candida albicans e Aspergillus fumigatus continuam sendo as espécies mais comumente isoladas nas amostras estudadas, entretanto C. kefyr, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, A. niveus, A. japonicus, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor sp. e Rhizopus sp. indicam sua importância como patógenos oportunistas, sendo relatadas pela primeira vez em estudo realizado com pacientes acompanhados neste hospital. Houve comprovação de doença em cinco pacientes que realizaram cultura de fragmento de tecido pulmonar das quais foram isolados Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus fumigatus. Objective: To study the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue fragments and sputum of patients from Hospital Otavio de Freitas. Materials and methods: Descriptive retrospective observational study with analysis of records

  3. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  4. Spectroscopic monitoring of NO traces in plants and human breath: applications and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristescu, S M; Marchenko, D; Mandon, J

    2012-01-01

    monitoring of NO concentrations in exhaled breath, and from plants under pathogen attack. A simple hand-held breath sampling device that allows single breath collection at various exhalation flows (15, 50, 100 and 300mL/s, respectively) is developed for off-line measurements and validated in combination...... with the WMS-based sensor. Additionally, the capability of plants to remove environmental NO is presented....

  5. Endoscopic sensing of alveolar pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, D; Tanner, M G; McAughtrie, S; Yu, F; Mills, B; Choudhary, T R; Seth, S; Craven, T H; Stone, J M; Mati, I K; Campbell, C J; Bradley, M; Williams, C K I; Dhaliwal, K; Birks, T A; Thomson, R R

    2017-01-01

    Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation.

  6. Silver Nanoparticles in Alveolar Bone Surgery Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental implant surfaces and preventing biofilm formation, containing the risk of peri-implant infections. Modifying the structure or surface of bone grafts and membranes with Ag NPs may also prevent the risk of contamination and infection that are common when alveolar bone augmentation techniques are used. On the other hand, Ag NPs have revealed some toxic effects on cells in vitro and in vivo in animal studies. In this setting, the aim of the present paper is to summarize the principle behind Ag NP-based devices and their clinical applications in alveolar bone and dental implant surgery.

  7. Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodiya, Animesh; Thukral, Rishi; Agrawal, Shaila Mahendra; Rai, Anshul; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but complications may still occur. Ocular complications such as diplopia, loss of vision, or ophthalmoplegia are extremely rare. This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness.

  8. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple techni...

  9. Mechanisms of breathing instability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Atkar, Raj; Laprairie, John; Siemens, Andrea; Hanly, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    The response to chemical stimuli (chemical responsiveness) and the increases in respiratory drive required for arousal (arousal threshold) and for opening the airway without arousal (effective recruitment threshold) are important determinants of ventilatory instability and, hence, severity of obstructive apnea. We measured these variables in 21 obstructive apnea patients (apnea-hypopnea index 91 +/- 24 h(-1)) while on continuous-positive-airway pressure. During sleep, pressure was intermittently reduced (dial down) to induce severe hypopneas. Dial downs were done on room air and following approximately 30 s of breathing hypercapneic and/or hypoxic mixtures, which induced a range of ventilatory stimulation before dial down. Ventilation just before dial down and flow during dial down were measured. Chemical responsiveness, estimated as the percent increase in ventilation during the 5(th) breath following administration of 6% CO(2) combined with approximately 4% desaturation, was large (187 +/- 117%). Arousal threshold, estimated as the percent increase in ventilation associated with a 50% probability of arousal, ranged from 40% to >268% and was chemical drive. Effective recruitment threshold, estimated as percent increase in pre-dial-down ventilation associated with a significant increase in dial-down flow, ranged from zero to >174% and was chemical drive, but instability results because of a low arousal threshold and a brisk increase in drive following brief reduction in alveolar ventilation.

  10. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  11. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14 C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14 C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled 14 CO 2 which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The 14 C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture

  12. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El nervio alveolar inferior se originaba en el nervio mandibular por dos raíces y la primera parte de la arteria maxilar estaba incorporada entre ambas. El origen embriológico de esta variación y sus implicaciones clínicas es debatido. Dado que la arteria maxilar transcurría entre las dos raíces del nervio alveolar inferior, y el nervio estaba fijado entre el foramen oval y el foramen mandibular, el atrapamiento vásculo-nervioso pudo causar entume-cimiento o dolor de cabeza e interferir con la inyección de anestésicos locales en la fosa infratemporal.  Variaciones anatómicas en esta región deben ser tenidas en cuenta, especialmente en casos de tratamiento fallido de neuralgia del trigémino. Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originated from the mandibular nerve by two roots and the first part of the maxillary artery was incorporated between them. An embryologic origin of this variation and its clinical implications is discussed. Because the maxillary artery runs between the two roots of

  13. Treatment of sharp mandibular alveolar process with hybrid prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sukaedi, Sukaedi; Djulaeha, Eha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Losing posterior teeth for a long time would occasionally lead to the sharpening of alveolar process. The removable partial denture usually have problems when used during mastication, because of the pressure on the mucosa under the alveolar ridge. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to manage patients with sharp mandibular alveolar process by wearing hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment retention and soft liner on the surface base beneath the removabl...

  14. Single breath study for lung scan with krypton-81m: proposition of a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommet, R.; Mathieu, E.

    1981-01-01

    A single breath study with sup(81m)Kr was proceeded in patients, and we studied a theorical model. Based on experimental datas, the model was extrapolated by simple compartimental hypothesis, permitting a study per area of the instant alveolar lung flow by a deconvolution operation. An other approach to present the local ventilation is proposed too. Based on the average flow of ventilation index, calculation is obtained easier than by deconvolution method, and this method fully agree with the proposed model. This index allows the realisation of functionnal views of the local ventilation flow, made possible by the use of a computer for the study of each elementary area of the lung and the realisation of the activity curve recorded during the sup(81m)Kr first breath [fr

  15. Effect of dead space on breathing stability at exercise in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermand, Eric; Lhuissier, François J; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that normal subjects exhibit periodic breathing when submitted to concomitant environmental (hypoxia) and physiological (exercise) stresses. A mathematical model including mass balance equations confirmed the short period of ventilatory oscillations and pointed out an important role of dead space in the genesis of these phenomena. Ten healthy subjects performed mild exercise on a cycloergometer in different conditions: rest/exercise, normoxia/hypoxia and no added dead space/added dead space (aDS). Ventilatory oscillations (V˙E peak power) were augmented by exercise, hypoxia and aDS (Pspace. This underlines opposite effects observed in heart failure patients and normal subjects, in which added dead space drastically reduced periodic breathing and sleep apneas. It also points out that alveolar ventilation remains very close to metabolic needs and is not affected by an added dead space. Clinical Trial reg. n°: NCT02201875. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and breathing pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, S; Miara, B; Milic-Emili, J; Gautier, H

    1982-11-01

    The results of lung function tests (total and functional residual capacities, residual volume/total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory volume in one second) breathing patterns and arterial PO2 and PCO2 were studied in 651 ambulatory male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functionally and clinically stable. Function tests were only loosely correlated with gas tensions: abnormalities in mechanics and in gas exchange are not necessarily related. In patients matched for the degree of obstruction, the breathing pattern depended upon both PaO2 and PaCO2. Isolated hypoxemia was accompanied by increased respiratory frequency without any variation in tidal volume: this suggests that the chemoreceptive systems still responded to changes in PaO2. Isolated hypercapnia was accompanied by a decrease in tidal volume and an increase in respiratory frequency. Consequently, the dead space/tidal volume ratio increased, leading to a drop in alveolar ventilation and to CO2 retention.

  17. Intranasal Fentanyl Intoxication Leading to Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzycki, Shannon; Yarema, Mark; Dunham, Michael; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Increasing rates of opioid abuse, particularly fentanyl, may lead to more presentations of unusual effects of opioid toxicity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare complication of fentanyl overdose. A 45-year-old male presented in hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage requiring intubation. Comprehensive drug screening detected fentanyl without exposure to cocaine. Further history upon the patient's recovery revealed exposure to snorted fentanyl powder immediately prior to presentation. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potential, though rare, presentation of opioid intoxication. Recognition of less common complications of opioid abuse such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is important in proper management of overdoses.

  18. Pressure breathing in fighter aircraft for G accelerations and loss of cabin pressurization at altitude--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzsen, Lars P; Pfitzner, John

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to outline the past and present use of pressure breathing, not by patients but by fighter pilots. Of the historical and recent references quoted, most are from aviation-medicine journals that are not often readily available to anesthesiologists. Pressure breathing at moderate levels of airway pressure gave World War II fighter pilots a tactical altitude advantage. With today's fast and highly maneuverable jet fighters, very much higher airway pressures of the order of 8.0 kPa (identical with 60 mmHg) are used. They are used in conjunction with a counterpressure thoracic vest and an anti-G suit for the abdomen and lower body. Pressurization is activated automatically in response to +Gz accelerations, and to a potentially catastrophic loss of cabin pressurization at altitude. During +Gz accelerations, pressure breathing has been shown to maintain cerebral perfusion by raising the systemic arterial pressure, so increasing the level of G-tolerance that is afforded by the use of anti-G suits and seat tilt-back angles alone. This leaves the pilot less reliant on rigorous, and potentially distracting, straining maneuvers. With loss of cabin pressurization at altitude, pressure breathing of 100% oxygen at high airway pressures enables the pilot's alveolar PO(2) to be maintained at a safe level during emergency descent. Introduced in military aviation, pressure breathing for G-tolerance and pressure breathing for altitude presented as concepts that may be of general physiological interest to many anesthesiologists.

  19. Post-extraction application of beta-tricalcium phosphate in alveolar socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Corcuera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of beta-tricalcium phosphate to facilitate bone formation in the socket and prevent post-extraction alveolar resorption. Materials and methods After premolar extraction in 16 patients, the sockets were filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. Six months later, during the implant placement surgery, a trephine was used to harvest the bone samples which were processed for histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Data were gathered on patient, clinical, histological and histomorphometric variables at the extraction and implant placement sessions, using data collection forms and pathological reports. Results Clinical outcomes were satisfactory, the biomaterial was radio-opaque on X-ray. Histological study showed: partial filling with alveolar bone of appropriate maturation and mineralization for the healing time, osteoblastic activity and bone lacunae containing osteocytes. The biomaterial was not completely resorbed at six months. Conclusion Beta-tricalcium phosphate is a material capable of achieving preservation of the alveolar bone when it is positioned in the immediate post-extraction socket followed by suture; it also helps the formation of new bone in the socket. Further studies are needed comparing this technique with other available biomaterials, with growth factors and with sites where no alveolar preservation techniques are performed.

  20. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates

  1. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  2. Influence of gestational age on dead space and alveolar ventilation in preterm infants ventilated with volume guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Roland P; Pillow, Jane J; Thamrin, Cindy; Larcombe, Alexander N; Hall, Graham L; Schulzke, Sven M

    2015-01-01

    Ventilated preterm infant lungs are vulnerable to overdistension and underinflation. The optimal ventilator-delivered tidal volume (VT) in these infants is unknown and may depend on the extent of alveolarisation at birth. We aimed to calculate respiratory dead space (VD) from the molar mass (MM) signal of an ultrasonic flowmeter (VD,MM) in very preterm infants on volume-targeted ventilation (VT target, 4-5 ml/kg) and to study the association between gestational age (GA) and VD,MM-to-VT ratio (VD,MM/VT), alveolar tidal volume (VA) and alveolar minute volume (AMV). This was a single-centre, prospective, observational, cohort study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Tidal breathing analysis was performed in ventilated very preterm infants (GA range 23-32 weeks) on day 1 of life. Valid measurements were obtained in 43/51 (87%) infants. Tidal breathing variables were analysed using multivariable linear regression. VD,MM/VT was negatively associated with GA after adjusting for birth weight Z score (p volume guarantee setting of 4-5 ml/kg in the Dräger Babylog® 8000 plus ventilator may be inappropriate as a universal target across the GA range of 23-32 weeks. Differences between measured and set VT and the dependence of this difference on GA require further investigation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. 3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

  6. Pre prosthetic reconstruction of alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhuji Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiahenkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dento-alveolar bony defects are common and occur due to a variety of causes, such as, pulpal pathology, traumatic tooth extraction, advanced periodontal disease, implant failure, tumor or congenital anomalies. These defects often cause a significant problem in dental treatment and rehabilitation. Many techniques exist for effective soft and hard tissue augmentation. The approach is largely based on the extent of the defect and specific procedures to be performed for the implant or prosthetic rehabilitation. This article presents case reports of soft and hard tissue ridge augmentation.

  7. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  8. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing ... Key Words: Heart Failure, Active Cycle of Breathing ... cough, fatigue, reduced respiratory muscle mass, and. [5] ... an amount of exercise which is said to lower disease. [9].

  9. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  10. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  11. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  12. Periaqueductal Gray Control of Breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert; Homma,; Onimaru, H; Fukuchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and

  13. The effect of African breath psychotherapeutic workshops on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of an African breath psychotherapeutic workshop called Shiso on spirituality perceptions and experiences. In view of previous pilot study findings, it was hypothesized that further Shiso workshops with enlarged samples would improve participants' spirituality in ...

  14. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  15. Classification of alveolar bone destruction patterns on maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The defective diagnosis of alveolar structures is one of most serious handicaps when assessing available periodontal treatment options for the prevention of tooth loss. The aim of this research was to classify alveolar bone defects in the maxillary molar region which is a challenging area for dental implant ...

  16. Increased alveolar soluble Annexin V promotes lung inflammation and fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, S.; Shi, W.; Xu, W.; Frey, M.R.; Moats, R.; Pardo, A.; Selman, M.; Warburton, D.

    2015-01-01

    The causes underlying the self-perpetuating nature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal disease, remain unknown. We hypothesized that alveolar soluble Annexin V contributes to lung fibrosis, based on the observation that human IPF BALF containing high Annexin V levels promoted fibroblast involvement in alveolar epithelial wound healing that was reduced when Annexin V was depleted from the BALF.

  17. A radiographic study of alveolar bone loss in Irish schoolchildren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bitewing radiographs were used to assess evidence of alveolar bone loss in 1492 children in the age range 7-12 years. According to the method used in this study, alveolar bone loss was shown to occur in 1.7% of the children, and maxillary teeth were affected twice as frequently as mandibular teeth. (Author)

  18. Structural changes and effect of denopamine on alveolar fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... alveolar fluid clearance in hypoxic rat lungs. Nai-jing Li1, Wei Li2, ... for absorption of excess alveolar fluid (Sartori et al.,. 2001 ... free access to food and water. ..... Dopamine increases lung liquid clearance during mechanical.

  19. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a young woman with systemic lupus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage (DAH) is rarely reported complication of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). A young woman diagnosed SLE, with a previously normal plain chest radiograph, developed acute onset cough, dyspnoea and hemoptysis. The repeat urgent chest radiograph revealed alveolar opacities. The triad ...

  20. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  1. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  2. Breath analysis using external cavity diode lasers: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Most techniques that are used for diagnosis and therapy of diseases are invasive. Reliable noninvasive methods are always needed for the comfort of patients. Owing to its noninvasiveness, ease of use, and easy repeatability, exhaled breath analysis is a very good candidate for this purpose. Breath analysis can be performed using different techniques, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS), proton transfer reaction-MS, and selected ion flow tube-MS. However, these devices are bulky and require complicated procedures for sample collection and preconcentration. Therefore, these are not practical for routine applications in hospitals. Laser-based techniques with small size, robustness, low cost, low response time, accuracy, precision, high sensitivity, selectivity, low detection limit, real-time, and point-of-care detection have a great potential for routine use in hospitals. In this review paper, the recent advances in the fields of external cavity lasers and breath analysis for detection of diseases are presented.

  3. A wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy. The system consists of an optical sensor, an accelerometer, a microcontroller, a Bluetooth module and a laptop computer. The optical sensor, which is attached to the patient's chest, measures chest circumference. The low frequency components of circumference are mainly generated by breathing. The optical sensor outputs the circumference as serial digital data. The accelerometer measures the dynamic acceleration force produced by exercise, such as walking. The microcontroller sequentially samples this force. The acceleration force and chest circumference are sent sequentially via Bluetooth to a physical therapist's laptop computer, which receives and stores the data. The computer simultaneously displays these data so that the physical therapist can monitor the patient's breathing and acceleration waveforms and give instructions to the patient in real time during exercise. Moreover, the system enables a quantitative training evaluation and calculation the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.

  4. Contemporary Approaches in the Repair of Alveolar Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. The repair of the alveolar clefts is an important part of the treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment concepts of alveolar bone grafting are still controversial. The corresponding controversial issues are; timing of alveolar bone grafting, graft materials, and timing of the orthodontic expansion. In the present article, aforementioned controversial issues and contemporary treatment modalities of the maxillary alveolar clefts were reviewed in the light of current literature. In conclusion, the most suitable time for alveolar bone grafting is mixed dentition period. Grafting procedure may be performed in the early or late phases of this period depending on some clinical features. Adjunct orthodontic expansion procedures should be performed before and/or after grafting depending on the patient's current features. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 563-574

  5. Radiolabeled microsphere measurements of alveolar bone blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.L.; Jeffcoat, M.K.; Goldhaber, P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolabeled microspheres were injected into the left cardiac ventricle in healthy adult dogs to quantify blood in maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse contour were monitored throughout each experiment. Blood flow in maxillary alveolar bone was more than 30 % greater (p<.001) than in mandibular alveolar bone. Alveolar bone blood flow (mean +- S.D.) measured as ml/min per gram was 0.12 +- .02 in the maxilla compared to 0.09 +- .02 in the mandible. The cardiovascular parameters monitored were constant immediately prior to the injection of microspheres and remained unchanged during and following injection. It is possible that radiolabeled microspheres can be used to quantify the circulatory changes in alveolar bone during the development of destructive periodontal disease in dogs. (author)

  6. Preliminary report on a breathing coaching and assessment system for use by patients at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, C.D.; Kron, T.; Winton, J.R.S.; Rothwell, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory-gated radiotherapy requires consistent breathing. Therefore, we developed a system that will assess breathing consistency and allow patients to train themselves at home. Real-time feedback is to be provided visually to patients against a reference breathing track derived from their own breathing pattern. The system would need to generate the reference track and to use this reference track for coaching. The system should be simple, robust and affordable, without complex setup. Results The system uses a net book with a USB connected data acquisition module (DAQ). The patient's breathing is sampled by the DAQ, measuring intra-nasal pressure through nasal prongs. Software was written in collaboration with the Victorian eResearch Strategic Initiative (YERSi). The system is used to collect a patient reference breathing track. This track is processed to generate a 'golden breathing cycle' (GBC), normalised in both amplitude and duration, containing the shape of the breathing cycle. After training, the patient takes the system home for a number of sessions of coaching and assessment. In coaching mode the patient is asked to maintain a graphic representation of their current state of breathing in close correlation to the golden breathing cycle as it moves across the screen. Displayed GBC amplitude and duration respond dynamically to the patient's breathing rhythm. Statistics are collected measuring the patient's ability to conform to the GBC and may be used to decide suitability for gated therapy. Conclusion The DAQ hardware is completed, and software is approaching completion. Sample data has been collected from volunteers.

  7. Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary pressure associated with strong spontaneous breathing effort may worsen lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Akinori; Matsuura, Nariaki; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure could be generated by strong spontaneous breathing and exacerbate lung injury even when plateau pressure is limited to ventilation, each combined with weak or strong spontaneous breathing effort. Inspiratory pressure for low tidal volume ventilation was set at 10 cm H2O and tidal volume at 6 mL/kg. For moderate tidal volume ventilation, the values were 20 cm H2O and 7-9 mL/kg. The groups were: low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, and moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong. Each group had the same settings for positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O. Respiratory variables were measured every 60 mins. Distribution of lung aeration and alveolar collapse were histologically evaluated. Low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong showed the most favorable oxygenation and compliance of respiratory system, and the best lung aeration. By contrast, in moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, the greatest atelectasis with numerous neutrophils was observed. While we applied settings to maintain plateau pressure at ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, transpulmonary pressure rose >33 cm H2O. Both minute ventilation and respiratory rate were higher in the strong spontaneous breathing groups. Even when plateau pressure is limited to mechanical ventilation, transpulmonary pressure and tidal volume should be strictly controlled to prevent further lung injury.

  8. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  9. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  10. Preliminary observations on the effect of hypoxic and hyperbaric stress on pulmonary gas exchange in breath-hold divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbella, Erika; Piarulli, Andrea; Fornai, Edo; Pingitore, Alessandro; Prediletto, Renato

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate pulmonary alveolar-capillary membrane integrity and ventilation/perfusion mismatch after breath-hold diving. Pulmonary diffusing capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured in six elite divers before and at 2, 10 and 25 minutes after a maximal breath-hold dive to a depth of 10 metres' sea water. Compared to pre-dive, DLCO showed a slight increase at 2 minutes in five subjects and a tendency to decrease at 25 minutes (P < 0.001) in all subjects. DLNO showed an increase at 10 minutes in three divers and a slight decrease at 25 minutes in five subjects. There was a small but significant (P < 0.001) increase in Hb and Hct at 2 minutes, possibly affecting the DLCO measurements. An early but transient increase in DLCO in five divers may reflect the central shift in blood volume during a breath-hold dive. The late parallel decrease in DLCO and DLNO likely reflects alveolar-capillary distress (interstitial oedema). The DLNO increase in three subjects at 10 minutes may suggest ventilation/perfusion mismatch.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone during Alveolar Bone Healing*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee-Young; Kwon, Joseph; Kook, Min-Suk; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun; Sohn, Sungoh; Jung, Seunggon; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build-up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven useful for studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare proteins with altered expression in gingival sof...

  12. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... were studied in 10 healthy adults during a 4-month period and they showed very marked inter- and intra-individual variability (16% above 40 p.p.m.). Initial peaks (early, short-lived H2 rises unrelated to carbohydrate malabsorption) were identified in 25% of the breath tests (in 4% above 20 p.......p.m). It is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to produce H2...

  14. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  15. Calming Children When Drawing Blood Using Breath-based Biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, T.; Merritt, T.; Marshall, P. E.; Lomholt, J.; Müller, J.; Grønbæk, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood sampling is a common and necessary procedure in the treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. However, it often results in painful and stressful experiences for children. Designed together with domain experts, ChillFish is a breath-controlled biofeedback game technology with bespoke airflow sensor that aims to calm children during blood sampling procedures. An experimental pilot study was conducted in which 20 children aged 6-11 were assigned to one of two conditions involving e...

  16. Adhesion of volatile propofol to breathing circuit tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dominik; Maurer, Felix; Trautner, Katharina; Fink, Tobias; Hüppe, Tobias; Sessler, Daniel I; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Volk, Thomas; Kreuer, Sascha

    2017-08-21

    Propofol in exhaled breath can be measured and may provide a real-time estimate of plasma concentration. However, propofol is absorbed in plastic tubing, thus estimates may fail to reflect lung/blood concentration if expired gas is not extracted directly from the endotracheal tube. We evaluated exhaled propofol in five ventilated ICU patients who were sedated with propofol. Exhaled propofol was measured once per minute using ion mobility spectrometry. Exhaled air was sampled directly from the endotracheal tube and at the ventilator end of the expiratory side of the anesthetic circuit. The circuit was disconnected from the patient and propofol was washed out with a separate clean ventilator. Propofol molecules, which discharged from the expiratory portion of the breathing circuit, were measured for up to 60 h. We also determined whether propofol passes through the plastic of breathing circuits. A total of 984 data pairs (presented as median values, with 95% confidence interval), consisting of both concentrations were collected. The concentration of propofol sampled near the patient was always substantially higher, at 10.4 [10.25-10.55] versus 5.73 [5.66-5.88] ppb (p tubing was 4.58 [4.48-4.68] ppb, 3.46 [3.21-3.73] in the first hour, 4.05 [3.77-4.34] in the second hour, and 4.01 [3.36-4.40] in the third hour. Out-gassing propofol from the breathing circuit remained at 2.8 ppb after 60 h of washing out. Diffusion through the plastic was not observed. Volatile propofol binds or adsorbs to the plastic of a breathing circuit with saturation kinetics. The bond is reversible so propofol can be washed out from the plastic. Our data confirm earlier findings that accurate measurements of volatile propofol require exhaled air to be sampled as close as possible to the patient.

