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Sample records for alveolar bone loss

  1. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

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    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  2. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

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    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  3. Plasma cell gingivitis with severe alveolar bone loss.

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    Kumar, Vivek; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh; Sinha, Jolly

    2015-01-16

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva characterised by sharply demarcated erythaematous and oedematous gingiva often extending up to the muco gingival junction. It is considered a hypersensitive reaction. It presents clinically as a diffuse, erythaematous and papillary lesion of the gingiva, which frequently bleeds, with minimal trauma. This paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with plasma cell gingivitis, based on the presence of plasma cells in histological sections, and severe alveolar bone loss at the affected site, which was managed by surgical intervention.

  4. An "S-shaped" relationship between smoking duration and alveolar bone loss : generating a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Holst, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have shown that smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Little is known about the relationship between smoking duration and alveolar bone loss. The purpose of this research was to describe the prevalence of alveolar bone loss according to smo

  5. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

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    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician. PMID:27471408

  6. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

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    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician.

  7. Prevention of alveolar bone loss in an osteoporotic animal model via interference of semaphorin 4d.

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    Zhang, Y; Wei, L; Miron, R J; Zhang, Q; Bian, Z

    2014-11-01

    Semaphorin 4d (Sema4d) has been proposed as a novel target gene for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recently, we fabricated a site-specific bone-targeting system from polymeric nanoparticles that demonstrates an ability to prevent bone loss in an osteoporotic model by interfering with Sema4d gene expression using small interference RNA (siRNA) molecules. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this targeting system on the periodontium, an area of high bone turnover. We demonstrated, by single photon emission computed tomography, that intravenous injection of this molecule in ovariectomized Balb/C mice is able to target alveolar bone peaking 4 hr post-injection. We then compared, by histological analysis, the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), alveolar bone height loss, immunohistochemical expression of Sema4d, and total number of osteoclasts in mandibular alveolar bone. Four treatment modalities were compared as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) OVX-operated, (3) OVX+estrogen replacement therapy, and (4) OVX+siRNA-Sema4d animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that an osteoporotic condition significantly increases alveolar bone height loss, and that the therapeutic effects via bone-targeting systems featuring interference of Sema4d are able to partly counteract alveolar bone loss caused by osteoporosis. While the future therapeutic demand for the large number of patients suffering from osteoporosis faces many challenges, we demonstrate within the present study an effective drug-delivery moiety with anabolic effects on the bone remodeling cycle able to locate and target alveolar bone regeneration.

  8. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

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    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  9. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

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    Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13, which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11 regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05. Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD, mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09 and 0.65 (0.07 mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05 as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12 and 0.53 (0.13 mm, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats.

  10. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

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    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  11. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  12. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia induce synergistic alveolar bone loss in a mouse periodontitis model.

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    Settem, Rajendra P; El-Hassan, Ahmed Taher; Honma, Kiyonobu; Stafford, Graham P; Sharma, Ashu

    2012-07-01

    Tannerella forsythia is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to tooth loss. Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic pathogen, is thought to promote dental plaque formation by serving as a bridge bacterium between early- and late-colonizing species of the oral cavity. Previous studies have shown that F. nucleatum species synergize with T. forsythia during biofilm formation and pathogenesis. In the present study, we showed that coinfection of F. nucleatum and T. forsythia is more potent than infection with either species alone in inducing NF-κB activity and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in monocytic cells and primary murine macrophages. Moreover, in a murine model of periodontitis, mixed infection with the two species induces synergistic alveolar bone loss, characterized by bone loss which is greater than the additive alveolar bone losses induced by each species alone. Further, in comparison to the single-species infection, mixed infection caused significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingivae and osteoclastic activity in the jaw bones. These data show that F. nucleatum subspecies and T. forsythia synergistically stimulate the host immune response and induce alveolar bone loss in a murine experimental periodontitis model.

  13. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

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    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  14. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

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    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  15. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

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    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  16. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

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    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (palveolar bone loss, while Pb showed spontaneous bone loss also. In conclusion, these results show that lead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease.

  17. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

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    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis.

  18. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

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    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-05

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone.

  19. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  20. Micromolar sodium fluoride mediates anti-osteoclastogenesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss

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    Ujjal K Bhawal; Nobushiro Hamada; Ikuo Nasu; Hirohisa Arakawa; Koh Shibutani; Hye-Jin Lee; Kazumune Arikawa; Michiharu Shimosaka; Masatoshi Suzuki; Toshizo Toyama; Takenori Sato; Ryota Kawamata; Chieko Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated by the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of bone-lytic diseases. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on osteoclastogenesis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity that has been implicated in periodontitis. NaF strongly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of cathepsin K, interleukin (IL)-1b, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, which were up-regulated during P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis. Consistent with the in vivo anti-osteoclastogenic effect, NaF inhibited osteoclast formation caused by the differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The RANKL-stimulated induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 was also abrogated by NaF. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NaF inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by reducing the induction of NFATc1, ultimately leading to the suppressed expression of cathepsin K and MMP9. The in vivo effect of NaF on the inhibition of P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis strengthens the potential usefulness of NaF for treating periodontal diseases.

  1. Osteoprotegerin-deficient male mice as a model for severe alveolar bone loss: comparison with RANKL-overexpressing transgenic male mice.

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    Koide, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamura, Midori; Yasuda, Hisataka; Arai, Yoshinori; Okahashi, Nobuo; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues, is characterized by excessive alveolar bone resorption. An increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio is thought to reflect the severity of periodontitis. Here, we examined alveolar bone loss in OPG-deficient (OPG(-/-)) mice and RANKL-overexpressing transgenic (RANKL-Tg) mice. Alveolar bone loss in OPG(-/-) mice at 12 weeks was significantly higher than that in RANKL-Tg mice. OPG(-/-) but not RANKL-Tg mice exhibited severe bone resorption especially in cortical areas of the alveolar bone. An increased number of osteoclasts was observed in the cortical areas in OPG(-/-) but not in RANKL-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed many OPG-positive signals in osteocytes but not osteoblasts. OPG-positive osteocytes in the cortical area of alveolar bones and long bones were abundant in both wild-type and RANKL-Tg mice. This suggests the resorption in cortical bone areas to be prevented by OPG produced locally. To test the usefulness of OPG(-/-) mice as an animal model for screening drugs to prevent alveolar bone loss, we administered an antimouse RANKL antibody or risedronate, a bisphosphonate, to OPG(-/-) mice. They suppressed alveolar bone resorption effectively. OPG(-/-) mice are useful for screening therapeutic agents against alveolar bone loss.

  2. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

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    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  3. Interleukin-33 and RANK-L Interplay in the Alveolar Bone Loss Associated to Periodontitis

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    Lapérine, Olivier; Cloitre, Alexandra; Caillon, Jocelyne; Huck, Olivier; Bugueno, Isaac Maximiliano; Pilet, Paul; Sourice, Sophie; Le Tilly, Elodie; Palmer, Gaby; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Geoffroy, Valérie; Guicheux, Jérôme; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Lesclous, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin that results in alveolar bone destruction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the main periopathogens, initiates an inflammatory cascade by host immune cells thereby increasing recruitment and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, through enhanced production of the crucial osteoclastogenic factor, RANK-L. Antibodies directed against some cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) failed to exhibit convincing therapeutic effect in CP. It has been suggested that IL-33, could be of interest in CP. Objective the present study aims to analyze whether and how IL-33 and RANK-L and/or their interplay are involved in the bone destruction associated to CP. Material and Methods mRNAs and protein expressions of IL-33 and RANK-L were analyzed in healthy and CP human gingival samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-qPCR. Murine experimental periodontitis (EP) was induced using Pg infected ligature and Pg free ligature around the first maxillary molar. Alveolar bone loss was recorded by μCT. Mouse gingival explants were stimulated for 24 hours with IL-33 and RANK-L mRNA expression investigated by RT-qPCR. Human oral epithelial cells were infected by Pg for 6, 12; 24 hours and IL-33 and RANK-L mRNA expressions were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Results IL-33 is overexpressed in gingival epithelial cells in human affected by CP as in the murine EP. In human as in murine gingival cells, RANK-L was independently induced by Pg and IL-33. We also showed that the Pg-dependent RANK-L expression in gingival epithelial cells occured earlier than that of IL-33. Conclusion Our results evidence that IL-33 overexpression in gingival epithelial cells is associated with CP and may trigger RANK-L expression in addition to a direct effect of Pg. Finally, IL-33 may act as an extracellular alarmin (danger signal) showing proinflammatory properties in CP perpetuating bone resorption induced by Pg infection

  4. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  5. Comparative effects of riboflavin, nicotinamide and folic acid on alveolar bone loss: A morphometric and histopathologic study in rats

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    Akpınar Aysun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory and osteolytic disease. Vitamin B complex is a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of riboflavin (RBF, nicotinamide (NA, and folic acid (FA on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis rat model. Methods. Sixty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following eight groups: Control, Ligated, RBF50 (RBF, 50 mg/kg daily, NA50 (NA, 50 mg/kg daily, FA50 (FA, 50 mg/kg daily, RBF100 (RBF, 100 mg/kg daily, NA100 (NA, 100 mg/kg daily, and FA100 (FA, 100 mg/kg daily. Periodontitis was induced using silk ligature around the right first mandibular molar. After 11 days the rats were sacrificed. Mandible and serum samples were collected. Changes in alveolar bone levels were measured clinically, and periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically. Serum IL-1β (pg/ml levels were analyzed by using ELISA. Results. Mean alveolar bone loss in the mandibular first molar tooth revealed to be significantly lower in RBF100 group than in the Control group. In the Ligated group, alveolar bone loss was significantly higher than in all other groups. The ratio of presence of inflammatory cell infiltration in the Ligated group was significantly higher than in the Control group. The differences in the serum IL-1β levels between the groups were not statistically significant. Osteoclasts that were observed in the Ligated group were significantly higher than those of the Control and FA100 groups. The osteoblastic activity in the Ligated group, RBF100, and NA100 groups were shown to be significantly higher than those in the Control group. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that systemic administration of RBF, NA, and FA in different dosages (50-100 mg/kg reduced alveolar bone loss in periodontal disease in rats.

  6. B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection

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    Pamela J. Baker

    2009-01-01

    and CD4+ T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4+ T cells.

  7. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

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    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  8. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease.

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    Silva, Viviam de Oliveira; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; Andrade, Eric Francelino; de Macedo, Cristina Gomes; Napimoga, Juliana Trindade Clemente; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Messora, Michel Reis; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Pereira, Luciano José

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p periodontal disease (p periodontal disease (p periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease.

  9. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

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    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  10. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

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    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  11. Effect of 15% Alcohol Dependence on Alveolar Bone Loss and TNF-α Secretion in Wistar Rats.

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    Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rocha, José Mariano da; Gaio, Eduardo José; Cavagni, Juliano; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 15% alcohol dependence on ligature-induced alveolar bone loss and TNF-α secretion in Wistar rats. Thirty-three male Wistar rats aged 45-60 days (mean weight=253 g) were randomly allocated test or control groups. Test group (n=18) received 15% alcohol as liquid intake and control group (n=15) received water during the experimental period. TNF-α was analyzed by ELISA assay in 11 animals per group. After 14 days of alcohol/water intake, alcohol dependency was assessed and silk ligatures were placed around the left second upper molars. Ligature presence and body weight were checked weekly. After 40 days, animals were sacrificed and the maxillae were defleshed for morphometric analysis using standardized images. All animals in the test group displayed signs of alcohol dependency at day 14. No statistically significant differences in final body weight (334.83±21.38 vs. 322.48±30.65 g, p=0.20) were observed between groups. In relation to alveolar bone loss, no statistically significant difference was observed among test and control groups both for ligated teeth (0.76±0.06 vs. 0.74±0.10 mm, p=0.60) and unligated teeth (0.41±0.16 vs. 0.35±0.05 mm, p=0.22). The TNF-α secretion also did not display statistically significant differences between test and control groups (10.78±1.84 vs. 12.13±2.11 pg/mL, p=0.12). It may be concluded that 15% alcohol dependency was not capable to alter alveolar bone loss and TNF-α secretion in Wistar rats.

  12. Alveolar bone grafting

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    Lilja Jan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

  13. Effect of labiolingual inclination of a maxillary central incisor and surrounding alveolar bone loss on periodontal stress: A finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether labial tooth inclination and alveolar bone loss affect the moment per unit of force (Mt/F) in controlled tipping and consequent stresses on the periodontal ligament (PDL). Methods Three-dimensional models (n = 20) of maxillary central incisors were created with different labial inclinations (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) and different amounts of alveolar bone loss (0, 2, 4, and 6 mm). The Mt/F necessary for controlled tipping (Mt/Fcont) and the principal stresses on the PDL were calculated for each model separately in a finite element analysis. Results As labial inclination increased, Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm decreased. In contrast, increased alveolar bone loss caused increases in Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm. When Mt/F was near Mt/Fcont, increases in Mt/F caused compressive stresses to move from a predominantly labial apical region to a palatal apical position, and tensile stresses in the labial area moved from a cervical position to a mid-root position. Although controlled tipping was applied to the incisors, increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in maximum compressive and tensile stresses at the root apices. Conclusions Increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in stresses that might cause root resorption at the root apex, despite the application of controlled tipping to the incisors. PMID:27226961

  14. 糖尿病牙周炎模型大鼠的牙槽骨丧失%Alveolar bone loss in rat models of diabetic periodontitis

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    王立刚; 徐彬; 迪丽努尔•阿吉; 古丽努尔•阿吾提

    2015-01-01

      结果与结论:钢丝结扎后1,2,3,4周大鼠牙槽骨丧失程度:糖尿病牙周炎组>慢性牙周炎组>正常对照组(P OBJECTIVE:To establish rat models of diabetic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis, and to further clarify diabetes-increased degree of alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis rats METHODS:Fifty-two eight-week-old specific-pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into diabetic periodontitis group, chronic periodontitis group and normal control group. In the diabetic periodontitis group, rat models of diabetic periodontitis were established by injection of streptozotocin+periodontal ligation. In the chronic periodontitis group, rat models of chronic periodontitis were established by periodontal ligation and constant pressure. In the normal control group, rats were fed normal y. At 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after ligation, changes in periodontium of rats of each group were observed. The maxil a alveolar bone specimens were taken. The degree of alveolar bone loss value in rats of each group was observed under a stereomicroscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:At 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after ligation with steel wire, the degree of rat alveolar bone loss was as fol ows:diabetic periodontitis group>chronic periodontitis group>normal control group (P<0.05). Results verified that animal models of diabetic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis were successful y established. Diabetes can increase the destruction to periodontal tissue with periodontitis, and increase alveolar bone loss.

  15. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  16. 牙周炎性牙槽骨吸收与T细胞间的关系%Periodontitis of alveolar bone loss and T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽娜

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis of alveolar bone loss is a common inflammatory destructive periodontal disease that leads to loss of the supporting structures of the teeth. T lymphocytes play an important role in the occurrence and development of periodontal disease. On one hand, T cells activated by antigens of periodontal pathogens are necessary for immune defense against periodontal pathogens. On the other hand, activated T cell is not only important regulator of activation or maturation of osteoclasts and bone resorption, but also the important damage cells in periodontal alveovar bone loss. This review elutidated the research progress on periodontitis of alveolar bone loss, T cells in the alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases, T cells and interferon-γ on the role of osteoclasts.%牙周炎性牙槽骨吸收是常见的牙周组织炎症性破坏性疾病,是导致牙丧失的主要原因.T细胞在牙周炎的发生发展过程中发挥了重要的作用.一方面,牙周致病菌抗原活化T细胞是机体抗牙周致病菌感染所必需;另一方面,活化的T细胞是破骨细胞分化成熟和骨吸收活性的重要调节细胞,也是牙周炎性牙槽骨吸收的损伤细胞.本文就牙周炎性牙槽骨吸收,T细胞在牙周炎性牙槽骨吸收中的作用,T细胞和干扰素-γ对破骨细胞的作用等研究进展作一综述.

  17. Mutan: A mixed linkage α-[(1,3)- and (1,6)]-d-glucan from Streptococcus mutans, that induces osteoclast differentiation and promotes alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jung Min; Han, Kook-Il; Jung, Eui-Gil; Kim, Yong Hyun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Yoon, Mi Sook; Chung, Sung Kyun; Kim, Wan Jong; Han, Man-Deuk

    2016-02-10

    Mutan is an extracellular polysaccharide of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) that consists of α-(1,3)-linked glucose residues in main chains and α-(1,6) bonds in side chains. In the present study, mutan was isolated from S. mutans, and its structural characteristics were determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effects of mutan on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells were examined. Furthermore, microCT and morphometric analyses were used to determine the contribution of mutan to alveolar bone loss in the maxilla of a rat periodontitis model. Mutan increased (more than 2-fold) RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Mutan also enhanced the alveolar bone loss in the rat maxilla 2.3-fold. In mutan-treated rats, the bone mineral density, bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness decreased, whereas trabecular separation significantly increased. In addition, mutan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced similar microarray profiles in RAW 264.7 cells. A total of 43 genes related to osteoclastogenesis were differentially expressed after either mutan or LPS treatment. Five-fold increases in the expression of several genes, including IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, and chemokine ligands, were observed in mutan-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the inflammation induced by S. mutans during the establishment of periodontal disease.