  17. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  18. Anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve: Averages and prevalence based on CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Del Valle Lovato; Grageda, Edgar; Gómez Crespo, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of edentulous patients by using a complete implant-supported fixed prosthetic with distal extension has been widely studied; success is mainly dependent upon the placement of the distal implants. The location of the inferior alveolar nerve determines implant placement, but the length, prevalence, and symmetry between the left and right side of the anterior loop of the alveolar nerve are unknown. The purpose of this clinical study was to measure the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve, which determines the placement of distal implants, in a group of 55 Mexican participants. The study expected to ascertain the average length, prevalence, and symmetry between left and right side and any sex differences. To differentiate the inferior alveolar nerve path, a new technique was applied using Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds. The null hypothesis was that no significant differences would be found between the left and right sides or between men and women for the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. Fifty-five computed tomography (CT) scans were made (Somatom Sensation 16; Siemens Healthcare) and were visualized with InVesalius software. Anterior loop measurements were made on 3-dimensional surfaces. To determine statistical differences between the left and right side and between the sexes, the t test was used. The interclass correlation coefficient test was also applied to verify the reliability of the measurements. Ninety percent of participants showed the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. The length of the anterior loop ranged between 0 and 6.68 mm, with a mean of 2.19 mm. No significant differences were found between the left and right sides or between men and women. The mean length for the anterior loop in the sample was 2.19 mm. As the anterior loop length shows a high degree of variability, these findings suggest that a CT scan for each patient is recommended in order to visualize a safety zone before placing implants close to

  19. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  20. The Effect of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Vapors on Evidential Breath Alcohol Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawsine, Ellen; Lutmer, Brian

    2017-11-16

    This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code. These status codes were caused by ethanol vapors either in the room air or their inhalation by the subject, thereby causing a mouth alcohol effect. Replicate subject samples did not yield any consecutive positive numeric results. As ABHS application can cause a transitory mouth alcohol effect via inhalation of ABHS vapors, EBT operators should forego the use of ABHS in the 15 min preceding subject testing. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. BREATHING 100% O2 HAS NO EFFECT ON BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION DURING A SHORT PASSIVE RECOVERY FROM EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    . Nonetheless, past research has focussed on methods by which the clearance of LA- from the blood could be expedited. As the clearance of LA- from the blood occurs primarily due to import and oxidation by other cells (Mengual et al., 2003, methods trialled include breathing hyperoxic gas mixtures during recovery (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986. It has been argued, however, that due to the near horizontal nature of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve (i.e. 95%+ O2 saturated at normal alveolar PO2 (~95 mmHg; it appears unlikely that the large increase in alveolar PO2 caused by breathing 100% O2 (667% % increase over ambient air would be effective in raising actual oxygen delivery to the mitochondria by a useful margin. However, Haseler et al. (1999 have shown that increasing the inspired O2 percentage to 100% during a passive recovery from exercise significantly reduced the time constant for phosphocreatine (PCr repletion (20-s vs. 25-s, p < 0.05. Given that PCr repletion is dependent on ATP, these findings provide surety that O2 delivery to, and uptake by the mitochondria is indeed usefully increased during passive recovery by breathing 100% O2 as compared with ~21% O2 (Haseler et al., 1999. We therefore undertook this investigation because previous methodologies and results regarding hyperoxic breathing and blood LA- concentration (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986 are somewhat conflicting. Specifically; acute muscular exhaustion was not universally imposed, hyperoxia was often imposed during the exercise also, and subjects of differing aerobic or cardiovascular fitness showed differential responses. Given the above arguments, we intended to clarify the effect of breathing 100% O2 on blood LA- concentration during a brief period of passive recovery from incremental exercise to exhaustion under controlled conditions. We hypothesised that breathing 100% O2 during a 5-minute passive recovery from exhaustive incremental

  2. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  3. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-30

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no "best-practice method" for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D subjects, and healthy subjects. The results

  4. Alveolar cleft closure with iliac bone graft: A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichvy Tammama

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The timing of alveolar bone grafting usually associated with the state of the developing of dentition. Post operative management is important to get a good result, and to prevent any complications.

  5. Prevention of alveolar osteitis after third molar surgery: Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of alveolar osteitis after third molar surgery: Comparative study of the ... for surgical extraction of lower third molar were prospectively, consecutively, and ... Information on demographic, types and level of impaction, indications for ...

  6. Omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a new association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, L.C.; Mol, A.C. de; Bulten, J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Heijst, A.F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: First report of an infant with coexistent omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: We describe a term infant with omphalocele and respiratory insufficiency

  7. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: revive and restore the native bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Sumedha; Jagtap, Amit

    2009-12-01

    In prosthodontics, knife-edge bony alveolar ridges can cause a problem in their rehabilitation. The distraction osteogenesis process raises the medullary component of the alveolus, allowing the labial plate of the existing natural bone to be displaced. This process involves mobilization, transport, and fixation of a healthy segment of bone adjacent to the deficient site. It entails use of the gradual controlled displacement of surgically created fractures, which results in simultaneous expansion of soft tissue and bone volume. A mechanical device, the alveolar distraction device, is used for this purpose. This modality of treatment can be used in implant dentistry cases for rehabilitation of resorbed ridges. The objective of this overview is to explain this procedure wherein the alveolar housing, including the osseous and soft-tissue components, is enlarged in a single, simultaneous process, which makes creation of an appropriate alveolar morphology possible.

  8. Salivary Markers and Microbial Flora in Mouth Breathing Late Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mummolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is a 6-month observational case-control study that aims to estimate plaque index (PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and specific Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Lactobacillus rates in a mouth breathing late adolescents sample, after a professional oral hygiene procedure and home oral hygiene instructions. Subjects and Methods. A sample of 20 mouth breathing late adolescents/young adults (average: 19.2±2.5; range: 18–23 years and a matched control group of nose breathing subjects (average: 18.3±3.2; range 18–23 years were included in the study. All the participants were subjected to a professional oral hygiene procedure and appropriate home oral hygiene instructions (t0. After three months (t1 and six months (t2, the PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and S. mutans and Lactobacilli rates were recorded. Results. The mean buffering capacity of saliva and the salivary flow rate showed no significant difference between the two groups, all over the observational period. For PI, a significantly higher mode (score 1 of PI was observed in the study group at t1 (score 0 = 35% of subjects; score 1 = 60%; score 2 = 5% and t2 (score 1 = 65% of subjects, score 2 = 35%, with respect to control group. Furthermore, mouth breathing subjects show a significant 4 times higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 (CI lower limit: 0.95; CI upper limit: 9.48; chi-square: 4.28; p=0.03, with respect to the control subjects. Conclusions. Mouth breathing late adolescents show a significantly higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 and an increased level of PI. Interceptive orthodontic treatments in growing subjects, like palatal expansion, are encouraged to improve the nasal air flow. In older subjects, orthodontic treatments should be performed with removable appliances like clear aligners, in order to allow a better oral hygiene level.

  9. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  10. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  11. Dynamic thermal performance of alveolar brick construction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, A. de; Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Cabeza, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Even though U-value does not measure thermal inertia, it is the commonly used parameter. → The thermal performance analysis of buildings must include the evaluation of transient parameters. → Transient parameters of alveolar brick constructive system show good agreement with its low energy consumption. -- Abstract: Alveolar bricks are being introduced in building sector due to the simplicity of their construction system and to the elimination of the insulation material. Nevertheless, it is not clear if this new system is energetically efficient and which is its thermal behaviour. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the alveolar brick construction system, compared with a traditional Mediterranean brick system with insulation. The experimental study consists of measuring the thermal performance of four real house-like cubicles. The thermal transmittance in steady-state, also known as U-value, is calculated theoretically and experimentally for each cubicle, presenting the insulated cubicles as the best construction system, with differences around 45% in comparison to the alveolar one. On the other hand, experimental results show significantly smaller differences on the energy consumption between the alveolar and insulated construction systems during summer period (around 13% higher for the alveolar cubicle). These values demonstrate the high thermal efficiency of the alveolar system. In addition, the lack of agreement between the measured energy consumption and the calculated U-values, guides the authors to analyze the thermal inertia of the different building components. Therefore, several transient parameters, extracted from the heat transfer matrix and from experimental data, are also evaluated. It can be concluded that the alveolar brick construction system presents higher thermal inertia than the insulated one, justifying the low measured energy consumption.

  12. In Vitro Toxicity of Aluminum Nanoparticles in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    including intravenous, intramuscular , and subcutaneous injections, and including oral and ocular administration (Kreuter, 1991). NPs allow delivery of... NANOPARTICLES IN RAT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES THESIS Andrew J Wagner, 1st Lt, USAF AFIT/GES/ENV/06M-06 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY ORCE...TOXICITY OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLES IN RAT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering

  13. Soft tissue healing in alveolar socket preservation technique: histologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gaia; Rasperini, Giulio; Obot, Gregory; Farronato, Davide; Dellavia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    After tooth extraction, 14 alveolar sockets were grafted with porous bovine bone mineral particles and covered with non-cross-linked collagen membrane (test group), and 14 alveolar sockets were left uncovered. At 5 and 12 weeks, microvascular density (MVD), collagen content, and amount of lymphocytes (Lym) T and B were analyzed in soft tissue. At 5 weeks, MVD was significantly lower and Lym T was significantly higher in tests than in controls (P healing process of the soft tissue.

  14. A basic review on the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block is the most common injection technique used in dentistry and many modifications of the conventional nerve block have been recently described in the literature. Selecting the best technique by the dentist or surgeon depends on many factors including the success rate and complications related to the selected technique. Dentists should be aware of the available current modifications of the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in order to effectively choose b...

  15. Alveolar ridge rehabilitation to increase full denture retention and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Mefina Kuntjoro; Rostiny Rostiny; Wahjuni Widajati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge generally complicates prostetic restoration expecially full denture. Low residual alveolar ridge and basal seat can cause unstable denture, permanent ulcer, pain, neuralgia, and mastication difficulty. Pre-proshetic surgery is needed to improve denture retention and stability. Augmentation is a major surgery to increase vertical height of the atrophic mandible while vestibuloplasty is aimed to increase the denture bearing area. Purpose: The augme...

  16. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  17. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  18. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Devasena; Lammers, Gerwen; Mandon, Julien; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Harren, Frans J M; Tappy, Luc; Cristescu, Simona M

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath and blood samples for this study. Samples were collected during the International Four Days Marches, in the Netherlands. For each participant, breath acetone concentration was measured using proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometry, before and after a 30-50 km walk on four consecutive days. Blood non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), and glucose concentrations were measured after walking. Breath acetone concentration was significantly higher after than before walking, and was positively correlated with blood NEFA and BOHB concentrations. The effect of walking on breath acetone concentration was repeatedly observed on all four consecutive days. Breath acetone concentrations were higher in type 1 diabetic subjects and lower in type 2 diabetic subjects than in control subjects. Breath acetone can be used to monitor hepatic ketogenesis during walking under field conditions. It may, therefore, provide real-time information on fat burning, which may be of use for monitoring the lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  20. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  1. Medical Diagnostic Breath Analysis by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Joseph S.; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri

    2009-06-01

    Certain medical conditions give rise to the presence of chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals - known as biomarkers - may also be present in low concentrations in human breath. Cavity ring down spectroscopy possesses the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to detect such biomarkers in the congested spectrum of a breath sample. The ulcer-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is a prolific producer of the enzyme urease, which catalyses the breakdown of urea ((NH_2)_2CO) in the stomach as follows: (NH_2)_2CO + H_2O ⟶ CO_2 + 2NH_3 Currently, breath tests seeking altered carbon-isotope ratios in exhaled CO_2 after the ingestion of ^{13}C- or ^{14}C-labeled urea are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present recent results from an ongoing collaboration with Tampere Area University Hospital. The study involves 100 patients (both infected and uninfected) and concerns the possible correlation between the bacterial infection and breath ammonia. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr, D. G. Evans, L. C. Alpert, A. R. Opekun, T. W. Boutton, Lancet 1(8543), 1174-7 March 1987.

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  3. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  4. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The study of the lung accumulation of I-123 IMP by the broncho-alveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasaka, Miyoko; Ikeda, Hideki; Yakuwa, Naoshi; Kato, Shuichi; Takahashi, Keiji; Yasui, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    We studied the accumulated portion and the movement of I-123 IMP in the lung. Ten subjects were studied. They were four patients with fibrosing lung disease, two with lung cancer, and four with other lung disease. They underwent the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) for the diagnosis of their diseases. l.5 mCi of I-123 IMP was injected into the ante-cubital vein. The BAL examination was carried out about 40 minutes after the injection of I-123 IMP. The subjects' blood was sampled at the same time. The total BAL liquid (BAL-T) was divided into the fluid component (BAL-F) and the cell component (BAL-C) by centrifugation. The radioactivities in BAL-T, BAL-F, BAL-C, and serum (B-S) were measured by the well-counter. The average of BAL-T/B-S, BAL-F/B-S and BAL-C/B-S were 6.86, 4.26 and 2.71 respectively. It was confirmed that I-123 IMP was transported from the pulmonary capillary to the alveolar space and was taken up by the alveolar cells. It was considered that the analysis of the I-123 IMP release from the lung showed not only the endothelial cell uptake function but also the interstitial and material cells' amine transport and uptake function. (author)

  6. The microbiome at the pulmonary alveolar niche and its role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Alexander J; Cervantes, Jorge L

    2015-12-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have provided the tools to comprehensively and accurately characterize the microbial community in the respiratory tract in health and disease. The presence of commensal and pathogenic bacteria has been found to have important effects on the lung immune system. Until relatively recently, the lung has received less attention compared to other body sites in terms of microbiome characterization, and its study carries special technological difficulties related to obtaining reliable samples as compared to other body niches. Additionally, the complexity of the alveolar immune system, and its interactions with the lung microbiome, are only just beginning to be understood. Amidst this complexity sits Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), one of humanity's oldest nemeses and a significant public health concern, with millions of individuals infected with Mtb worldwide. The intricate interactions between Mtb, the lung microbiome, and the alveolar immune system are beginning to be understood, and it is increasingly apparent that improved treatment of Mtb will only come through deep understanding of the interplay between these three forces. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the lung microbiome, alveolar immunity, and the interaction of each with Mtb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2016-01-01

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L−1 (interquartile range (IQR), 3–18) versus 46 μmol L−1 (IQR, 23–66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 265–765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 180–1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17 ± 6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia. PMID:26658550

  8. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise.

  9. A parametric model for the changes in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordebo, Sven; Dalarsson, Mariana; Khodadad, Davood; Müller, Beat; Waldman, Andreas D.; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inez; Sophocleous, Louiza; Sjöberg, Daniel; Seifnaraghi, Nima; Bayford, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Classical homogenization theory based on the Hashin–Shtrikman coated ellipsoids is used to model the changes in the complex valued conductivity (or admittivity) of a lung during tidal breathing. Here, the lung is modeled as a two-phase composite material where the alveolar air-filling corresponds to the inclusion phase. The theory predicts a linear relationship between the real and the imaginary parts of the change in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing, and where the loss cotangent of the change is approximately the same as of the effective background conductivity and hence easy to estimate. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples based on realistic parameter values and frequency ranges used with electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The theory may be potentially useful for imaging and clinical evaluations in connection with lung EIT for respiratory management and control.

  10. Alveolar socket healing: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Silva, Cléverson O; Misawa, Mônica; Sukekava, Flavia

    2015-06-01

    Tooth extraction induces a series of complex and integrated local changes within the investing hard and soft tissues. These local alterations arise in order to close the socket wound and to restore tissue homeostasis, and are referred to as '"socket healing". The aims of the present report were twofold: first, to describe the socket-healing process; and, second, to discuss what can be learned from the temporal sequence of healing events, in order to improve treatment outcomes. The socket-healing process may be divided into three sequential, and frequently overlapping, phases: inflammatory; proliferative; and modeling/remodeling. Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the socket-healing process promotes up to 50% reduction of the original ridge width, greater bone resorption at the buccal aspect than at the lingual/palatal counterpart and a larger amount of alveolar bone reduction in the molar region. In conclusion, tooth extraction, once a simple and straightforward surgical procedure, should be performed in the knowledge that ridge reduction will follow and that further clinical steps should be considered to compensate for this, when considering future options for tooth replacement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sensitive Spectroscopic Analysis of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, A.; Bounds, J.; Zhu, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Kaya, N.; Aluauee, E.; Amani, M.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2018-06-01

    We have developed a novel optical setup which is based on a high finesse cavity and absorption laser spectroscopy in the near-IR spectral region. In pilot experiments, spectrally resolved absorption measurements of biomarkers in exhaled breath, such as methane and acetone, were carried out using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). With a 172-cm-long cavity, an efficient optical path of 132 km was achieved. The CRDS technique is well suited for such measurements due to its high sensitivity and good spectral resolution. The detection limits for methane of 8 ppbv and acetone of 2.1 ppbv with spectral sampling of 0.005 cm-1 were achieved, which allowed to analyze multicomponent gas mixtures and to observe absorption peaks of 12CH4 and 13CH4. Further improvements of the technique have the potential to realize diagnostics of health conditions based on a multicomponent analysis of breath samples.

  12. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  13. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Alveolar Opening in Cardiosurgical Patients with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G Zorina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the optimum alveolar opening parameters for the improvement of postoperative pulmonary oxygenizing function in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of less or more than 40% after aortocoronary bypass surgery (ACBS. Subjects and methods. Twenty patients with a LVEF of less than 40% after ACBS and with postoperative pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 less than 250 (Group 1 were examined. A control group consisted of 20 patients with a LVEF of more than 40% (Group 2. Gas exchange, respiration biomechanics, and central hemodynamic (CH parameters were monitored (a Vigilance monitor (Edvard LifeScience. Alveolar mobilization was carried out on Drager Evita-2 apparatuses in the BIPAP mode, by taking into account the previous artificial ventilation (AV parameters. The low pressure phase corresponded to the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP with volume AV, the high pressure phase was Pplato; the duration of both phases — that of inspiration and expiration (the high pressure phase was inspiration time; the low pressure phase was expiration time. Then the values of Pplato and PEEP were simultaneously increased by 2 cm H2O with a duration of 10 breathing cycles, by continuously monitoring Vt and SaO2 over this interval. By continuously monitoring Vt, a stepwise increase in PEEP and Pplato was continued until there was a Vt reduction or a negative impact of AV on CH. All alveoli were considered to be open when the maximum Vt and SaO2 were achieved. Conclusion. In Group 1 patients with Pinsp of 27—30 cm H2O, PEEP of 10—12 cm H2O, there are increases in PaO2/FiO2 and Cst. In Group 2, the increase of PaO2/FiO2 and Cst is observed with Pinsp of 30—35 cm H2O and PEEP 12—14 cm H2O. With these AV indices, there is an allowable hemodynamic reduction that results in no negative consequences and development of cardiovascular events. After switching to AV in an individually chosen mode, all

  14. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  15. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  16. Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denia Morales Navarro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación, indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática.The alveolar osteogenic distraction, as a biological process of alveolar bone neoformation, motivates us to make the bibliographic review whose objective was to emphasize in analysis the following variables: historical backgrounds in Cuba, distraction classification, distraction phases (latency, distraction and consolidation, indications, contraindications, advantages

  17. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  18. Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Stuart B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres into the left pulmonary artery for 1 day (1d PPE; 115d gestational age; GA or 5 days (5d PPE; 110-115d GA. Control fetuses received vehicle injections. Lung morphology, secondary septal crests, elastin, collagen, myofibroblast, PECAM1 and HIF1α abundance and localization were determined histologically. VEGF-A, Flk-1, PDGF-A and PDGF-Rα mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. Results At 130d GA (term ~147d, in embolized regions of the lung the percentage of lung occupied by tissue was increased from 29 ± 1% in controls to 35 ± 1% in 1d PPE and 44 ± 1% in 5d PPE fetuses (p VEGF and Flk-1, although a small increase in PDGF-Rα expression at 116d GA, from 1.00 ± 0.12 in control fetuses to 1.61 ± 0.18 in 5d PPE fetuses may account for impaired differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts and alveolar development. Conclusions PPE impairs alveolarization without adverse systemic effects and is a novel model for investigating the role of pulmonary capillaries and alveolar myofibroblasts in alveolar formation.

  19. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  20. Use of manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers to eliminate atelectasis artifacts identified during thoracic computed tomography of healthy neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Joslyn, Stephen K; Mitchell, Mark A; O'Brien, Robert T; Hartman, Susan K; Kline, Kevin H

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of single manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) to eliminate atelectasis during CT of anesthetized foals. ANIMALS 6 neonatal Standardbred foals. PROCEDURES Thoracic CT was performed on spontaneously breathing anesthetized foals positioned in sternal (n = 3) or dorsal (3) recumbency when foals were 24 to 36 hours old (time 1), 4 days old (time 2), 7 days old (time 3), and 10 days old (time 4). The CT images were collected without ARMs (all times) and during ARMs with an internal airway pressure of 10, 20, and 30 cm H 2 O (times 2 and 3). Quantitative analysis of CT images measured whole lung and regional changes in attenuation or volume with ARMs. RESULTS Increased attenuation and an alveolar pattern were most prominent in the dependent portion of the lungs. Subjectively, ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis; however, they did incrementally reduce attenuation, particularly in the nondependent portion of the lungs. Quantitative differences in lung attenuation attributable to position of foal were not identified. Lung attenuation decreased significantly (times 2 and 3) and lung volume increased significantly (times 2 and 3) after ARMs. Changes in attenuation and volume were most pronounced in the nondependent portion of the lungs and at ARMs of 20 and 30 cm H 2 O. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manual ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis but reduced attenuation in nondependent portions of the lungs. Positioning of foals in dorsal recumbency for CT may be appropriate when pathological changes in the ventral portion of the lungs are suspected.

  1. Association between breastfeeding and breathing pattern in children: a sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha S.P. Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. METHODS: this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutritive sucking. To determine the breathing patterns that the children had developed, medical history and clinical examination were used. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exposure on the primary outcome (mouth breathing, and the prevalence ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: of the total sample, 43.1% of the children were mouth breathers, 48.4% had been breastfed exclusively until six months of age or more, and 27.4% had non-nutritive sucking habits. Statistically significant associations were found for bottle-feeding (p < 0.001 and oral habits of non-nutritive sucking (p = 0.009, with an increased likelihood of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern. A statistically significant association was also observed between a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and a nasal breathing pattern presented by children. CONCLUSION: an increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding lowers the chances of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern.

  2. The global burden of alveolar echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is known to be common in certain rural communities in China whilst it is generally rare and sporadic elsewhere. The objective of this study was to provide a first estimate of the global incidence of this disease by country. The second objective was to estimate the global disease burden using age and gender stratified incidences and estimated life expectancy with the disease from previous results of survival analysis. Disability weights were suggested from previous burden studies on echinococcosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed review of published literature and data from other sources. We were unable to make a standardised systematic review as the quality of the data was highly variable from different countries and hence if we had used uniform inclusion criteria many endemic areas lacking data would not have been included. Therefore we used evidence based stochastic techniques to model uncertainty and other modelling and estimating techniques, particularly in regions where data quality was poor. We were able to make an estimate of the annual global incidence of disease and annual disease burden using standard techniques for calculation of DALYs. Our studies suggest that there are approximately 18,235 (CIs 11,900-28,200 new cases of AE per annum globally with 16,629 (91% occurring in China and 1,606 outside China. Most of these cases are in regions where there is little treatment available and therefore will be fatal cases. Based on using disability weights for hepatic carcinoma and estimated age and gender specific incidence we were able to calculate that AE results in a median of 666,434 DALYs per annum (CIs 331,000-1.3 million. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The global burden of AE is comparable to several diseases in the neglected tropical disease cluster and is likely to be one of the most important diseases in certain communities in rural China on the Tibetan plateau.

  3. Cediranib for Metastatic Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummar, Shivaani; Allen, Deborah; Monks, Anne; Polley, Eric C.; Hose, Curtis D.; Ivy, S. Percy; Turkbey, Ismail B.; Lawrence, Scott; Kinders, Robert J.; Choyke, Peter; Simon, Richard; Steinberg, Seth M.; Doroshow, James H.; Helman, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, highly vascular tumor, for which no effective standard systemic treatment exists for patients with unresectable disease. Cediranib is a potent, oral small-molecule inhibitor of all three vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Patients and Methods We conducted a phase II trial of once-daily cediranib (30 mg) given in 28-day cycles for patients with metastatic, unresectable ASPS to determine the objective response rate (ORR). We also compared gene expression profiles in pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies and evaluated the effect of cediranib on tumor proliferation and angiogenesis using positron emission tomography and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Results Of 46 patients enrolled, 43 were evaluable for response at the time of analysis. The ORR was 35%, with 15 of 43 patients achieving a partial response. Twenty-six patients (60%) had stable disease as the best response, with a disease control rate (partial response + stable disease) at 24 weeks of 84%. Microarray analysis with validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on paired tumor biopsies from eight patients demonstrated downregulation of genes related to vasculogenesis. Conclusion In this largest prospective trial to date of systemic therapy for metastatic ASPS, we observed that cediranib has substantial single-agent activity, producing an ORR of 35% and a disease control rate of 84% at 24 weeks. On the basis of these results, an open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II registration trial is currently being conducted for patients with metastatic ASPS comparing cediranib with another VEGFR inhibitor, sunitinib. PMID:23630200

  4. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D

    2000-03-01

    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  5. Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglert, Carolin I.; Warger, William C.; Hostens, Jeroen; Namati, Eman; Birngruber, Reginald; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used for imaging pulmonary alveoli. Only a few studies, however, have quantified individual alveolar areas, and the validity of alveolar volumes represented within OCT images has not been shown. To validate quantitative measurements of alveoli from OCT images, we compared the cross-sectional area, perimeter, volume, and surface area of matched subpleural alveoli from microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and OCT images of fixed air-filled swine samples. The relative change in size between different alveoli was extremely well correlated (r>0.9, Pvolume), and 25% (surface area) on average. We hypothesized that the differences resulted from refraction at the tissue-air interfaces and developed a ray-tracing model that approximates the reconstructed alveolar size within OCT images. Using this model and OCT measurements of the refractive index for lung tissue (1.41 for fresh, 1.53 for fixed), we derived equations to obtain absolute size measurements of superellipse and circular alveoli with the use of predictive correction factors. These methods and results should enable the quantification of alveolar sizes from OCT images in vivo.

  6. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  7. Correlation between radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around dental implant and resonance frequency of dental implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawoko, S. S.; Nelwan, L. C.; Odang, R. W.; Kusdhany, L. S.

    2017-08-01

    The histomorphometric test is the gold standard for dental implant stability quantification; however, it is invasive, and therefore, it is inapplicable to clinical patients. Consequently, accurate and objective alternative methods are required. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and digital radiographic analysis are noninvasive methods with excellent objectivity and reproducibility. To analyze the correlation between the radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around a dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant. Digital radiographic images for 35 samples were obtained, and the resonance frequency of the dental implant was acquired using Osstell ISQ immediately after dental implant placement and on third-month follow-up. The alveolar bone density around the dental implant was subsequently analyzed using SIDEXIS-XG software. No significant correlation was reported between the alveolar bone density around the dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant (r = -0.102 at baseline, r = 0.146 at follow-up, p > 0.05). However, the alveolar bone density and resonance frequency showed a significant difference throughout the healing period (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Digital dental radiographs and Osstell ISQ showed excellent objectivity and reproducibility in quantifying dental implant stability. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between the results obtained using these two methods.

  8. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Aldir Cordeiro; CAPISTRANO, Anderson; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; CARDOSO, Maurício de Almeida; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; CAPELOZZA, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Material and Methods Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences in root length and buccal and palatal bone levels of canines and adjacent teeth among groups. Conclusions Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis. PMID:28198979

  9. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  10. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  11. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  12. A basic review on the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block is the most common injection technique used in dentistry and many modifications of the conventional nerve block have been recently described in the literature. Selecting the best technique by the dentist or surgeon depends on many factors including the success rate and complications related to the selected technique. Dentists should be aware of the available current modifications of the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in order to effectively choose between these modifications. Some operators may encounter difficulty in identifying the anatomical landmarks which are useful in applying the inferior alveolar nerve block and rely instead on assumptions as to where the needle should be positioned. Such assumptions can lead to failure and the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block has been reported to be 20-25% which is considered very high. In this basic review, the anatomical details of the inferior alveolar nerve will be given together with a description of its both conventional and modified blocking techniques; in addition, an overview of the complications which may result from the application of this important technique will be mentioned.

  13. Hypocapnic but not metabolic alkalosis impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrianthefs, Pavlos M; Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Dumasius, Vidas; Rutschman, David H; Ridge, Karen M; Baltopoulos, George J; Sznajder, Jacob Iasha

    2005-06-01

    Acid-base disturbances, such as metabolic or respiratory alkalosis, are relatively common in critically ill patients. We examined the effects of alkalosis (hypocapnic or metabolic alkalosis) on alveolar fluid reabsorption in the isolated and continuously perfused rat lung model. We found that alveolar fluid reabsorption after 1 hour was impaired by low levels of CO2 partial pressure (PCO2; 10 and 20 mm Hg) independent of pH levels (7.7 or 7.4). In addition, PCO2 higher than 30 mm Hg or metabolic alkalosis did not have an effect on this process. The hypocapnia-mediated decrease of alveolar fluid reabsorption was associated with decreased Na,K-ATPase activity and protein abundance at the basolateral membranes of distal airspaces. The effect of low PCO2 on alveolar fluid reabsorption was reversible because clearance normalized after correcting the PCO2 back to normal levels. These data suggest that hypocapnic but not metabolic alkalosis impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption. Conceivably, correction of hypocapnic alkalosis in critically ill patients may contribute to the normalization of lung ability to clear edema.

  14. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Youbing, E-mail: youbing-yin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Choi, Jiwoong, E-mail: jiwoong-choi@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A., E-mail: eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Tawhai, Merryn H., E-mail: m.tawhai@auckland.ac.nz [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  15. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C1 continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung. PMID:23794749

  16. Injection of deuterated water into the pulmonary/alveolar circulation; measurement of HDO in exhaled breath and implications to breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tan, B. K.; Davies, S. J.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2012), 036005 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : total body water * afterglow mass spectrometry * deuterium abundance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2012

  17. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  18. [Exploration for micro-osteotomy assisted orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guo-fang; Fang, Bing; Sun, Liang-yan; Wu, Yong; Jiang, Ling-yong; Zhu, Min

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the changes of periodontal conditions after micro-osteotomy assisted lower incisor decompensation for skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region. The sample consisted of 22 cases diagnosed as skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region, selected from consecutive patients of Department of Oral & Cranio-maxillofacial Science of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital during 2009-2012. The samples were divided into 2 groups; G1 comprised 10 patients who accepted micro-osteotomy assisted lower incisor decompensation; G2 comprised 12 patients who chose traditional pre-surgical decomposition. The changes of periodontal conditions of both groups were evaluated with the help of cone-beam CT(CBCT). Data was processed using SAS8.02 software package. For subjects in G1, during the micro-osteotomy assisted pre-surgical orthodontics, no significant difference was found in the amount of root resorption of lower incisors.But labial and lingual vertical alveolar bone loss were 2.60 mm and 2.22 mm; alveolar bone thickness increased by 3.05 mm on the labial side and decreased by 0.88 mm on the lingual side (Ppre-surgical orthodontics was much safer than traditional orthodontics for skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region.

  19. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  20. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  1. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  2. Dressing for alveolopalatal wounds after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Shoji; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kikuchi, Nirou; Ban, Ryokuya

    2003-09-01

    Cotton gauze with alpha cyanoacrylate was used for alveolopalatal wound dressing after alveolar bone grafting to treat 93 alveolar clefts in 74 cleft patients to reduce mechanical injuries, tension for wound dehiscence, and adhesion of food remnants. T-shaped cotton gauze was put on the gingivoperiosteal flaps and was impregnated with cyanoacrylate. The procedure required no preoperative preparation and its intraoperative execution took less than 5 minutes. The gauze with cyanoacrylate was removed approximately 1 week after surgery. No infection was observed at any of the operational sites, but tiny fistulas developed at four of them. The mean bone graft score was 1.4 point. No complications such as thermal injury resulted from the use of cyanoacrylate. Gauze impregnated with cyanoacrylate proved to be a convenient and dependable dressing for alveolopalatal wounds resulting from gingivoperiosteoplasty for alveolar bone grafting.

  3. Anatomical study of the relationship of impacted mandibular third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal in Kurdistan population using orthopantomogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedil Andraws Yalda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Extraction of an impacted mandibular third lower molar tooth is one of the common surgical procedures that may lead to the damage of inferior alveolar nerve due to roots proximity to the mandibular canal. This study aimed to know the relative relationship and proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal in relation to gender, age, depth of impaction, relation with ramus, and type of angulation of the impacted tooth in Kurdistan population. Methods: A sample of 366 digital panoramic radiographs of patients with impacted mandibular third molar was studied. Panoramic radiographic signs images were evaluated for the presence of root contact with the superior border of the mandibular canal, darkening of the roots apex, deflected roots, narrow root, superimposition of the canal, interruption of the white line, diversion of the inferior alveolar canal, and narrowing of the inferior alveolar canal. The depths of impaction, relation with ramus, and type of angulation were also studied. Results: Significant relation of the proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal with the gender (P = 0.001 and age (P <0.001 were seen. A significant relation of the proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal with the depth of impaction (P <0.001, relation with the ramus (P =0.004, and angulation of impaction were also seen (P <0.001. Conclusion: Significant relation of the proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal with gender, age, depth of impaction, relation with the ramus, and angulation of impaction were seen.

  4. Breath acetone as a potential marker in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsányi, Veronika; Péter Kalapos, Miklós

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels is important, but there are limitations to its wide application. These limitations can be divided into two classes, technical and biological limits. The technical limits include the storage of samples, detection threshold, standardization of clinical settings, and the price of instruments. When considering the biological ranges of acetone, personal factors such as race, age, gender, weight, food consumption, medication, illicit drugs, and even profession/class have to be taken into account to use concentration information for disorders. In some diseases such as diabetes mellitus and lung cancer, as well as in nutrition-related behavior such as starvation and ketogenic diet, breath acetone has been extensively examined. At the same time, there is a lack of investigations in other cases in which ketosis is also evident, such as in alcoholism or an inborn error of metabolism. In summary, the detection of acetone in exhaled breath is a useful and promising tool for diagnosis and it can be used as a marker to follow the effectiveness of treatments in some disorders. However, further endeavors are needed for clarification of the exact distribution of acetone in different body compartments and evaluation of its complex role in humans, especially in those cases in which a ketotic state also occurs.

  5. Alveolar ridge preservation using autogenous tooth graft versus beta-tricalcium phosphate alloplast: A randomized, controlled, prospective, clinical pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Pradeep Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A randomized, prospective clinical, radiographical, and histological study was conducted to evaluate healing after alveolar ridge preservation technique using two different graft materials, namely, a novel autogenous graft material i. e., autogenous tooth graft (ATG and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP alloplast. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients undergoing extraction of at least three teeth were selected. Atraumatic extractions were performed. Of the three extraction sockets, one was grafted with ATG, other with β-TCP, and the third was left ungrafted. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken immediately after grafting and 4 months postoperatively to check the changes in alveolar crest height and width at all the sites. Three patients in whom implant placement was done after complete healing; bone samples were harvested using a 3 mm diameter trephine during osteotomy preparation from both the ridge preserved sites and studied histologically. Results: There was a statistically significant difference when the changes in width and height of alveolar crest were compared within all the three groups (P < 0.05. Among three sites, ATG-grafted sites showed the most superior results with a minimal reduction in alveolar crest height and width. Histological analysis also showed the same trend with more new bone formation at ATG-grafted sites as compared to β-TCP-grafted sites. Conclusion: Postextraction, ridge preservation leads to more predictable maintenance of alveolar ridge height and width. ATG as compared to β-TCP provided superior results. Based on this, we conclude that ATG material can serve as a better alternative to conventional bone graft materials.

  6. Comparative effects of riboflavin, nicotinamide and folic acid on alveolar bone loss: A morphometric and histopathologic study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpınar Aysun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory and osteolytic disease. Vitamin B complex is a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of riboflavin (RBF, nicotinamide (NA, and folic acid (FA on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis rat model. Methods. Sixty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following eight groups: Control, Ligated, RBF50 (RBF, 50 mg/kg daily, NA50 (NA, 50 mg/kg daily, FA50 (FA, 50 mg/kg daily, RBF100 (RBF, 100 mg/kg daily, NA100 (NA, 100 mg/kg daily, and FA100 (FA, 100 mg/kg daily. Periodontitis was induced using silk ligature around the right first mandibular molar. After 11 days the rats were sacrificed. Mandible and serum samples were collected. Changes in alveolar bone levels were measured clinically, and periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically. Serum IL-1β (pg/ml levels were analyzed by using ELISA. Results. Mean alveolar bone loss in the mandibular first molar tooth revealed to be significantly lower in RBF100 group than in the Control group. In the Ligated group, alveolar bone loss was significantly higher than in all other groups. The ratio of presence of inflammatory cell infiltration in the Ligated group was significantly higher than in the Control group. The differences in the serum IL-1β levels between the groups were not statistically significant. Osteoclasts that were observed in the Ligated group were significantly higher than those of the Control and FA100 groups. The osteoblastic activity in the Ligated group, RBF100, and NA100 groups were shown to be significantly higher than those in the Control group. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that systemic administration of RBF, NA, and FA in different dosages (50-100 mg/kg reduced alveolar bone loss in periodontal disease in rats.

  7. Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients......Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients...

  8. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were

  9. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  10. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

  11. Alveolar ridge rehabilitation to increase full denture retention and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mefina Kuntjoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge generally complicates prostetic restoration expecially full denture. Low residual alveolar ridge and basal seat can cause unstable denture, permanent ulcer, pain, neuralgia, and mastication difficulty. Pre-proshetic surgery is needed to improve denture retention and stability. Augmentation is a major surgery to increase vertical height of the atrophic mandible while vestibuloplasty is aimed to increase the denture bearing area. Purpose: The augmentation and vestibuloplasty was aimed to provide stability and retentive denture atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge. Case: A 65 years old woman patient complained about uncomfortable denture. Clinical evaluate showed flat ridge in the anterior mandible, flabby tissue and candidiasis, while residual ridge height was classified into class IV. Case management: Augmentation using autograph was conducted as the mandible vertical height is less than 15 mm. Autograph was used to achieve better bone quantity and quality. Separated alveolar ridge was conducted from left to right canine region and was elevated 0.5 mm from the previous position to get new ridge in the anterior region. The separated alveolar ridge was fixated by using T-plate and ligature wire. Three months after augmentation fixation appliances was removed vestibuloplasty was performed to increase denture bearing area that can make a stable and retentive denture. Conclusion: Augmentation and vestibuloplasty can improve flat ridge to become prominent.Latar belakang: Ridge mandibula yang atrofi pada umumnya mempersulit pembuatan restorasi prostetik terutama gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL. Residual alveolar ridge dan basal seat yang rendah menyebabkan gigi tiruan menjadi tidak stabil, menimbulkan ulser permanen, nyeri, neuralgia, dan kesulitan mengunyah. Tujuan: Augmentasi dan vestibuloplasti pada ridge mandibula yang atrofi dilakukan untuk menciptakan gigi tiruan yang stabil dan retentive. Kasus: Pasien wanita

  12. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Takuji

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (k ep ) in children with bronchial asthma, 99m Tc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the k ep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high k ep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high k ep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

  13. Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

  14. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Marco; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Muttini, Aurelio; Checchi, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit.

  15. Effect of plasma rich in growth factors on alveolar osteitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraji, Afshin; Lassemi, Eshagh; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Alavi, Maryam; Adibnejad, Saman

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The high prevalence of dry socket or alveolar osteitis (AO) is of concern in surgical removal of third molars. The aim of the present study was to assess the preventive effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on AO and also its effect on pain management and healing acceleration in third molar extraction sockets of high-risk patients. Materials and Methods: This split-mouth, double-blind clinical trial included 40 bilateral third molar extractions (80 sockets) with at least one identified risk factor for AO. PRGF was obtained from patient's own blood, based on manufacturer's instruction, and blindly placed in one of the two bilateral sockets (PRGF group; n = 20) of each patient. The contralateral socket was treated with a placebo (control group; n = 20). Samples were evaluated for AO and pain incidence on days 2, 3 and 4 and healing and infection on days 3 and 7. Data were analyzed in SPSS v16 using Wilcoxon test. Results: There was a significant difference in dry socket and pain incidence and healing rate between the two groups. Intensity of pain and occurrence of dry socket in the study group was lower than the controls. Also the healing rate was higher (P PRGF group. No sign of infection was seen in either group. Conclusion: The application of PRGF may significantly reduce the incidence of AO or its associated pain and may accelerate healing. The prophylactic use of PRGF following third molar extraction may be suggested especially in the patients at risk of AO. PMID:23251056

  16. Low Levels of IGF-1 Contribute to Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Bessich, Jamie L.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana; Ashare, Alix

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are major contributors to lung innate immunity. Although alveolar macrophages from CFTR−/− mice have impaired function, no study has investigated primary alveolar macrophages in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and our prior studies demonstrate a relationship between IGF-1 and macrophage function. We hypothesize that reduced IGF-1 in CF leads to impaired alveolar macrophage function and chronic infectio...

  17. Mobility of macrophages and alveolar decontamination in different kinds of animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolibe, D; Metivier, H; Masse, R

    1973-05-01

    From congress on alveolar macrophage; Lille, France (28 May The mobility of macrophages in relation to alveolar decontamination following the inhalation of toxic substances was studied in the dog, monkey, cat, rat, and guinea pig. The alveolar macroPhages showed a migration rate that varied from 30 to 10% in the rat and rabbit. The measurement of alveolar decontamination should take into consideration inter-species differences in macrophage mobility. (JSR)

  18. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  20. The 14C-urea breath-test for the detection of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveyor, I.; Goodwin, C.S.; Mullan, B.P.; Geelhoed, E.; Warren, J.R.; Murray, R.N.; Waters, T.E.; Sanderson, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-three patients who were undergoing endoscopy were studied. The radioactivity in exhaled breath which was sampled within five minutes of 14 C -urea administration was attributed to the presence of urease enzyme in mouth organisms and was discounted. The time-radioactivity curves for breath samples from five to 30 minutes after the administration of 14 C-urea gave an excellent separation between subjects with negative results of the examination of gastric-biopsy samples and patients with microbiological and histological evidence of infection with Campylobacter (C.) pylori. The area under the time-radioactivity curve at between five and 30 minutes after the administration of 14 C-urea in 24 patients with negative microbiological results was 6.9±4.4 area units; in 35 of 39 patients with positive microbiological results, this area was greater than 40 area units. Measured against the results of the microbiological examination of gastricbiopsy samples, the sensitivity of breath-testing was 90% and the specificity was 100%. Measured against the results of histological examination for the presence of C. pylori infection, breath-testing had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 93%. A positive breath-test result also correlated well (P=0.0001) with the serological antibody test-result. The role of non-invasive tests - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and 14 C-urea breath-testing - in the management of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease is discussed. We consider that the 14 C-urea breath-test has an important role in the noninvasive confirmation of gastric infection with C. pylori and in the follow-up of patients after treatment. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create deposits inside your humidifier that promote bacterial growth. And, when released into the air, these minerals often appear as white dust on your furniture. You may also breathe in some minerals that ...

  2. DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18226603 Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thaku...l) Show Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. PubmedID 18226603 Title Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macropha...ges. Authors Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian A. Public

  3. Detection of creatinine in exhaled breath of humans with chronic kidney disease by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qian; Li, Penghui; Cai, Yunfeng; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Haidong; Luo, Jiao; Ding, Jianhua; Chen, Huanwen

    2016-02-09

    Exhaled breath contains chemicals that have a diagnostic value in human pathologies. Here in vivo breath analysis of creatinine has been demonstrated by constructing a novel platform based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) without sample pretreatment. Under optimized experimental conditions, the limit of creatinine detection in breath was 30.57 ng L(-1), and the linear range of detection was from 0.3 μg L(-1) to 100 μg L(-1). The concentration range of creatinine in the exhaled breath of 50 volunteers with chronic kidney disease was from 42 pptv to 924 pptv, and the range of the relative standard deviations was from 9.3% to 19.2%. The method provides high sensitivity, high specificity and high speed for semi-quantitative analysis of creatinine in exhaled human breath.

  4. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  5. Simultaneous Sinus Lifting and Alveolar Distraction of a Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla for Oral Rehabilitation with Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Paeng, Jun-Young; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Furuki, Yoshihiko; Ohwada, Hiroyuki; Nariai, Yoshiki; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Hideaki; Sekine, Joji

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants) were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n = 4). A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80) after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation. PMID:22792105

  6. Simultaneous Sinus Lifting and Alveolar Distraction of a Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla for Oral Rehabilitation with Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kanno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n=4. A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80 after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation.

  7. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Comparación de la cicatrización clínica alveolar post exodoncia simple con y sin sutura

    OpenAIRE

    Huamaní Muñoz, Balbín Wilder

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to compare the characteristics the process of alveolar clinical healing post simple exodontia with and without suture. The research was a simple randomized clinico test and was made in the Hospital of Support I Albrecht — Trujillo of EsSalud, during the months of January to April of the 2008, with a sample of study of thirty insured patients between twenty to fifty years old of bot h sexes. The characteristics of the alveolar healing of hemostasia, ...

  9. Limonene in exhaled breath is elevated in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, M E; Fernández del Río, R; Holt, A; Pemberton, P; Shah, T; Whitehouse, T; Mayhew, C A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breath samples were taken from 31 patients with liver disease and 30 controls in a clinical setting and proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-Quad-MS) used to measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All patients had cirrhosis of various etiologies, with some also suffering from hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and/or hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Breath limonene was higher in patients with No-HCC than with HCC, median (lower/upper quartile) 14.2 (7.2/60.1) versus 3.6 (2.0/13.7) and 1.5 (1.1/2.3) nmol mol−1 in controls. This may reflect disease severity, as those with No-HCC had significantly higher UKELD (United Kingdom model for End stage Liver Disease) scores. Patients with HE were categorized as having HE symptoms presently, having a history but no current symptoms and having neither history nor current symptoms. Breath limonene in these groups was median (lower/upper quartile) 46.0 (14.0/103), 4.2 (2.6/6.4) and 7.2 (2.0/19.1) nmol mol−1, respectively. The higher concentration of limonene in those with current symptoms of HE than with a history but no current symptoms cannot be explained by disease severity as their UKELD scores were not significantly different. Longitudinal data from two patients admitted to hospital with HE show a large intra-subject variation in breath limonene, median (range) 18 (10–44) and 42 (32–58) nmol mol−1. PMID:27869108

  10. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  11. Correlation between alveolar ventilation and electrical properties of lung parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian J; Ehrl, Andreas; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inéz; Schittny, Johannes C; Weiler, Norbert; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2015-06-01

    One key problem in modern medical imaging is linking measured data and actual physiological quantities. In this article we derive such a link between the electrical bioimpedance of lung parenchyma, which can be measured by electrical impedance tomography (EIT), and the magnitude of regional ventilation, a key to understanding lung mechanics and developing novel protective ventilation strategies. Two rat-derived three-dimensional alveolar microstructures obtained from synchrotron-based x-ray tomography are each exposed to a constant potential difference for different states of ventilation in a finite element simulation. While the alveolar wall volume remains constant during stretch, the enclosed air volume varies, similar to the lung volume during ventilation. The enclosed air, serving as insulator in the alveolar ensemble, determines the resulting current and accordingly local tissue bioimpedance. From this we can derive a relationship between lung tissue bioimpedance and regional alveolar ventilation. The derived relationship shows a linear dependence between air content and tissue impedance and matches clinical data determined from a ventilated patient at the bedside.