  18. [Distraction osteogenesis of deficient alveolar bone prior to dental rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, D; Emodi, O; Aizenbud, D; Rachmiel, A

    2015-07-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation has become very common in treatment plans nowadays, yet many patients lack the vertical and horizontal bone dimensions required for endosseous implant insertion. Distraction osteogenesis is a technique in which bone is generated by progressive elongation of two bone fragments following an osteotomy or corticotomy. Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge as a treatment modality in implant dentistry is a very useful technique that allows for adequate bone formation suitable for implant insertion. Alveolar distraction can be unidirectional, bidirectional, multidirectional or horizontal. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be performed by using intraosseous distraction devices, intraosseous distraction implants or by extraosseous devices which are the most prevalent today. Distraction osteogenesis has many advantages such as gradual lengthening of the bone with no need for an autogenous bone graft and lack of the associated donor site morbidity as well as distraction of the surrounding soft tissue together with the transported bone. One of the major challenges when using alveolar distraction osteogenesis is controlling the vector of distraction, this problem should be further addressed in future researches. We describe different methods for alveolar distraction osteogenesis, including the surgical procedure, latency period, lengthening and consolidation period. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages and complications of the method. In this manuscript a case of mandibular alveolar deficiency following mandibular fracture and loss of teeth and the alveolar bone is presented. This patient was treated by alveolar distraction osteogenesis with excellent results. This patient was later rehabilitated . using endosseous implants as demonstrated by radiographs. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis provides a method to regain both hard tissue and soft tissue without additional grafting and is an efficient modality in cases of medium

  19. Influence of image filters on the reproducibility measurements of alveolar bone loss Influência dos filtros de imagem sobre a reprodutibilidade de medidas da perda óssea alveolar

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    Wivian Eiras Garcia Wong Alves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproducibility of measurements of alveolar bone loss on radiographs may be a problem on epidemiologic studies, as they are based on comparisons of the diagnosis of various examiners. The aim of the present research paper was to assess the inter- and intra-examiner reproducibility of measurements of the interproximal alveolar bone loss on non-manipulated digital radiographs and after the application of image filters. Five Oral Radiologists measured the distance between the cementoenamel junction (CEJ to the alveolar crest or to the deepest point of the bony defect on 12 interproximal digital radiographs of molars and bicuspids of a dry human skull. The digital manipulation and the linear measurements were obtained with the Trophy Windows software (Throphy®. For each image, six different versions were created: 1 non-manipulated; 2 bright-contrast adjustment; 3 negative; 4 negative with brightness-contrast adjustment; 5 pseudo-colored; 6 pseudo-colored with brightness-contrast adjustment. In order to prevent interpretation bias because of the repetition of measurements, the examiners measured the radiographs in a random sequence. The two-way ANOVA test at 5% level of significance to compare the means of readings of the same operator with each filter indicated p0.05 for all filters. Based on the results, we concluded that linear measurements of interproximal alveolar bone loss on digital radiographs are highly reproducible among examiners. Nevertheless, the application of image filters significantly influenced the degree of intra-examiner reproducibility. Some filters even reduced the reproducibility of intra-examiner readings.A reprodutibilidade de medidas da perda óssea alveolar em radiografias pode se tornar um problema em levantamentos epidemiológicos, que são baseados em comparações de diagnóstico de vários observadores. O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a reprodutibilidade intra e inter-examinador de medidas da perda

  20. Botulinum toxin in masticatory muscles of the adult rat induces bone loss at the condyle and alveolar regions of the mandible associated with a bone proliferation at a muscle enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kün-Darbois, Jean-Daniel; Libouban, Hélène; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In man, botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is injected in masticatory muscles for several indications such as trismus, bruxism, or masseter hypertrophy. Bone changes in the mandible following BTX injections in adult animal have therefore became a subject of interest. The aim of this study was to analyze condylar and alveolar bone changes following BTX unilateral injections in masseter and temporal muscles in adult rats. Mature male rats (n = 15) were randomized into 2 groups: control (CTRL; n = 6) and BTX group (n= 9). Rats of the BTX group received a single injection of BTX into right masseter and temporal muscles. Rats of the CTRL group were similarly injected with saline solution. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after injections. Masticatory muscles examination and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were performed. A significant difference of weight was found between the 2 groups at weeks 2, 3 and 4 (p condylar areas in BTX rats. Decrease in bone volume reached -20% for right alveolar bone and -35% for right condylar bone. A hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the digastric muscle enthesis was found on every right hemimandible in the BTX group and none in the CTRL group. BTX injection in masticatory muscles leads to a significant and major mandible bone loss. These alterations can represent a risk factor for fractures in human. The occurrence of a hypertrophic bone metaplasia at the Mus Digastricus enthesis may constitute an etiological factor for tori.

  1. The Effects of Topical Application of Polycal (a 2:98 (g/g Mixture of Polycan and Calcium Gluconate on Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats

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    Sang-In Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL solutions at 200 μL/rat was topically applied to the ligated gingival regions daily for 10 days. Changes in bodyweight, alveolar bone loss index, and total number of buccal gingival aerobic bacterial cells were monitored, and the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated via myeloperoxidase activity and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and lipid peroxidation (MDA were also evaluated. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis, and alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placements were significantly inhibited after 10 days of continuous topical application of Polycal. These results indicate that topical application of Polycal has a significant inhibitory effect on periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats mediated by antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities.

  2. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

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    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  3. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

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    João Paulo Schwartz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years, Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B, lingual (L and total (T bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1, midroot (2 and apical (3 levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results: Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. Conclusions: CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance.

  4. Silver Nanoparticles in Alveolar Bone Surgery Devices

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    Stefano Sivolella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental implant surfaces and preventing biofilm formation, containing the risk of peri-implant infections. Modifying the structure or surface of bone grafts and membranes with Ag NPs may also prevent the risk of contamination and infection that are common when alveolar bone augmentation techniques are used. On the other hand, Ag NPs have revealed some toxic effects on cells in vitro and in vivo in animal studies. In this setting, the aim of the present paper is to summarize the principle behind Ag NP-based devices and their clinical applications in alveolar bone and dental implant surgery.

  5. Bmp2 and Bmp4 accelerate alveolar bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mingming; Zhao, Yibing; Zhang, Fangming; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar bone remodeling is a continuous process that takes place during development and in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. However, detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms involved in alveolar bone development is still lacking. This study aims at improving our understanding of alveolar bone formation and the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) in this process. Mice at embryonic (E) day 13.5 to postnatal (PN) day 15.5 were selected to observe the process of alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone development was found to be morphologically observable at E14.5. Molar teeth isolated from mice at PN7.5 were pretreated with Bmp2, Bmp4, Noggin, or BSA, and grafted subcutaneously into mice. The subcutaneously implanted tooth germs formed alveolar bone indicating the role of the dental follicle in alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone formation was increased after pretreatment with Bmp2 and Bmp4, but not with Noggin. Gene expression levels in dental follicle cells from murine molars were also determined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of Runx2, Bsp, and Ocn were significantly higher in dental follicle cells cultured with Bmp2 or Bmp4, and significantly lower in those cultured with Noggin when compared with that of the BSA controls. Our results suggest that the dental follicle participates in alveolar bone formation and Bmp2/4 appears to accelerate alveolar bone development.

  6. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide) composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was...

  7. Effects of oestrogen deficiency on the alveolar bone of rats with experimental periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin-chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; ZHAI, ZAN-JING; Liu, Xu-qiang; ZHENG, XIN-YI; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-yi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty-f...

  8. Influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Martins de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a risk indicator for periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to morphometrically evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-six female rats (Wistar, 120 days-old were randomly divided into three groups that received a daily administration of a water diet (control, n = 12, a 10% alcohol diet (10% ethanol, n = 12 or a 20% alcohol diet (20% ethanol, n = 12. Four weeks after the onset of the experiment, cotton ligatures were placed around the cervix of the upper right second molar in six rats. The other 6 rats in each group remained unligated. The rats were sacrificed four weeks after ligature placement. The maxillary bones were removed and alveolar bone loss was analyzed by measuring the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest at 2 buccal and 2 palatal sites on the upper right second molar. Analyses between the ligated and unligated groups showed that the presence of ligature induced alveolar bone loss (p 0.05. In the ligated groups, rats receiving 20% ethanol showed significantly greater bone loss compared to control rats or rats receiving 10% ethanol. These results demonstrate that alcohol consumption may increase alveolar bone loss in female rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Effects of oestrogen deficiency on the alveolar bone of rats with experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Zhai, Zan-Jing; Liu, Xu-Qiang; Zheng, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency‑induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty‑four female, six‑month‑old Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, ligature, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX + ligature. One month after ovariectomy, rats in the ligature and OVX + ligature groups received ligatures on their first and second maxillary molars for 1 month. Fluorescent labelling was performed prior to sacrificing the animals. At the end of the experiment, the maxillae and serum were collected and subjected to micro‑computed tomography analysis, confocal laser‑scanning microscopic observation, Van Gieson's fuchsin staining, tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase staining and ELISA. Ligatures slightly reduced the alveolar bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation rate, but significantly reduced alveolar crest height (ACH). Ovariectomy reduced the alveolar BMD, impaired the trabecular structure, reduced the bone formation rate and increased the serum levels of bone resorption markers. Animals in the OVX + ligature group exhibited a lower alveolar BMD, a poorer trabecular structure, a reduced ACH, a lower bone formation rate and higher serum levels of bone resorption markers compared with those in the control group. The results of the present study showed that ovariectomy enhanced alveolar bone loss and reduced the ACH of rats with experimental periodontitis. Thus, post‑menopausal osteoporosis may influence the progression of periodontitis.

  10. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Biljana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

  11. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  12. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan;

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  13. Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Donald; Massaro, Gloria Decarlo

    2004-12-01

    Lung tissue elastic recoil and the dimension and number of pulmonary gas-exchange units (alveoli) are major determinants of gas-exchange function. Loss of gas-exchange function accelerates after menopause in the healthy aged and is progressively lost in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter, a disease of midlife and later, though more common in men than in women, is a disease to which women smokers and never smokers may be more susceptible than men; it is characterized by diminished lung tissue elastic recoil and presently irremediable alveolar loss. Ovariectomy in sexually immature rats diminishes the formation of alveoli, and estrogen prevents the diminution. In the present work, we found that estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, the only recognized mammalian estrogen receptors, are required for the formation of a full complement of alveoli in female mice. However, only the absence of estrogen receptor-beta diminishes lung elastic tissue recoil. Furthermore, ovariectomy in adult mice results, within 3 wk, in loss of alveoli and of alveolar surface area without a change of lung volume. Estrogen replacement, after alveolar loss, induces alveolar regeneration, reversing the architectural effects of ovariectomy. These studies 1) reveal estrogen receptors regulate alveolar size and number in a nonredundant manner, 2) show estrogen is required for maintenance of already formed alveoli and induces alveolar regeneration after their loss in adult ovariectomized mice, and 3) offer the possibility estrogen can slow alveolar loss and induce alveolar regeneration in women with COPD.

  14. Impact of the Oral Commensal Flora on Alveolar Bone Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, K; Novince, C.M.; Darveau, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of healthy periodontal tissues is affected by innate and adaptive immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora. Recent comparisons of germ-free (GF) and normal specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice have revealed the impact of host immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora on alveolar bone height. Prior reports that alveolar bone height is significantly less in normal SPF mice compared with their age- and strain-matched GF counterparts sug...

  15. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cassiane Merigo; Cassol, Tiago; da Silva, Fernanda Soares; Bonfleur, Maria Lucia; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) control and ligature group; 3) cafeteria group; and 4) cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01). Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity.

  16. Segment distraction to reduce a wide alveolar cleft before alveolar bone grafting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binger, T.; Katsaros, C.; Rucker, M.; Spitzer, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a method for reduction of wide alveolar clefts prior to bone grafting. This method aims to facilitate bone grafting and achieve adequate soft tissue coverage of the graft with attached gingiva. CASE REPORT: Treatment of a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate with a s

  17. The correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory periodontitis regarding bone loss in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    We have invented a mouse model of periodontitis associated with alveolar bone loss induced by lipopolysaccharide. Ovariectomized (OVX) animals are widely used as a model for osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency. To define the relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis, we examined the influence of estrogen deficiency on the mouse alveolar bone mass. In OVX mice, bone loss was detected not only in the femur, but also in the alveolar bone, indicating that estrogen deficiency could induce resorption in alveolar bone. In experiments using a combination of osteoporosis and periodontitis models, OVX significantly enhanced the alveolar bone loss in the model of periodontitis. Therefore, postmenopausal osteoporosis may enhance the risk of periodontitis associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption.

  18. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas O. Parashis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  19. 3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

  20. Alveolar Ridge Conservation by Early Bone Formation After Tooth Extraction in Rabbits. A Histomorphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantín, Mario; Olate, Sergio; Fuentes, Ramón; Vásquez, Bélgica

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Alveolar ridge volume loss is an irreversible process. To prevent this physiological event, which typically result in significant local anatomical changes in both the horizontal and the vertical dimension, some strategies are indicated to minimize the loss of ridge volume that typically follows tooth extraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if three different bone grafts could promote new bone formation in the alveolar socket following tooth extraction for the alveolar ridge conservation. First mandibular molars of male adults rabbits were extracted and the extraction sockets were randomly treated with three different bone grafts, one xenograft and two alloplastic grafts, and a group that received no treatment (blood clot). The extraction sockets of selected rabbits from each group were evaluated at 4, 6, or 8-week post-extraction. The results indicated that the extraction sockets treated with alloplastic graft (biphasic calcium phosphate) exhibited lamellar bone formation (6.5%) as early as four weeks after the extraction was performed. Moreover, the degree of new bone formation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the extraction sockets treated with biphasic calcium phosphate at 8-week post-extraction than that in the other study groups. In this study, we demonstrated that the proposed animal model is useful to evaluate the bone formation after tooth extraction and the alveolar ridge conservation is feasible. The new bone formation and alveolar ridge preservation with bone graft after extraction of molar teeth, could result in the maintenance of sufficient bone volume to place an implant in an ideal restorative position without the need for ancillary implant site development procedures. PMID:27840551

  1. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  2. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asa’ad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.

  3. Estrogen Deficiency-Associated Bone Loss in the Maxilla: A Methodology to Quantify the Changes in the Maxillary Intra-radicular Alveolar Bone in an Ovariectomized Rat Osteoporosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhibin; Steck, Roland; Doan, Nghiem; Woodruff, Maria Ann; Ivanovski, Saso; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of estrogen deficiency on bone characteristics are site-dependent, with the most commonly studied sites being appendicular long bones (proximal femur and tibia) and axial bones (vertebra). The effect on the maxillary and mandibular bones is still inconsistent and requires further investigation. This study was designed to evaluate bone quality in the posterior maxilla of ovariectomized rats to validate this site as an appropriate model to study the effect of osteoporotic changes. Forty-eight 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: an ovariectomized (OVX) group (n=24) and Sham-operated (SHAM) group (n=24). Six rats were randomly sacrificed from both groups at time points 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. The samples from tibia and maxilla were collected for micro computed tomography (μCT) and histological analysis. For the maxilla, the volume of interest area focused on the furcation areas of the first and second molar. Trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV, %), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.), and connectivity density (Conn.Dens) were analyzed after Micro CT scanning. At 8 weeks the indices BV/TV, Tb.Sp., Tb.N., and Conn.Dens showed significant differences (pbone density only occurring after 12 weeks. Compared with the SHAM group, both the first and second molars of the OVX group showed significantly decreased BV/TV values from 12 weeks, and these changes were sustained through 16 and 20 weeks. For Tb.Sp., there were significant increases in bone values for the OVX group compared with the SHAM group at 12, 16, and 20 weeks. Histological changes were highly consistent with Micro CT results. This study established a method to quantify the changes of intra-radicular alveolar bone in the posterior maxilla in an accepted rat osteoporosis model. The degree of the osteoporotic changes to trabecular bone architecture is site-dependent and at least 3 months are required for

  4. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues.

  5. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  6. Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances alveolar bone resorption via upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunxia; Ji, Yaoting; Liu, Shengbo; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced alveolar bone resorption was mediated by a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme related mechanism. Experimental periodontitis was induced in bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats, some of which were injected with triptorelin, an FSH inhibitor. After mandibles were collected, we performed micro-computed tomography to evaluate alveolar bone loss and immunohistochemical staining to assess COX-2 expression. As well, human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were treated with FSH (30 ng/ml), and the COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that FSH significantly increased alveolar bone resorption and the expression of COX-2 in the bilateral OVX + Ligatured rats compared with the other treatment groups. FSH also increased the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.01) in human PDLCs. Further, the analysis of signaling pathways revealed the activation of COX-2-mediated pathways including Erk, p38, and Akt. These data suggest that FSH aggravates alveolar bone loss via a COX-2-upregulation mechanism and that the Erk, p38, and Akt pathways are involved in this pathological process. PMID:27725865

  7. Decoronation of an ankylosed tooth for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, A; Pohl, Y; von Arx, T

    2001-04-01

    A 12-year-old patient sustained avulsions of both permanent maxillary central incisors. Subsequently, both teeth developed replacement resorption. The left incisor was extracted alio loco. The right incisor was treated by decoronation (removal of crown and pulp, but preservation of the root substance). Comparison of both sites demonstrated complete preservation of the height and width of the alveolar bone at the decoronation site, whereas the tooth extraction site showed considerable bone loss. In addition, some vertical bone apposition was found on top of the decoronated root. Decoronation is a simple and safe surgical procedure for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. It must be considered as a treatment option for teeth affected by replacement resorption if tooth transplantation is not feasible.

  8. New regenerative treatment for tooth and periodontal bone defect associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Takagi, Mikako; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Fukaya, Takuji

    2009-05-01

    We developed a new regenerative treatment of tooth and periodontal defect and tooth dislocation associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture in the region of the maxillary anterior teeth. Using this method, dislocated teeth are first extracted and crushed alveolar bone is debrided. The dislocated teeth are then reimplanted, and cancellous iliac bone (bone marrow) is grafted to the area surrounding the teeth to regenerate periodontal bone. Tooth reimplantation was completely successful in 2 cases, and periodontal bone regenerated to a sufficient height with the iliac bone graft. Compared with the general method of treatment with a prosthesis (bridge), when using this method to treat cases such as these, there is no sacrifice of healthy teeth adjacent to the defect, and sufficient esthetic and functional recovery is possible. It is thought that this method could be applied as a new treatment of alveolar bone fracture in the future.

  9. Assessment of Alveolar Bone Status in Middle Aged Chinese (40-59 Years with Chronic Periodontitis--Using CBCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiao Zhao

    Full Text Available This study used con-beam computed tomography (CBCT to investigate the prevalence and severity of alveolar bone loss in middle-aged (40-59 years Chinese with chronic periodontitis.The study group comprised 145 dentate individuals aged 40 to 59 years residing in China who suffered from chronic periodontitis. CBCT and the application of NNT software were used to examine the level and location of alveolar bone loss.The study revealed that 40-59 year old patients with chronic periodontitis had severe bone loss. At 5,286 sites (34.7%, alveolar bone loss was mild; severe alveolar bone loss was found at 5,978 sites (39.2%. A comparison of bone loss in different jaws revealed that the area with the highest degree of bone loss was on the lingual side of the maxillary molar (56.3 ± 7.2%, and that the area with the lowest degree was primarily on the lingual side of the mandibular canine (27.5 ± 6.3%. There was a lower degree of alveolar bone loss in males than females. Differences were observed when comparing the incidence of bone loss between males and females (P < 0.05. Menopause in females and smoking in both genders may affect the level of bone loss. Male smokers experienced a greater degree of bone loss (41.67 ± 5.76% than male non-smokers (32.95 ± 4.31%. A 42.23 ± 6.34% bone loss was found in menopausal females versus 31.35 ± 3.62% in non-menopausal females.The study revealed that different sites and teeth exhibited a diverse degree of bone loss. In middle-aged patients with chronic periodontitis, the highest degrees of bone loss in the incisors, premolars, and molars were on the lingual side, mesial side and lingual side, respectively. Menopause in females and smoking may affect the level of bone loss.