  12. Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

  13. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Freitag, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T 2 -TSE and T 2 -HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T 2 -HASTE and T 2 -TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T 2 -weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p 2 -weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to detect pneumonia in patients. (orig.) [de

  14. Mechanisms of alveolar fibrosis after acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, W A; Henke, C A; Harmon, K R; Hertz, M I; Bitterman, P B

    1990-12-01

    In patients who die after severe acute lung injury, a dramatic fibroproliferative response occurs within the alveolar air space, interstitium, and microvessels. Profound shunt physiology, dead space ventilation, and pulmonary hypertension are the physiologic consequences of this fibroproliferative response. The anatomic pattern of the response is unique within each alveolar compartment. For example, the air space is obliterated by granulation tissue, with replicating mesenchymal cells, their connective tissue products, and an expanding network of intra-alveolar capillaries. In contrast, the vascular fibroproliferative response is dominated by mesenchymal cell replication and connective tissue deposition within the walls of microvessels. Despite the unique anatomic features of these fibroproliferative processes, the regulatory signals involved are likely to be similar. Although our current understanding of the signals regulating the fibroproliferative response to acute lung injury is limited, inferences can be made from in vitro studies of mesenchymal cell behavior and several better understood fibroproliferative processes, including wound healing and chronic fibrotic lung diseases. As clinicians, our future ability to enhance effective lung repair will likely utilize therapeutic strategies specifically targeted to the signals that regulate the fibroproliferative process within the alveolar microenvironment.

  15. Prevention of Alveolar Osteitis After Third Molar Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ¦ Volume 20 ¦ Issue 4 ¦ April 2017 observed similar percentages of alveolar osteitis using mouthwashes of warm saline and 0.2% chlorhexidine. (23.7% and 20.9%, respectively) in a randomized controlled study. The use of warm saline rinse is a common postextraction.

  16. Autochthonous human alveolar echinococcosis in a Hungarian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezsényi, Balázs; Strausz, Tamás; Makrai, Zita; Csomor, Judit; Danka, József; Kern, Peter; Rezza, Giovanni; Barth, Thomas F E; Casulli, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease causing a severe clinical condition and is known as the most deadly of all helminth infections. Moreover, this disease is also an increasing concern in Northern and Eastern Europe due to its spread in the wildlife animal host. An asymptomatic 70-year-old woman from south-western Hungary was diagnosed with multiple liver lesions. Imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging), serology (ELISA, indirect hemagglutination and Western blot), and conventional staining methods (hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff) were used for the detection of the disease. A histopathological re-evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin block by immunohistochemical staining with the monoclonal antibody Em2G11 definitively confirmed the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed autochthonous case of human alveolar echinococcosis in Hungary. To what extent diagnostic difficulties may contribute to underestimate this zoonosis in Eastern Europe is unknown. Differential diagnosis with alveolar echinococcosis should be considered for patients with multiple, tumor-like cystic lesions of the liver, in countries where this parasite is emerging.

  17. The development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Hernandez, Belinda J.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Narvaez del Pilar, Odemaris; Vila-Ellis, Lisandra; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Evans, Scott E.; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Chen, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover >95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal development is required for alveolar angiogenesis. Notably, a majority of AT1 cells proliferate upon ectopic SOX2 expression and undergo stage-dependent cell fate reprogramming. These results provide evidence that AT1 cells have both structural and signaling roles in alveolar maturation and can exit their terminally differentiated non-proliferative state. Our findings suggest that AT1 cells might be a new target in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases associated with premature birth. PMID:26586225

  18. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  19. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Foresta, Enrico; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Falchi, Marco; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Paolo; Forcione, Mario; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  20. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child from an informal settlement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterised by respiratory failure caused by pulmonary surfactant accumulation and resulting in respiratory insu ciency and an increased incidence of infections.[1] e current standard therapy is whole- lung lavage, which is used to physically remove the accumulated.

  1. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes

  2. Multisystem involvement of alveolar echinococcosis in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Ogul, Hayri; Oral, Akgun; Eren, Suat; Gundogdu, Betul

    2014-11-13

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic progressive infestation inducing a slowly progressing, life-threatening tumor-like growth in the liver. It may spread to other organs by regional extension or hematogenous or lymphatic metastasis. Herein, we report a fifteen-year-old patient diagnosed with AE of the liver and simultaneous lung and brain metastasis with a literature review.

  3. Pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage mimicking a pneumopathy: a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a rare complication. The diagnosis is difficult and can mimic by clinical and radiological features other diagnosis as pneumopathy. We herein report the case of a 63-year-old female admitted to the hospital for ST elevation myocardial infarction.

  4. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  5. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  6. Alveolar pulmonary proteinosis: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, Erika; Saenz, Alberto; Ojeda, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a young women with primary alveolar proteinosis, with a short period of symptoms that are uncommon for this disease, without risk factors for this entity, the clinical evolution of the patient and some complications with the treatment. We review the literature for this entity.

  7. Chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises for cardiac surgery patients in Sweden--a national survey of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E; Olsén, M Fagevik

    2011-06-01

    Various chest physiotherapy techniques are recommended after cardiac surgery around the world. There is limited published data on what breathing exercises actually are recommended to patients after surgery in Europe. The aim of this national survey was to establish the current practice of chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises for adult patients following cardiac surgery in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to a total population sample of 33 Swedish physiotherapists working at the departments of cardiothoracic surgery in December 2007 and January 2008. In total, 29 replies (88%) were received. Seven male and twenty two female physiotherapists completed the questionnaire. All physiotherapists instructed, on a regular basis, the cardiac surgery patients to perform post-operative breathing exercises. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) breathing was routinely used as the first choice for treatment by 22 (83%) of the physiotherapists. Expiratory pressures used varied between 2 and 20 cm H2O. Recommended frequency and duration of the exercises varied from 4 to 30 breaths hourly during the daytime in the first post-operative days. All physiotherapists provided coughing support to the patients. Recommendations to continue breathing exercises after discharge varied from not at all up to 3 months after surgery. Breathing exercises are regularly prescribed during the initial post-operative days after cardiac surgery in Sweden. Hourly deep breathing exercises performed with or without a PEP device were reported to be first choice treatments during the hospital stay. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue the exercises after discharge varied notably.

  8. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cumeras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs. Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap. The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  9. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: a case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H K; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-09-12

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  10. Changes in the palatal dimensions of mouth breathing children caused by nasal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiarti, I. S.; Setyanto, D. B.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Budiardjo, S. B.

    2017-08-01

    During children’s growth and development, the breathing process plays an important role in craniofacial growth, especially of the palate. Nose breathing can stimulate the lateral growth of the maxilla, thus making the palate flat. Disturbances in nose breathing caused by nasal obstruction such as allergic rhinitis, adenoid hypertrophy, rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and obstructive sleep apnea can lead to a mouth breathing habit in children. This habit can cause palatal dimension changes such as a narrow V-shaped maxillary arch and a high palatal vault. This study analyzed the relationship between the mouth breathing habit in children who have nasal obstruction and palatal dimension changes. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a consecutive sampling method on children 7-18 years old with a history of allergic rhinitis, adenoid hypertrophy, rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and obstructive sleep apnea in the Pediatric Respirology and Pediatric Immunology Allergy Outpatient Clinic Kiara Maternal and Child Health Center at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in Jakarta. The palatal dimensions were measured by the height and transversal width of the hard palate of castings of each child’s upper dental arch using vernier calipers. Palatal dimension changes were found in children with a mouth breathing habit due to nasal obstruction.

  11. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernandez, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m -3 in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m -3 in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  12. Potential of Mass Spectrometry in Developing Clinical Laboratory Biomarkers of Nonvolatiles in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Olin, Anna-Carin; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath contains nonvolatile substances that are part of aerosol particles of submicrometer size. These particles are formed and exhaled as a result of normal breathing and contain material from distal airways of the respiratory system. Exhaled breath can be used to monitor biomarkers of both endogenous and exogenous origin and constitutes an attractive specimen for medical investigations. This review summarizes the present status regarding potential biomarkers of nonvolatile compounds in exhaled breath. The field of exhaled breath condensate is briefly reviewed, together with more recent work on more selective collection procedures for exhaled particles. The relation of these particles to the surfactant in the terminal parts of the respiratory system is described. The literature on potential endogenous low molecular weight compounds as well as protein biomarkers is reviewed. The possibility to measure exposure to therapeutic and abused drugs is demonstrated. Finally, the potential future role and importance of mass spectrometry is discussed. Nonvolatile compounds exit the lung as aerosol particles that can be sampled easily and selectively. The clinical applications of potential biomarkers in exhaled breath comprise diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progress, monitoring of drug therapy, and toxicological investigations. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. Cardio-metabolic Diseases Prevention by Self-monitoring the Breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila GERMANESE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As new as very promising technique, breath analysis allows for monitoring the biochemical processes that occur in human body in a non-invasive way. Nevertheless, the high costs for standard analytical instrumentation (i.e., gas chromatograph, mass spectrometer, the need for specialized personnel able to read the results and the lack of protocols to collect breath samples, set limit to the exploitation of breath analysis in clinical practice. Here, we describe the development of a device, named Wize Sniffer, which is portable and entirely based on low cost technology: it uses an array of commercial, semiconductor gas sensors and a widely employed open source controller, an Arduino Mega2560 with Ethernet module. In addition, it is very easy-to-use also for non-specialized personnel and able to analyze in real time the composition of the breath. The Wize Sniffer is composed of three modules: signal measurement module, signal conditioning module and signal processing module. The idea was born in the framework of European SEMEiotic Oriented Technology for Individual's CardiOmetabolic risk self-assessmeNt and Self-monitoring (SEMEOTICONS Project, in order to monitor individual's lifestyle by detecting in the breath those molecules related to the noxious habits for cardio-metabolic risk (alcohol intake, smoking, wrong diet. Nonetheless, the modular configuration of the device allows for changing the sensors according to the molecules to be detected, thus fully exploiting the potential of breath analysis.

  14. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  15. Wool and grain dusts stimulate TNF secretion by alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Donaldson, K

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of two organic dusts, wool and grain, and their soluble leachates to stimulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by rat alveolar macrophages with special reference to the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rat alveolar macrophages were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and treated in vitro with whole dust, dust leachates, and a standard LPS preparation. TNF production was measured in supernatants with the L929 cell line bioassay. Both wool and grain dust samples were capable of stimulating TNF release from rat alveolar macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The standard LPS preparation caused a dose-dependent secretion of TNF. Leachates prepared from the dusts contained LPS and also caused TNF release but leachable LPS could not account for the TNF release and it was clear that non-LPS leachable activity was present in the grain dust and that wool dust particles themselves were capable of causing release of TNF. The role of LPS in wool dust leachates was further investigated by treating peritoneal macrophages from two strains of mice, LPS responders (C3H) and LPS non-responders (C3H/HEJ), with LPS. The non-responder mouse macrophages produced very low concentrations of TNF in response to the wool dust leachates compared with the responders. LPS and other unidentified leachable substances present on the surface of grain dust, and to a lesser extent on wool dust, are a trigger for TNF release by lung macrophages. Wool dust particles themselves stimulate TNF. TNF release from macrophages could contribute to enhancement of inflammatory responses and symptoms of bronchitis and breathlessness in workers exposed to organic dusts such as wool and grain.

  16. Alveolar ridge atrophy related to facial morphology in edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuć J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Kuć,1 Teresa Sierpińska,2 Maria Gołębiewska1 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Department of Dental Technology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland Objectives: The morphology of the alveolar process determines the retention and stability of prosthetic restorations, thereby determining the result of the therapy. Considering that the edentulous jaws may be affected by the atrophy process, it was hypothesized that the morphology of the alveolar process of the maxilla may be dependent on the anterior facial height and anatomy of the mandible. Subjects and methods: Twenty-five healthy edentulous Caucasian individuals were randomly chosen. Each subject underwent a lateral cephalogram before and after prosthetic rehabilitation. During exposition, newly made prostheses were placed in the patient’s mouth. Teeth remained in maximal intercuspidation. Morphological parameters were evaluated according to the Ricketts, McNamara, and Tallgren’s method. Results: An inversely proportional association was observed between patient age and the distal part of the maxilla. A statistically significant connection was noted between the vertical dimension of alveolar ridge and anterior total and lower facial height conditioned by prosthetic rehabilitation. Conclusion: The height of the lateral part of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla remains in connection with the anterior total and lower facial height obtained in the course of prosthetic rehabilitation. The vertical dimension of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla seems to be in close relationship with the morphology of the lower jaw. Keywords: anterior facial height, cephalometric analysis, complete dentures, vertical occlusal dimension

  17. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO 2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  18. Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denia Morales Navarro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación, indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar wall destruction in the early stage of pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Uehara, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Matsumoto, Gou; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    The morphological mechanism of alveolar wall destruction during pulmonary emphysema has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate this process three-dimensionally. Lung specimens from five patients with pulmonary emphysema were used, and five controls with normal alveolar structure were also examined. Sections 150 μm thick were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, elastica, and silver impregnation, and immunostained with selected antibodies. We examined these sections three-dimensionally using a laser confocal microscope and a light microscope. There were only a few Kohn's pores and no fenestrae in the normal alveoli from the controls. In the lungs of the emphysema patients a small rupture appeared in the extremely thin alveolar wall among the alveolar capillaries. This rupture enlarged to form a circle surrounded by the capillaries, which was called an alveolar fenestra. Two neighboring fenestrae fused by breakdown of the collapsed or cord-like capillary between them to form a large fenestra. The large fenestrae fused repeatedly to become larger, and these were bordered by thick elastic fibers constructing an alveolar framework. Alveolar wall destruction during emphysema could start from small ruptures of the alveolar wall that become fenestrae surrounded by capillaries, which fuse repeatedly to become larger fenestrae rimmed with elastic fibers. The alveolar capillary network could initially prevent enlargement of the fenestrae, and the thick elastic fibers constituting the alveolar framework could secondarily prevent destruction of the alveolar wall structure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. SERS spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen cyanide in breath from children colonised with P. aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Skou, Peter Bæk; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    ) nanochip optimised for detection of trace amounts of the P. aeruginosa biomarker hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was mounted inside a Tedlar bag, which the patient breathed into. The SERS chip was then analysed in a Raman spectrometer, investigating the C≡N peak at 2131 cm-1 and correlated with sputum cultures. One...... new P. aeruginosa colonisation occurred during the trial period. The C≡N peak intensity was enhanced in this sample in contrast to the subject's 3 other samples. Three additional patients had intense C≡N SERS signals from their breath, but no P. aeruginosa was cultured from their sputum...

  1. Characteristic aspects of alveolar proteinosis diagnosis Aspectos característicos do diagnóstico da proteinose alveolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Prudente Bártholo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by an accumulation of surfactant in terminal airway and alveoli, thereby impairing gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency in some cases. Three clinically and etiologically distinct forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are recognized: congenital, secondary and idiopathic, the latter corresponding to 90% of the cases. In this case report we present a young male patient that was diagnosed with alveolar proteinosis. Computed tomography of the thorax, bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy were performed. The histopathologic aspect was characteristic. The patient was discharged in good health conditions and remains asymptomatic to date.Proteinose alveolar é uma doença pulmonar incomum caracterizada pelo acúmulo de surfactante nas vias aéreas terminais e nos alvéolos, alterando a troca gasosa e, em alguns casos, promovendo insuficiência respiratória. Três formas clínicas e etiologicamente distintas de proteinose alveolar são reconhecidas: congênitas, secundárias e idiopáticas (mais de 90% dos casos são de etiologia idiopática. Neste relato, apresentamos um homem jovem que foi diagnosticado com proteinose pulmonar. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax, broncoscopia e biópsia transbrônquica foram realizadas. O aspecto histopatológico foi característico. O paciente teve alta, com boas condições de saúde, e encontra-se assintomático nos dias de hoje.

  2. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  3. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions

  4. Reduction of sources of error and simplification of the Carbon-14 urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Carbon-14 urea breath testing is established in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate possible further simplification and identification of error sources in the 14 C urea kit extensively used at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Thirty six patients with validated H. pylon status were tested with breath samples taken at 10,15, and 20 min. Using the single sample value at 15 min, there was no change in the diagnostic category. Reduction or errors in analysis depends on attention to the following details: Stability of absorption solution, (now > 2 months), compatibility of scintillation cocktail/absorption solution. (with particular regard to photoluminescence and chemiluminescence), reduction in chemical quenching (moisture reduction), understanding counting hardware and relevance, and appropriate response to deviation in quality assurance. With this experience, we are confident of the performance and reliability of the RAPID-14 urea breath test kit now available commercially

  5. Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzson, Béla; Jágerská, Jana; Looser, Herbert; Graf, Manuel; Felder, Ferdinand; Fill, Matthias; Tappy, Luc; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-06-20

    A broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is employed in a direct absorption laser spectroscopic setup to measure breath acetone. The large wavelength coverage of more than 30 cm -1 at 3.38 μm allows, in addition to acetone, the simultaneous measurement of isoprene, ethanol, methanol, methane, and water. Despite the severe spectral interferences from water and alcohols, an unambiguous determination of acetone is demonstrated with a precision of 13 ppbv that is achieved after 5 min averaging at typical breath mean acetone levels in synthetic gas samples mimicking human breath.

  6. Decreased sialidase activity in alveolar macrophages of guinea pigs exposed to coal mine dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidis-Trabelsi, H; Lefèvre, J P; Bignon, J; Lambré, C R

    1992-01-01

    The origin of immune dysfunctions that are observed in pneumoconiotic miners still remains unknown. There is evidence that the carbohydrate moiety of membrane glycoconjugates is of primary importance in many functions of immunocompetent cells. The glycosylation, and especially the sialylation level of membrane components of various lymphocyte and macrophage subsets, vary depending on the state of cellular differentiation and activation. Sialidases, which may regulate the amount of sialic acids exposed on the cell membrane, can thus be considered as immunoregulatory enzymes. In this report, the sialidase activity has been measured in alveolar macrophages (AM) and in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from guinea pigs exposed for 4 months to coal mine dust at a concentration of 300 mg/m3. The samples were collected by bronchoalveolar lavage 2 months after cessation of exposure. The sialidase activity in the cell-free fluid and in the purified alveolar macrophages showed a 10-fold decrease (p less than 0.001). Kinetic parameters of the enzyme such as Km and optimum pH did not change. This changed activity was specific for sialidase, as two other lysosomal glycosidases, beta-galactosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase, showed unchanged activities. These results suggest the possibility that, by inducing a decreased sialidase activity, exposure to coal mine dust may lead to a modified expression of AM membrane-associated sialic acids giving rise to altered immune functions (i. e., phagocytosis, antigen processing, response to cytokines, etc.). PMID:1396442

  7. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  8. Histomorphometric analysis of rat alveolar wound healing with hydroxyapatite alone or associated to BMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão Alexandre C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several materials and techniques have been proposed to improve alveolar wound healing and decrease loss of bone height and thickness that normally follow dental extraction. The objective of this research was the histologic analysis of bone morphogenetic proteins implanted into dental alveoli of rats after extraction. A total of 45 adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 15 animals each: control (no treatment, implanted with pure hydroxyapatite (HA, 3 mg and implanted with hydroxyapatite plus bone morphogenetic proteins (HA/BMPs, 3 mg. Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 42 days after extraction for the histometric analyses of the osteoconductive potential of hydroxyapatite associated or not with BMPs. After dissection, fixation, decalcification and serial microtomy of 6-mm thick sections, the samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. Both HA and HA/BMPs caused a delay in wound healing compared to control animals, evaluated by the percentage of bone tissue in the alveoli. The treatment with HA/BMPs had the greatest delay at 21 days, even though it produced values similar to the control group at 42 days. The materials did not improve alveolar repair in the normal period of wound healing and the association of HA/BMPs did not have osteoconductive properties with granulated hydroxyapatite as the vehicle.

  9. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  10. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012 defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time, with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate, would be necessary to examine such changes.

  11. The effects of metronome breathing on the variability of autonomic activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, D; Dicicco, G

    2000-01-01

    Many chiropractors hypothesize that spinal manipulation affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the ANS responses to chiropractic manipulative therapy are not well documented, and more research is needed to support this hypothesis. This study represents a step toward the development of a reliable method by which to document that chiropractic manipulative therapy does affect the ANS by exploring the use of paced breathing as a way to reduce the inherent variability in ANS measurements. To examine the hypothesis that the variability of ANS measurements would be reduced if breathing were paced to a metronome at 12 breaths/min. The study was performed at Parker College Research Institute. Eight normotensive subjects were recruited from the student body and staff. Respiration frequency was measured through a strain gauge. A 3-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was used to register the electric activity of the heart, and arterial tonometry monitors were used to record the left and right radial artery blood pressures. Signals were recorded on an IBM-compatible computer with a sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Normal breathing was used for the first 3 recordings, and breathing was paced to a metronome for the final 3 recordings at 12 breaths/min. Fourier analysis was performed on the beat-by-beat fluctuations of the ECG-determined R-R interval and systolic arterial pressure (SBP). Low-frequency fluctuations (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) reflected sympathetic activity, whereas high-frequency fluctuations (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) represented parasympathetic activity. Sympathovagal indices were determined from the ratio of the two bandwidths (LF/HF). The coefficient of variation (CV%) for autonomic parameters was calculated ([average/SD] x 100%) to compare breathing normally and breathing to a metronome with respect to variability. One-way analysis of variance was used to detect differences. A value of P Metronome breathing did not produce any significant changes in blood pressure for the

  12. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  13. MRI and CT in alveolar echinococcosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duewell, S.; Marincek, B.; Schulthess, G.K. von; Ammann, R.; Zurich Univ.

    1990-01-01

    To compare the value of MRI and CT in evaluating hepatic alveolar echinococcosis a study was conducted on 30 patients. The liver was initially affected in all patients. At the time of examination, 15 patients had undergone partial liver resection. MRI showed no advantage over CT in demonstrating an echinococcal mass lesion. MRI was superior in identifying concomitant pathological changes of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic venous system due to the intrinsic contrast of vascular structures. However, CT was superior in identifying calcifications, an important attribute of the disease. MRI should only be used in imaging alveolar echinococcosis of the liver if diagnostic questions remain open after CT, in particular questions concerning venous pathology. MRI may also be used to replace CT in patients with a contraindication to urographic contrast material. (orig.) [de

  14. CT findings of extrahepatic alveolar echinococcus (report of 12 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenya; Shang Ge; Dang Jun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of extrahepatic alveolar echinococcus (EAE), and assess the value of CT scanning for the diagnosis of such cases. Methods: 12 patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcus (HAE) verified by operation and histology were examined by CT because of new complains. It was found that multiple organs were involved by the same lesions. Results: Brain AE (7 cases) showed single or multiple cerebral nodules, characterized by honeycombed hypodense structures or target sign after enhancement. Lung AE (3 cases) appeared as irregular, peripherally scattered nodules, with small vacuoles or cavities inside. The only 1 case with heart AE demonstrated a multiple calcifications and vacuoles within the mass. Adrenal gland AE (2 cases) presented as plaques containing different sizes of hypodense areas and calcifications. Retroperitoneal AE (2 cases) exhibited mass with plentiful calcifications. Conclusion: CT can define the location and morphology of the lesion, providing a reliable method for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  15. Imaging diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in young patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, F.; Ohkawa, Y.; Sato, N.; Uchino, J.; Hata, Y.

    1997-01-01

    We review the imaging findings in seven children with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Calcification was seen on plain abdominal films in five of seven patients (66.6 %); the calcifications were small or coarse with irregular margins. Ultrasound was performed in four cases, identifying the lesions in all four as small calcifications with or without cysts. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in four cases and showed small calcifications, calcifications surrounding a cyst, or an aggregate of calcifications. Angiography was performed in all seven patients and showed changes of intrahepatic arterial stretching, overgrowth of small arteries, and a honeycomb pattern in the capillary phase. Venography revealed compression of the inferior vena cava in two patients. Serum screening together with ultrasonography and CT are useful for diagnostic imaging of alveolar echinococcosis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavstvedt, S.; Bolin, A.; Henrikson, C.O.; Carstensen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal radiographic investigation was made of the progression of the proximal alveolar bone loss over a 10-year period (1970-1980). The material was unselected and consisted of 669 individuals in the county of Stockholm. 61 individuals were randomly selected for evaluation of a recording system using alternative methods of measurement, and 90% of the measurement sites could then be assessed. The correlations between some of the methods were high, such as between measurement of alveolar bone height and root length and between aleveolar bone height and tooth length. To reduce the number of measurements, a partial recording was made, giving a high correlation coefficient between the partial recording and total recording. When five measurement sites were used, the correlation coefficient was 0.96, and a slight increase of the coefficient was obtained when using additional sites

  17. Arched needle technique for inferior alveolar mandibular nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakranarayan, Ashish; Mukherjee, B

    2013-03-01

    One of the most commonly used local anesthetic techniques in dentistry is the Fischer's technique for the inferior alveolar nerve block. Incidentally this technique also suffers the maximum failure rate of approximately 35-45%. We studied a method of inferior alveolar nerve block by injecting a local anesthetic solution into the pterygomandibular space by arching and changing the approach angle of the conventional technique and estimated its efficacy. The needle after the initial insertion is arched and inserted in a manner that it approaches the medial surface of the ramus at an angle almost perpendicular to it. The technique was applied to 100 patients for mandibular molar extraction and the anesthetic effects were assessed. A success rate of 98% was obtained.

  18. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver - computed tomographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, E.; Usadel, S.; Vogel, J.; Kern, P.; Friedrich, J.M.; Brambs, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to ascertain the typical computed tomographic findings of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, 24 computed tomograms of 19 patients were evaluated. The liver was involved in all cases whereas the diaphragma was infiltrated in 32%, and the retroperioteneal area in 42%. The right liver lobe was affected in 65%. Both before and after intravenous bolus contrast medium administration, the lesions were mainly inhomogeneous and of low density; a masking of the lesions due to the contrast medium administration was not observed; the enhancement pattern was irregular. Calcifications were detected in 96% of the cases, cystic structures in 50%, and cholestasis in 54%. On the basis of the crucial finding of calcifications in combination with the other typical observations, CT seems to be very suitable for the evaluation of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. (orig.) [de

  19. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Alveolar type II epithelial cell dysfunction in rat experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Yang

    Full Text Available The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2 play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL. We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-α, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064 induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target.

  1. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies.Results: In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement.Conclusions: The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management.

  2. Primary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma with Diffuse Alveolar Consolidation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mohammad Taheri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that tend to develop in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues including the sinonasal or nasopharyngeal regions. Primary plasmacytoma of the lung is exceedingly rare and often presents as a solitary mass or nodule in mid-lung or hilar areas and diagnosed after resection. Herein, we report a case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma that presented with diffuse alveolar consolidation and diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy.

  3. Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent a unique leukocyte population that responds to airborne irritants and microbes. This distinct microenvironment coordinates the maturation of long-lived AMs, which originate from fetal blood monocytes and self-renew through mechanisms dependent on GM-CSF and CSF-1 signaling. Peripheral blood monocytes can also replenish lung macrophages; however, this appears to occur in a stimuli specific manner. In addition to mounting an appropriate immune response durin...

  4. Correlation between alveolar ventilation and electrical properties of lung parenchyma

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, J. C., Ehrl, A., Becher, T., Frerichs, I., Schittny, J., Weller, N., Wall W. A.

    2016-01-01

    One key problem in modern medical imaging is linking measured data and actual physiological quantities. In this article we derive such a link between the electrical bioimpedance of lung parenchyma, which can be measured by electrical impedance tomography (EIT), and the magnitude of regional ventilation, a key towards understanding lung mechanics and developing novel protective ventilation strategies. Two rat-derived three-dimensional alveolar microstructures obtained from synchrotron-ba...

  5. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  6. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  7. Alveolar cell carcinoma: diagnostic pitfalls in evaluating the chest roentgenogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, M.S.; Bailey, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given of two patients with initial symptoms of congestive heart failure who had an extensive work-up that failed to reveal any signs of pulmonary malignancy. Subsequent biopsy by fiberoptic bronchoscopy confirmed alveolar cell carcinoma in both cases, suggesting that bronchoscopy with biopsy should be considered in patients with congestive heart failure if pulmonary edema does not resolve with appropriate therapy. 11 references, 2 figures

  8. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Presenting as Hypervascular Adrenal Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Goroshi, Manjunath; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S.

    2018-01-01

    Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhanceme...

  9. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dejan; Jokanović, Vukoman; Petrović, Bojan; Perić, Tamara; Vukomanović, Biserka

    2014-05-01

    Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material's particles took place after 25 weeks. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects.

  10. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Findings of magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Yoshinobu, Takashi; Takemoto, Akiko; Himi, Kazuhisa; Mutoh, Haruomi [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the findings of MR imaging obtained in patients with Echinococcus multilocularis involving the liver. For 10 patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver, the MR findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after biopsy or surgery. Conventional T1-weighted spin echo, T2-weighted spin echo and T1-weighted spin echo after Gd-DTPA were employed. The signal from the lesions of alveolar liver echinococcosis on T1-weighted images was hypointense in 16 of 23 lesions (69.6%), hyperintense in 4 (17.4%), and isointense in 3 (13.0%). The signal from the lesions on T2-weighted images was hyperintense in 20 lesions (87.0%), hypointense in 2 (8.7%), and isointense in one (4.3%). On using Gd-DTPA, 7 of 21 lesions (33.3%) were observed with rim enhancement, and 14 lesions (66.7%) were non-enhanced. We describe our clinical experience together with the various findings of MR imaging as observed in the patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. MR imaging excels in visualizing a low-intensity rim and small cystic foci, with liquefaction necrotic foci displaying a variety of signal intensities. After Gd-DTPA administration, the surrounding inflammatory granulomatous foci could be more clearly visualized. (author).

  11. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Findings of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Yoshinobu, Takashi; Takemoto, Akiko; Himi, Kazuhisa; Mutoh, Haruomi; Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the findings of MR imaging obtained in patients with Echinococcus multilocularis involving the liver. For 10 patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver, the MR findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after biopsy or surgery. Conventional T1-weighted spin echo, T2-weighted spin echo and T1-weighted spin echo after Gd-DTPA were employed. The signal from the lesions of alveolar liver echinococcosis on T1-weighted images was hypointense in 16 of 23 lesions (69.6%), hyperintense in 4 (17.4%), and isointense in 3 (13.0%). The signal from the lesions on T2-weighted images was hyperintense in 20 lesions (87.0%), hypointense in 2 (8.7%), and isointense in one (4.3%). On using Gd-DTPA, 7 of 21 lesions (33.3%) were observed with rim enhancement, and 14 lesions (66.7%) were non-enhanced. We describe our clinical experience together with the various findings of MR imaging as observed in the patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. MR imaging excels in visualizing a low-intensity rim and small cystic foci, with liquefaction necrotic foci displaying a variety of signal intensities. After Gd-DTPA administration, the surrounding inflammatory granulomatous foci could be more clearly visualized. (author)

  12. Simulation of lung alveolar epithelial wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sean H J; Matthay, Michael A; Mostov, Keith; Hunt, C Anthony

    2010-08-06

    The mechanisms that enable and regulate alveolar type II (AT II) epithelial cell wound healing in vitro and in vivo remain largely unknown and need further elucidation. We used an in silico AT II cell-mimetic analogue to explore and better understand plausible wound healing mechanisms for two conditions: cyst repair in three-dimensional cultures and monolayer wound healing. Starting with the analogue that validated for key features of AT II cystogenesis in vitro, we devised an additional cell rearrangement action enabling cyst repair. Monolayer repair was enabled by providing 'cells' a control mechanism to switch automatically to a repair mode in the presence of a distress signal. In cyst wound simulations, the revised analogue closed wounds by adhering to essentially the same axioms available for alveolar-like cystogenesis. In silico cell proliferation was not needed. The analogue recovered within a few simulation cycles but required a longer recovery time for larger or multiple wounds. In simulated monolayer wound repair, diffusive factor-mediated 'cell' migration led to repair patterns comparable to those of in vitro cultures exposed to different growth factors. Simulations predicted directional cell locomotion to be critical for successful in vitro wound repair. We anticipate that with further use and refinement, the methods used will develop as a rigorous, extensible means of unravelling mechanisms of lung alveolar repair and regeneration.

  13. Massive Alveolar Hemorrhage During Wegener Granulomatosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Perincek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of Wegener Granulomatosis (WG disease. Even though the lungs are rarely affected. massive alveolar hemorrhage is seen which leads to mortality. The patient was a 28 year old man. His illness was diagnosed as WG and glomerulonephritis a year previously and he was treated by administration of methylprednisolone orally. He had been treated irregularly. He applied to the emergency service with hemoptysis and asthma complaints two days earlier. After the results of his examination Hb: 3.6 gr/dl, Htc:10.3%, Üre:131 mg /dl, kreatini: 7.7 mg/dl, pH: 7.41, pO2: 55 mmHg, pCO2:33 mmHg, and being diagnosed as alveolar consolidation on lung X-ray, he was taken to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of a massive alveolar hemorrhagei. He was intubated and attached to mechanical ventilation. He was treated with parenteral 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone and, siklofosfamid 2 mg/kg/day. He was extubated on the 21st day. He was taken to the chest service department on 24th day. He is still being treated.

  14. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Downs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC. The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  15. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  16. Influence of chronic alcoholism and oestrogen deficiency on the variation of stoichiometry of hydroxyapatite within alveolar bone crest of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Adriana M P S; Deco, Camila P; Lodi, Karina B; Marchini, Leonardo; Santo, Ana M E; Rocha, Rosilene F

    2012-10-01

    Previous findings suggest that chronic alcoholism and oestrogenic deficiency may affect bones in general (including alveolar bone) and increase individuals' susceptibility to the development of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess possible alterations in the chemical composition of alveolar bone in rats subjected to chronic alcoholism, oestrogen deficiency or both. Fifty-four rats were initially divided into two groups: ovariectomized (Ovx), and Sham operated (Sham). A month after surgery, the groups were sub-divided and received the following dietary intervention for eight weeks: 20% alcohol, isocaloric diet and ad libitum diet. Samples of the mandible, in the alveolar bone crest region, were analyzed to verify possible changes in the stoichiometric composition of bone hydroxyapatite, by measuring the relationship between the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (Ca/P ratios), using micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ad libitum groups presented the highest average values of Ca/P ratios, while the groups with dietary restrictions presented the smallest average values. The Ovx ad libitum group presented the highest values of Ca/P ratios (2.03 ± 0.04). However, these values were not considered statistically different (p>0.05) from the Sham ad libitum group (2.01 ± 0.01). The Ovx alcohol group presented lower values for Ca/P ratios (1.92 ± 0.06), being the only group statistically different (palcohol consumption at 20% significantly changed the stoichiometry composition of hydroxyapatite in the alveolar bone crest, leading to a reduction in Ca/P ratios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug detection in breath: non-invasive assessment of illicit or pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Fuchs, Patricia; Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2017-03-20

    Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath-similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests-would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The non-invasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the US and the EU. The detection and monitoring of medical drugs in exhaled breath without the need of drawing blood samples on the other hand, is of high relevance in the clinical environment. This could facilitate a more precise medication and enable therapy control without any burden to the patient. Furthermore, it could be a step towards personalized medicine. This review gives an overview of the current state of drug detection in breath, including both volatile and non-volatile substances. The review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with qualitative detection of drugs (drugs of abuse), while the second is related to quantitative drug detection (medical drugs). Chances and limitations are discussed for both aspects. The detection of the intravenous anesthetic propofol is presented as a detailed example that demonstrates the potential, requirements, pitfalls and limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring by means of breath analysis.

  18. How reliable are the sup 14 C-urea breath test and specific serology for the detection of gastric campylobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husebye, E; O' Leary, D; Skar, V; Melby, K [Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway)

    1990-01-01

    Detection of gastric campylobacter by the {sup 14}C-urea breath test and serology were correlated to biopsy culture in 25 unselected outpatients referred for gastroscopy. All the 17 culture-positive patients had positive {sup 14}C-urea breath test, and 16 had positive serology. Of eight culture-negative patients, six patients had negative breath test and seven negative serology. A high degree of reproducibility was found when two subsequent breath tests were performed in 11 healthy volunteers. The breath test values obtained at 10 min showed a strong correlation to the accumulated values within 30 min. Breath sampling once, 10 min after intake of 2.5 {mu}Ci {sup 14}C-urea, seems sufficient for the detection of gastric campylobacter. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test correlates well with biopsy culture and provides a sensitive tool for the detection of gastric campylobacter. Serology also corresponds well with biopsy culture and should provide a useful tool for epidemiologic studies. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The fate of ingested [sup 14]C-urea in the urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munster, D J; Chapman, B A; Burt, M J; Dobbs, B R; Allardyce, R A; Bagshaw, P F; Troughton, W D; Cook, H B [Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand)

    1993-08-01

    The metabolic fate of the radioactive carbon in the [sup 14]C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori was investigated in 18 subjects. After ingestion of labelled urea, breath was sampled for 24 h, and urine was collected for 3 days. Subjects were designated high or low expirers on the basis of their breath counts, and this agreed well with H. pylori serologic analyses. When given 185 or 37 kBq of [sup 14]C-urea, 51% of the label was recovered from the breath of high expirers, and 7% from the breath of low expirers. The mean combined urinary and breath recovery for high expirers was 86%, and for low expirers it was 97%. It is concluded that the long-term retention of [sup 14]C from ingested [sup 14]C-urea is low. The results enable a more accurate estimation to be made of radiation exposure resulting from the [sup 14]C-urea breath test. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Determination of breath isoprene and acetone concentration with a needle-type extraction device in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Okamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Masahiko; Ishiguro, Motoyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-20

    Isoprene in human breath is said to be related to cholesterol metabolism, and the possibility of the correlations with some clinical parameters has been studied. However, at this stage, no clear benefit of breath isoprene has been reported for clinical diagnosis. In this work, isoprene and acetone concentrations were measured in the breath of healthy and obese subjects using a needle-type extraction device for subsequent analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the possibility of these compounds as an indicator of possible diseases. After measuring intraday and interday variations of isoprene and acetone concentrations in breath samples of healthy subjects, their concentrations were also determined in 80 healthy and 17 obese subjects. In addition, correlation between these breath concentrations and the blood tests result was studied for these healthy and obese subjects. The results indicated successful determination of breath isoprene and acetone in this work, however, no clear correlation was observed between these measured values and the blood test results. Breath isoprene concentration may not be a useful indicator for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  2. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  3. The Milieu of Damaged Alveolar Epithelial Type 2 Cells Stimulates Alveolar Wound Repair by Endogenous and Exogenous Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Susan; Shi, Wei; Carraro, Gianni; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Da Sacco, Stefano; Driscoll, Barbara A.; Perin, Laura; De Filippo, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial integrity is dependent upon the alveolar milieu, yet the milieu of the damaged alveolar epithelial cell type 2 (AEC2) has been little studied. Characterization of its components may offer the potential for ex vivo manipulation of stem cells to optimize their therapeutic potential. We examined the cytokine profile of AEC2 damage milieu, hypothesizing that it would promote endogenous epithelial repair while recruiting cells from other locations and instructing their engraftment and differentiation. Bronchoalveolar lavage and lung extract from hyperoxic rats represented AEC2 in vivo damage milieu, and medium from a scratch-damaged AEC2 monolayer represented in vitro damage. CINC-2 and ICAM, the major cytokines detected by proteomic cytokine array in AEC2 damage milieu, were chemoattractive to normoxic AECs and expedited in vitro wound healing, which was blocked by their respective neutralizing antibodies. The AEC2 damage milieu was also chemotactic for exogenous uncommitted human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs), increasing migration greater than 20-fold. hAFSCs attached within an in vitro AEC2 wound and expedited wound repair by contributing cytokines migration inhibitory factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 to the AEC2 damage milieu, which promoted wound healing. The AEC2 damage milieu also promoted differentiation of a subpopulation of hAFSCs to express SPC, TTF-1, and ABCA3, phenotypic markers of distal alveolar epithelium. Thus, the microenvironment created by AEC2 damage not only promotes autocrine repair but also can attract uncommitted stem cells, which further augment healing through cytokine secretion and differentiation. PMID:21700959

  4. Treatment of sharp mandibular alveolar process with hybrid prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaedi Sukaedi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Losing posterior teeth for a long time would occasionally lead to the sharpening of alveolar process. The removable partial denture usually have problems when used during mastication, because of the pressure on the mucosa under the alveolar ridge. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to manage patients with sharp mandibular alveolar process by wearing hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment retention and soft liner on the surface base beneath the removable partial denture. Case: A 76 years old woman visited the Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. The patient had a long span bridge on the upper jaw and a free end acrylic removable partial denture on the lower jaw. She was having problems with mastication. The patient did not wear her lower denture because of the discomfort with it during mastication. Hence, she would like to replace it with a new removable partial denture. Case management: The patient was treated by wearing a hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment on the lower jaw. Soft liner was applied on the surface of the removable partial denture. Hybrid prosthesis is a complex denture consisting of removable partial denture and fixed bridge. Conclusion: It concluded that after restoration, the patient had no problems with sharp alveolar process with her new denture, and she was able to masticate well.Latar belakang: Kehilangan geligi posterior dapat menimbulkan processus alveolaris tajam. Gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan mempunyai masalah selama pengunyahan karena adanya tekanan di mukosa di bawah alveolar ridge. Tujuan: Tujuan laporan kasus ini adalah untuk menjelaskan cara menangani pasien yang mempunyai prosesus alveolaris yang tajam di rahang bawah dengan dibuatkan protesis hybrid dengan daya tahan extra coronal precision attachment dan soft liner di permukaan bawah basis gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan. Kasus: Pasien wanita berumur 76 tahun datang di klinik

  5. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  6. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  7. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  8. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  9. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  10. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  11. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  12. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  13. Comparison of the serological tests ICT and ELISA for the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Sako, Yasuhito; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Richou, Carine; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Ito, Akira; Millon, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a key element for efficient patient treatment management. A rapid immunochromatography test kit (ICT) using the recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) was recently developed. The aim of our study was to assess this test on a panel of sera from French patients with alveolar echinococcosis and control patients. In a blind test, a total of 112 serum samples were tested including samples of AE (n = 30), cystic echinococcosis [CE] (n = 15), and polycystic echinococcosis [PE] (n = 1). For the comparison, 66 sera from patients with hepatocarcinoma, fascioliasis, toxocariasis, Caroli's disease, or autoimmune chronic active hepatitis were used. The diagnostic test sets we used were the rEm18-ICT and two validated ELISAs with rEm18 and Em2-Em18 antigens, respectively. For the ICT, 27/30 sera from AE patients, 4/15 sera from CE patients and the PE patient serum were positive. One serum from the control panel (toxocariasis) was positive for the ICT. The rEm18-ICT sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (92.7%) for detection of Em18-specific antibodies confirmed it as a relevant tool for AE diagnosis. The rEm18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 91.5%, and the Em2-Em18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 96.7% and specificity of 87.8%. However, when AE patient sera are recorded as weak in intensity with the ICT, we recommend a double reading and use of a reference sample if the ICT is used for patient follow-up. © J. Knapp et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  14. Automated 13CO2 analyzing system for the 13C breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Kuroda, Akira; Maeda, Masahiro; Hinaga, Kou; Watanabe, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    An automated 13 CO 2 analyzing system for the 13 C breath test was designed, built and evaluated. The system, which was designed to be controlled by a micro-computer, includes CO 2 purification, 13 CO 2 abundance measurement, data processing and data filing. This article gives the description of the whole system with flow charts. This system has proved to work well and it has become feasible to dispose of 5 to 6 CO 2 samples per hour. With such a system, the 13 C breath test will be carried out much more easily and will obtain much greater popularity. (author)

  15. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  16. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  17. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  18. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  1. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD

  2. Validation of 14 C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Rejane; Silva, Fernando Marcuz; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; Laudanna, Antonio Atilio

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the 14 C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of 14 C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p 14 C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  3. Effects of fibrin adhesive material (Tissucol) on alveolar healing in rats under stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Alves-Rezende, Maria C. R. [UNESP; Okamoto, Tetuo [UNESP

    1997-01-01

    The effects of Tissucol on alveolar healing following stress were evaluated histologically, comparing three groups of 28 male albino rats each. Stress was applied and their right upper incisors were extracted. Group A served as an empty control site. In Group B, Tissucol was applied into the alveolar cavity. Group C received local antifibrinolytic treatment (alveolar irrigation with epsilon-aminocaproic acid solution) before implant of Tissucol into the tooth socket. Four animals in each grou...

  4. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration reduction by fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A I; Smith, C; Dyar, O; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1993-05-01

    Isoflurane is commonly combined with fentanyl during anesthesia. Because of hysteresis between plasma and effect site, bolus administration of fentanyl does not accurately describe the interaction between these drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC reduction of isoflurane by fentanyl when both drugs had reached steady biophase concentrations. Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive either no fentanyl or fentanyl at several predetermined plasma concentrations. Fentanyl was administered using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Patients were also randomly allocated to receive a predetermined steady state end-tidal concentration of isoflurane. Blood samples for fentanyl concentration were taken at 10 min after initiation of the infusion and before and immediately after skin incision. A minimum of 20 min was allowed between the start of the fentanyl infusion and skin incision. The reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated using a maximum likelihood solution to a logistic regression model. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 63% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 19% reduction in MAC. A 50% decrease in MAC was produced by a fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng/ml. Defining the MAC reduction of isoflurane by all the opioids allows their more rational administration with inhalational anesthetics and provides a comparison of their relative anesthetic potencies.

  5. Physiologic effects of alveolar recruitment and inspiratory pauses during moderately-high-frequency ventilation delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe lung injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Cordioli

    Full Text Available To investigate whether performing alveolar recruitment or adding inspiratory pauses could promote physiologic benefits (VT during moderately-high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (MHFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.Prospective experimental laboratory study with eight pigs. Induction of acute lung injury with sequential pulmonary lavages and injurious ventilation was initially performed. Then, animals were ventilated on a conventional mechanical ventilator with a respiratory rate (RR = 60 breaths/minute and PEEP titrated according to ARDS Network table. The first two steps consisted of a randomized order of inspiratory pauses of 10 and 30% of inspiratory time. In final step, we removed the inspiratory pause and titrated PEEP, after lung recruitment, with the aid of electrical impedance tomography. At each step, PaCO2 was allowed to stabilize between 57-63 mmHg for 30 minutes.The step with RR of 60 after lung recruitment had the highest PEEP when compared with all other steps (17 [16,19] vs 14 [10, 17]cmH2O, but had lower driving pressures (13 [13,11] vs 16 [14, 17]cmH2O, higher P/F ratios (212 [191,243] vs 141 [105, 184] mmHg, lower shunt (23 [20, 23] vs 32 [27, 49]%, lower dead space ventilation (10 [0, 15] vs 30 [20, 37]%, and a more homogeneous alveolar ventilation distribution. There were no detrimental effects in terms of lung mechanics, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Neither the addition of inspiratory pauses or the alveolar recruitment maneuver followed by decremental PEEP titration resulted in further reductions in VT.During MHFPPV set with RR of 60 bpm delivered by a conventional ventilator in severe ARDS swine model, neither the inspiratory pauses or PEEP titration after recruitment maneuver allowed reduction of VT significantly, however the last strategy decreased driving pressures and improved both shunt and dead space.