  10. Computed tomography of the alveolar bone; Computertomographie des Alveolarkammes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    1996-03-01

    In addition to the conventional radiological methods used in odontology, computed tomography (CT) provides superposition-free images of the mandible and maxilla. Its value has been proved not only in cases of malignancy but also in many other problems. If an examination is performed with a slice thickness of less than 1.5 mm, the form and position of retained teeth in the alveolar bone, as well as subsequent lesions of neighboring permanent teeth, can be visualized so that early treatment can be planned. If the parodontal space of a retained tooth is visible, orthodontic intervention is possible. Precise assessment of horizontal or vertical bone loss is essential in inflammatory dental diseases. The morphology and extent of benign cystic lesions are also shown by CT. With CT surgical strategy of an intended implant therapy can take into account the remaining bone substance and the exact position of nerves and foramina. If such therapy is possible, the location, form and number of implants are easily defined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Computertomographie ermoeglicht in Ergaenzung zu den in der Zahnheilkunde gebraeuchlichen radiologischen Untersuchungsverfahren eine ueberlagerungsfreie Darstellung von Ober- und Unterkiefer. Neben der bereits etablierten Anwendung der CT bei malignen Erkrankungen hat sich ihr Einsatz bei weiteren Fragestellungen bewaehrt. Wird die Untersuchung mit einer Schichtdicke von weniger als 1,5 mm durchgefuehrt, lassen sich Form und Lage retinierter Zaehne im Kieferknochen und die durch die retinierten Zaehne verursachten Schaeden an bleibenden Zaehnen beurteilen, so dass eine fruehzeitige Therapie moeglich ist. Laesst sich der Parodontalspalt des retinierten Zahnes abgrenzen, ist eine kieferorthopaedische Einordnung moeglich. Bei entzuendlichen Zahnerkrankungen ist der horizontale und vertikale Knochenabbau genau zu bestimmen. Die Morphologie und Ausdehnung von benignen zystischen Raumforderungen ist mit der CT erfassbar. Vor einer beabsichtigten

  11. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  12. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  13. Bis-enoxacin blocks rat alveolar bone resorption from experimental periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes F Rivera

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, caused by polymicrobial subgingival pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Chronic periodontal infection results in inflammation, destruction of connective tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately tooth loss. Enoxacin and a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin (bis-enoxacin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption and also contain antibiotic properties. Our study proposes that enoxacin and/or bis-enoxacin may be useful in reducing alveolar bone resorption and possibly bacterial colonization. Rats were infected with 10(9 cells of polymicrobial inoculum consisting of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for twelve weeks. Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxacin (5 mg/kg/day, bis-enoxacin (5, 25 mg/kg/day, alendronate (1, 10 mg/kg/day, or doxycycline (5 mg/day were administered after 6 weeks of polymicrobial infection. Periodontal disease parameters, including bacterial colonization/infection, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and systemic spread, were assessed post-euthanasia. All three periodontal pathogens colonized the rat oral cavity during polymicrobial infection. Polymicrobial infection induced an increase in total alveolar bone resorption, intrabony defects, and gingival inflammation. Treatment with bis-enoxacin significantly decreased alveolar bone resorption more effectively than either alendronate or doxycycline. Histologic examination revealed that treatment with bis-enoxacin and enoxacin reduced gingival inflammation and decreased apical migration of junctional epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that bis-enoxacin and enoxacin may be useful for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  14. Particulate bioglass in the regeneration of alveolar bone in dogs: clinical, surgical and radiographic evaluations

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    Alexandre Couto Tsiomis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss, either by trauma or other diseases, generates an increasing need for substitutes of this tissue. This study evaluated Bioglass as a bone substitute in the regeneration of the alveolar bone in mandibles of dogs by clinical, surgical and radiological analysis. Twenty-eight adult dogs were randomly separated into two equal groups. In each animal, a bone defect was created on the vestibular surface of the alveolar bone between the roots of the fourth right premolar tooth. In the treated group, the defect was immediately filled with bioglass, while in the control, it remained unfilled. Clinical evaluations were performed daily for a week, as well as x-rays immediately after surgery and at 8, 14, 21, 42, 60, 90 and 120 days post-operative. Most animals in both groups showed no signs of inflammation and wound healing was similar. Radiographic examination revealed a gradual increase of radiopacity in the region of the defect in the control group. In the treated group, initial radiopacity was higher than that of adjacent bone, decreasing until 21 days after surgery. Then it gradually increased until 120 days after surgery, when the defect became undetectable. The results showed that Bioglass integrates into bone tissue, is biocompatible and reduced the period for complete bone regeneration.

  15. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  16. The role of probiotic on alveolar bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sandra Sari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are microbes derived from the group of lactic acid bacteria that work to maintain the health of hosts. Probiotics can also be used to improve oral health. Periodontal disease is usually marked with gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption. Gram negative anaerobic bacteria that play important role in human periodontal disease are Porphyromonas gingivalis. (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis is a virulent bacteria in vivo or in vitro, and mostly found in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients. Purpose: This study is aimed to know the role of probiotics to inhibit the resorption of alveolar bone induced with P. gingivalis. Methods: This study used male wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I was control group (without treatment; group II was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 for 5 days; group III was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and also injected with probiotics (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4224 for 5 days simultaneously; and group IV was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 for 5 days and also injected by probiotics (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4224 in the next 5 days. After that, the samples were decapitated, taken their alveolar bone, and then were examined by immunohistochemistry to observe osteoclast activity in alveolar bone resorption by using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP expression. All data were then analyzed statistically. Results: It is known that there were significant differences of TRAP expression among all those treatment groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It then can be concluded that probiotics can decrease osteoclast activity in periodontal tissue of wistar rats, so it can inhibit alveolar bone resorption.Latar belakang: Probiotik adalah mikroba dari golongan bakteri asam laktat yang bekerja mempertahankan kesehatan host dan probiotik dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kesehatan rongga mulut. Penyakit periodontal ditandai dengan adanya keradangan pada gingiva dan resobsi tulang

  17. Influences of Fucoxanthin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Induced Periodontitis in Rat Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

  18. An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

  19. Alveolar bone measurement precision for phosphor-plate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILDEBOLT, CHARLES F.; COUTURE, REX; GARCIA, NATHALIA M.; DIXON, DEBRA; SHANNON, WILLIAM DOUGLAS; LANGENWALTER, ERIC; CIVITELLI, ROBERTO

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate methods for determining measurement precision and to determine the precision of alveolar-bone measurements made with a vacuum-coupled, positioning device and phosphor-plate images. Study design Subjects were rigidly attached to the x-ray tube by means of a vacuum coupling device and custom, cross-arch, bite plates. Original and repeat radiographs (taken within minutes of each other) were obtained of the mandibular posterior teeth of 51 subjects, and cementoenamel-junction-alveolar-crest (CEJ-AC) distances were measured on both sets of images. In addition, x-ray-transmission (radiodensity) and alveolar-crest-height differences were determined by subtracting one image from the other. Image subtractions and measurements were performed twice. Based on duplicate measurements, the root-mean-square standard deviation (precision) and least-significant change (LSC) were calculated. LSC is the magnitude of change in a measurement needed to indicate that a true biological change has occurred. Results The LSCs were 4% for x-ray transmission, 0.49 mm for CEJ-AC distance, and 0.06 mm for crest-height 0.06 mm. Conclusion The LSCs for our CEJ-AC and x-ray transmission measurements are similar to what has been reported. The LSC for alveolar-crest height (determined with image subtraction) was less than 0.1 mm. Compared with findings from previous studies, this represents a highly precise measurement of alveolar crest height. The methods demonstrated for calculating LSC can be used by investigators to determine how large changes in radiographic measurements need to be before the changes can be considered (with 95% confidence) true biological changes and not noise (that is, equipment/observer error). PMID:19716499

  20. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  1. Inducible models of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Casey R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-12-11

    Bone is an essential organ that not only confers structural stability to the organism, but also serves as a reservoir for hematopoietic elements and is thought to affect systemic homeostasis through the release of endocrine factors as well as calcium. The loss of bone mass due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption leads to increased fragility that can result in devastating fractures. Further understanding of the effects of environmental stimuli on the development of bone disease in humans is needed, and they can be studied using animal models. Here, we present established and novel methods for the induction of bone loss in mice, including manipulation of diet and environment, administration of drugs, irradiation, and surgically induced hormone deficiency. All of these models are directly related to human cases, and thus, can be used to investigate the causes of bone loss resulting from these interventions.

  2. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  3. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Nascimento CM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassiane Merigo do Nascimento,1 Tiago Cassol,2 Fernanda Soares da Silva,3 Maria Lucia Bonfleur,4 Carlos Augusto Nassar,5 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar5 1Biologica Science and Health Center, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; 2State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; Department of 3Pharmacy, 4Fisiology, 5Periodontology, Dental School, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 control group, 2 control and ligature group; 3 cafeteria group; and 4 cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01. Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. Keywords: periodontal disease, radiography, obesity

  4. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Feller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.

  5. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease.

  6. Microtomography of the human tooth-alveolar bone complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Michel; Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Beckmann, Felix; Sakima, Maurício T.; Lemor, Carsten; Laursen, Morten G.; Melsen, Birte

    2006-08-01

    In this study the structure of the adult human dentoalveolar process is examined using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography (SRμCT). Mandibular and maxillary segments containing two to five adjacent teeth were harvested at autopsy from 49 adult donors. These segments were embedded in blocks of methylmetacrylate and scanned using a conventional table-top μCT-scanner at a pixel size and slice thickness of 35 μm. A few segments were also scanned at a synchrotron facility at an initial pixel size of 16.4 μm, which was binned by a factor 2 to result in an effective voxel size of almost 32.8 μm. The three-dimensional reconstructions revealed how intricately the teeth are supported by the alveolar bone. Furthermore, this support is highly inhomogeneous with respect to the buccal, mesial, lingual and distal quadrants. Reflecting their various degrees of mineralization, tissues like bone, dentine, enamel and cementum, could well be identified, especially in the scans made with SRμCT. Despite comparable voxel sizes, the reconstructed data-sets obtained with conventional μCT were less detailed and somewhat fuzzy in appearance compared to the data-sets of SRμCT. However, for quantification of macroscopical features like the thickness of the alveolar wall or the presence of dehiscences/fenestrations this seemed sufficient.

  7. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were car

  8. Morbidity of chin bone transplants used for reconstructing alveolar defects in cleft patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, A; Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Kalk, WWI; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the objective and subjective morbidity of symphyseal chin bone harvesting used for reconstruction of alveolar defects in young cleft patients. Design: All patients who had undergone chin bone harvesting for alveolar cleft reconstruction in the period

  9. Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans.

  10. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-10-28

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients.

  11. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  12. Long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen; Pedersen, Kirsten Mølsted

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) in cleft lip and palate patients and to examine relationships between preoperative and postoperative factors and overall long-term bone graft success. The records of 97 patients with cleft lip and palate......, who had secondary alveolar bone grafting of 123 alveolar clefts, were examined. Interalveolar bone height was assessed radiographically a minimum of 10 years after grafting using a 4-point scale (I-IV), where types I and II were considered a success. After an average follow-up of 16 years after SABG...... to the cleft. No significant differences were found with regard to the other parameters investigated. The timing of secondary alveolar bone grafting is critical with regard to the age of the patient and the stage of eruption of the tooth distal to the cleft....

  13. TLR2 signaling and Th2 responses drive Tannerella forsythia-induced periodontal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R; Settem, Rajendra P; Connell, Terry D; Keegan, Achsah D; Gaffen, Sarah L; Sharma, Ashu

    2011-07-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic inflammation of the tooth-supporting soft tissue and alveolar bone due to infection by a select group of gram-negative microbes, which leads to tooth loss if untreated. Because mice deficient in CD4(+) cells are resistant to infection-induced alveolar bone loss, Th cells have been implicated in bone-destructive processes during PD. However, the extent to which different Th cell subtypes play roles in pathogenesis or host protection remains to be defined and is likely to vary depending on the dominant microorganism involved. By far, Porphyromonas gingivalis is the best-studied periodontal microbe in PD. Although the gram-negative anaerobe Tannerella forsythia is also a vital contributor to periodontal bone loss, almost nothing is known about immune responses to this organism. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed that T. forsythia induces periodontal bone loss in mice and that this bone loss depends on the bacterially expressed BspA protein. In this study, we showed that T. forsythia activates murine APCs primarily through TLR2-dependent signaling via BspA. Furthermore, T. forsythia infection causes a pronounced Th2 bias, evidenced by T cell expression of IL-5, but not IFN-γ or IL-17, in draining lymph nodes. Consistently, deficiencies in TLR2 or STAT6 result in resistance to T. forsythia-induced alveolar bone loss. Thus, TLR2 signaling and Th2 cells play pathogenic roles in T. forsythia-induced alveolar bone destruction.

  14. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced.

  15. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BILATERAL ALVEOLAR BONE GRAFTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the treatment results of bilateral alveolar bone grafting (BABG) in patients with bilateral complete clefts of lip and palate.Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 66 bilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients who received the procedure of BABG, among them 15 were primary BABG and 51 were secondary BABG. The patients were further divided into three groups according to age and eruption stage of the canine at the time of surgery. The result of BABG was evaluated on the radiographs. Results. (1)The overall success rate of BABG was 75.0%, with 83.3% and 72.5% for primary and secondary BABG respectively; (2)The marginal bone level was found to be significantly higher in the youngest age group than in the other groups both for primary and secondary BABG; (3)For both primary and secondary BABG, Group C (patients' age more than 16 years) had the least optimal success rate, with 66.7% and 65.4% respectively. Conclusion. Simultaneous primary palate repair and BABG is safe and feasible procedure for treating unoperated bilateral complete cleft lip and cleft palate patients. For both primary and secondary BABG, significantly better results can be achieved if the operation is performed before eruption of the canine.

  16. Histologic, Clinical, and Radiologic Findings of Alveolar Bone Expansion and Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C M; Soukup, J W

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize clinical, radiologic, and histologic patterns of alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats. Based on case materials submitted as surgical biopsy specimens, alveolar bone pathology was diagnosed in 28 cats. These cats had a total of 37 oral lesions with clinical and radiologic changes that involved bone and/or teeth, including periodontitis, bone expansion, tooth resorption, and/or chronic osteomyelitis; 32 lesions were evaluated by histopathology. Canine teeth were affected in 19 cats (27 affected teeth), with bilateral lesions in 5 (26.3%) cats. The caudal premolar and/or molar regions were affected in 10 cats (10 affected sites). All biopsy sites evaluated by a review of clinical images and/or radiographs had evidence of periodontitis. Clinical photographs showed expansion of alveolar bone in 13 of 16 (81%) biopsy sites evaluated. Radiologically, rarifying osseous proliferation of alveolar bone was seen at 26 of 27 (96%) biopsy sites, and tooth resorption occurred at 15 of 18 (83%) sites. Histologically, the tissue samples from canine sites had compressed trabeculae of mature remodeled bone, loose fibrous stroma with paucicellular inflammation, and mild proliferation of woven bone. Tissue samples from the premolar/molar biopsy sites were often highly cellular with mixed lymphoplasmacytic and chronic suppurative inflammation, ulceration with granulation tissue, and robust proliferation of woven bone. Alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats occurs in conjunction with periodontal inflammation and frequently with tooth resorption.

  17. A periodontal attachment mechanism without alveolar bone. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M J; Polson, A M; Caton, J; Freeman, E; Meitner, S

    1983-02-01

    A 22-year-old black male was referred for periodontal therapy because of radiographic evidence of advanced bone loss associated with the posterior teeth. Clinical examination revealed gingivitis, normal sulcus depths, and minimal loss of clinical attachment. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and neutrophil function were within normal limits. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of an extracted tooth revealed no loss of attachment; large areas of the cementum were collagen-poor and, ultrastructurally, resembled afibrillar cementum. It is proposed that the periodontal attachment mechanism present in this case was associated with a localized failure in normal periodontal development.

  18. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  19. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  20. Bone marrow metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with impressive FDG PET/CT finding but less-revealing bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jigang; Zhen, Lishi; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    An 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed in a 26-year-old man with a known alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma for staging. The PET/CT scan showed abnormally increased FDG activity involving almost all bones in the imaged regions. In contrast, 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan demonstrated only very limited bone metastases.

  1. Preparation and Evaluations of Mangiferin-Loaded PLGA Scaffolds for Alveolar Bone Repair Treatment Under the Diabetic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liao, Hongbing; Bao, Chongyun; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a sustained-release mangiferin scaffold for improving alveolar bone defect repair in diabetes. Mangiferin-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying technique with ice particles as the porogen material. The produced scaffolds were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Drug content and drug release were detected using a spectrophotometer. Degradation behaviors were monitored as a measure of weight loss and examined using SEM. Then, the scaffolds were incubated with rat bone marrow stromal cells under the diabetic condition in vitro, and cell viability was assessed using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Afterward, the scaffolds were implanted into alveolar bone defects of diabetic rats, and bone repair was examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The fabricated scaffolds showed porous structures, with average pore size range from 111.35 to 169.45 μm. A higher PLGA concentration led to decreased average pore size. A lower PLGA concentration or a higher mangiferin concentration resulted in increased drug content. The prepared scaffolds released mangiferin in a sustained manner with relatively low initial burst during 10 weeks. Their degradation ratios gradually increased as degradation proceeded. The mangiferin-loaded scaffolds attenuated cell viability decrease under the diabetic condition in vitro. Moreover, they increased histological scorings of bone regeneration and improved delayed alveolar bone defect healing in diabetic rats. These results suggest that the produced mangiferin-loaded scaffolds may provide a potential approach in the treatment of impaired alveolar bone healing in diabetes.

  2. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  3. Tooth loss and alveolar remodeling in Sinosaurus triassicus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Jurassic strata of the Lufeng Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING LiDa; BELL Phil R; ROTHSCHILD Bruce M; RAN Hao; ZHANG JianPing; DONG ZhiMing; ZHANG Wei

    2013-01-01

    Pathological or traumatic loss of teeth often results in the resorption and remodeling of the affected alveoli in mammals.However,instances of alveolar remodeling in reptiles are rare.A remodeled alveolus in the maxilla of the Chinese theropod Sinosaurus (Lower Jurassic Lower Lufeng Formation) is the first confirmed example of such dental pathology in a dinosaur.Given the known relationship between feeding behavior and tooth damage in theropods (teeth with spalled enamel,tooth crowns embedded in bone) and the absence of dentary,maxillary,and premaxillary osteomyelitis,traumatic loss of a tooth is most likely the cause of alveolar remodeling.Based on the extent of remodeling,the injury and subsequent tooth loss were non-fatal in this individual.

  4. Hyptis pectinata gel prevents alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica S. Paixão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit., Lamiaceae, is an aromatic, abundant and broadly used plant species in Sergipe to treat oral and gastrointestinal pain and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relation between periodontitis and changes in the corporal mass and alveolar bone structure after induction of experimental periodontal disease in rat treated or not treated with H. pectinata gel at 5% (GS5% and 10% (GS10%, comparing their effects with doxycycline gel at 10% (D10%, positive control, vehicle gel (negative control and a group with experimental periodontal disease, but non-treated. The gels were locally applied in the gingival region immediately after the experimental periodontal disease induction by ligature (3×/day, 11 days. Bone destruction was determined through clinical exam, histopathological analysis and cone beam computed tomography of the experimental animals (n = 36. After 11 days of periodontitis induction, all groups that received ligature presented a decrease in the corporal mass, except to the naïve group (without experimental periodontal disease (p < 0.05. Computed tomography results have shown healthy bone structure in the group I and bone resorption for the test groups. Histopathological analysis confirmed the healthy bone structure for naïve group animals, while the test groups exhibited bone loss in several degrees. In particular, the non-treated group animals had an intense inflammatory process. When the periodontium of the animals treated with GS10% was histopathologically analyzed, insertion periodontium was preserved. The results for these groups were significantly different of the vehicle group (p < 0.05. According to the results, the gel based in the aqueous extract of H. pectinata at 10% can prevent bone loss in experimental periodontal disease similarly to doxycycline 10%.

  5. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  6. A contemporary perspective on techniques for the clinical assessment of alveolar bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Radiographic techniques, traditional ones as well as newer ones under development, for clinically assessing alveolar bone are critically assessed. Traditional intraoral radiography is reexamined, in particular with regard to the accuracy with which the alveolar crest is seen. Evidence is presented for a more accurate representation of the alveolar crest on bitewings rather than periapical films. Application in periodontics of newer radiographic techniques, subtraction radiography, and single and dual photon aborptiometry presently under clinical development are discussed in regard to their potential and limitations. Similarly, radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the metabolic status of alveolar bone are discussed as well as the potential for using analyses of gingival crevice fluid as a window for assessment of alveolar crest metabolism. 46 references.

  7. Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Edith A; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2006-08-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment-related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  8. Alveolar bone protective and hypoglycemic effects of systemic propolis treatment in experimental periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Kesim, Servet; Greenwell, Henry; Kara, Mehmet; Çetin, Aysun; Yakan, Birkan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory effects of propolis on the systemic and local effects on experimental periodontitis and diabetes. Fifty-six Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: (1) negative-control (NC), (2) periodontitis (P), (3) diabetes (D), (4) diabetes+periodontitis (DP), (5) periodontitis+propolis (P-Pro), (6) diabetes+propolis (D-Pro), and (7) diabetes+periodontitis+propolis (DP-Pro). Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement and diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Propolis (Pro) was administrated by oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). On day 21, plasma was obtained for analysis and alveolar bone level was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. Compared to NC the final blood glucose levels for D-Pro was not significantly different (P=.052), however, D, DP, and DP-Pro were significantly different. There were no statistically significant differences in blood glucose concentrations between P and P-Pro, between D and D-Pro, and between DP and DP-Pro. All groups showed significantly more alveolar bone loss compared with NC. A significant difference in bone loss was found between P and P-Pro, and DP and DP-Pro, however there was no difference between D and D-Pro. Plasma interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) levels were not significantly different among groups. In conclusion, propolis reduced fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes. In addition, propolis might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of diabetes associated periodontitis and periodontitis without diabetes.

  9. Bone grafting of alveolar socket and ovate seat pontic preparation for natural emergence profile for anterior bridge - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar atrophy following tooth extraction remains a challenge for future prosthetic restorations. Immediate implant placement and postextraction alveolar bone grafting are two methods that are used to prevent significant postextraction bone loss. Grafting is one of the most common methods of socket preservation widely used to prevent the collapse of oral tissues following extraction so that an excellent esthetic prosthesis can be provided particularly in the anterior maxillary region. The present report describes the management of a maxillary tooth extraction socket using a socket preservation technique involving placement of an osteoconductive slowly resorbable grafting material & resorbable collagen membrane in the extraction socket also called as Bio-Col socket preservation technique followed by a provisional restoration to preserve the tissues & interdental papilla for the placement of future final ovate pontic anterior bridge to give the illusion of the tooth emerging from the gums. This technique resulted in a successful prevention of alveolar bone loss following tooth extraction & maintainence of tissue contour & density which provided a good tissue base for the fabrication of Ovate pontic giving excellent esthetic results.

  10. Three dimensional stress analysis of periodontal ligament of mandibular premolar with alveolar bone loss%不同牙槽骨吸收程度下颌前磨牙牙周膜应力分析的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 刘娜; 郭靖; 孙海阳; 李鸿波

    2015-01-01

    目的:确定下颌前磨牙牙体长轴和釉牙骨质界,建立三维有限元分析模型,研究牙槽骨吸收程度对下颌前磨牙牙周膜承受应力的影响。方法:选择离体下颌前磨牙,通过micro-CT扫描重建牙齿三维图像、通过锥形拟合法确定牙体长轴、手工划定釉牙骨质界,将牙根十等分、划分单元格、设定模型力学性质、设定加载,建立下颌前磨牙的三维有限元模型。加载力值100N;加载方向为与牙体长轴平行、与牙体长轴成45°、与牙体长轴垂直;加载位置位于牙体长轴与牙合面相交的点。分析不同牙槽骨吸收程度、不同加载方向下牙周膜所受的最大Von Mises应力值。结果:结合牙体长轴、釉牙骨质界的概念,建立了三维有限元分析模型。随着牙槽骨吸收程度的增加,下颌前磨牙牙周膜的Von Mises应力最大值显著增高。在与牙体长轴平行的加载力作用下,牙槽骨吸收达到50%时下颌前磨牙牙周膜承受的最大应力为牙槽骨无吸收时的2倍;在与牙体长轴垂直或与牙体长轴成45°的加载力作用下,下颌前磨牙牙槽骨吸收30%时牙周膜最大应力值达到牙槽骨无吸收时的2倍。结论:在建立三维有限元分析模型时结合牙体长轴、釉牙骨质界的概念,有利于规范和统一加载方向、模拟不同牙槽骨吸收量。对于下颌前磨牙牙周膜应力分析结果表明,当牙槽骨吸收至30%时将会对牙周组织造成损伤。%Objective:To establish three dimensional finite element analysis models based on tooth long axis, and to investigate the effects of alveolar bone loss on stress distribution of periodontal ligament of mandibular premolar.Methods:A sound extracted mandibular premolar was selected. Finite-analysis modeling procedures included micro-CT scanning, the digital tooth modeling, determining the long axis and the cemento-enamel junction, dividing the root into

  11. OCLI-023, a Novel Pyrimidine Compound, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Alveolar Bone Resorption In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Ang; Lee, Doohyun; Kim, Nam Doo; Shin, Hong-In; Bae, Yong Chul; Park, Eui Kyun

    2017-01-01

    An abnormal increase in osteoclast differentiation and activation results in various bone-resorptive diseases, including periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis. Chemical compounds containing pyrimidine ring have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes. Therefore, in order to identify an antiresorptive agent, we synthesized a series of pyrimidine ring-containing chemical compounds, and found that OCLI-023 suppressed the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts in vitro. OCLI-023 directly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of bone marrow macrophages into osteoclasts, without a cytotoxic response. OCLI-023 also downregulated the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast markers as well as inhibited the formation of actin rings and resorption pits. OCLI-023 attenuated the RANKL-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling pathways. In a mouse model of periodontitis, ligature induced an increase of distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and alveolar bone crest (ABC) in the second molar, and OCLI-023 significantly reduced it. Histological analysis showed ligature-induced increase of osteoclast numbers was also significantly reduced by OCLI-023. These data demonstrated the inhibitory effect of OCLI-023 on osteoclast differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in vitro, as well as on ligature-induced bone loss in vivo, and OCLI-023 can be proposed as a novel anti-resorptive compound. PMID:28085946

  12. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis.

  13. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dao-Cai [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 291st Hospital of P.L.A, Baotou (China); Li, De-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ji, Hui-Cang [Military Sanatorium of Retired Cadres, Baotou (China); Rao, Guo-Zhou [Center of Laboratory, School of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liang, Li-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ma, Ai-Jie [Xi' an Technology University, Xi' an (China); Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2012-04-05

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones.

  14. Research progress on alveolar bone development%牙槽骨发生的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧明明; 黄晓峰; 韩培彦

    2014-01-01

    Absorption and loss of alveolar bone are some of the main reasons of tooth loss. Therefore, clinics must understand how to reconstruct alveolar bone. To date, treatment strategies to rescue or regenerate the alveolar bone are limited. The process of developing biological alveolar bone formation in the early stage may help to understand the mechanism of bone regeneration and benefit clinical treatment. Alveolar bone is partially derived from dental follicle cells. Many growth factors and transcription factors are involved in the development of alveolar bone. In this review, the relationship between alveolar bone formation and many factors will be discussed in detail. This review also highlights recent advances in understanding alveolar bone development with and without varying factors.%牙槽骨再生是牙周组织疾病治疗的根本。牙槽骨发生属于膜内成骨,成骨细胞来源于多潜能神经嵴牙囊间质细胞,伴随着牙体的发生而发生。牙胚由成釉器、牙乳头和牙囊组成,而牙囊则形成牙骨质、牙周膜和牙槽骨。骨形态发生蛋白(BMP)可启动、促进和调节骨的发生、发育、生长、重塑和修复。核心结合因子1可使牙囊间质细胞向成骨细胞分化,对膜内成骨和软骨内成骨有控制作用。成纤维细胞生长因子通过调控骨干细胞复制,成骨细胞分化和程序性死亡,各种细胞及相关因子的表达来控制骨形成。WNT在BMP的刺激下促进成骨细胞分化,增强BMP诱导下的Ⅰ型胶原、特殊骨基质蛋白和骨钙蛋白表达。声音刺猬蛋白、转化生长因子β和肌节同源盒蛋白2在牙槽骨和牙骨质中表达强烈,其基因突变可致牙槽骨丧失。本文就牙槽骨发生与牙囊间的关系以及参与牙槽骨发生的细胞因子等研究进展作一综述。

  15. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  16. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 1. Magiscan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E.; Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Fallon, J.

    1982-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that /sup 125/I absorptiometry gives an accurate and sensitive measure of alveolar bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alveolar bone mass determined by /sup 125/I absorptiometry and bone density obtained by analysis of standardized intraoral radiographs by the Magiscan System. A defect of increasing size was made at one site of the alveolar bone in a human skull. The amount of bone remaining at each step was calculated using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. Standardized radiographs were also taken at each step and the relative density in the area of the defect was determined by the Magiscan System. The Magiscan's System Computer Memory permits analysis of identical areas on a longitudinal series of films of the same alveolar bone location. The results indicate that in estimating amounts of alveolar bone the Magiscan analysis of standardized intraoral radiography is similar in sensitivity and accuracy to /sup 125/I absorptiometry.

  17. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Promotes Periodontal Regeneration and Enhances Alveolar Bone Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms.

  18. Platelet-rich fibrin promotes periodontal regeneration and enhances alveolar bone augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit J; Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia; Chu, Shunli; Geng, Yajun; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms.

  19. Ozone treatment of alveolar bone in the cape chacma baboon does not enhance healing following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A; Kotze, Harry F

    2014-06-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5-4 % O3), while the opposite sides were not treated and thus served as control. Regeneration was measured radiologically, using a standardized gray scale, as the increase in bone density in the treatment area at 3 and 6 weeks post-operative and was statistically analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). There were no significant differences in densities observed between the O3/O2 mixture treatment and the control (p > 0.05). A single O3 treatment did not increase alveolar bone healing over a 3- and 6-week period in the mandible and the maxilla.

  20. Bone regeneration by octacalcium phosphate collagen composites in a dog alveolar cleft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, K; Matsui, A; Handa, T; Kawai, T; Suzuki, O; Kamakura, S; Echigo, S

    2010-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and porcine atelocollagen sponge composites (OCP/Col) markedly enhanced bone regeneration in a rat cranial defect model. To assess clinical application, the authors examined whether OCP/Col would enhance bone regeneration in an alveolar cleft model in an adult dog, which was assumed to reflect patients with alveolar cleft. Disks of OCP/Col or collagen were implanted into the defect and bone regeneration by OCP/Col or collagen was investigated 4 months after implantation. Macroscopically, the OCP/Col-treated alveolus was obviously augmented and occupied by radio-opacity, and the border between the original bone and the defect was indistinguishable. Histological analysis revealed it was filled and bridged with newly formed bone; a small quantity of the remaining implanted OCP was observed. X-ray diffraction patterns of the area of implanted OCP/Col indicated no difference from those of dog bone. In the collagen-treated alveolus, the hollowed alveolus was mainly filled with fibrous connective tissue, and a small amount of new bone was observed at the defect margin. These results suggest that bone was obviously repaired when OCP/Col was implanted into the alveolar cleft model in a dog, and OCP/Col would be a significant bone regenerative material to substitute for autogeneous bone.

  1. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis of human alveolar bone repair induced by laser phototherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, M M A; Marques, M M; Cortes, A R G; Horliana, A C R T; Moreira, M S; Lascala, C A

    2015-12-01

    Immediate dental implant placement in the molar region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between alveolar crest thickness and the implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human alveolar bone repair 40 days after molar extraction in patients submitted to LPT. Twenty patients were selected for this randomized controlled clinical trial; 10 underwent LPT (laser group) with a GaAlAs diode laser (808 nm, 100 mW, 0.04 cm(2), 75 J/cm(2), 30s per point, 3 J per point, at five points). The control group patients (n=10) were not irradiated. Forty days later, the tissue formed inside the sockets was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Data from the two groups were compared with Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. The relative bone volume was significantly higher in the laser group (Palveolar bone repair after molar extraction, leading to a more homogeneous trabecular configuration represented by thin and close trabeculae.

  2. Novel antioxidative nanotherapeutics in a rat periodontitis model: Reactive oxygen species scavenging by redox injectable gel suppresses alveolar bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Makiko; Kaneko, Junya; Sato, Takenori; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Kawamata, Ryota; Sakurai, Takashi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in a variety of disorders, but to date, ROS scavengers have not been widely used for local treatment of inflammation, because they are rapidly eliminated from the inflamed site. We have designed a novel redox injectable gel (RIG) that is formed at 37 °C after disintegration of nano-assembled flower micelles allowing nitroxide radicals to act locally as specific ROS scavengers for the treatment of periodontitis. In the present study, we have confirmed retention of the RIG in the periodontal region, along with its antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory effects, and we have subsequently evaluated the inhibitory effect of the RIG against Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)-induced alveolar bone loss attributed to ROS. Alveolar bone loss was estimated by morphometry, gingival blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry, and osteoclast differentiation was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. The results show that the RIG can inhibit P. gingivalis-induced bone loss by antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory actions, and this suggests that the RIG is a promising novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis.

  3. Responses of tooth eruption and alveolar bone subject to somatic growth retardation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A W

    1981-06-01

    The morphogenesis and regression of the osteodental fissure formed by alveolar bone in the maxillary and mandibular regions has been investigated in relation to eruption of the dentition during and following a period of somatic retardation stemming from nutritional suppression. Fissural formation occurred above the first and second molars of the maxilla and mandible, morphologically within normal limits but retarded by two days. During eruption a sequence of cuspal perforations of the alveolar bone took place behind the edge of the alveolar crest which later disintegrated as the bulk of the crown moved upwards. The appearance of the specific cusps of the experimental animals was two days behind that of the controls. Eruption through the oral mucosa was fairly rapid and the deficit noted in the bone emergence phase was reduced to one day. As in control animals, fissural formation did not occur over the third molars which were totally encapsulated by bone. Eruption of third molars in experimental animals was similar to control observations- no difference in timing and the removal of the encapsulating bone being achieved by the rapid enlarging of a wedge-shaped area at the mesio-occlusal aspect. Observation of eruption through alveolar bone is regarded as a more accurate assessment of changes in the early phases.

  4. Complications related to bone augmentation procedures of localized defects in the alveolar ridge. A retrospective clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Torp; Jensen, Simon Storgård; Worsaae, Nils

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This retrospective clinical study aims to evaluate complications after augmentation of localized bone defects of the alveolar ridge. METHODS: From standardized registrations, the following complications related to bone augmentation procedures were recorded: soft tissue dehiscence, infect...

  5. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  6. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong

    2015-01-01

    on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un...... across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant......-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. RESULTS: Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental...

  7. Three-dimensional microstructure of human alveolar trabecular bone: a micro-computed tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The microstructural characteristics of trabecular bone were identified using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), in order to develop a potential strategy for implant surface improvement to facilitate osseointegration. Methods Alveolar bone specimens from the cadavers of 30 humans were scanned by high-resolution micro-CT and reconstructed. Volumes of interest chosen within the jaw were classified according to Hounsfield units into 4 bone quality categories. Several structural parameters were measured and statistically analyzed. Results Alveolar bone specimens with D1 bone quality had significantly higher values for all structural parameters than the other bone quality categories, except for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th). The percentage of bone volume, trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and trabecular number (Tb.N) varied significantly among bone quality categories. Tb.Sp varied markedly across the bone quality categories (D1: 0.59±0.22 mm, D4: 1.20±0.48 mm), whereas Tb.Th had similar values (D1: 0.30±0.08 mm, D4: 0.22±0.05 mm). Conclusions Bone quality depended on Tb.Sp and number—that is, endosteal space architecture—rather than bone surface and Tb.Th. Regardless of bone quality, Tb.Th showed little variation. These factors should be taken into account when developing individualized implant surface topographies. PMID:28261521

  8. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  9. Diet-Induced Obesity and Its Differential Impact on Periodontal Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluke, M; Gold, T; Kiefhaber, K; Al-Sahli, A; Celenti, R; Jiang, H; Cremers, S; Van Dyke, T; Schulze-Späte, U

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and impaired bone homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of specific elevated fatty acid (FA) levels on alveolar bone loss in a Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced model of periodontal disease and to analyze underlying cellular mechanisms in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts in mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided in groups and subjected to a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high-fat diet (HFD) (20% of calories from FA) or a normal caloric diet (C group) (10% of calories from FA) for 16 wk. Starting at week 10, mice were infected orally with P. gingivalis (W50) or placebo to induce alveolar bone loss. Animals were sacrificed, and percentage fat, serum inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), and bone metabolism (osteocalcin [OC], carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks [CTX], and N-terminal propeptides of type I procollagen [P1NP]) markers were measured. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were cultured in the presence of elevated PA or OA levels and exposed to P. gingivalis. Animals on FA-enriched diets weighed significantly more compared with animals on a normal caloric diet (P diet rather than weight gain and obesity alone modulates bone metabolism and can therefore influence alveolar bone loss.

  10. 尼古丁对实验性牙周炎大鼠牙槽骨影响的显微CT观察%Effects of nicotine on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rat:a micro-computed tomographic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颍凤; 王小竞; 王庆昱; 张晓; 王军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish the three-dimensional images of rat's alveolar bone and to evaluate the effects of nicotine on alveolar bone loss during the process of ligature-induced periodontitis with micro-computed tomography(micro-CT).Methods Thirty-six adult male SD rats received silk ligatures around the cervlxes of the Tight second maxillary molars.Then the animals were randomly assigned to three groups and received daily intraperitoneal injections as follows:group A(control),saline solution;group B,were randomly selected and sacrificed at day 14 and 28.Micro-CT examinations were used to evaluate the periodontal breakdown.Results With the nicotine dose increased,bone mineral density(BMD),bone volume fraction(BVF),and trabecular thickness(TT)gradually reduced,while the trabecular spacing(TS)and alveolar bone loss(ABL)increased.At day 28,the ABL of group C(left,right)was(0.61±0.14)mm and(1.39±0.09)mm,and significantly higher than that of group B[(0.39±0.10)mm and(1.31±0.06)mm]and group A[(0.30±0.06)mm and(0.94±0.07)mm].The BMD of group C,group B and group A at day 28 was[(617.86±34.27),(572.46±31.62)mg/cm3],[(660.04±36.73),(604.97±32.59)mg/cm3]and[(709.15±34.95),(657.04±30.06)mg/cm3]respectively.Conclusions Daily administration of nicotine results in significant bone loss and microstructure deteriorations in the trabeculae of alveolar bone.%目的 建立牙周炎大鼠的牙槽骨三维模型,采用显微CT观察尼古丁对大鼠牙槽骨的影响.方法 36只SD大鼠,丝线结扎上颌右侧(实验侧)第二磨牙颈部,左侧不予结扎,作为自身对照(对照侧),使用完全随机分组方法分为对照组(A)及尼古丁注射低剂量(B)和高剂量(C)组,每组12只.分别给予生理盐水和尼古丁0.83、1.67 mg·kg-1·d-1腹腔注射.每组分别于给药后第14、28天各处死6只,取双侧上颌磨牙区牙体牙周复合组织,行显微CT扫描、重建、测最和分析.结果 随尼古丁给药剂量增加,双侧牙槽骨骨密度

  11. Effects of simvastatin gel on bone regeneration in alveolar defects in miniature pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shan; YANG Jun-ying; ZHANG Sheng-yan; FENG Lei; REN Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently,the most commonly used treatment methods for repairing alveolar furcation defects are periodontal guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and bone grafting.The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin/methylcellulose gel on bone regeneration in alveolar defects in miniature pigs.Methods Alveolar defects were produced in 32 teeth (the third and fourth premolars) of 4 miniature pigs.The 32 experimental teeth were divided into 5 groups comprising control (C) and treatment (T) teeth:(1) empty defects without gel (group C0,n=4); (2) defects injected with methylcellulose gel (group C1,n=4); (3) defects injected with 0.5 mg/50 μl simvastatin/methylcellulose gel (group T1,n=8); (4) defects injected with 1.5 mg/50 μl simvastatin/methylcellulose gel (group T2,n=8); and (5) defects injected with 2.2 mg/50 μl simvastatin/methylcellulose gel (group T3,n=8).Every week after surgery,the furcation sites were injected once with gel.At the eighth week after surgery,the 4 pigs were sacrificed and underwent macroscopic observation,descriptive histologic examination,and regenerate bone quantitative histologic examination.Results At 8 weeks after surgery,the defect sites in the treatment groups were completely filled in with new bone and fibrous tissue.There was little new bone in the C0 and C1 groups,and only a small number of osteoblasts and proliferative vessels could be seen on microscopic examination.Conclusions Miniature pigs are an ideal experimental animal for establishing a model of alveolar defects using a surgical method.Local application of simvastatin/methylcellulose gel can stimulate the regeneration of alveolar bone in furcation defect sites,because it promotes the proliferation of osteoblasts.The best dose of simvastatin gel to stimulate bone regeneration is 0.5 mg.