  6. Human decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into functional alveolar type II-like cells that synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cerrada

    Full Text Available Lung alveolar type II (ATII cells are specialized in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension to minimize the work of breathing. Surfactant synthesis, assembly and secretion are closely regulated and its impairment is associated with severe respiratory disorders. At present, well-established ATII cell culture models are not available. In this work, Decidua-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (DMSCs have been differentiated into Alveolar Type II- Like Cells (ATII-LCs, which display membranous cytoplasmic organelles resembling lamellar bodies, the organelles involved in surfactant storage and secretion by native ATII cells, and accumulate disaturated phospholipid species, a surfactant hallmark. Expression of characteristic ATII cells markers was demonstrated in ATII-LCs at gene and protein level. Mimicking the response of ATII cells to secretagogues, ATII-LCs were able to exocytose lipid-rich assemblies, which displayed highly surface active capabilities, including faster interfacial adsorption kinetics than standard native surfactant, even in the presence of inhibitory agents. ATII-LCs could constitute a highly useful ex vivo model for the study of surfactant biogenesis and the mechanisms involved in protein processing and lipid trafficking, as well as the packing and storage of surfactant complexes.

  7. Anaesthetic, procedure and complications management of serial whole-lung lavage in an obese patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Helena Marta; Guedes, Luisa; Veiga, Dalila; Fiuza, Antonio C; Abelha, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The first case of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) was described by Rose in 1958, but it is still a rare disorder. PAP is characterized by deposition of lipoproteinaceous material secondary to abnormal processing of surfactant by macrophages. Patients may suffer from progressive dyspnea and cough that at times is accompanied by worsening hypoxia and its course can vary from progressive deterioration to spontaneous improvement. Many therapies have been used to treat PAP including antibiotics, postural drainage, and intermittent positive pressure breathing with aerosolized Acetylcysteine, heparin and saline. At present, the mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage (WLL). Although generally well tolerated, WLL can be associated with some complications. We report a case of severe PAP through the anaesthetic, procedure and complications management of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in one patient who has undergone multiple, alternating, single-lung lavages over the past seven years, the last three in our hospital, with improvements in her symptoms following each therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. A compartment model of alveolar-capillary oxygen diffusion with ventilation-perfusion gradient and dynamics of air transport through the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Jacek; Redlarski, Grzegorz

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a model of alveolar-capillary oxygen diffusion with dynamics of air transport through the respiratory tract. For this purpose electrical model representing the respiratory tract mechanics and differential equations representing oxygen membrane diffusion are combined. Relevant thermodynamic relations describing the mass of oxygen transported into the human body are proposed as the connection between these models, as well as the influence of ventilation-perfusion mismatch on the oxygen diffusion. The model is verified based on simulation results of varying exercise intensities and statistical calculations of the results obtained during various clinical trials. The benefit of the approach proposed is its application in simulation-based research aimed to generate quantitative data of normal and pathological conditions. Based on the model presented, taking into account many essential physiological processes and air transport dynamics, comprehensive and combined studies of the respiratory efficiency can be performed. The impact of physical exercise, precise changes in respiratory tract mechanics and alterations in breathing pattern can be analyzed together with the impact of various changes in alveolar-capillary oxygen diffusion. This may be useful in simulation of effects of many severe medical conditions and increased activity level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of local tetracycline on the microbiota of alveolar osteitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias; Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo de; Bosco, Álvaro Francisco; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Jardim Júnior, Elerson Gaetti

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of local tetracycline on the occurrence of alveolar osteitis in rats, and on the microbiota associated to this infection. Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10): I - the rats had the maxillary right incisor extracted and the alveolar wound did not receive any treatment; II - adrenaline and Ringer-PRAS were introduced into the alveolar wound; III - the alveolar wound was irrigated with sterile saline; and IV - the al...

  10. Perawatan Ortodonti pada Kasus Mutilasi dengan Resorpsi Tulang Alveolar dan Resesi Gingiva (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mutilated case in adults, generally malocclusion is often accompanied by less support of periodontal tissues, such as alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession. The treatment of orthodontic is to arrange the teeth into good position and good occlusion, but is widely known to increase the alveolar bone resorption. In handling such case, orthodontist needs to look at factors which do not increase existing alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession. In this case report, it will be reported orthodontic treatment on mutilated case which are accompanied by alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession on a patient of 45 years and 4 months of age.

  11. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-10-15

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  12. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of different levels of spontaneous breathing during biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation on lung function and injury in an experimental model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple-arm randomized experimental study. University hospital research facility. Thirty-six juvenile pigs. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation was conducted using the airway pressure release ventilation mode with an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four levels of spontaneous breath in total minute ventilation (n = 9 per group, 6 hr each): 1) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, 0%; 2) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 0-30%; 3) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 30-60%, and 4) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 60%. The inspiratory effort measured by the esophageal pressure time product increased proportionally to the amount of spontaneous breath and was accompanied by improvements in oxygenation and respiratory system elastance. Compared with biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation of 0%, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60% resulted in lowest venous admixture, as well as peak and mean airway and transpulmonary pressures, redistributed ventilation to dependent lung regions, reduced the cumulative diffuse alveolar damage score across lungs (median [interquartile range], 11 [3-40] vs 18 [2-69]; p ventilation more than 0-30% and more than 30-60% showed a less consistent pattern of improvement in lung function, inflammation, and damage compared with biphasic positive airway

  13. Investigation of a Novel PLGA/CaP Scaffold in the Healing of Tooth Extraction Sockets to Alveolar Bone Preservation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Vanessa Cristina; Ferreira-Junior, Osny; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Guan, Limin; Davies, John Edward

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that 40% to 60% of initial alveolar bone volume will be lost up to 6 months after tooth extraction. OsteoScaf(TM) (TRT, Toronto, ON, Canada) (poly (DL-lactide-co-glycololide/calcium phosphate [PLGA/CaP] scaffold) is a novel bone substitute material and represents a promising alternative for maintaining alveolar bone integrity in this clinical scenario. Here it was hypothesized that OsteoScaf would reduce alveolar bone lost after tooth extraction in patient, acting as a clot-retention device. A total of 10 patients (32 sockets) were included in the study, of which 16 sockets were grafted with OsteoScaf and 16 were used as control (coagulum alone). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed both immediately following extraction and also at 120 days postoperatively, at which time biopsy samples were also harvested for histological analyses. Quantitative analysis of CBCT showed less bone resorption in the OsteoScaf groups, being 10.5% to 14.4% less bone lost in the center of the socket, 15.4% in the buccal region, and 12.6% in the palatal. Qualitative histological analysis showed new bone tissue in direct apposition to the scaffold - demonstrating its osteoconductive nature. OsteoScaf diminished the expected bone lost during the postextraction remodeling of the alveolar bone ridge at 120 days postextraction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Coronectomy versus surgical removal of the lower third molars with a high risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A bibliographical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Vicente, Javier; Schiavone-Mussano, Rocío; Clemente-Salas, Enrique; Marí-Roig, Antoni; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronectomy is the surgical removal of the crown of the tooth deliberately leaving part of its roots. This is done with the hope of eliminating the pathology caused, and since the roots are still intact, the integrity of the inferior alveolar nerve is preserved. Objectives The aim is to carry out a systematic review in order to be able to provide results and conclusions with the greatest scientific evidence possible. Material and Methods A literature review is carried out through the following search engines: Pubmed MEDLINE, Scielo, Cochrane library and EMI. The level of evidence criteria from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was applied, and the clinical trials’ level of quality was analyzed by means of the JADAD criteria. Results The following articles were obtained which represents a total of 17: 1 systematic review, 2 randomized clinical trials and 2 non-randomized clinical trials, 3 cohort studies, 2 retrospective studies, 3 case studies and 4 literature reviews. Conclusions Coronectomy is an adequate preventative technique in protecting the inferior alveolar nerve, which is an alternative to the conventional extraction of third molars, which unlike the former technique, presents a high risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. However, there is a need for new clinical studies, with a greater number of samples and with a longer follow-up period in order to detect potential adverse effects of the retained roots. Key words: Coronectomy, inferior alveolar nerve, nerve injury, wisdom tooth removal, paresthesia, and systematic review. PMID:25858081

  15. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss by regulating the cell cycle: A predictive study based on the protein‑protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Song, Chang-Heng; Zhang, Fang-Zhen; Chen, Yan-Jing; Xiang, Li-Hua; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Da-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) exhibits a protective effect on alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The aim of this study was to predict the pathways or targets that are regulated by RDE, by re‑assessing our previously reported data and conducting a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. In total, 383 differentially expressed genes (≥3‑fold) between alveolar bone samples from the RDE and OVX group rats were identified, and a PPI network was constructed based on these genes. Furthermore, four molecular clusters (A‑D) in the PPI network with the smallest P‑values were detected by molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, two molecular clusters (A and B) were enriched for biological process in Gene Ontology (GO). Only cluster A was associated with biological pathways in the IPA database. GO and pathway analysis results showed that cluster A, associated with cell cycle regulation, was the most important molecular cluster in the PPI network. In addition, cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) may be a key molecule achieving the cell‑cycle‑regulatory function of cluster A. From the PPI network analysis, it was predicted that delayed cell cycle progression in excessive alveolar bone remodeling via downregulation of CDK1 may be another mechanism underling the anti‑osteopenic effect of RDE on alveolar bone.

  16. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  17. Analysis of Endogenous Alkanes and Aldehydes in the Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Silica Containing Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Silica is one of the most air pollutant in workplaces which long-term occupational exposure to silica is associated with an increased risk for respiratory diseases such as silicosis. Silicosis is an oxidative stress related disease and can lead to the development of lung cancer. This study aims to analysis of endogenous alkanes and aldehydes in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dusts. Methods: In this study, the exhaled breath of 20 workers exposed to silica containing dust (case group, 20 healthy non-smokers and 25 healthy smokers (control group were analyzed. The breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags were collected. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS. Result: Totally, thirty nine VOCs were found in all breath samples (at least once. Aldehydes and alkanes such as acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane, pentadecane, 2-methle propane, 3-methyle pentane and octane were detected in the exhaled breath subjects. Among the these compounds, mean peak area of acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane were higher in the exhaled breath of an case group than control groups (Pvalue<0.05 . Conclusions : The use of exhaled breath analysis as well as new media in the occupational toxicology and exposure biomarker assessment studies. It seems that acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane can be considered as useful breath biomarkers for exposure assessment of silica containing dust. However, additional studies are needed to confirm thes results.

  18. Metabolic shift in lung alveolar cell mitochondria following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit R; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein, an α,β unsaturated electrophile, is an environmental pollutant released in ambient air from diesel exhausts and cooking oils. This study examines the role of acrolein in altering mitochondrial function and metabolism in lung-specific cells. RLE-6TN, H441, and primary alveolar type II (pAT2) cells were exposed to acrolein for 4 h, and its effect on mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates was studied by XF Extracellular Flux analysis. Low-dose acrolein exposure decreased mitochondrial respiration in a dose-dependent manner because of alteration in the metabolism of glucose in all the three cell types. Acrolein inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, leading to decreased substrate availability for mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN, H441, and pAT2 cells; the reduced GAPDH activity was compensated in pAT2 cells by an increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the regulatory control of the pentose phosphate pathway. The decrease in pyruvate from glucose metabolism resulted in utilization of alternative sources to support mitochondrial energy production: palmitate-BSA complex increased mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN and pAT2 cells. The presence of palmitate in alveolar cells for surfactant biosynthesis may prove to be the alternative fuel source for mitochondrial respiration. Accordingly, a decrease in phosphatidylcholine levels and an increase in phospholipase A2 activity were found in the alveolar cells after acrolein exposure. These findings have implications for understanding the decrease in surfactant levels frequently observed in pathophysiological situations with altered lung function following exposure to environmental toxicants.

  19. Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Geller Palti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 13-29% of cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side, and the second following the oclusal plane (left side, a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. RESULTS: The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. CONCLUSION: This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry.

  20. Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALTI, Dafna Geller; de ALMEIDA, Cristiane Machado; RODRIGUES, Antonio de Castro; ANDREO, Jesus Carlos; LIMA, José Eduardo Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 1329% of cases. Objective Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. Materials and Methods A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition) from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side), and the second following the oclusal plane (left side), a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. Results The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. Conclusion This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry. PMID:21437463

  1. Enhanced rifampicin delivery to alveolar macrophages by solid lipid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuan Junlan [West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education (China); Li Yanzhen [Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, State Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Pharmacokinetics (China); Yang Likai; Sun Xun [West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education (China); Zhang Qiang [Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Gong Tao, E-mail: gongtaoy@126.com; Zhang Zhirong, E-mail: zrzzl@vip.sina.com [West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-05-15

    The present study aimed at developing a drug delivery system targeting the densest site of tuberculosis infection, the alveolar macrophages (AMs). Rifampicin (RFP)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (RFP-SLNs) with an average size of 829.6 {+-} 16.1 nm were prepared by a modified lipid film hydration method. The cytotoxicity of RFP-SLNs to AMs and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECs) was examined using MTT assays. The viability of AMs and AECs was above 80 % after treatment with RFP-SLNs, which showed low toxicity to both AMs and AECs. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy was employed to observe the interaction between RFP-SLNs and both AMs and AECs. After incubating the cells with RFP-SLNs for 2 h, the fluorescent intensity in AMs was more and remained longer (from 0.5 to 12 h) when compared with that in AECs (from 0.5 to 8 h). In vitro uptake characteristics of RFP-SLNs in AMs and AECs were also investigated by detection of intracellular RFP by High performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that RFP-SLNs delivered markedly higher RFP into AMs (691.7 ng/mg in cultured AMs, 662.6 ng/mg in primary AMs) than that into AECs (319.2 ng/mg in cultured AECs, 287.2 ng/mg in primary AECs). Subsequently, in vivo delivery efficiency and the selectivity of RFP-SLNs were further verified in Sprague-Dawley rats. Under pulmonary administration of RFP-SLNs, the amount of RFP in AMs was significantly higher than that in AECs at each time point. Our results demonstrated that solid lipid nanoparticles are a promising strategy for the delivery of rifampicin to alveolar macrophages selectively.

  2. Investigating Oral Microbiome Profiles in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate for Prognosis of Alveolar Bone Grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, we sought to investigate the oral microbiota structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP and explore the pre-operative oral bacterial composition related to the prognosis of alveolar bone grafting. In total, 28 patients (19 boys, 9 girls with CLP who were scheduled to undergo alveolar bone grafting for the first time were recruited. According to the clinical examination of operative sites at the third month after the operation, the individuals were divided into a non-inflammation group (n = 15 and an inflammation group (n = 13. In all, 56 unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after the operation. The v3-v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Based on the beta diversity of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the inflammation and non-inflammation samples, the microbial variation in the oral cavity differed significantly between the two groups before and after the operation (P < 0.05. Analysis of the relative abundances of pre-operative OTUs revealed 26 OTUs with a relative abundance higher than 0.01%, reflecting a significant difference of the relative abundance between groups (P < 0.05. According to a principal component analysis of the pre-operative samples, the inflammation-related OTUs included Tannerella sp., Porphyromonas sp., Gemella sp., Moraxella sp., Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella intermedia, most of which were enriched in the inflammation group and showed a significant positive correlation. A cross-validated random forest model based on the 26 different OTUs before the operation was able to fit the post-operative status of grafted sites and yielded a good classification result. The sensitivity and specificity of this classified model were 76.9% and 86.7%, respectively. These findings show that the oral microbiota profile before alveolar bone grafting may be related to the risk of post-operative inflammation at grafted

  3. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  4. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  5. Transient Amaurosis and Diplopia After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşi, Onur; Şahin, Onur; Polat, Mehmet Emrah

    2017-10-01

    A 40-year-old female patient was admitted to the authors' oral and maxillofacial clinic for removal of her lower left second molar under local anesthesia. The patient's medical history revealed that she had cardiac arhythmia and hypertension. Inferior alveolar nerve block was achieved using 2 mL of sefacaine (%3 mepivacaine HCL, without epinephrine). The patient complained of loss of vision in her left eye. All procedures were stopped immediately. Within 2 minutes the patient reported diplopia. All of the symptoms disappeared about 5 minutes after initial observation. Follow-up after 1 day revealed no complications. The procedure was then performed uneventfully.

  6. Is acute alveolar dilation an indicator of strangulation homicide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klysner, Anne; Lynnerup, Niels; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    Some cases of suspected homicidal strangulation are difficult to diagnose if the classical injuries of strangulation are few or lacking. The main purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal distension of alveolar airspaces is present in strangulation deaths and whether or not it can be used...... to support this diagnosis. Another purpose was to see how often the gross examination of the lungs was in agreement with the microscopic examination. The material comprised 33 victims of homicidal strangulation above the age of 15 years, autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen between...

  7. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Presenting as Hypervascular Adrenal Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, Manjunath; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S.

    2018-01-01

    Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhancement in early arterial phase (unenhanced Hounsfield unit [HU]-45.3; arterial phase HU-158.2). 18- flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT showed multiple lesions and was confirmed histologically to be due to ASPS. PMID:29398970

  8. The axonal guidance cue semaphorin 3C contributes to alveolar growth and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Vadivel

    Full Text Available Lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants and emphysema lack efficient treatments. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to normal and impaired alveolar growth and repair may identify new therapeutic targets for these lung diseases. Axonal guidance cues are molecules that guide the outgrowth of axons. Amongst these axonal guidance cues, members of the Semaphorin family, in particular Semaphorin 3C (Sema3C, contribute to early lung branching morphogenesis. The role of Sema3C during alveolar growth and repair is unknown. We hypothesized that Sema3C promotes alveolar development and repair. In vivo Sema3C knock down using intranasal siRNA during the postnatal stage of alveolar development in rats caused significant air space enlargement reminiscent of BPD. Sema3C knock down was associated with increased TLR3 expression and lung inflammatory cells influx. In a model of O2-induced arrested alveolar growth in newborn rats mimicking BPD, air space enlargement was associated with decreased lung Sema3C mRNA expression. In vitro, Sema3C treatment preserved alveolar epithelial cell viability in hyperoxia and accelerated alveolar epithelial cell wound healing. Sema3C preserved lung microvascular endothelial cell vascular network formation in vitro under hyperoxic conditions. In vivo, Sema3C treatment of hyperoxic rats decreased lung neutrophil influx and preserved alveolar and lung vascular growth. Sema3C also preserved lung plexinA2 and Sema3C expression, alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and decreased lung apoptosis. In conclusion, the axonal guidance cue Sema3C promotes normal alveolar growth and may be worthwhile further investigating as a potential therapeutic target for lung repair.

  9. Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Pimenta, Giovana B; Souki, Marcelo Q; Franco, Leticia P; Becker, Helena M G; Pinto, Jorge A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report epidemiological data on the prevalence of malocclusion among a group of children, consecutively admitted at a referral mouth breathing otorhinolaryngological (ENT) center. We assessed the association between the severity of the obstruction by adenoids/tonsils hyperplasia or the presence of allergic rhinitis and the prevalence of class II malocclusion, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite. Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out at an Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers. Dental inter-arch relationship and nasal obstructive variables were diagnosed and the appropriate cross-tabulations were done. Four hundred and one patients were included. Mean age was 6 years and 6 months (S.D.: 2 years and 7 months), ranging from 2 to 12 years. All subjects were evaluated by otorhinolaryngologists to confirm mouth breathing. Adenoid/tonsil obstruction was detected in 71.8% of this sample, regardless of the presence of rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis alone was found in 18.7% of the children. Non-obstructive mouth breathing was diagnosed in 9.5% of this sample. Posterior crossbite was detected in almost 30% of the children during primary and mixed dentitions and 48% in permanent dentition. During mixed and permanent dentitions, anterior open bite and class II malocclusion were highly prevalent. More than 50% of the mouth breathing children carried a normal inter-arch relationship in the sagital, transversal and vertical planes. Univariate analysis showed no significant association between the type of the obstruction (adenoids/tonsils obstructive hyperplasia or the presence of allergic rhinitis) and malocclusions (class II, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite). The prevalence of posterior crossbite is higher in mouth breathing children than in the general population. During mixed and permanent dentitions, anterior open bite and class II malocclusion were more likely to be present in mouth breathers. Although more children showed

  10. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  11. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.; Tucker, B.; Jenkins, S.; Robinson, P.; Curtin University, Shenton Park, WA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99 Tc m -Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  12. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  13. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  14. Importance of Physical and Physiological Parameters in Simulated Particle Transport in the Alveolar Zone of the Human Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Ciloglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory and deposition efficiency of micron-sized (1–5 µm particles, inhaled into the pulmonary system, are accurately determined with the aid of a newly developed model and modified simulation techniques. This alveolar model, which has a simple but physiologically appropriate geometry, and the utilized fluid structure interaction (FSI methods permit the precise simulation of tissue wall deformation and particle fluid interactions. The relation between tissue movement and airflow in the alveolated duct is solved by a two-way fluid structure interaction simulation technique, using ANSYS Workbench (Release 16.0, ANSYS INC., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2015. The dynamic transport of particles and their deposition are investigated as a function of aerodynamic particle size, tissue visco-elasticity, tidal breathing period, gravity orientation and particle–fluid interactions. It is found that the fluid flows and streamlines differ between the present flexible model and rigid models, and the two-way coupling particle trajectories vary relative to one-way particle coupling. In addition, the results indicate that modelling the two-way coupling particle system is important because the two-way discrete phase method (DPM approach despite its complexity provides more extensive particle interactions and is more reliable than transport results from the one-way DPM approach. The substantial difference between the results of the two approaches is likely due to particle–fluid interactions, which re-suspend the sediment particles in the airway stream and hence pass from the current generation.

  15. The sup 14 C-urea breath-test for the detection of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surveyor, I; Goodwin, C S; Mullan, B P; Geelhoed, E; Warren, J R; Murray, R N; Waters, T E; Sanderson, C R [Royal Perth Hospital (Australia)

    1989-10-16

    Sixty-three patients who were undergoing endoscopy were studied. The radioactivity in exhaled breath which was sampled within five minutes of {sup 14}C -urea administration was attributed to the presence of urease enzyme in mouth organisms and was discounted. The time-radioactivity curves for breath samples from five to 30 minutes after the administration of {sup 14}C-urea gave an excellent separation between subjects with negative results of the examination of gastric-biopsy samples and patients with microbiological and histological evidence of infection with Campylobacter (C.) pylori. The area under the time-radioactivity curve at between five and 30 minutes after the administration of {sup 14}C-urea in 24 patients with negative microbiological results was 6.9{plus minus}4.4 area units; in 35 of 39 patients with positive microbiological results, this area was greater than 40 area units. Measured against the results of the microbiological examination of gastricbiopsy samples, the sensitivity of breath-testing was 90% and the specificity was 100%. Measured against the results of histological examination for the presence of C. pylori infection, breath-testing had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 93%. A positive breath-test result also correlated well (P=0.0001) with the serological antibody test-result. The role of non-invasive tests - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and {sup 14}C-urea breath-testing - in the management of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease is discussed. We consider that the {sup 14}C-urea breath-test has an important role in the noninvasive confirmation of gastric infection with C. pylori and in the follow-up of patients after treatment. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  17. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  18. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  19. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  20. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    scientific and technical information exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...regulator and MBU- 20/P oxygen mask, was supplied gaseous Aviators’ Breathing Oxygen (ABO). The regulator was operated in various operating modes, at...Generating System (OBOGS) Laboratory, Area B, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. The CRU-73 oxygen regulator was supplied with 50 pounds/square inch of gaseous

  1. Houses need to breathe--right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2004-10-01

    Houses need to breathe, but we can no longer leave the important functions associated with ventilation to be met accidentally. A designed ventilation system must be considered as much a part of a home as its heating system. Windows are a key part of that system because they allow a quick increase in ventilation for unusual events, but neither they nor a leaky building shell can be counted on to provide minimum levels.