  12. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  13. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries.

  14. 应用AutoCAD定量分析牙槽骨水平的研究%Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone level by Auto CAD software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀云; 乔月娥; 兰晓敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish and evaluale a new quanlilalive melhod for measurement of alveolar bone level. Methods The area from ihe cemenlo-enamel junction ( CEJ) Lo ihe alveolar bone level ( BL) and ihe area from ihe CEJ Lo ihe rool apex (RA)on ihe panoramic radiographs were measured by AuloCAD software. The dislance belween ihe CEJ and BL and ihe dislance belween ihe CEJ and RA were measured. The proporlional values of ihe area and dislance of ihe alveolar bone loss were analyzed. Results A lolal of 336 areas and 672 linear distances were measured. There was high consistency belween ihe Iradilional lenglh ralios of ihe alveolar bone loss and ihe area ralios oblained by AuloCAD. Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0. 921 ( P 0.05),组内相关系数为0.994(P<0.001),Pearson相关系数为0.988(P<0.001).结论 在二维图像的X线片中,用AutoCAD软件测量牙槽骨吸收面积比值可作为定量评价牙槽骨水平的新方法.

  15. In-vivo effect of andrographolide on alveolar bone resorption induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and its relation with antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.

  16. Effect of laser phototherapy on human alveolar bone repair: micro tomographic and histomorphometrical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Marcia M. A.; Marques, Márcia M.; Cortes, Arthur R. G.; Horliana, Anna C. R. T.; Moreira, Maria S.; Lascala, Cesar A.

    2015-06-01

    The immediate dental implant placement in the molars region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between the alveolar crest thickness and the dental implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair thus could accelerate the implant placement. Twenty patients were selected for the study. Ten patients were submitted to LPT with GaAlAs diode laser (808nm) during molar extraction, immediately after, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7 days. The irradiations were applied in contact and punctual mode (100mW, 0.04cm2, 0.75J/cm2, 30s per point, 3J per point). The control group (n=10) received the same treatment; however with the power of the laser off. Forty days later samples of the tissue formed inside the sockets were obtained for further microtomography (microCTs) and histomorphometry analyses. Data were compared by the Student t test, whereas those from the different microCT parameters were compared by the Pearson correlation test (pbone volume, as well as area was significantly higher (pbone repair. By the Pearson correlation test it was possible to infer that the lased group presented a more homogeneous trabecular configuration, which would allow earlier dental implant placement.

  17. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray{sup TM} (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 {+-} 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 {+-} 4.7 .deg. C (p<0.05, r=0.96) at the 1st molar area and 76.4 {+-} 1.7 .deg. C and 82.7 {+-} 1.7 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 {+-} 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 {+-} 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 {+-} 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 {+-} 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  18. Three-dimensional evaluation of upper anterior alveolar bone dehiscence after incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-yuan GUO; Shi-jie ZHANG; Hong LIU; Chun-ling WANG; Fu-lan WEI; Tao LV; Na-na WANG; Dong-xu LIU

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage.Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted.Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion.A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment.The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone.Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm,respectively,and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion.Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm,respectively,and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%,respectively.The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°,respectively.Conclusions: Thus,for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion,mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion.Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss.

  19. A possible etiology for the dilaceration and flexion of permanent tooth roots relative to bone remodeling gradients in alveolar bone

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Trauma, altered tooth germ position and delayed tooth eruption have been hypothesized as possible causes of tooth root dilacerations and flexion, however these anatomical variations appear more commonly associated with posterior teeth and absence of traumatic history. The Hypothesis: Postulated is that tooth root dilaceration or flexion may be a result of tooth root sheath displacement due to gradients of bone remodeling present within alveolar bone. Evaluation of the Hypothesis...

  20. Hounsfield Unit Change in Root and Alveolar Bone during Canine Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feifei; Liu, Sean Y.; Xia, Zeyang; Li, Shuning; Chen, Jie; Kula, Katherine S.; Eckert, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) changes in the alveolar bone and root surface during controlled canine retractions. Methods Eighteen maxillary canine retraction patients were selected for this split mouth design clinical trial. The canines in each patient were randomly assigned to receive either translation or controlled tipping treatment strategy. Pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography scans of each patient were used to determine tooth movement direction and HU changes. The alveolar bone and root surface were divided into 108 divisions, respectively. The HU in each division was measured. The Mixed-model ANOVA was applied to test the HU change distribution at the p<0.05 significant level. Results The HU changes varied with the directions relative to the canine movement. The HU reduction occurred at the root surface. Larger reductions occurred in the divisions that were perpendicular to the moving direction. However, HU decreased in the alveolar bone in the moving direction. The highest HU reduction was at the coronal level. Conclusions HU reduction occurs on the root surface in the direction perpendicular to the tooth movement and in the alveolar bone in the direction of tooth movement when a canine is retracted. PMID:25836004

  1. Use of Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography to Classify Filling of Alveolar Bone Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jorge V. Forte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have proposed classifications to analyze the quality over time of secondary alveolar bone grafting. However, little discussion has been held to quantitatively measure the secondary bone grafting for correction of nasal deformity associated to cleft palate and lip. Twenty patients with unilateral alveolar cleft, who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting, were studied with 3D computer tomography. The height between the inferior portion of the pyriform aperture and the incisal border of the unaffected side (height A and the affected side (height B was measured using a software Mirror. A percentage was then obtained dividing the height B by the height A and classified into grades I, II, and III if the value was greater than 67%, between 34% and 66%, or less than 33%. Age, time of followup, initial operation, and age of canine eruption were also recorded. All patients presented appropriate occlusion and function. Mean time of followup was 7 years, and mean initial age for operation was 10 years old. 16 patients were rated as grade I and 4 patients as grade II. No cases had grade III. We present a new grading system that can be used to assess the success of secondary bone grafting in patients who underwent alveolar cleft repair.

  2. Development and characterization of a rabbit alveolar bone nonhealing defect model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, S.; Bashoura, A.G.; Borden, T.; Baggett, L.S.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.; Mikos, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an easily accessible and reproducible, nonhealing alveolar bone defect in the rabbit mandible. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular defect surgery. Two types of defect in the premolar/molar region were compared: (1) a 1

  3. Effects of a herbal gel containing carvacrol and chalcones on alveolar bone resorption in rats on experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Montenegro, Danusa; Bandeira, Mary Anne Menezes; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves Cruz; Nogueira, Nadia Accioly Pinto; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro

    2008-04-01

    Carvacrol and dimeric chalcones are the respective bioactive components of Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva, popular medicinal plants of Northeastern Brazil with proven antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Periodontal disease is associated with inflammation and microbiological proliferation, thus the study aimed to investigate the effect of a topical gel based on carvacrol and chalcones in the experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Animals were treated with carvacrol and/or chalcones gel, immediately after EPD induction, three times a day for 11 days. Appropriate controls were included in the study. Animals were weighed daily. They were killed on day 11, the mandibles dissected and alveolar bone loss was measured. The periodontium were examined at histopathology and the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity. The bacterial flora were assessed through culture of the gingival tissue. Alveolar bone loss was significantly (p gel, compared with the vehicle and non-treated groups. The treatment with the combined gel reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, decreased myeloperoxidase activity in gingival tissue and inhibited the growth of oral microorganisms as well as the weight loss. Carvacrol and chalcones combination gel has a beneficial effect upon EPD in this model.

  4. Locally Produced BDNF Promotes Sclerotic Change in Alveolar Bone after Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Yamada, Yurie; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is released due to nerve injury, is known to promote the natural healing of injured nerves. It is often observed that damage of mandibular canal induces local sclerotic changes in alveolar bone. We reported that peripheral nerve injury promotes the local production of BDNF; therefore, it was possible to hypothesize that peripheral nerve injury affects sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BDNF on osteogenesis using in vitro osteoblast-lineage cell culture and an in vivo rat osteotomy model. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with BDNF and were examined for cell proliferative activity, chemotaxis and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. For in vivo study, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury experiments and mandibular cortical osteotomy were performed using a rat model. In the osteotomy model, exogenous BDNF was applied to bone surfaces after corticotomy of the mandible, and we morphologically analyzed the new bone formation. As a result, mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation marker, osteocalcin, was significantly increased by BDNF, although cell proliferation and migration were not affected. In the in vivo study, osteopontin-positive new bone formation was significantly accelerated in the BDNF-grafted groups, and active bone remodeling, involving trkB-positive osteoblasts and osteocytes, continued after 28 days. In conclusion, BDNF stimulated the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and it promoted new bone formation and maturation. These results suggested that local BDNF produced by peripheral nerve injury contributes to accelerating sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone. PMID:28072837

  5. Microthreaded Implants and Crestal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad; Kutkut, Ahmad; Almas, Khalid

    2016-11-21

    This systematic literature review investigated the effect of microthreaded-neck dental implants on crestal bone loss. Using the participants, interventions, comparison groups, outcomes, and study design (PICOS) system, we addressed the following focused question: Do microthreaded-neck dental implants positively affect the crestal bone level around dental implants? We searched 3 electronic databases to find articles published between January 1995 and June 2016 that contained any combination of the following keywords: dental implant, microthread, microthreaded, crestal bone level, crestal bone loss, and alveolar bone level. We excluded case reports, review articles, letters to the editor, commentaries, and articles published in a language other than English. We found a total of 70 articles. After eliminating duplicates and applying PICOS eligibility criteria, we selected only articles that reported the results of randomized controlled trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, or other types of clinical trials that compared the microthreaded implant design to other implant designs. We were left with 23 articles for review. The 23 articles reported crestal bone loss ranging from 0.05 mm to 0.9 mm, with a range of 12 to 96 months of follow-up. Less crestal bone was lost with dental implants that had a microthreaded neck design than with machined-surface or conventional rough-surface dental implants. Thus, microthreaded dental implants are a better choice than are implants with other designs. Future studies should use standardized imaging techniques to to evaluate the placement of these implants in bone-augmented sites.

  6. A possible etiology for the dilaceration and flexion of permanent tooth roots relative to bone remodeling gradients in alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Standerwick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trauma, altered tooth germ position and delayed tooth eruption have been hypothesized as possible causes of tooth root dilacerations and flexion, however these anatomical variations appear more commonly associated with posterior teeth and absence of traumatic history. The Hypothesis: Postulated is that tooth root dilaceration or flexion may be a result of tooth root sheath displacement due to gradients of bone remodeling present within alveolar bone. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Alveolar bone displays bone remodeling gradients between coronal, apical and basal sections which affect bone plasticity. As a tooth is erupting or experiences delayed eruption, there are other relative dento-skeletal alterations occurring, such as the mesial drift of the dentition and transverse growth of the maxilla. It is plausible that during the physiologic and growth related alteration of the alveolar and basal bones, portions of developing tooth could be found within one or more of the plasticity zones, contributing to alteration of the root sheath and tooth root dilaceration.

  7. 双维控制牙槽骨牵张器的成骨效应%A bidirectional alveolar bone distraction device for osteogenesis of alveolar bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄代营; 聂二民; 孙明; 黎炽彬

    2011-01-01

    背景:牵张成骨增高牙槽嵴在基础研究及临床已有很多成功报道,双维控制垂直牙槽骨牵张器可有效防止单向直线牵张器行牙槽骨牵张发生轴向移位.目的:研制双维控制的牙槽骨牵张器,并通过动物实验观察其成骨效应.方法:选择杂种犬4只,拔除一侧下颌前磨牙形成萎缩牙槽骨模型.1个月后行骨切开放置双维牵张器,7 d后垂直牵张 (1 mm/d,共5 d).完成垂直牵张后,利用双维牵张器颊向控制功能将移动骨块颊向牵出(大约2.4 mm),固定2个月后行大体观察及组织学检查.结果与结论:4只犬中2只黏膜伤口愈合良好,2只黏膜出现裂开,行二次缝合后愈合,牵张器固位良好,未出现松动、脱落.牵张骨块向垂直向及颊向的位移量满足实验目的要求,牙槽骨垂直向高度平均增加(5.0±0.2) mm,颊向宽度平均增加(2.4±0.3) mm.大体观察及组织学检查均证实牵张成骨的骨块新骨形成良好.说明双维控制垂直牙槽骨牵张器能较好的控制移动骨块垂直或颊向的移动方向,并且新骨形成良好.%BACKGROUND: Alveolar bone augmentation using a unidirectional dist raction device may lead to axial displacement. Abidirectional distraction device can control the vertical and buccal-lingual directions. But studies regarding this have been rarelyreported.OBJECTIVE: To develop a bidirectional alveolar bone distraction device and to investigate its effects on osteogenic effectsthrough an animal experiment.METHODS: Four adult mongrel dogs were established into models of alveolar bone atrophy by extraction of unilateral mandiblepremolars. After 1 month, alveolar bone was cut open and a bilateral distraction device was placed. Seven days later, thedistraction was started at a rate of 1 mm/day for 5 days. At last, buccal-lingual direction distraction (approximately 2.4 mm) wastaken for once, followed by a consolidation period of 2 months. Subsequently, gross observation and

  8. Biodegradable effect of PLGA membrane in alveolar bone regeneration on beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Nan; Ti, Vivian Lao; Xu, Yuanzhi

    2014-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a principle adopted from guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Wherein, GBR is used for the healing of peri-implant bony dehiscences, for the immediate placement of implants into extraction sockets and for the augmentation of atrophic alveolar ridges. This procedure is done by the placement of a resorbable or non-resorbable membrane that will exclude undesirable types of tissue growth between the extraction socket and the soft tissue to allow only bone cells to regenerate in the surgically treated lesion. Here, we investigated the biodegradable effect of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membrane in the alveolar bone on Beagle dogs. Results show that both collagen and PLGA membrane had been fully resorbed, biodegraded, at four weeks post-operative reentry into the alveolar bone. Histological results under light microscopy revealed formation of new bone trabeculae in the extraction sites on both collagen and PLGA membrane. In conclusion, PLGA membrane could be a potential biomaterials for use on GBR and GTR. Nevertheless, further studies will be necessary to elucidate the efficiency and cost effectiveness of PLGA as GBR membrane in clinical.

  9. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  10. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.

  11. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Webster S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  12. Alveolar bone grafting in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and bisphosphonate-induced abnormal bone turnover in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasumitsu; Ogose, Akira; Oguri, Yoshimitsu; Ubaidus, Sobhan; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-09-01

    A case is presented of extensive alveolar bone grafting in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The patient previously underwent bisphosphonate therapy. Because of an abnormal and often decreased bone turnover caused by the fibrous dysplasia and the bisphosphonate therapy, bone grafting in such a patient poses several potential difficulties. In addition, the histomorphometric analysis of the bone grafts showed markedly decreased bone turnover. However, alveolar bone grafting using the iliac crest was performed successfully. Sufficient occlusion was achieved by postoperative low-loading orthodontic treatment.

  13. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Milstein; Y.W. Cheung; L. Ziukaite; C. Ince; H.P. van den Akker; J.A.H. Lindeboom

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bon

  14. Vitamin C prevents hypogonadal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, we show that the ingestion of vitamin C prevents the low-turnover bone loss following ovariectomy in mice. We show that this prevention in areal bone mineral density and micro-CT parameters results from the stimulation of bone formation, demonstrable in vivo by histomorphometry, bone marker measurements, and quantitative PCR. Notably, the reductions in the bone formation rate, plasma osteocalcin levels, and ex vivo osteoblast gene expression 8 weeks post-ovariectomy are all returned to levels of sham-operated controls. The study establishes vitamin C as a skeletal anabolic agent.

  15. The osteogenetic rate in alveolar bone remodeling induced by distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuang; FENG Pei-xun; GUO Xiong; ZHOU Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe osteogenetic rate of alveolar bone on the tension side in orthodontic tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodental ligament quantificationally. Methods:The experiment was carried in 6 dogs. The left side of jaws of each one was set as test or control side, and the other side was control or test side. On the control side, the first premorlar was moved by traditional method on the test side. A self-made distraction device was used on the test side. The newly formed alveolar bone on the tension side of moved tooth was labeled by serial tetracycline fluorochrome. Sections were observed by fluorescence microscope and pictured. Newly formed bone was measured by computer image analysis. Results: The quantity of newly formed bone was significantly different between the two methods. Newly formed bone in rapid tooth movement by distraction osteogenesis of the periodental ligament was more than that in traditional method. Conclusion: The distraction through periodental ligament could induce more rapid bone formation and excite higher osteogenetic activity than traditional method.

  16. Resolving of deficit alveolar ridges by induced bone regeneration- case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to show illustrative, indication of alveolar augmentation before insertion of endoosseous dental implants. In our case report we have shown the indication for ridge augmentation prior to the placement of endoosseous dental implant. The local process of bone regeneration was thus stimulated and the chances of a good clinical output were increased. Case report: Female patient (27 years old) visited our clinic. Diagnosis was periodontitis of 46 and indication to remove the tooth, ...

  17. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Methods Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. Results New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. Conclusions After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit. PMID:27800213

  18. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  19. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, both materials have positive effect on alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less residual graft particles in DFDBA group than in DBBM group.

  20. Loss of p120 catenin aggravates alveolar edema of ventilation induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chen-yang; DAI Guo-feng; SUN Yu; WANG Yue-lan

    2013-01-01

    Background p120 catenin (p120ctn) is an adheren junction protein that regulates barrier function,but its role has not been explored in alveolar edema induced by ventilation.We measured stretch-induced cell gap formation in MLE 12 cells due to the loss of p120.We hypothesized that alveolar permeability was increased by high lung inflation associated with alveolar epithelia cell tight junctions being destroyed,which resulted from the loss of p120.Methods Cultured MLE12 cells were subjected to being stretched or un-stretched (control) and some cells were pretreated with pp2 (c-src inhibitor).After the end of stretching for 0,1,2,and 4 hours,the cells were lysed,and p120 expression and c-src activation was determined by Western blotting analysis.In vivo,SD rats were taken to different tidal volumes (Vt 7 ml/kg or 40 ml/kg,PEEP=0,respiratory rate 30-40 betas/min) for 0,1,2,and 4 hour and some were pretreated with pp2,and alveolar edema was calculated.Rerults It was found that p120 expression was reduced and c-src activation increased in a time-dependent and strain-dependent manner due to cyclic-stretch of the alveolar epithelial cells.These changes could be reversed by inhibition of c-src.We obtained similar changes in rats when they were subjected to large tidal volumes and the alveolar edema increased more than in rats in the low Vt group.Pretreated the rats with inhibition of c-src had less pulmonary edema induced by the high tidal volume ventilation.Conclusions Cyclic stretch MLE 12 cells induced the loss of p120 and may be the same reason by high tidal volume ventilation in rats can aggravate alveolar edema.Maintenance of p120 expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of ventilation induced lung injury (VILI).

  1. Platform switching minimises crestal bone loss around dental implants: truth or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, G E; Javed, F

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to assess the role of platform switching (PS) in minimising crestal bone loss around dental implants through a systematic review of the currently available clinical evidence. To address the focused question 'Does PS minimise crestal bone loss compared with non-platform-switched (NPS) implants?', PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar databases were explored from 1986 up to and including December 2013 using the following key words in different combinations: 'bone loss', 'dental implant', 'diameter', 'mandible', 'maxilla' and 'platform switching'. Letters to the Editor, unpublished data, historical reviews, case reports and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Fifteen clinical studies were included. In seven studies, PS and NPS implants were placed in both the maxilla and mandible. In 13 studies, implants were placed at crestal bone levels whereas in one study, implants were placed supracrestally. Three studies reported the bucco-lingual (or transversal) width of the alveolar ridge which ranged between 7-8 mm. Seven studies reported that implants placed according to the PS concept did not minimise crestal bone loss as compared with NPS implants. 3D-Implant positioning, width of alveolar ridge and control of micromotion at the implant-abutment interface are the more critical factors that influence crestal bone levels than PS.

  2. Alveolar bone loss in nuclear families of aggressive periodontitis and the heredity of root shape%侵袭性牙周炎核心家系牙槽骨吸收和牙根形态的遗传度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔敏; 徐莉; 孟焕新; 田雨; 张立; 冯向辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the status of residual alveolar bone in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) nuclear families and to investigate the influence of teeth with root abnormity on residual alveolar bone and the heredity of root abnormity,the premolar cone-root and proportion of crown and root.Methods Nineteen AgP probands(9 males and 10 females) at average age of 24.5 and 38 parents at average age 51.0 were included.A full set of periapical radiographs of all the subjects were taken.The residual alveolar bone of each tooth was measured by the ratio(shown as percentage) of the distance between apical and the alveolar bone crest to the whole root length.The abnormity of roots was detected on a full set of periapical radiographs.All the roots and crowns of teeth were measured.The relationship between the residual bone and the ratio was studied.The heredity grade of the premolar cone-root,proportion of crown and root,and root abnormity were computed.Results The average residual alveolar bone of probands was less than that of their parents.In 11 families,the father' s residual alveolar bone was less than that of the mother' s.The average residual alveolar bone of the teeth with root abnormity was less than that of normal teeth.The average residual alveolar bone of the teeth with abnormity of roots and the normal teeth were (67.5 ± 22.2) % and (73.1 ± 18.7) % respectively,with statistical significance (P < 0.001).The heredity grade of the premolar cone-root was 40.1%,the heredity grade of proportion of crown and root was 46.8%,the heredity grade of root abnormity was 30.3%.Conclusions The residual alveolar bone of the teeth with root abnormity was less than that of normal teeth in nuclear families.The heritability of the root abnormity,the cone-root and proportion of crown and root in our sample was 0.3-0.5,which means that genetic factors accounted for about one third to half of the efficiency for AgP.%目的 评价侵袭性牙周炎(aggressive periodontitis,Ag

  3. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  4. Characteristics of alveolar bone associated with physiological movement of molar in mice: a histological and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kie; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Mouse molars undergo distal movement, during which new bone is formed at the mesial side of the tooth root whereas the preexisting bone is resorbed at the distal side of the root. However, there is little detailed information available regarding which of the bones that surround the tooth root are involved in physiological tooth movement. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the precise morphological differences of the alveolar bone between the bone formation side of the tooth root, using routine histological procedures including silver impregnation, as well as by immunohistochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, and immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the osteocyte markers dentin matrix protein 1, sclerostin, and fibroblast growth factor 23. Histochemical analysis indicated that bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts occurred at the bone formation side and the bone resorption side, respectively. Osteocyte marker immunoreactivity of osteocytes at the surface of the bone close to the periodontal ligament differed at the bone formation and bone resorption sides. We also showed different specific features of osteocytic lacunar canalicular systems at the bone formation and bone resorption sides by using silver staining. This study suggests that the alveolar bone is different in the osteocyte nature between the bone formation side and the bone resorption side due to physiological distal movement of the mouse molar.

  5. Long-term effect of thin interdental alveolar bone on periodontal health after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, J; Osterberg, S K; Kokich, V G

    1986-06-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine if an interproximal area with a thin interdental bone septum following orthodontic treatment provides less resistance against marginal periodontal breakdown than an interproximal area with a normal width of bone between the roots. Only adult patients, at least 16 years after active orthodontic treatment, were studied. The distance between the roots was measured directly on periapical radiographs. Gingival health, level of attachment and bone level in sites with thin interdental bone were compared with neighboring or contralateral sites with a normal width of bone between the roots. No statistically significant differences in inflammation, level of attachment and clinical scores for bone level were observed. When measured radiographically the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone was significantly shorter in neighboring control sites (P less than 0.05). This discrepancy was most likely due to radiographic distortion. The results of this investigation suggest that in anterior areas marginal periodontal breakdown is unrelated to the thickness of bone between the roots. Too few molar sites were included to draw conclusions regarding such areas.

  6. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning.

  7. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction in an experimental periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihua [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Chengzhang, E-mail: l56cz@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cai, Cia [Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Zhejiang University, 395 Yan An Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Xiang, Junbo [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cao, Zhengguo, E-mail: jery7677@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: CypA is able to regulate inflammatory responses and MMPs production via interaction with its cell surface receptor, EMMPRIN. This study aimed to address the possible association of CypA with pathological inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues, and whether CypA-EMMPRIN interaction exists in periodontitis. Materials and methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligation according to our previous method. Histological and radiographic examinations were performed. Western blot was used to detect CypA and EMMPRIN expressions in gingival tissues. Immunohistochemistry was applied for CypA, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, as well as cell markers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophil. CypA expression, alveolar bone loss, and inflammatory infiltrations were quantified followed by correlation analyses. Results: Western blot revealed that CypA and EMMRPIN expressions were dramatically elevated in inflamed gingival tissues (ligature group) as compared to healthy gingival tissues (control group). The enhanced CypA and EMMPRIN expressions were highly consistent in cell localization on seriate sections. They were permanently co-localized in infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as osteoclasts and osteoblasts in interradicular bone, but rarely expressed by infiltrating neutrophils. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions were also sharply increased in inflamed gingiva. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mainly over-expressed by macrophages, while MMP-1 was over-produced by fibroblasts and infiltrating cells. The number of CypA-positive cells was strongly correlated with the ACJ-AC distance (r = 0.839, p = 0.000), the number of macrophages (r = 0.972, p = 0.000), and the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.951, p = 0.000). Conclusion: CypA is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction of periodontitis. CypA-EMMPRIN interaction may exist in these pathological processes.

  8. A histomorphometric study of alveolar bone modeling and remodeling in mice fed a boron-deficient diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objective: Emerging evidence indicates that boron (B) plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Thus, a study was performed to determine whether dietary B-deficiency affects periodontal alveolar bone modeling and remodeling. Material and Methods: Weanling Swiss mice (n=30) were ...

  9. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  10. Alveolar bone dynamics in osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene or alendronate: confocal microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Grossi-Oliveira, Gustavo Augusto; Okamoto, Tetuo; Okamoto, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis were examined. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups according to the induction of osteoporosis and drugs administered: OG, osteoporotic rats without treatment (negative control); SG, rats which underwent sham surgery ovariectomy (SHAM); alendronate (AG), osteoporotic rats treated with alendronate; and RG, osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene (RG). On the 8th day after ovariectomy and SHAM surgeries, drug therapy was started with AG or RG. On the 52nd day, 20 mg/kg calcein was administered to all of the rats, and on the 80th day, 20 mg/kg alizarin red was administered. Euthanasia was performed on the 98th day. The bone area marked by fluorochromes was calculated and data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test and Tukey's post-hoc test (pbone turnover only between RG and SG (p=0.074) and AG and OG (p=0.138). All other comparisons showed significant differences (pbone turnover was observed in RG and SG groups. RG was the medication that improved the dynamics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis, resembling that of healthy rats.

  11. Effects of Er-Zhi-Wan on microarchitecture and regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Yuan-qin; Yan, Qi; Lu, Rui; Shi, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW), a traditional Chinese medicine consisting of Herba Ecliptae (HE) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), had a definite antiosteoporotic effect on osteoporotic femur, but its effect on osteoporosis of alveolar bone remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW) on the microarchitecture and the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (sham, n=10), ovariectomy (OVX) group (n=10), and OVX with EZW treatment group (EZW group, n=10). From one week after ovariectomy, EZW (100 mg/mL) or vehicle (distilled water) was fed (1 mL/100 g) once per day for 12 weeks until the sacrifice of the rats. The body weights were measured weekly. After sacrifice, the sera and mandible were collected and routinely prepared for the measurement of alveolar trabecular microarchitecture, serum levels of E2, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), as well as mandibular mRNA expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway molecules wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), β-catenin and dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1). The results showed that EZW treatment significantly prevented the body weight gain, degradation of alveolar trabecular microarchitecture and alveolar bone loss in the OVX rats. Furthermore, we observed that EZW could increase the serum levels of E2 and BALP, and decrease levels of serum TRAP5b in EZW group compared with vehicle group. In addition, RT-PCR results revealed that EZW upregulated the expression levels of wnt3a, LRP5 and β-catenin, and reduced the expression of DKK1 in OVX rats. Taken together, our results suggested that EZW may have potential anti-osteoporotic effects on osteoporotic alveolar bone by stimulating Wnt/LRP5/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  12. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  13. Influence of Baicalin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rat Experimental Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Zhi-Fen; YANG, Lian-Jia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the effects of baicalin – a flavonoid purified from Scutellaria baicalensis. Georgi, Scutellaria L. – on alveolar bone resorption in rat experimental periodontitis were examined. Method: 12 Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly divided into four groups: Group A1, A2, B and C. Except for Group C – the control group–, Group A1, A2 and B were used to establish the rat periodontitis model by repeat injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). At the same time, Group A1 a...

  14. IFITM1 increases osteogenesis through Runx2 in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jin Seong; You, Yong-Ouk; Zadeh, Homa; Shin, Hong-In; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Takata, Takashi; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jun; You, Hyung-Keun

    2012-09-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, a highly expressed protein that had a high degree of homology with interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) was identified using differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. We sought to determine whether IFITM1 influenced osteoblast differentiation. During differentiation, IFITM1 expression gradually increased from 5 to 10days and subsequently decreased at 15 days in culture. Analysis of IFITM1 protein expression in several cell lines as well as in situ studies on human tissues revealed its selective expression in bone cells and human bone. Proliferation of human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) was significantly inhibited by IFITM1 knockdown by using short hairpin RNA, as were bone specific markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were decreased. Calcium accumulation also decreased following IFITM1 knockdown. Moreover, IFITM1 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs was associated with inhibition of Runx2 mRNA and protein expression. Collectively, the present data provide evidence for the role of IFITM1 in osteoblast differentiation. The exact mechanisms of IFITM1's involvement in osteoblast differentiation are still under investigation.

  15. Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone of attachment", as

  16. 牙槽骨劈开术同期牙种植的临床应用%The application of alveolar bone splitting technique with simultaneous implant placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艺群; 洪振华; 程志鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of alveolar bone splitting technique in dental implant,and to evaluate the clinical efficacy.Methods 116 patients were included in this study whose alveolar ridge height all exceeded 12mm, and bucco-lingual alveolar ridge thickness was between 3 and 5 mm.147 ITI implants and 52 Replace implants were placed simultaneously after alveolar ridges splitting.If the gap after splitting was more than 1 mm, the thickness of labial alveolar bone was less than 1 mm, or labial bone defect existed in the root area of implant, bone substitute grafting and guide bone regeneration technique would be used.Superstructures were restored 6 months after implant placement, and regular follow-ups were done.Results The soft tissue in the surgical area healed well and no swelling existed.The buccolingual alveolar ridges were obviously widened.Except that one implant failed, all implants were stable and functioned well.X-rays showed marginal bone loss were less than 1 mm.Conclusions Bone splitting technique was a simple and effective method for alveolar bone augmentation, and it made it possible for those patients whose alveolar ridges thickness was between 3-5mm to take a one-stage implant placement surgery.%目的 评价牙槽骨劈开技术在口腔种植中应用的临床效果.方法 对116例缺牙区牙槽嵴高度大于12 mm,颊舌向厚度在3~5mm之间的牙列缺损患者,行牙槽嵴劈开同期植入种植体治疗.共植入ITI种植体147枚,Replace种植体52枚.根据骨劈开术后间隙及唇颊侧骨壁厚度等不同情况选择植入或不植入自体骨、人工骨粉等修复手段.术后6月种植修复,定期随诊.结果 种植区软组织愈合好,无红肿,颊舌向牙槽骨较种植前明显增宽.术后除1颗种植体失败取出外,其余种植体稳固,种植修复体能正常使用.复诊时X线检查骨吸收≤1 mm.结论 骨劈开术使牙槽骨宽度在3~5 mm的病例有了一期种

  17. Management of maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severely intruded maxillary central incisor: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Hisanobu; Yanamoto, Souichi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Fujiwara, Taku; Umeda, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    An 11-year-old male who injured his maxilla and right maxillary central incisor and lip during a fall was presented to our hospital. His lower lip and upper gingiva were lacerated with swelling and epistaxis, and he had a maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severe intrusion of the right maxillary central incisor, which had penetrated the floor of the nasal cavity with avulsion. Under local anesthesia, we repositioned the incisor and bone segment and fixed them with a titanium micromesh plate and self-tapping screws and splints. The incisor was also treated by root canal 3 days after the operation and was restored with a crown. We performed root canal filling 1 month later. Five months later, the plate and screws were removed. In prognosis of our case, no symptoms of inflammatory root resorption or ankylosis have observed for more than 1 year and 6 months of follow up based on both clinical and radiographic findings.

  18. Assessment of the changes in alveolar bone quality after fixed orthodontic therapy: A trabecular structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Zarif Najafi, Hooman; Sabet, Maryam; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tooth displacement changes the periodontium. The aim of orthodontic treatment is desired tooth movement with minimum side effects on the alveolar bone quality. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of alveolar trabeculation in children, young adults and adults and the two genders. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 63 patients who had been treated in Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, were chosen with convenient sampling method. They were divided into three groups based on their age. Their digitized panoramic radiographs (PRs) were evaluated at six interdental sites from the mesial aspect of the mandibular second molars to the distal aspect of the mandibular first premolars using a visual index. The trabeculation pattern was assigned as either dense (score 3), dense-sparse (score 2) or sparse (score 1). Data were imported to SPSS. Mean of the scores before treatment (score B) and mean of them after treatment (score A) were compared for each group with paired t-test. Changes between score B and sore A of the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. Mean score A was significantly higher than mean score B in children (P = 0.001). In contrast, mean score A was significantly lower than mean score B in young adults (P = 0.003). Conclusion. Orthodontists should be cautious when treating young adults and adults regarding the probable, yet possibly temporary, negative effects of orthodontic therapy on the alveolar bone quality. PMID:28096944

  19. Effect of slow forced eruption on the vertical levels of the interproximal bone and papilla and the width of the alveolar ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Ju-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Forced eruption has been proposed for the reconstruction of deficient bone and soft tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the alveolar ridge width and the vertical levels of the interproximal bone and papilla following forced eruption. Methods Patients whose hopeless maxillary anterior teeth were expected to undergo severe bone resorption and soft tissue recession upon extraction were recruited. In addition, patients whose maxillary anterior teeth required forced eruption for restoration due to tooth fracture or dental caries were included. Before and after forced eruption, the interproximal bone height was measured by radiographic analysis, and changes in the alveolar ridge width and the interproximal papilla height were measured with an acrylic stent. Results This prospective study demonstrated that the levels of the interproximal alveolar bone and papilla were significantly increased by 1.36 mm and 1.09 mm, respectively, in the vertical direction. However, the alveolar ridge width was significantly reduced by an average of 0.67 mm in the buccolingual direction. The changes in the level of the interproximal alveolar bone and papilla were positively correlated. Conclusions Although the levels of the interproximal bone and papilla were significantly increased, the alveolar ridge width was significantly decreased following forced eruption. There was a modest positive and significant correlation between the changes in the height of the interproximal alveolar bone and the papilla. Based on our findings, modification of vertical forced eruption should be considered when augmentation of the alveolar ridge width is required. PMID:27896212

  20. Pilot study: digital subtraction radiography as a tool to assess alveolar bone changes in periodontitis patients under treatment with subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Goren; S.M. Dunn; M. Wolff; P.F. van der Stelt; D.C. Colosi; L.M. Golub

    2008-01-01

    Background Subtle changes in marginal alveolar bone level can be demonstrated using digital subtraction of sequential radiographs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the practical application of geometrically corrected digital subtraction in a clinical study of alveolar bone response to a drug previousl

  1. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Aldir Cordeiro; CAPISTRANO, Anderson; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; CARDOSO, Maurício de Almeida; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; CAPELOZZA, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Material and Methods Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences in root length and buccal and palatal bone levels of canines and adjacent teeth among groups. Conclusions Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis. PMID:28198979

  2. Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Derived Alveolar Bone Density Between Subjects with and without Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S.; Elfirt, Eman Y.; Al-Ahmari, Manea M.; Yamany, Ibrahim A.; Alabdulkarim, Maher A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the changes in bone density of patients affected by aggressive periodontitis could be useful in early disease detection and proper treatment planning. Aim The aim of this study was to compare alveolar bone density in patients affected with aggressive periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. Twenty periodontally healthy patients attending the dental clinics for implant placement or extraction of impacted third molars served as controls. Alveolar bone density was measured using CBCT scanning. Comparisons between aggressive periodontitis group and controls for age and alveolar bone density of the anterior and posterior regions were performed using an independent sample t-test. Multivariable linear regression models were also performed. Results The differences between groups in regard to age, anterior and posterior alveolar bone density was not statistically significant (pperiodontitis patients was not different from periodontally healthy individuals. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:28274060

  3. Histological examination on osteoblastic activities in the alveolar bone of transgenic mice with induced ablation of osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minqi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hogo, Hiromi; Tatsumi, Sawako; Liu, Zhusheng; Guo, Ying; Sasaki, Muneteru; Tabata, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Ikeda, Kyoji; Amizuka, Norio

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine histological alterations on osteoblasts from the alveolar bone of transgenic mice with targeted ablation of osteoctyes. Eighteen weeks-old transgenic mice based on the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor-mediated cell knockout (TRECK) system were used in these experiments. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 µg/kg of DT in PBS, or only PBS as control. Two weeks after injections, mice were subjected to transcardiac perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the available alveolar bone was removed for histochemical analyses. Approximately 75% of osteocytes from alveolar bones became apoptotic after DT administration, and most osteocytic lacunae became empty. Osteoblastic numbers and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were markedly reduced at the endosteum of alveolar bone after DT administration compared with the control. Osteoblastic ALP activity in the periodontal ligament region, on the other hand, hardly showed any differences between the two groups even though numbers were reduced in the experiment group. Silver impregnation showed a difference in the distribution of bone canaliculi between the portions near the endosteum and the periodontal ligament: the former appeared regularly arranged in contrast to the latter's irregular distribution. Under transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the osteoblasts in the periodontal ligament showed direct contact with the Sharpey's fibers. Thus, osteoblastic activity was affected by osteocyte ablation in general, but osteoblasts in contact with the periodontal ligament were less affected than endosteal osteoblasts.