  2. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  3. Gravidez em paciente com microlitíase alveolar pulmonar grave Pregnancy in a patient with severe pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Bezerra de Souza Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A microlitíase alveolar pulmonar (MAP é uma doença rara que atinge ambos os pulmões, caracterizada pela presença de pequenos cálculos (fosfato de cálcio nos espaços alveolares. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 26 anos, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado com base nos achados marcantes na radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução. A paciente, gestante de 28 semanas, retornou ao hospital 10 meses após o diagnóstico apresentando insuficiência respiratória hipoxêmica e com distúrbio ventilatório restritivo grave à espirometria. Após completadas 32 semanas e 4 dias de gestação, foi submetida aparto cesariano, com sucesso para mãe e filha. A MAP tem evolução clínica variável. Tem provável caráter autossômico recessivo e associação com história familiar positiva. A etiologia é incerta, e muitos autores especulam que haja um defeito enzimático local responsável pelo acúmulo intra-alveolar de cálcio. Relatos de pacientes com MAP que engravidaram são excepcionais, sendo o presente caso o primeiro descrito no Brasil. O curso dessa doença costuma ser lentamente progressivo, e os pacientes geralmente falecem devido à insuficiência cardiorrespiratória. O presente caso ilustra a necessidade de se oferecer aconselhamento genético e orientações sobre o risco de gravidez às pacientes, especialmente em casos de doença avançada. Atualmente, a única terapia efetiva é o transplante pulmonar.Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease that affects both lungs. It is characterized by the presence of small calculi (calcium phosphate within the alveolar spaces. We report the case of a 26-year-old female whose diagnosis was based on characteristic findings on chest X-rays and high-resolution computed tomography scans. The patient, 28 weeks pregnant, was rehospitalized 10 months after the diagnosis, presenting hypoxemic acute respiratory failure and severe restrictive

  4. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  5. Breathing is different in the quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Bauch, Sebastian; Balzer, Karsten; Henning, Christian; Hochstuhl, David

    2009-11-01

    Interacting classicle particles in a harmonic trap are known to possess a radial collective oscillation -- the breathing mode (BM). In case of Coulomb interaction its frequency is universal -- it is independent of the particle number and system dimensionality [1]. Here we study strongly correlated quantum systems. We report a qualitatively different breathing behavior: a quantum system has two BMs one of which is universal whereas the frequency of the other varies with system dimensionality, the particle spin and the strength of the pair interaction. The results are based on exact solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two particles and on time-dependent many-body results for larger particle numbers. Finally, we discuss experimental ways to excite and measure the breathing frequencies which should give direct access to key properties of trapped particles, including their many-body effects [2]. [4pt] [1] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045002 (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Bauch, K. Balzer, C. Henning, and M. Bonitz, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., arXiv:0903.1993

  6. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan, E-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca [Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada and Medical Physics Program – Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette [Imaging Unit – Integrative Oncology Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the

  7. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  8. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  9. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: origin and prognostic implications of molecular findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; López-Martínez, Briceida; Retana-Contreras, Carmen; Perezpeña-Diazconti, Mario

    We present the case of a 2-year-old male patient with a facial tumor partially treated with chemotherapy before his admission to our institution. The tumor involved from the frontal region to the maxillary floor, the orbit, and the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. The histopathological diagnosis revealed a stage IV alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with infiltration to bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. He was managed with four cycles of adriamycin, actinomycin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine; cisplatin and irinotecan were added to the last cycle. The tumor had a 50% size reduction, but the patient died after a neutropenia and fever episode. The aggressive behavior of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma has been associated with the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins resulting from chromosomal translocations, particularly t(2;13) (q35;q14) PAX3/FOXO1, and t(1;13) (p36;q14) PAX7/FOXO1 which were present in this patient. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: computed tomography features at diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berteloot, Laureline; Emond-Gonsard, Sophie; Mamou-Mani, Tania; Lambot, Karen; Grevent, David; Taam, Rola Abou; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Elie, Caroline; Delacourt, Christophe; Blic, Jacques de; Brunelle, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of periodic acid-schiff-positive lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli. Early diagnosis allows setting up of therapeutic lung lavages, which reduces the need for oxygen supplementation and weight gain. To provide a description of radiological features by CT at the onset of primary PAP in children. The clinical and radiological data of 24 patients, including 16 boys and 8 girls (median age: 12 months), diagnosed with a primary form of PAP between April 1992 and May 2012 in a tertiary referral hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. CT images were examined for the presence of alveolar and interstitial elementary lesions. Correlation between clinical and radiological findings was assessed. The types of elementary lesions detected were: ground-glass opacities (n = 24), intralobular lines (n = 24), thickened interlobular septa (n = 22), thickened fissures (n = 21), airspace consolidation (n = 16), hyperinflation (n = 16), cystic lesions (n = 2) and micronodules (n = 1). A crazy-paving pattern was found in 92% of cases. Consolidation and hyperinflation were especially detected in younger children (median age, 8 months, P < 0.01). A density dependent gradient was found. The distribution of the lesions was symmetrical. There was no correlation between radiological and clinical data of severity of the disease. CT findings are suggestive of diagnosis of PAP in immunocompetent children with chronic respiratory failure. (orig.)

  12. Fenspiride and membrane transduction signals in rat alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féray, J C; Mohammadi, K; Taouil, K; Brunet, J; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P

    1997-07-15

    Fenspiride inhibits the calcium signal evoked by the inflammatory peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in peritoneal macrophages, but at concentrations (approximately 1 mM) far above the therapeutic range (approximately 1 microM). Here, in rat alveolar macrophages, high fenspiride concentrations (1 mM) were required to inhibit the calcium signals evoked by the calcium agonist Bay K8644 or by ionomycin. Moreover, fenspiride (1 mM) was a poor inhibitor of the cell membrane depolarization induced by gramicidine D. By contrast, fenspiride blocked Na+-H+ antiport activation by (i) fMLP with an IC50 = 3.1 +/- 1.9 nM and (ii) PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) with an IC50 = 9.2 +/- 3.1 nM. Finally, protein kinase C (PKC) activity of macrophage homogenate was not significantly modified by 10 or 100 microM fenspiride (at 100 microM: 2.57 +/- 1.60 vs. 2.80 +/- 1.71 pmol/10(6) cells/min). In conclusion, fenspiride inhibits fMLP- and PMA-induced pH signals in rat alveolar macrophages, probably by acting distally on the PKC transduction signal. This pH antagonistic action may be relevant for the antiinflammatory mechanism of fenspiride and requires further investigation.

  13. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  14. Imaging alveolar-capillary permeability in experimental respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, S.; Wagner, H.N.; Swift, D.L.; Proctor, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary edema can be induced in dogs by low doses of oleic acid (20 μl/kg) given intravenously, simulating the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar-capillary permeability was measured in dogs, using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and sup(99m)Tc-albumin fine aerosols produced by a newly designed separator. This separator eliminates the effect of mucociliary movement on aerosol clearance. The small molecular-laden aerosol particles were cleared in the order: sup(99m)-TcO 4 - , sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, and sup(99m)Tc-disofenin; the Tsub(1/2) of lung clearance correlated with molecular sizes. Experimental ARDS increased the lung clearance of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. Lung clearance of large molecule (sup(99m)Tc-albumin) laden aerosol particles was not accelerated in the ARDS model. Inhalation with fine aerosols revealed increased alveolar permeability in the ARDS model without any change of cardiac output

  15. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  16. Ovariectomy delays alveolar wound healing after molar extractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Michele Conceição; Zecchin, Karina Gottardello; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Jorge, Jacks

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the morphological effects of the absence of estrogen on alveolar wound healing of young female rats after tooth extraction. A total of 60 4- to 6-week-old female rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operations. Three weeks later, the first mandibular molars were extracted. Subsequently, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days after tooth extraction. The mandibles were removed, and serial transversal sections of mesial alveolus of the first mandibular molars were obtained for histometric analysis. OVX sockets showed significant increases in fibroblasts and collagen content 3 and 5 days after the extractions, followed by significant decreases in these parameters in the subsequent periods. In accordance with the decreased collagen content in the latest period of healing, new bone formation was significantly reduced in the OVX animals. These findings suggest that the initial molecular changes observed in the absence of estrogen lead to delayed alveolar wound healing.

  17. Advances in multidisciplinary individualized treatment of refractory hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABUDUAINI Abulizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously threatens the population in western China and compromises patients′ quality of life. With the continuous improvement in radical resection rate in recent years, late-stage HAE patients that were incurable in the past now have the opportunity for radical resection. However, patients who are not suitable candidates for radical resection still suffer from various complications and poor quality of life. Therefore, HAE is still considered a refractory and complex disease. The simple empirical treatment model provided by traditional professional discussion is unable to satisfy the treatment of advanced refractory HAE as it is unable to integrate specialized, standardized clinical skills for diagnosis and treatment. Multidisciplinary individualized treatment (MDT organically integrates the advantages of the available treatment into a reasonable individualized comprehensive treatment regimen. This review summarizes the advances in MDT for HAE as the best option to increase long-term survival, and suggests MDT as the first-line treatment for late-stage refractory hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

  18. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: computed tomography features at diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berteloot, Laureline; Emond-Gonsard, Sophie; Mamou-Mani, Tania; Lambot, Karen; Grevent, David [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Taam, Rola Abou; Le Bourgeois, Muriel [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Allergology, Paris (France); Elie, Caroline [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Biostatistics, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Paris (France); Delacourt, Christophe; Blic, Jacques de [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Allergology, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Paris (France); Brunelle, Francis [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Paris (France)

    2014-07-15

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of periodic acid-schiff-positive lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli. Early diagnosis allows setting up of therapeutic lung lavages, which reduces the need for oxygen supplementation and weight gain. To provide a description of radiological features by CT at the onset of primary PAP in children. The clinical and radiological data of 24 patients, including 16 boys and 8 girls (median age: 12 months), diagnosed with a primary form of PAP between April 1992 and May 2012 in a tertiary referral hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. CT images were examined for the presence of alveolar and interstitial elementary lesions. Correlation between clinical and radiological findings was assessed. The types of elementary lesions detected were: ground-glass opacities (n = 24), intralobular lines (n = 24), thickened interlobular septa (n = 22), thickened fissures (n = 21), airspace consolidation (n = 16), hyperinflation (n = 16), cystic lesions (n = 2) and micronodules (n = 1). A crazy-paving pattern was found in 92% of cases. Consolidation and hyperinflation were especially detected in younger children (median age, 8 months, P < 0.01). A density dependent gradient was found. The distribution of the lesions was symmetrical. There was no correlation between radiological and clinical data of severity of the disease. CT findings are suggestive of diagnosis of PAP in immunocompetent children with chronic respiratory failure. (orig.)

  19. Alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cohort review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C; Mendonça, T; Farinha, F; Correia, J; Marinho, A; Almeida, I; Vasconcelos, C

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but potentially catastrophic manifestation with a high mortality. Among rheumatologic diseases, it occurs most frequently in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic vasculitis. Despite new diagnostic tools and therapies, it remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this work was to characterize the SLE patients with an episode of alveolar hemorrhage followed in our Clinical Immunology Unit (CIU). A retrospective chart review was carried out for all patients with SLE followed in CIU between 1984 and the end of 2013. We reviewed the following data: demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data, radiologic investigations, histologic studies, treatment, and outcome. We identified 10 episodes of DAH, corresponding to seven patients, all female. These represent 1.6% of SLE patients followed in our Unit. The age at DAH attack was 42.75 ± 18.9 years. The average time between diagnosis of SLE and the onset of DAH was 7.1 years. Three patients had the diagnosis of SLE and the DAH attack at the same time. Disease activity according to SLEDAI was high, ranging from 15 to 41. All patients were treated with methylprednisolone, 37.5% cyclophosphamide and 28.6% plasmapheresis. The overall mortality rate was 28.6%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Regional alveolar partial pressure of oxygen measurement with parallel accelerated hyperpolarized gas MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlecek, Stephen; Hamedani, Hooman; Xu, Yinan; Emami, Kiarash; Xin, Yi; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Alveolar oxygen tension (Pao2) is sensitive to the interplay between local ventilation, perfusion, and alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, and thus reflects physiologic heterogeneity of healthy and diseased lung function. Several hyperpolarized helium ((3)He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Pao2 mapping techniques have been reported, and considerable effort has gone toward reducing Pao2 measurement error. We present a new Pao2 imaging scheme, using parallel accelerated MRI, which significantly reduces measurement error. The proposed Pao2 mapping scheme was computer-simulated and was tested on both phantoms and five human subjects. Where possible, correspondence between actual local oxygen concentration and derived values was assessed for both bias (deviation from the true mean) and imaging artifact (deviation from the true spatial distribution). Phantom experiments demonstrated a significantly reduced coefficient of variation using the accelerated scheme. Simulation results support this observation and predict that correspondence between the true spatial distribution and the derived map is always superior using the accelerated scheme, although the improvement becomes less significant as the signal-to-noise ratio increases. Paired measurements in the human subjects, comparing accelerated and fully sampled schemes, show a reduced Pao2 distribution width for 41 of 46 slices. In contrast to proton MRI, acceleration of hyperpolarized imaging has no signal-to-noise penalty; its use in Pao2 measurement is therefore always beneficial. Comparison of multiple schemes shows that the benefit arises from a longer time-base during which oxygen-induced depolarization modifies the signal strength. Demonstration of the accelerated technique in human studies shows the feasibility of the method and suggests that measurement error is reduced here as well, particularly at low signal-to-noise levels. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of sleep breathing complaints reported by treatment-seeking chronic insomnia disorder patients on presentation to a sleep medical center: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have examined the co-morbidity between insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting. This study evaluated treatment-seeking insomnia patients and their self-report of sleep breathing complaints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 1,035 consecutive treatment-seeking, chronic insomnia patients who reported insomnia as their primary problem upon seeking care at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Measurements included the insomnia severity index, standard subjective sleep measures as well as rankings, attributions, and self-reports about sleep breathing disorders, problems, and symptoms. A total of 1,035 adult, treatment-seeking insomnia patients indicated insomnia interfered with daytime functioning, and their average insomnia severity was in the range of a clinically relevant problem: total sleep time (5.50 h, SD = 1.60), sleep efficiency (71.05 %, SD = 18.26), wake time after sleep onset (120.70 min, SD = 92.56), and an insomnia severity index (18.81, SD = 5.09). Of these 1,035 insomnia patients, 42 % also ranked a sleep breathing disorder among their list of reasons for seeking treatment, another 13 % revealed a concern about a sleep breathing problem, and another 26 % reported awareness of sleep breathing symptoms. Only 19 % of this clinical insomnia sample reported no awareness or concerns about sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. A greater proportion of men than women reported significantly more sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. Sleep breathing complaints were extremely common among a large sample of treatment-seeking, self-identified, adult chronic insomnia patients. Prospective prevalence research is needed to corroborate or revise these findings, and polysomnography should be considered in appropriate cohorts to determine the clinical relevance of treatment-seeking chronic insomnia patients' sleep breathing complaints.

  2. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    Full Text Available Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p0.05. In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  3. Failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block among dental students and interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHindi, Maryam; Rashed, Bayan; AlOtaibi, Noura

    2016-01-01

    To report the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) among dental students and interns, causes of failure, investigate awareness of different IANB techniques, and to report IANB-associated complications.   A 3-page questionnaire containing 13 questions was distributed to a random sample of 350 third to fifth years students and interns at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on January 2011. It included demographic questions (age, gender, and academic level) and questions on IANB failure frequency and reasons, actions taken to overcome the failure, and awareness of different anesthetic techniques, supplementary techniques, and complications.   Of the 250 distributed questionnaires, 238 were returned (68% response rate). Most (85.7%) of surveyed sample had experienced IANB failure once or twice. The participants attributed the failures most commonly (66.45%) to anatomical variations. The most common alternative technique used was intraligamentary injection (57.1%), although 42.8% of the sample never attempted any alternatives. Large portion of the samples stated that they either lacked both knowledge of and training for other techniques (44.9%), or that they had knowledge of them but not enough training to perform them (45.8%).  To  decrease IANB failure rates for dental students and interns, knowledge of landmarks, anatomical variation and their training in alternatives to IANB, such as the Gow-Gates and Akinosi techniques, both theoretically and clinically in the dental curriculum should be enhanced.

  4. Failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block among dental students and interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam AlHindi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB among dental students and interns, causes of failure, investigate awareness of different IANB techniques, and to report IANB-associated complications. Methods: A 3-page questionnaire containing 13 questions was distributed to a random sample of 350 third to fifth years students and interns at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on January 2011. It included demographic questions (age, gender, and academic level and questions on IANB failure frequency and reasons, actions taken to overcome the failure, and awareness of different anesthetic techniques, supplementary techniques, and complications. Results: Of the 250 distributed questionnaires, 238 were returned (68% response rate. Most (85.7% of surveyed sample had experienced IANB failure once or twice. The participants attributed the failures most commonly (66.45% to anatomical variations. The most common alternative technique used was intraligamentary injection (57.1%, although 42.8% of the sample never attempted any alternatives. Large portion of the samples stated that they either lacked both knowledge of and training for other techniques (44.9%, or that they had knowledge of them but not enough training to perform them (45.8%. Conclusion: To decrease IANB failure rates for dental students and interns, knowledge of landmarks, anatomical variation and their training in alternatives to IANB, such as the Gow-Gates and Akinosi techniques, both theoretically and clinically in the dental curriculum should be enhanced.

  5. Air breathing and aquatic gas exchange during hypoxia in armoured catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Matey, Victoria; Mendoza, Julie-Anne; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-01-01

    Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O 2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O 2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O 2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O 2 supply and utilization. Fish were instrumented with opercular catheters to measure the O 2 tension (PO 2 ) of expired water, and air breathing and aquatic respiration were measured during progressive stepwise hypoxia in the water. Armoured catfish exhibited relatively low rates of O 2 consumption and gill ventilation, and gill ventilation increased in hypoxia due primarily to increases in ventilatory stroke volume. Armoured catfish began air breathing at a water PO 2 of 2.5 kPa, and both air-breathing frequency and hypoxia tolerance (as reflected by PO 2 at loss of equilibrium, LOE) was greater in individuals with a larger body mass. Branchial O 2 loss, as reflected by higher PO 2 in expired than in inspired water, was observed in a minority (4/11) of individuals as water PO 2 approached that at LOE. Armoured catfish also exhibited a gill morphology characterized by short filaments bearing short fused lamellae, large interlamellar cell masses, low surface area, and a thick epithelium that increased water-to-blood diffusion distance. Armoured catfish had a relatively low blood-O 2 binding affinity when sampled in normoxia (P 50 of 3.1 kPa at pH 7.4), but were able to rapidly increase binding affinity during progressive hypoxia exposure (to a P 50 of 1.8 kPa). Armoured catfish also had low activities of several metabolic enzymes in white muscle, liver, and brain. Therefore, low rates of metabolism and gill ventilation, and a reduction in branchial gas

  6. CONDUCTO ALVEOLAR INFERIOR. CORRELATO ANATOMO-IMAGENOLOGICO E IMPLICANCIA EN LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS QUIRURGICOS DE MANDIBULA. Inferior alveolar canal. Imaginological anatomical correlation and implication in jaw surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés C Limardo

    2016-03-01

    descriptive observational study with a sample of 44 dry hemijaws and 100 CT scans of patients. Measur-ements of the mandibular foramen and mental foramen with respect to jaw edges were made. Cuts in the branch and body were made with their respective measurements. Cone Beam Computed Tomography 3D (CBCT 3D of 100 patients were processed by the Compudent Navigator 3D® program. The use of this program permited the same measurements done in the cadaveric jaws and the reconstruction of the duct. In a second stage we performed a correlation between the anatomic morphometric values compared with imaging studies (CT Dental Scan with 3D reconstruction Results: They were shown in tables with different variables. Discussion: The classic texts of Anatomy and surgery books describe in detail the pathway and relations of the duct, and present morphometric data but not in local population. We may conclude that it is possible to avoid injuries of the inferior alveolar nerve during jaw surgery by considering the anatomy and its correlation with images.

  7. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  8. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    to feeding (15.5 h after the previous meal) on the day when the 5 h sample was taken. In the breath test four pregnant sows were placed in respiration chambers and the 13C marker was added in the morning meal and air samples were collected up to 18 h at the outlet from the chambers and detected on an infra...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  9. Hormonal regulation of alveolarization: structure-function correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godinez Marye H

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dexamethasone (Dex limits and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA promotes alveolarization. While structural changes resulting from such hormonal exposures are known, their functional consequences are unclear. Methods Neonatal rats were treated with Dex and/or RA during the first two weeks of life or were given RA after previous exposure to Dex. Morphology was assessed by light microscopy and radial alveolar counts. Function was evaluated by plethysmography at d13, pressure volume curves at d30, and exercise swim testing and arterial blood gases at both d15 and d30. Results Dex-treated animals had simplified lung architecture without secondary septation. Animals given RA alone had smaller, more numerous alveoli. Concomitant treatment with Dex + RA prevented the Dex-induced changes in septation. While the results of exposure to Dex + RA were sustained, the effects of RA alone were reversed two weeks after treatment was stopped. At d13, Dex-treated animals had increased lung volume, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. On d15, both RA- and Dex-treated animals had hypercarbia and low arterial pH. By d30, the RA-treated animals resolved this respiratory acidosis, but Dex-treated animals continued to demonstrate blood gas and lung volume abnormalities. Concomitant RA treatment improved respiratory acidosis, but failed to normalize Dex-induced changes in pulmonary function and lung volumes. No differences in exercise tolerance were noted at either d15 or d30. RA treatment after the period of alveolarization also corrected the effects of earlier Dex exposure, but the structural changes due to RA alone were again lost two weeks after treatment. Conclusion We conclude that both RA- and corticosteroid-treatments are associated with respiratory acidosis at d15. While RA alone-induced changes in structure andrespiratory function are reversed, Dex-treated animals continue to demonstrate increased respiratory rate, minute

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  11. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  12. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  13. Determining total hemoglobin mass by means of {sup 13}CO breath analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Marcus; Hering, Peter [Institut fuer Lasermedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our investigations is the development of a non-invasive method for the determination of the total hemoglobin mass in the human body by means of Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy (CALOS). The mentioned CALOS system utilizes a CO gas laser in the mid infrared region around 5{mu}m. This system allows isotopologue selective online measurements of {sup 13}CO with a sensitivity of 7 ppb.Hz{sup -1/2}. {sup 13}CO is a non radioactive isotopologue occurring in a ratio of about 1.1 % of the natural CO composition. CO is commonly known as a highly toxic gas but it is also endogenously produced during heme degradation. About 80 % of this CO is exhaled yielding to CO concentrations between 1 ppm to 4 ppm in healthy humans. Transportation of CO through the body is established by hemoglobin which has a high affinity towards CO. Because of this fact inhaled CO is taken up by the blood until equilibrium between the alveolar air and the blood is reached. By determining the exhaled CO concentrations before and after the inhalation of a certain amount of CO a measure for the t-Hb mass can be calculated. The enormous advantage of the isotopologue measurement is the very small amount of {sup 13}CO which can be used for harmless CO inhalation. All data necessary for calculating the t-Hb mass are obtained from breath measurements making this method non invasive.