  4. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

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    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats. METHODS/FINDINGS: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  5. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

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    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  6. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Köller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  7. Resorption of monetite granules in alveolar bone defects in human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Bassett, David; Barralet, Jake; Cabarcos, Enrique L

    2010-04-01

    Bone grafting is often required to restore mandibular or maxillary bone volume prior to prosthetic tooth root implantation. Preclinical animal models are often used to study the in vivo properties of new bone graft products designed for human use. Although animal studies may offer valuable data regarding bioperformance, materials do not necessarily perform the same in human patients. In this study we implanted bovine hydroxyapatite (BH), a widely used porous apatite granule, and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (monetite) granules, bilaterally in human patients post extraction alveolar sockets. After six months, histomorphometrical analysis of the biopsies revealed that the amount of bone regenerated with monetite (59.5 +/- 13%) was significantly higher than that obtained with BH (33.1% +/- 4.9), while the amount of unresorbed graft was higher in the sockets treated with BH (37.8 +/- 6.1) than in those implanted with monetite (25.8 +/- 14.3). Resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics is discussed by applying the Hixon-Crowell dissolution model.

  8. Rapid maxillary expansion in alveolar cleft repaired with a tissue-engineered bone in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Tian, Bo; Chu, Fengting; Yang, Chenjie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Xinquan; Qian, Yufen

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of orthodontic expansion on graft area of a tissue-engineered bone (TEB) BMSCs/β-TCP, and to find an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft. A unilateral alveolar cleft canine model was established and then treated with BMSCs/β-TCP under rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Sequential fluorescent labeling, radiography and helical computed tomography were used to evaluate new bone formation and mineralization in the graft area. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Van Gieson׳s picro fuchsin staining were performed for histological and histomorphometric observation. ALP activity, mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation related genes of BMSCs that grew on the β-TCP scaffold were promoted by their cultivation in osteogenic medium. Based on fact, TEB was constructed. After 8 weeks of treatment with BMSCs/β-TCP followed by RME, new bone formation and mineralization of the dogs were markedly accelerated, and bone resorption was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated dogs, or those only treated with autogenous iliac bone. The treatment with both TEB and RME evidently made the bone trabecula more abundant and the area of bone formation larger. What is more, there were no significant differences between BMSCs/β-TCP group and the group treated with autogenous bone and RME. This study further revealed that TEB was not only a feasible clinical approach for patients with alveolar cleft, but also a potential substituent of autogenous bone, and its combination with RME might be an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft.

  9. [Maxillary alveolar process bone plasty with the use of directional tissue regeneration and maxillary sinus bottom lifting operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, V F

    2009-01-01

    There were shown technique and clinical examples of the use of directional tissue regeneration in cases of bone tissue deficit in distal parts maxilla. Clinical cases were described of maxillary sinus bottom lifting with simultaneous alveolar process widening and single stage implant installation.

  10. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  11. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Toshiki Yoneda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18 were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  12. Macrophage-specific TLR2 signaling mediates pathogen-induced TNF-dependent inflammatory oral bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, George; Weinberg, Ellen O; Massari, Paola; Gibson, Frank C; Wetzler, Lee M; Morgan, Elise F; Genco, Caroline A

    2013-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary etiological agent of chronic periodontal disease, an infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease that leads to the resorption of tooth-supporting alveolar bone. We previously reported that TLR2 is required for P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo, and our in vitro work implicated TNF as a key downstream mediator. In this study, we show that TNF-deficient (Tnf(-/-)) mice are resistant to alveolar bone loss following oral infection with P. gingivalis, and thus establish a central role for TNF in experimental periodontal disease. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type and gene-specific knockout mice, we demonstrate that the initial inflammatory response to P. gingivalis in naive macrophages is MyD88 dependent and requires cooperative signaling of TLR2 and TLR4. The ability of P. gingivalis to activate cells via TLR2 or TLR4 was confirmed in TLR2- or TLR4-transformed human embryonic kidney cells. Additional studies using bacterial mutants demonstrated a role for fimbriae in the modulation of TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB. Whereas both TLR2 and TLR4 contributed to TNF production in naive macrophages, P. gingivalis preferentially exploited TLR2 in endotoxin-tolerant BMDM to trigger excessive TNF production. We found that TNF induced surface TLR2 expression and augmented TLR-induced cytokine production in P. gingivalis-stimulated BMDM, establishing a previously unidentified TNF-dependent feedback loop. Adoptive transfer of TLR2-expressing macrophages to TLR2-deficient mice restored the ability of P. gingivalis to induce alveolar bone loss in vivo. Collectively, our results identify a TLR2- and TNF-dependent macrophage-specific mechanism underlying pathogen-induced inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

  13. Stress Distribution on Short Implants at Maxillary Posterior Alveolar Bone Model With Different Bone-to-Implant Contact Ratio: Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Duygu; Bayram, Burak; Oguz, Yener; Cinar, Duygu; Uckan, Sina

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution of the short dental implants and bone-to-implant contact ratios in the posterior maxilla using 3-dimensional (3D) finite element models. Two different 3D maxillary posterior bone segments were modeled. Group 1 was composed of a bone segment consisting of cortical bone and type IV cancellous bone with 100% bone-to-implant contact. Group 2 was composed of a bone segment consisting of cortical bone and type IV cancellous bone including spherical bone design and homogenous tubular hollow spaced structures with 30% spherical porosities and 70% bone-to-implant contact ratio. Four-millimeter-diameter and 5-mm-height dental implants were assumed to be osseointegrated and placed at the center of the segments. Lateral occlusal bite force (300 N) was applied at a 25° inclination to the implants long axis. The maximum von Mises stresses in cortical and cancellous bones and implant-abutment complex were calculated. The von Mises stress values on the implants and the cancellous bone around the implants of the 70% bone-to-implant contact group were almost 3 times higher compared with the values of the 100% bone-to-implant contact group. For clinical reality, use of the 70% model for finite element analysis simulation of the posterior maxilla region better represents real alveolar bone and the increased stress and strain distributions evaluated on the cortical and cancellous bone around the dental implants.

  14. Chronic Multifocal Inflammation of the Alveolar Bone Mimicking Malignancy: A Case Report

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    Shahidi Sh.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ronic inflammation of the alveolar bone is a great clinical and radiologic mimic, which merits recognition by the clinician and pathologist. The patient can thus be reassured of the proper early treatment and a favorable prognosis. Occasionally, it is difficult to differentiate inflammatory lesions from malign-ant tumors. The aim of this report is to present a case with an inflammatory lesion mimicking malignant condition.We report a 19-year-old male complaining of rapid onset gingival swelling of the right side of both jaws and looseness of the right upper molar teeth in 20 days. Based on the acute onset of the gingival hyperplasia, severe looseness of the affected teeth especially in the maxilla, and the patient's age, multifocal rapid growing malignant condition was not ruled out. The lesion was misdiagnosed as a malignant condition by clinical and radiographic examination. The whole body bone scan showed no significant increased uptake in the right oral cavity compatible with no active bony pathology. The surgical pathology findings of the lesion showed severe chronic inflammation with surface epithelial hyperplasia.The initial diagnosis of the lesion was malignant condition but it was ruled out by bone scan and histological appearance.

  15. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  16. Estudio histológico comparativo de la reparación ósea entre hueso alveolar y extra-alveolar en los cerdos sometidos a osteotomía con alta y baja velocidad, con refrigeración líquida Comparative study of bone repair between alveolar and extra-alveolar bone in pigs subjected to osteotomy at low speed and high speed with liquid refrigeration

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    Henrique José Baldo de Toledo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Teniendo en cuenta que el proceso de reparación ósea en los cerdos se muestra en una mayor proximidad entre las variables histológicas estudiadas en comparación con otros modelos biológicos, el presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar el proceso histológico de la reparación ósea de osteotomías realizadas en huesos alveolares y extra-alveolar, utilizando instrumentos rotatorios con refrigeración líquida. Material y método: Dieciocho cerdos Large White con peso comprendido entre 20 y 25Kg fueron divididos en tres grupos de seis animales cada uno, con cada grupo formado por tres animales para evaluar la reparación de osteotomías con baja y alta velocidades en el hueso alveolar y tres en área extra-alveolar en los períodos de estudio de 7, 14 y 28 días. Resultados: Se observó que en el hueso alveolar en los tiempos post-operatorio de 14 y 28 días, los mejores resultados de reparación fueron en las osteotomías realizadas con baja velocidad, mientras que en el período post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con alta velocidad fueron ligeramente mejores tanto en áreas alveolares como extra-alveolares. Para la metodología utilizada, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el proceso de reparación ósea alveolar y extra-alveolar. Conclusiones: El proceso de reparación, por medio de análisis microscópico en la región alveolar y extra-alveolar, son similares con mejores resultados observados en osteotomías hechas con taladros en baja velocidad en los tiempos de catorce y veintiocho días y en el post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con taladros de alta velocidad y la refrigeración fueron ligeramente mejores. Los trabajos de investigación utilizando cerdos como modelo animal son perfectamente viables.Introduction: Taking into account the bone repair process in pigs has shown a greater similarity among the histological variables studied compared to other biological

  17. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  18. Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentration on the viability and proliferation of alveolar bone cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B-H; Zhu, S-J; Kim, B-Y; Huh, J-Y; Lee, S-H; Jung, J-H

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that a combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autogenous bone graft can increase the rate of osteogenesis and enhance bone formation qualitatively. However, contradictory results were reported in a recent animal study. In order to clarify this inconsistency, this study examined the influence of the PRP concentrations on the viability and proliferation of alveolar bone cells in vitro. Bone cells obtained from the alveolar bone chips were exposed to various PRP concentrations. After a culture period of 7 days, cellular viability and proliferation were evaluated by counting the number of cells and a MTT assay. The results showed that the viability and proliferation of alveolar bone cells were suppressed by high PRP concentrations, but were stimulated by low PRP concentrations (1-5%). These in vitro results support the view that variations in the PRP concentrations might influence the bone formation within the PRP-treated bone grafts.

  19. High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Joon Bong; Heo, Jung Sun; Choi, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm(2)) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats.

  20. Interdental alveolar bone density in bruxers, mild bruxers, and non-bruxers affected by orthodontia and impaction as influencing factors.

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    Shereen Shokry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the interdental alveolar bone density within specific regions of interest in the mandible of bruxers, mild bruxers and non-bruxers in absence or presence of influencing factors, such as orthodontia and impaction. Materials and methods: The study consisted of 104 subjects (64 bruxers and 40 controls from the female students in the Faculty of Dentistry. Students were classified into bruxers, non-bruxers, and mild bruxers. The presence of modifying factors, such as impacted mandibular third molars and/or current or recent orthodontic treatment were identified. Panoramic radiographs were obtained, and the mean bone density values of interdental alveolar bone were measured using ImageJ software. Results: Non-bruxers had the highest mean bone density in all measured regions. The mesial aspect of the second premolar was an area of higher mean bone density in bruxers and in mild bruxers, compared to non-bruxers. In the presence of orthodontic treatment, the mean bone density in non-bruxers surpassed that of bruxers and mild bruxers. Conclusion: Bruxism, whether mild or severe decreased the interdental mean bone density in the studied regions of interest. The presence of influencing factors affected the interdental mean bone density.

  1. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss - an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1-orchiectomy (OCX); 2-OCX sham surgery; or 3-OCX sham surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor.

  2. Reconstrucción alveolar de maxilar atrófico con injerto de calota craneal: A propósito de dos casos Alveolar bone reconstruction of atrophic maxilla with calvarial bone graft: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modelo Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La atrofia alveolar del maxilar superior es un reto difícil de solventar en la práctica clínica para la rehabilitación dental sobre implantes. Existen varios métodos de reconstrucción con dicha finalidad. Aunque la elección del método depende de varios factores, de los más importantes son la cantidad de hueso remanente y los deseos del paciente. Presentamos dos casos en los que hemos efectuado la rehabilitación prostodóncica sobre implantes MG Osseous, no removible en uno y removible en el otro. Previa a la colocación de los implantes se llevó a cabo la reconstrucción alveolar con injerto óseo de calota craneal.The alveolar atrophy of superior maxilla is a difficult challenge to resolve in clinical practice for the dental rehabilitation on implants. There are several methods of reconstruction with this purpose. Although the election of the method depends on several factors, most importantly the amount of bone surplus and the desires patient´s. We presented/displayed two cases in which we have carried out the prosthodontist rehabilitation on implants MG Osseous, nonremovable in one and removable in the other. Previous to the positioning of the implants alveolar reconstruction was carried out with calvarial bone graft.

  3. Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro

    2015-02-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P. gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P. gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P. gingivalis with 1 µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P. gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis.

  4. Use of an optical comparator for radiographic measurement of bone loss around endosseous implants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A A; Caudill, R; Beatty, K

    1995-01-01

    A technique for the measurement of bone loss around endosseous implants using an optical comparator was investigated. Five operators were asked to measure the mesial and distal alveolar bone levels around a screw type dental implant on a periapical radiograph mounted on an optical comparator. The known size of a threaded implant was used as a reference. The bone loss around the implant was calculated by taking the average of the mesial and distal measurements. Statistical analysis at the 95 percent confidence level demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the measurements. Although the initial results are encouraging, additional research is necessary with a larger sample size to validate the accuracy of optical comparator readings and compare the efficacy of this technique with other currently used methods for determining bone loss around root form implants.

  5. Photoelastic stress analysis of endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: normal and alveolar bone resorption cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinbao; Miura, Hiroyuki; Okada, Daizo; Yusa, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of different post materials and their lengths on the mechanical stress of endodontically treated incisor roots in two alveolar bone conditions. Two-dimensional photoelastic models were fabricated to simulate the endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with three kinds of posts materials (low Young's modulus glass fiber post, high Young's modulus glass fiber post, and prefabricated stainless steel post) and two post lengths (8 and 4 mm). Completed models were placed in a transmission polariscope and loaded with a static force of 150 N at 45° to the tooth axis. Photoelastic photographs and the magnitudes of fringe order revealed stress distribution in the root, and suggest that the glass fiber post with a low Young's modulus and long length can reduce the stress concentration both in normal and alveolar bone resorption conditions.

  6. Green Tea Modulates Cytokine Expression in the Periodontium and Attenuates Alveolar Bone Resorption in Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gennaro

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders with the main feature of hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia increases the severity of periodontal disease via an exacerbated inflammatory response, activated by advanced glycation end products and their receptor, RAGE. Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents represent potential inhibitors of this pathological interaction. In particular, green tea has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties mediated by its polyphenol content.This study investigated the mechanisms by which green tea attenuates the spontaneous onset of diabetes-induced periodontitis.Diabetes was induced in rats via a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Diabetic and control animals were divided into water-treated and green tea-treated subgroups and were analyzed at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after diabetes induction. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantitatively evaluate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, interleukin-10 (IL-10 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2 expression in serial sections of each hemimaxilla. Morphometric measurements of the distance from the cementum-enamel junction (CEJ of the superior distal root of the first molar to the alveolar bone crest (ABC were performed to assess bone loss.Diabetes resulted in significant bone loss and alterations in the number of cells that stained positive for inflammatory mediators. In the diabetic rats treated with green tea, we observed a decreased number of cells expressing RANKL and TNF-α compared with that observed in the diabetic rats treated with water. Additionally, green tea increased the numbers of cells that stained positive for OPG, RUNX-2 and IL-10 in the diabetic rats.Green tea intake reduces expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the osteoclastogenic mediator RANKL to normal levels while increasing expression of the

  7. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H2O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H2O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H2O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  8. Comparative study of bone repair between alveolar and extra-alveolar bone in pigs subjected to osteotomy at low speed and high speed with liquid refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Teniendo en cuenta que el proceso de reparación ósea en los cerdos se muestra en una mayor proximidad entre las variables histológicas estudiadas en comparación con otros modelos biológicos, el presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar el proceso histológico de la reparación ósea de osteotomías realizadas en huesos alveolares y extra-alveolar, utilizando instrumentos rotatorios con refrigeración líquida. Material y método: Dieciocho cerdos Large White con peso comprendido ent...

  9. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  10. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  11. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  12. Evaluation of alveolar bone defect in chronic periodontitis by cone-beam computed tomography%锥形束CT评价慢性牙周炎患者牙槽骨缺损形态初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海礁; 王宏岩; 潘亚萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用锥形束 CT 观测并分析慢性牙周炎患者牙槽骨缺损的形态特点,探讨慢性牙周炎牙槽骨缺损的分布规律.方法 采用单纯随机抽样法选取慢性牙周炎患者60例,对入选对象进行锥形束CT扫描并应用锥形束CT自带的NNT软件测量切牙区、尖牙区、前磨牙区及磨牙区牙齿(近中、远中、颊侧、舌侧4个位点)的平均牙槽骨缺损程度及缺损形式.结果 75%(45/60)的慢性牙周炎患者牙槽骨缺损形式为广泛型,25% (15/60)的患者牙槽骨缺损形式为局限型;切牙区及尖牙区的下颌牙槽骨缺损程度均高于上颌相同位点;前磨牙区的下颌牙槽骨缺损程度低于上颌相同位点;下颌磨牙区的近中、远中及颊侧的牙槽骨缺损程度较上颌区域重,腭侧牙槽骨缺损程度低于上颌.结论 慢性牙周炎患者牙槽骨缺损较重的部位位于上颌磨牙的腭侧及下颌切牙的舌侧,锥形束CT扫描有利于更好地了解慢性牙周炎牙槽骨缺损的形式,对慢性牙周炎的治疗和预后评估具有一定的临床指导意义.%Objective To evaluate the morphological characteristics of alveolar bone defects of the patients with chronic periodontitis using cone-beam CT (CBCT).Methods Sixty patients with chronic periodontitis were included in this study.CBCT was used to scan the alveolar bone and NNT software to measure the alveolar bone defects and bone loss types in different regions.Results Seventy-five percent (45/60) of the alveolar bone defect was the generalized type,25% (15/60) was the localized type.In incisor and canine area,the defect of the mandibular alveolar bone was more severe than in the same sites of maxilla.There was less bone loss in the premolar area of mandible than in the same site of maxilla.In the mesial and buccal sites of mandibular molars and in the lingual site of maxillary molars,the most severe alveolar bone loss was found.Conclusions The obvious alveolar bone

  13. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valášek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandór, G.K.; Marcián, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  14. Periodontal regeneration in experimentally-induced alveolar bone dehiscence by an improved porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Han; Ma, Jia; Zhao, Ning; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2008-12-01

    Regeneration of lost periodontium is the focus of periodontal therapy. To achieve the effective regeneration, a number of bone graft substitute materials have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the histological response in alveolar bone dehiscences which were filled with an improved biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic with more reasonable pore diameter, pore wall thickness and porosity. Twenty-four alveolar bone dehiscences were made surgically in twelve beagle dogs by reflecting mucoperiosteal flaps on the buccal aspect of bilateral lower second premolars and removing alveolar bone. The left dehiscences were treated with BCP ceramic and the contralaterals were cured with the open flap debridement (OFD) as controls. Three dogs were used at week 4, 12, and 24 respectively. Histological observations were processed through three-dimensional micro-computed tomographic imaging, fluorescence and light microscopy. The histological study indicated that the biphasic ceramic was biocompatible, and regeneration was achieved more effectively through the BCP treatment. There were also arrest of epithelial migration apically and formation of new bone and cementum, as well as proliferation of fibrous connective tissues that became attached to the newly formed cementum at week 24, while there was no significant periodontal regeneration in the OFD group only with epithelial tissue migrating into the dehiscence regions. Clinically speaking, though the surgical location formed a limitation to the application of the improved BCP on the periodontal regeneration, the actual result was positive. It proved that the BCP had biocompatibility and was able to act as a stable scaffold to induce periodontal regeneration effectively.