  14. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  15. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  16. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  17. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  18. Tunable Quantum Spin Liquidity in the 1 /6 th-Filled Breathing Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, A.; Sinclair, R.; Verrier, A.; Ziat, D.; Zhou, H. D.; Sun, X. F.; Quilliam, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements on a series of materials, Li2 In1 -xScx Mo3 O8 , that can be described as a 1 /6 th-filled breathing kagome lattice. Substituting Sc for In generates chemical pressure which alters the breathing parameter nonmonotonically. Muon spin rotation experiments show that this chemical pressure tunes the system from antiferromagnetic long range order to a quantum spin liquid phase. A strong correlation with the breathing parameter implies that it is the dominant parameter controlling the level of magnetic frustration, with increased kagome symmetry generating the quantum spin liquid phase. Magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that this is related to distinct types of charge order induced by changes in lattice symmetry, in line with the theory of Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245134 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245134]. The specific heat for samples at intermediate Sc concentration, which have the minimum breathing parameter, show consistency with the predicted U (1 ) quantum spin liquid.

  19. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  20. Alveolar Molding Effect in Infants With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Hee; Park, Eun Woo; Chae, Hwa Sung; Kwon, Soon Man; Jung, Hoi-In; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measurements for the alveolar molding effect in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The sample consisted of 23 unilateral cleft lip and palate infants treated with nasoalveolar molding (NAM) appliance. Dental models were fabricated at initial visit (T0; mean age, 23.5 days after birth) and after alveolar molding therapy (T1; mean duration, 83 days). For 3D measurement, virtual models were constructed using a laser scanner and 3D software. For 2D measurement, 1:1 ratio photograph images of dental models were scanned by a scanner. After setting of common reference points and lines for 2D and 3D measurements, 7 linear and 5 angular variables were measured at the T0 and T1 stages, respectively. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Bland-Altman analysis were performed for statistical analysis. The alveolar molding effect of the maxilla following NAM treatment was inward bending of the anterior part of greater segment, forward growth of the lesser segment, and decrease in the cleft gap in the greater segment and lesser segment. Two angular variables showed difference in statistical interpretation of the change by NAM treatment between 2D and 3D measurements (ΔACG-BG-PG and ΔACL-BL-PL). However, Bland-Altman analysis did not exhibit significant difference in the amounts of change in these variables between the 2 measurements. These results suggest that the data from 2D measurement could be reliably used in conjunction with that from 3D measurement.

  1. Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nogueira Fracon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2 and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether paracetamol, ketorolac and etoricoxib can hinder alveolar bone formation, taking the filling of rat extraction socket with newly formed bone as experimental model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The degree of new bone formation inside the alveolar socket was estimated two weeks after tooth extraction by a differential point-counting method, using an optical microscopy with a digital camera for image capture and histometry software. Differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA after confirming a normal distribution of sample data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Histometric results confirmed that none of the tested drugs had a detrimental effect in the volume fraction of bone trabeculae formed inside the alveolar socket.

  2. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  3. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  4. The DSA findings and interventional therapy of hepatic alveolar echinococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Weixin; Xiao Xiangsheng; Chen Peng; Ma Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the DSA findings of hepatic alveolar echinococcus (HAE) and evaluate the feasibility of the interventional therapy. Methods: Eight patients with HAE were all examined by DSA, CT and lab test. Three of them were performed the transcatheter arterial embolization by iodized oil. All of them were confirmed by surgical operation and followed-up for three months. Results: The DSA findings of HAE included hepatic arterial curling and enlargement with hypertrophied circled encircling as typical 'handed ball'. Eight cases presented the ring stain during the capillary stage. After embolization, the retention of iodized oil was revealed by DSA in 3 cases. CT three months later showed fine iodized oil retention and the enlarged necrosis. Ischemic necrosis around the lesion and the cut margins were clearly seen in operation biopsy. Conclusions: HAE possesses special DSA findings and interventional therapy is a new therapeutic method of choice. (authors)

  5. Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: correlative US and CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, D.; Weiler, S.; Rohmer, P.; Lasseque, A.; Deschamps, J.P.; Vuitton, D.; Miguet, J.P.; Weill, F.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 24 cases of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) due to Echinococcus multilocularis was assessed by US and CT. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by immunologic and histologic study. Both US and CT patterns of HAE showed changes of liver morphology in both contour and size. Abnormal areas of parenchyma were nodular or in fields, irregular, heterogeneous, and basically echogenic. Clustered microcalcifications were encountered within the abnormal parenchymal fields in 50% of cases, and necrotized zones occurred in 40% of cases. Dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts was commonly seen, especially on US; hilar involvement was frequent. Follow-up by both techniques can display increases of primary lesions, occurrence of new foci, and local or regional extensions. Precise evaluations of the lesions arising from correlative use of US and CT permits adequate therapeutic management.

  6. Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: correlative US and CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, D.; Weiler, S.; Rohmer, P.; Lasseque, A.; Deschamps, J.P.; Vuitton, D.; Miguet, J.P.; Weill, F.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 24 cases of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) due to Echinococcus multilocularis was assessed by US and CT. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by immunologic and histologic study. Both US and CT patterns of HAE showed changes of liver morphology in both contour and size. Abnormal areas of parenchyma were nodular or in fields, irregular, heterogeneous, and basically echogenic. Clustered microcalcifications were encountered within the abnormal parenchymal fields in 50% of cases, and necrotized zones occurred in 40% of cases. Dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts was commonly seen, especially on US; hilar involvement was frequent. Follow-up by both techniques can display increases of primary lesions, occurrence of new foci, and local or regional extensions. Precise evaluations of the lesions arising from correlative use of US and CT permits adequate therapeutic management

  7. Research advances in surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimaiti Wasili

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE is a parasitic disease characterized by invasive growth. Major treatment methods include pharmacotherapy and surgical treatment, and surgical treatment mainly includes radical hepatectomy and palliative surgery. Radical hepatectomy is the first choice, and palliative surgery is mainly used to alleviate disease conditions and complications. Pharmacotherapy also plays an important role in the delay and control of HAE. In recent years, autologous liver transplantation has been used in the treatment of HAE and has become an effective therapy for end-stage HAE patients who cannot be cured by routine surgery. This article introduces the indications and advantages/disadvantages of radical hepatectomy and palliative surgery, as well as the experience in the application of multidisciplinary treatment, the concept of fast-track surgery, and autologous liver transplantation in the treatment of HAE patients, in order to provide a reference for the treatment of HAE.

  8. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creticus P. Marak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH.

  9. Anesthetic Efficacy of Bupivacaine Solutions in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Maria Cristina; Ranali, José; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; de Oliveira, Patrícia Cristine; Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria Bovi; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2 bupivacaine solutions. Twenty-two volunteers randomly received in a crossover, double-blinded manner 2 inferior alveolar nerve blocks with 1.8 mL of racemic bupivacaine and a mixture of 75% levobupivacaine and 25% dextrobupivacaine, both 0.5% and with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine. Before and after the injection, the first mandibular pre-molar was evaluated every 2 minutes until no response to the maximal output (80 reading) of the pulp tester and then again every 20 minutes. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired test and the paired t test. No differences were found between the solutions for onset and duration of pulpal anesthesia and duration of soft tissue anesthesia (P > .05). It was concluded that the solutions have similar anesthetic efficacy. PMID:16596912

  10. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  12. Ontogeny of pulmonary alveolar epithelial markers of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Brady, M F; Brody, J S

    1990-02-01

    We studied differentiation of the pulmonary epithelium in the periphery of fetal rat lung in vivo and in vitro by comparing the ontogeny of cell-surface glycoconjugates with that of surfactant phospholipids. Apical surface binding of the lectin Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) and expression of a 200-kDa MPA-binding glycoprotein (MPA-gp200) was evident at 20 days gestation in type 2 cells, but did not correlate with ultrastructural features of type 2 cell differentiation. Epithelial cells isolated from peripheral lung of 18-day gestation fetal rats displayed hormone-sensitive surfactant synthesis prior to the hormone-insensitive expression of MPA-gp200. Expression of MPA-gp200 occurred in association with the appearance of many new apical surface proteins suggesting a hormone-independent process of polar membrane differentiation. Thus membrane and secretory differentiation are discordant and can be dissociated. In vivo binding of Ricinus communis 1 agglutinin (RCA1), an apical marker of the differentiated alveolar type 1 cell occurred in undifferentiated peripheral lung epithelial cells as early as 18 days gestation, disappeared from differentiating type 2 cells and appeared in differentiated type 1 cells. Both undifferentiated fetal epithelial cells at 18 days gestation and fully differentiated type 1 cells express multiple glycoproteins with terminal beta-linked galactose residues which bind RCA1. Some of these RCA1-binding glycoproteins appear to be similar. These observations suggest that alveolar epithelial type 1 cells may derive directly from undifferentiated peripheral lung epithelial cells as well as from fully differentiated type 2 cells. In addition, terminal differentiation of fetal lung peripheral epithelium into type 1 and type 2 cells may involve repression as well as induction of differentiation-related genes.

  13. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  14. Diagnosis of alveolar and root fractures: an in vitro study comparing CBCT imaging with periapical radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange KOBAYASHI-VELASCO

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare periapical radiograph (PR and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT in the diagnosis of alveolar and root fractures. Material and Methods Sixty incisor teeth (20 higid and 40 with root fracture from dogs were inserted in 60 anterior alveolar sockets (40 higid and 20 with alveolar fracture of 15 macerated canine maxillae. Each fractured socket had a root fractured tooth inserted in it. Afterwards, each maxilla was submitted to PR in two different vertical angulation incidences, and to CBCT imaging with a small field of view (FOV and high-definition protocol. Images were randomized and posteriorly analyzed by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists two times, with a two-week interval between observations. Results Sensitivity and specificity values were good for root fractures for PR and CBCT. For alveolar fractures, sensitivity ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 for PR and from 0.50 to 0.65 for CBCT. Specificity for alveolar fractures showed lower results than for root fractures for PR and CBCT. Areas under the ROC curve showed good results for both PR and CBCT for root fractures. However, results were fair for both PR and CBCT for alveolar fractures. When submitted to repeated measures ANOVA tests, there was a statistically significant difference between PR and CBCT for root fractures. Root fracture intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.93, and alveolar fracture intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.30 to 0.57. Interobserver agreement results were substantial for root fractures and poor/fair for alveolar fractures (0.11 for PR and 0.30 for CBCT. Conclusion Periapical radiograph with two different vertical angulations may be considered an accurate method to detect root fractures. However, PR showed poorer results than CBCT for the diagnosis of alveolar fractures. When no fractures are diagnosed in PR and the patient describes pain symptoms, the subsequent exam of choice is CBCT.

  15. Alveolar bone loss and mineralization in the pig with experimental periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandee Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To address how experimental periodontal disease affects alveolar bone mass and mineral apposition in a young pig model. Materials and methods: Seven three-month-old pigs were periodically inoculated with 4 types of periodontal bacteria, along with a ligature around the last maxillary deciduous molar for 8 weeks to induce periodontal disease (PG. Eight same-aged pigs served as the control (CG. Segmentations of 3D cone-beam CT images were performed to quantify volumes of the total alveolar bone, alveolar ridge, and all roots of the target molar. Calcein and alizarin were administered for labeling mineral apposition before euthanasia. The harvested molar blocks were sectioned and examined under epifluorescence. The inter-label distance between the two vital markers at regional bone surfaces were measured and mineral apposition rate (MAR was calculated. Results: A significant reduction of total alveolar bone volume was seen in PG with the major loss at the alveolar ridge. MAR was significantly higher at the root furcation region than those at both buccal and palatal ridges in CG. Compared with CG, PG animals showed more interrupted labeled bands with significantly lower MAR at the furcation region. MARs were positively associated with both the volumes of total alveolar bone and ridge in CG, but only with the total alveolar bone in PG. Conclusions: In young growing pigs, mineral apposition is region specific. The experimental periodontal disease not only leads to alveolar bone loss, but also perturbs mineral apposition for new bone formation, thus impairing the homeostasis of alveolar bone remodeling. Keyword: Dentistry

  16. Understanding the Potential of WO3 Based Sensors for Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerz, Anna; Weimar, Udo; Barsan, Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide is the second most commonly used semiconducting metal oxide in gas sensors. Semiconducting metal oxide (SMOX)-based sensors are small, robust, inexpensive and sensitive, making them highly attractive for handheld portable medical diagnostic detectors. WO3 is reported to show high sensor responses to several biomarkers found in breath, e.g., acetone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, toluene, and nitric oxide. Modern material science allows WO3 samples to be tailored to address certain sensing needs. Utilizing recent advances in breath sampling it will be possible in the future to test WO3-based sensors in application conditions and to compare the sensing results to those obtained using more expensive analytical methods. PMID:27801881

  17. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  18. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  19. A preliminary study of the pathogenesis of malnutrition in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic echinococcosis has become a major threat to human health. Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infection has the features of slow and insidious onset, a high probability of surgery, slow postoperative recovery, and many complications and thus does great harm to humans. Most of the patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis also have varying degrees of malnutrition on admission, which is closely associated with surgical tolerance, postoperative rehabilitation, and the development of complications. However, the pathogenesis of malnutrition in patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis remains unknown. This article elaborates on possible mechanisms and points out that malnutrition in such patients is a result of various factors and complex mechanisms.

  20. Ozone Treatment of Alveolar Bone in the Cape Chacma Baboon Does Not Enhance Healing Following Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A.; Kotze, Harry F.

    2013-01-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5–4 % O3), ...

  1. Micropreconcentrator in LTCC Technology with Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Acetone in Healthy and Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rydosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis has long been recognized as a potentially attractive method for the diagnosis of several diseases. The main advantage over other diagnostic methods such as blood or urine analysis is that breath analysis is fully non-invasive, comfortable for patients and breath samples can be easily obtained. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the diagnosing and monitoring of diabetes. It is, therefore, essential, to firstly determine a relationship between exhaled biomarker concentration and glucose in blood as well as to compare the results with the results obtained from non-diabetic subjects. Concentrations of molecules which are biomarkers of diseases’ states, or early indicators of disease should be well documented, i.e., the variations of abnormal concentrations of breath biomarkers with age, gender and ethnic issues need to be verified. Furthermore, based on performed measurements it is rather obvious that analysis of exhaled acetone as a single biomarker of diabetes is unrealistic. In this paper, the author presents results of his research conducted on samples of breath gas from eleven healthy volunteers (HV and fourteen type- 1 diabetic patients (T1DM which were collected in 1-l SKC breath bags. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK coupled with a micropreconcentrator in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic. However, as according to recent studies the level of acetone varies to a significant extent for each blood glucose concentration of single individuals, a direct and absolute relationship between blood glucose and acetone has not been proved. Nevertheless, basing on the research results acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.11 ppmv, while its average concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.83 ppmv.

  2. Mechanisms underlying the redistribution of particles among the lung's alveolar macrophages during alveolar phase clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B.E.; Oritz, J.B.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Sebring, R.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Oberdorster, G. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain information about the particle redistribution phenomenon following the deposition of inhaled particles, as well as to obtain information about some of the mechanisms that may be operable in the redistribution of particles, lavaged lung free cell analyses and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses of lung tissue and were performed using lungs from rats after they were subchronically exposed to aerosolized dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). TEM analyses indicated that the in situ autolysis of particle-containing Alveolar Macropages (AM) is one important mechanism involved in the redistribution of particles. Evidence was also obtained that indicated that the engulfment of one particle-containing phagocyte by another phagocyte also occurs. Another prominent mechanism of the particle redistribution phenomenon may be the in situ proliferation of particle-laden AM. We used the macrophage cell line J774A.1 as a surrogate for AM to investigate how different particulate loads in macrophages may affect their abilities to proliferate. These in vitro investigations indicated that the normal rate of proliferation of macrophages is essentially unaffected by the containment of relatively high particulate burdens. Overall, the results of our investigations suggest that in situ autolysis of particle-containing AM and the rephagocytosis of freed particles by other phagocytes, the phagocytosis of effete and disintegrating particle-containing phagocytes by other AM, and the in situ division of particle-containing AM are likely mechanisms that underlie the post-depositional redistribution of particles among the lung's AM during alveolar phase clearance. 19 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Morphological analysis of alveolar bone of anterior mandible in high-angle skeletal class II and class III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Jiang, J H

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the difference of features of alveolar bone support under lower anterior teeth between high-angle adults with skeletal class II malocclusions and high-angle adults presenting skeletal class III malocclusions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients who had taken the images of CBCT were selected from the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between October 2015 and August 2017. The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adult cases without orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: skeletal class II and skeletal class III. vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and the width of alveolar bone were measured respectively at the 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level and at the apical level. After that, independent samples t-tests were conducted for statistical comparisons. The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in the patients of skeletal class III than those of skeletal class II, especially in terms of the apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides and the ABA at 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III than those of skeletal class II, especially regarding the apical level on the labial and lingual side and at the level of 4 mm, 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III adult patients with high-angle when compared with the sample of high-angle skeletal class II adult cases. We recommend orthodontists to be more cautious in treatment of high-angle skeletal class III patients, especially pay attention to control the torque of lower anterior teeth during forward and backward movement, in case that the apical root might be absorbed or fenestration happen in the area of lower anterior teeth.

  4. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and lgG used ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, by indirect sandwitch. Data were read by Elisa Reader with a sensitivity of 95%. Data were analyzed descriptives and inferential statistics by SPSS software and further analysis using t-tests. Results showed that, lgG significantly increased, p = 0013. The mean increase of lgG was 33.266 ng/mL. For beta-endorphin. Results t-tests showed the significance of 0.000. The mean increase of endorphine was 3.922ng/mL, and blood sugar levels showed a decrease after the breathing exercise. The decrease of blood sugar was significant of 0.000. The mean decrease in blood sugar levels was 28.9 mg/100ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that regular targeted and programmed breathiing exercise over 21 meetings increased the production of lgG and beta endorphins, as well as decreasing blood sugar levels. Breathing exercise was alternative sports to improve immunity. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, elderly of health

  6. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy of articaine infiltration versus lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in pulp therapy of lower primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain control is essential to the behavioral management of children in pediatric dentistry. Effective anesthesia plays a key role in this regard, especially in pulp therapy. In order to achieve successful anesthesia, the type of analgesics and injection techniques should be considered. The present study aimed to compare the anesthetic efficacy of articaine infiltration and lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in the pulp therapy of lower primary molars. Materials and Methods: This randomized, crossover, triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 64 children aged 4-10 years, who required the bilateral pulp therapy of the lower primary molars. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment was performed for two sessions, and one lower primary molar was treated in each session. In the first treatment session, subjects in group A were injected with lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block, and in the second session, they were injected with articaine infiltration. In group B, all the procedures were similar to group A. In the first treatment session, subjects in group B were injected with articaine infiltration, and in the second session, they were injected with lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block. Pain intensity was measured upon the initiation of the pulp exposure using the visual analogue scale (VAS. Data analysis was performed by crossover analysis, paired t-test, and independent two-sample t-test. Results: During the study period, mean pain intensity in the children treated by lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was significantly lower compared to those treated by articaine infiltration. However, the two techniques had no statistically significant difference in the children aged 4-6 years and the treatment of the first primary molars. Conclusion: According to the results, lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block has higher anesthetic efficacy in the pulp therapy of the lower primary molars compared to articaine

  8. Detection of Bacterial Pathogens from Broncho-Alveolar Lavage by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Stefano; Gaïa, Nadia; Ruppé, Etienne; Emonet, Stephane; Girard, Myriam; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2017-09-20

    The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells. Metagenomic libraries were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq platforms. Microbial community composition was determined by k-mer analysis or by mapping to taxonomic markers. Results were compared to those obtained by conventional clinical culture and molecular methods. Compared to mechanical cell disruption, a sequential lysis protocol resulted in a significantly increased proportion of bacterial DNA over human DNA and higher sequence coverage of Mycobacterium abscessus , Corynebacterium jeikeium and Rothia dentocariosa , the bacteria reported by clinical microbiology tests. In addition, we identified anaerobic bacteria not searched for by the clinical laboratory. Our results further support the implementation of WMGS in clinical routine diagnosis for bacterial identification.

  9. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  11. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  12. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  13. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  14. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  15. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  16. Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology.

  17. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 13C mixed triglyceride breath test: a noninvasive method to assess lipase activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk-van Aalst, K; Van Den Driessche, M; van Der Schoor, S; Schiffelers, S; van't Westeinde, T; Ghoos, Y; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2001-05-01

    Results from the 13C mixed triglyceride (MTG) breath test correlate with duodenal lipase activity in adults. This noninvasive test is a potential screening and diagnostic tool for children with fat malabsorption. The aim of this study was to adapt the methodology of the MTG breath test to study test meals and sampling methods and to define normal values for healthy children of all age groups; premature and full-term infants have similar pancreatic lipase deficiencies. After parental consent was obtained, 12 premature infants ( 2 kg), 12 full-term infants (1-6 months old), 20 children (3-10 years old), and 20 teenagers (11-17 years old) were tested. All children were thriving well, had no gastrointestinal or respiratory problems, and had not received any medication that contained natural 13C. For the premature and full-term infants, a formula was prepared that had a low and stable natural 13C content mixed with 100 mg 13C-labeled MTG (1,3-distearyl, 2-[13C-carboxyl] octanoyl glycerol) and 1 g polyethylene-glycol 3350. The best accepted test meal for children over 3 years old was a slice of white bread with 5 g butter and 15 g chocolate paste, mixed with 250 mg 13C-labeled MTG, and a glass of 100 mL whole-fat milk. Children over 3 years old were able to blow through a straw in a vacutainer for collecting the breath samples. In children under 3 years old, expired air was collected by aspirating breath via a nasal prong. Carbon dioxide production was calculated according to weight, age, and sex. For healthy pediatric control participants, the mean values for cumulative excretion of 13CO2 as a percentage of the administered dose after 6 hours were 23.9 +/- 5.2% in premature infants, 31.9 +/- 7.7% in full-term infants, 32.5 +/- 5.3% in children, and 28.0 +/- 5.4% in teenagers. The mean value for healthy adults is 35.6% with a lower reference limit of 22.8%. Age-specific test meals and breath-sampling techniques for the MTG breath test were defined. The mean values for

  19. Follow-up of coeliac disease with the novel one-hour 13C-sorbitol breath test versus the H2-sorbitol breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Kari; Hetta, Anne Kristine; Askedal, Mia; Brunborg, Cathrine; Sandvik, Leiv; Løberg, Else Marit; Skar, Viggo

    2011-07-01

    We recently developed a (13)C-sorbitol breath test ((13)C-SBT) as an alternative to the H(2)-sorbitol breath test (H(2)-SBT) for coeliac disease. In this study we compared the diagnostic properties of the H(2)-SBT and the (13)C-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease. Twenty-seven coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) performed the breath tests. All had been tested before treatment in the initial study of the (13)C-SBT, in which 39 untreated coeliac patients, 40 patient controls, and 26 healthy volunteers participated. Five gram sorbitol and 100 mg (13)C-sorbitol were dissolved in 250 ml tap water and given orally. H(2), CH(4) and (13)CO(2) were measured in end-expiratory breath samples every 30 min for 4 h. Increased H(2) concentration ≥20 ppm from basal values was used as cut-off for the H(2)-SBT. Sixty minutes values were used as diagnostic index in the (13)C-SBT. (13)CO(2) levels at 60 min increased in 20/26 treated coeliac patients (77%) after GFD, but were significantly lower than in control groups. Out of 20 patients who had a positive H(2)-SBT before GFD, 12 had a negative H(2)-SBT after GFD. Peak H(2) concentrations were not correlated with (13)C-SBT results. The study confirms the sensitivity of a one-hour (13)C-SBT for small intestinal malabsorption. The (13)C-SBT has superior diagnostic properties compared with the H(2)-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease.

  20. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.