  15. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  16. Norepinephrine Regulates Condylar Bone Loss via Comorbid Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, K; Niu, L; Xu, X; Liu, Y; Li, X; Tay, F R; Wang, M

    2015-06-01

    Degenerative changes of condylar subchondral bone occur frequently in temporomandibular disorders. Although psychologic stresses and occlusal abnormalities have been implicated in temporomandibular disorder, it is not known if these risks represent synergistic comorbid factors that are involved in condylar subchondral bone degradation that is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system. In the present study, chronic immobilization stress (CIS), chemical sympathectomy, and unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) were sequentially applied in a murine model. Norepinephrine contents in the subjects' serum and condylar subchondral bone were detected by ELISA; bone and cartilage remodeling parameters and related gene expression in the subchondral bone were examined. Subchondral bone loss and increased subchondral bone norepinephrine level were observed in the CIS and UAC groups. These groups exhibited decreased bone mineral density, volume fraction, and bone formation rate; decreased expressions of osterix, collagen I, and osteocalcin; but increased trabecular separation, osteoclast number and surface, and RANKL expression. Combined CIS + UAC produced more severe subchondral bone loss, higher bone norepinephrine level, and decreased chondrocyte density and cartilage thickness when compared to CIS or UAC alone. Sympathectomy simultaneously prevented subchondral bone loss and decreased bone norepinephrine level in all experimental subgroups when compared to the vehicle-treated counterparts. Norepinephrine also decreased mRNA expression of osterix, collagen I, and osteocalcin by mesenchymal stem cells at 7 and 14 d of stimulation and increased the expression of RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio by mesenchymal stem cells at 2 h. In conclusion, CIS and UAC synergistically promote condylar subchondral bone loss and cartilage degradation; such processes are partially regulated by norepinephrine within subchondral bone.

  17. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  18. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    (OPG) and RANKL revealed increased levels of OPG and decreased levels of RANKL in the bgn KO mice compared with wt mice. In conclusion, the bgn deficiency protects against increased trabecular bone turnover and bone loss in response to estrogen depletion, supporting the concept that bgn has dual roles......Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...... to biglycan deficiency. INTRODUCTION: Biglycan (bgn) is a small extracellular matrix proteoglycan enriched in skeletal tissues, and biglycan-deficient male mice have decreased trabecular bone mass and bone strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone phenotype of the biglycan...

  19. Metastasis and bone loss: advancing treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G David; Guise, Theresa A; Boyce, Brendon F; Brufsky, Adam M; Clézardin, Philippe; Croucher, Peter I; Gralow, Julie R; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R; Smith, Matthew R; Suva, Larry J

    2010-12-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced bone loss have recently reported exciting and intriguing results. A multidisciplinary consensus conference convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess gaps in current knowledge and prioritize recommendations to advance research over the next 5 years. The program addressed three topics: advancing understanding of metastasis prevention in the context of bone pathophysiology; developing therapeutic approaches to prevent metastasis and defining strategies to prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss. Several priorities were identified: (1) further investigate the effects of bone-targeted therapies on tumor and immune cell interactions within the bone microenvironment; (2) utilize and further develop preclinical models to study combination therapies; (3) conduct clinical studies of bone-targeted therapies with radiation and chemotherapy across a range of solid tumors; (4) develop biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from bone-targeted therapies; (5) educate physicians on bone loss and fracture risk; (6) define optimal endpoints and new measures of efficacy for future clinical trials; and (7) define the optimum type, dose and schedule of adjuvant bone-targeted therapy.

  20. Metastasis and bone loss: Advancing treatment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Guise, Theresa A.; Boyce, Brendon F.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Clézardin, Philippe; Croucher, Peter I.; Gralow, Julie R.; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R.; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced bone loss have recently reported exciting and intriguing results. A multidisciplinary consensus conference convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess gaps in current knowledge and prioritize recommendations to advance research over the next 5 years. The program addressed three topics: advancing understanding of metastasis prevention in the context of bone pathophysiology; developing therapeutic approaches to prevent metastasis and defining strategies to prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss. Several priorities were identified: (1) further investigate the effects of bone-targeted therapies on tumor and immune cell interactions within the bone microenvironment; (2) utilize and further develop preclinical models to study combination therapies; (3) conduct clinical studies of bone-targeted therapies with radiation and chemotherapy across a range of solid tumors; (4) develop biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from bone-targeted therapies; (5) educate physicians on bone loss and fracture risk; (6) define optimal endpoints and new measures of efficacy for future clinical trials; and (7) define the optimum type, dose and schedule of adjuvant bone-targeted therapy. PMID:20478658

  1. Prospective study of alveolar bone resorption after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Etude prospective de la resorption osseuse alveolaire apres radiotherapie et chimiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libersa, P. (Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire, 59 - Lille (France)); Prevost, B.; Mirabel, X.; Poissonnier, B.; Demaille, A. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)); Laude, M. (Laboratoire de craniologie humaine et comparee, 80 - Amiens (France))

    1993-01-01

    A prospective comparative study of the alveolar bone resorption after teeth extraction was achieved in a series of 79 patients in order to analyze macroscopically the possible consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the toothless edges. After quarterly coronal and sagittal X-rays for two years, this study enhances quite a similar vertical resorption for the radiation and chemotherapy-treated patients as well as for the witness patients. The alveolar bone resorption progression also appears unaltered by anti cancerous treatments. In both cases, a resorption stabilization can be clearly seen after 6 months according to dental extractions. The vertical alveolar bone resorption is more important in incisor and canin regions. The anti cancerous treatments may not have significant disastrous consequences as fas as available bone amount is concerned, on a post prosthetic restoration.

  2. Atorvastatin decreases bone loss, inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Atorvastatin treatment, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, in periodontal disease. Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of ten rats each: (1 non-ligated treatment (NL, (2 ligature only (L, (3 ligature plus 1 mg/kg Atorvastatin daily for 10 days, (4 ligature plus 5 mg/kg Atorvastatin daily for 10 days, and (5 ligature plus 10 mg/kg Atorvastatin daily for 10 days. Following the treatment course, the periodontal tissue of the animals was analyzed by Measurement of alveolar bone loss, Histopathology and immunohistochemistry to determine of the expression of COX-2, MMP-2, MMP9, and RANKL/RANK/OPG. ELISA assay was used to quantitate the levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione. The periodontal group treated with 10 mg/kg of Atorvastatin (3.9±0.9 mm; p<0.05 showed reverse the alveolar bone loss caused Experimental Periodontal Disease compared to (L (7.02±0.17 mm. The periodontal group treated with 10 mg/kg of Atorvastatin showed a significant reduction in MPO and MDA (p<0.05 compared to ligature only group (L. Similarly in this group, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly decreased (p<0.05. Furthermore, MMP-2, MMP-9, RANKL/RANK, and COX-2 were all downregulated by Atorvastatin treatment, while OPG expression was increased. The findings support a role of Atorvastatin for reducing the bone loss, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and expression of extracellular matrix proteins, while reducing RANK/RANKL and increase OPG in periodontal disease.

  3. Bilocular Stafne Bone Defect above And Below the Inferior Alveolar Canal Assessed by Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone defect is a bone depression containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue on the lingual surface of the mandible. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. Stafne bone defect appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, it is rarely seen as a multilocular radiolucency. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency above the inferior alveolar canal in a male patient

  4. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  5. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  6. A histomorphometric study of the effect of doxycycline and erythromycin on bone formation in dental alveolar socket of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahabooei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DOX and erythromycin (EM used for the treatment of peri-implant osteolysis due to their anti-osteoclastogenesis can interfere with the osseous wound healing process in rat alveolar socket. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats had their first maxillary right molar extracted and were divided into three groups. DOX and EM at the doses of 5 mg/kg/day orally (p.o. and 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p. were administered respectively to two separate groups for 7 days after operation. In the control group the animals received normal saline (5 ml/kg. Five rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-extraction in each study group. A histomorphometric analysis was used to evaluate new bone formation inside the alveolar socket. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results: The findings showed that the percentage of new bone formation (NBF enhanced significantly on days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference in the NBF between DOX and EM groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both DOX and EM enhanced new bone formation without any advances in favor of each drug.

  7. The Effect of Bone Loss Pattern on the Structural Capacity of the Proximal Femur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; Eric Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age-related bone loss on the structural capacity of the proximal femur were investigated by Finite Element Analysis(FEA). Four bone loss patterns were considered. These were "uniform cortical bone loss", "neck cortical bone loss", "intertrochanteric cortical bone loss" and "uniform trabecular bone loss". The results show that the two "non-uniform cortical bone loss" patterns are more dangerous than the "uniform cortical bone loss" pattern, and that the cortical bone loss in intertrochanteric region is associated with a greater reduction in cortical failure load than the cortical bone loss in the femoral neck. The trabecular bone loss causes a limited decrease in both cortical failure and trabecular failure loads. This research should be helpful to the clinical assessment of femur fracture risk due to age-related bone loss.

  8. Comparison of Bone Resorption Rates after Intraoral Block Bone and Guided Bone Regeneration Augmentation for the Reconstruction of Horizontally Deficient Maxillary Alveolar Ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, B Alper; Bedeloglu, Elcin; Kose, T Emre; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Bone atrophy after tooth loss may leave insufficient bone for implant placement. We compared volumetric changes after autogenous ramus block bone grafting (RBG) or guided bone regeneration (GBR) in horizontally deficient maxilla before implant placement. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, volumetric changes at RBG or GBR graft sites were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. The primary outcome variable was the volumetric resorption rate. Secondary outcomes were bone gain, graft success, and implant insertion torque. Results. Twenty-four patients (28 grafted sites) were included (GBR, 15; RBG, 13). One patient (RBG) suffered mucosal dehiscence at the recipient site 6 weeks after surgery, which healed spontaneously. Mean volume reduction in the GBR and RBG groups was 12.48 ± 2.67% and 7.20 ± 1.40%, respectively. GBR resulted in significantly more bone resorption than RBG (P 0.05). Conclusions. Both RBG and GBR hard-tissue augmentation techniques provide adequate bone graft volume and stability for implant insertion. However, GBR causes greater resorption at maxillary augmented sites than RBG, which clinicians should consider during treatment planning.

  9. Reduction of bone resorption by the application of fibrin glue in the reconstruction of the alveolar cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Castillo, José L; Aguirre-Camacho, Humberto; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Michel-Perez, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    A major complication in 30% to 75% of cases of surgical treatment of alveolar cleft is resorption of the bone graft. A treatment alternative is the application of fibrin glue, which has the capacity to favor the integration of the graft. The main objective of the study was to evaluate if the use of the fibrin glue reduces bone resorption when it is applied locally. The authors designed a randomized clinical trial. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1, fibrin glue; and group 2, control. Pre- and postoperative graft volume, bone density, bone quality (Lekholm and Zarb, and Norton and Gamble classifications), and postoperative complications were evaluated. The follow-up for all patients was 3 months after discharge. Twenty-seven patients were surgically treated, 13 in group 1 and 14 in group 2. Group 1 had increased graft volume compared with group 2 (64.32 cm v 21.70 cm; P 0.076). Bone quality was type 1, 2 and 3 and 4 in group 1. Resorption in group 2 was 62.26%; in group 1, it was 29.72% (P > 0.081). The observed complications were infection and dehiscence of sutures (P > 0.537). The authors conclude that the fibrin glue significantly diminishes bone resorption, allowing improved graft integration and quality.

  10. Differential Bone Loss in Mouse Models of Colon Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Andrea; Kays, Joshua K.; Parker, Valorie A.; Matthews, Ryan R.; Barreto, Rafael; Puppa, Melissa J.; Kang, Kyung S.; Carson, James A.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Robling, Alexander G.; Couch, Marion E.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Cachexia is a distinctive feature of colorectal cancer associated with body weight loss and progressive muscle wasting. Several mechanisms responsible for muscle and fat wasting have been identified, however it is not known whether the physiologic and molecular crosstalk between muscle and bone tissue may also contribute to the cachectic phenotype in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether tumor growth associates with bone loss using several experimental models of colorectal cancer cachexia, namely C26, HT-29, and ApcMin/+. The effects of cachexia on bone structure and strength were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro computed tomography (μCT), and three-point bending test. We found that all models showed tumor growth consistent with severe cachexia. While muscle wasting in C26 hosts was accompanied by moderate bone depletion, no loss of bone strength was observed. However, HT-29 tumor bearing mice showed bone abnormalities including significant reductions in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but no declines in strength. Similarly, cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mice was associated with significant decreases in BMD, BMC, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th as well as decreased strength. Our data suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with muscle wasting and may be accompanied by bone loss dependent upon tumor type, burden, stage and duration of the disease. It is clear that preserving muscle mass promotes survival in cancer cachexia. Future studies will determine whether strategies aimed at preventing bone loss can also improve outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer cachexia. PMID:28123369

  11. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss following unilateral temporal bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunchaisri, Niran

    2009-06-01

    Temporal bone fractures usually cause unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by fracture that violated otic capsule of that side. Bilateral SNHL from unilateral temporal bone fracture were rarely seen. Labyrinthine concussion was considered to be the pathogenesis in these cases. This article reports an additional case of bilateral SNHL from unilateral temporal bone fracture but in a different pattern of SNHL which may result from an occlusion of the internal auditory artery.

  12. Histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of systemic and topical ozone on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci, F; Gunaydin, Y; Sencimen, M; Bassorgun, I; Ozler, M; Oter, S; Gulses, A; Gunal, A; Sezgin, S; Bayar, G R; Dogan, N; Gider, I K

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic and topical ozone applications on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction. One hundred and twelve male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of 14 rats each; seven groups were experimental (A-G) and one formed the control group (K). The experimental groups were further divided into two sub-groups, with seven rats in each - sacrificed on days 14 and 28 (subgroups 1 and 2). The maxillary right central incisors were extracted under general anaesthesia following the administration of local anaesthesia. After sacrifice, semi-serial histological sections were prepared, and mineralized and trabecular bone and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces were measured. Measurements of the trabecular bone showed statistically higher values in the groups treated with systemic ozone (D(2): 50.01 ± 2.12; E(2): 49.03 ± 3.03; F(2): 48.76 ± 2.61; G(2): 50.24 ± 3.37) than in the groups that underwent topical ozone administration (A(2): 46.01 ± 3.07; B(2): 46.79 ± 3.09; C(2): 47.07 ± 2.12; P = 0.030 (G(2)-A(2), G(2)-B(2), G(2)-C(2))). Within the limitations of the current study, it may be concluded that postoperative long-term systemic ozone application can accelerate alveolar bone healing following extraction. However, additional studies are required to clarify the effects of the different ozone applications on new bone formation.

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Dugo, L.; Genovese, T.; Paola, R. Di; Ruggeri, Z.; Vegeto, E.; Caputi, A.P.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Puzzolo, D.; Maggi, A.

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that bone loss may be attributed to osteoclast recruitment induced by mediators of inflammation. In different experimental paradigms we have recently demonstrated that estrogen exhibits antiinflammatory activity by preventing the induction of inducible nitric oxid

  14. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Publication ... Line For Your Information The Impact of Bed Rest and Inactivity Some people can’t perform weight- ...

  15. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to...

  16. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored.

  17. Conditional Knockout of the MicroRNA 17-92 Cluster in Type-I Collagen-Expressing Cells Decreases Alveolar Bone Size and Incisor Tooth Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M; Mohan, S; Xing, M J; Kesavan, C

    2016-01-01

    To test the role of the miR17-92 (miR) cluster in dental bones, we evaluated the incisor tooth phenotype by micro-CT in 5- and 12-week-old conditional knockout (CKO) mice deficient in the miR17-92 cluster in type-I collagen-expressing cells and bone strength by finite element analysis. The incisor teeth of CKO mice showed a 23-30 % reduction in tissue volume and bone volume. Accordingly, the stiffness and failure load of incisor teeth assessed by finite element analysis showed an 18-40 % decrease in CKO compared to wild-type mice. A positive correlation between bone parameters and strength data suggests that the decreased mechanical properties of incisor teeth are due to decreased tissue volume and bone volume. Subsequently, we found that the width of alveolar bone was reduced by 25 % with a 16 % increase in periodontal ligament space, suggesting that the CKO mice are more susceptible to tooth movement. Since alveolar bone is populated primarily by osteoblast lineage cells, it is likely that the reduction in periosteal expansion of alveolar bone in the lower jaw of CKO mice results from decreased periosteal bone formation. Overall, our phenotype analysis demonstrates that the miR17-92 cluster is essential for development and maintenance of tooth strength by regulating its tooth size.

  18. Long-term outcomes of the use of allogeneic, radiation-sterilised bone blocks in reconstruction of the atrophied alveolar ridge in the maxilla and mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marta; Krasny, Kornel; Fiedor, Piotr; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Kamiński, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly dental surgeons face the challenge of reconstruction of the height and/or thickness of the alveolar ridge as more and more patients wish to have permanent restoration of their dental defects based on intraosseous implants. Evaluation of human allogeneic bone tissue grafts in reconstruction of atrophied alveolar ridge as a pre-implantation procedure. The material comprised 21 patients aged 19-63, treated between 2009 and 2012 by the same surgeon. Restoration of bone tissue defects was performed with allogeneic, frozen, radiation-sterilised, corticocancellous blocks. The study included 26 grafting procedures with 7 procedures consisting in reconstruction of the alveolar ridge in the mandible and 19 in the maxilla. In all the cases the atrophied alveolar ridge was successfully reconstructed, which allowed placement of intraosseous implants in compliance with the initial treatment plan. After the treatment was completed the patients reported for follow-up annually. The average time of follow-up amounted to 39 months (28-50 months). None of the implants was lost during the follow-up period. There was one case of gingival recession causing aesthetics deterioration of the prosthetic restoration. In three cases the connector became unscrewed partially, which was corrected at the same visit. Frozen, radiation-sterilised, allogeneic bone blocks constitute good and durable bone-replacement material allowing effective and long-lasting reconstruction of the atrophied alveolar ridge to support durable, implant-based, prosthetic restoration.

  19. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  20. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II. Intra- and inter-examinar variation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.

  1. Influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants after extraction of teeth with different defects in the buccal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants with different defects in the buccal bone. We enrolled 60 patients who had one posterior mandibular tooth extracted. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) was used to measure the buccal bone defects in the alveolar ridge before the tooth was extracted (level A=3 to 5 mm, and level B=more than 5 mm). After the tooth had been extracted, the socket either had the alveolar ridge preserved (trial group) or it was left to heal spontaneously (control group). The changes in the dimensions of the alveolar ridge from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively were evaluated by cone-beam CT. Suitable implants were inserted 6 months later, and their length and diameter recorded. The implant stability quotient was evaluated for the following 3 months. The dimensions of the bone in the alveolar ridge in the trial group were significantly less than those in the control groups in both levels. Fifty-seven patients required implants (except 3 in level B in the control group). There were more longer and wider implants in the trial group than in the control group in Level B. 3 months after implantation, there were no significant differences in implant stability quotients between the groups, though in the control group, Level B, the mean (SD) value was 69.50 (1.00) while in the other groups values were all above 70 at 3 months. We conclude that when the defect in the buccal bone was more than 5mm, the alveolar ridge preservation demonstrated a remarkable effect in preserving the alveolar ridge dimension and delayed implantation.

  2. Posterior maxillary sandwich osteotomy combined with sinus grafting with bone morphogenetic protein-2 for alveolar reconstruction for dental implants: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ole T; Cottam, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Four patients underwent posterior sandwich osteotomy combined with sinus floor grafting using bone morphogenetic protein-2 and other grafting materials. The patients were treated over a period of 4 years. Two to four implants were placed in each site subsequently. Of the 12 implants placed, none failed. Alveolar crest bone levels appeared to be stable over time, with an average vertical gain of about 5 mm. Overall vertical gain, including the sinus graft, exceeded 13 mm in all patients. The procedure appears to hold promise for combined vertical alveolar defects and prominent pneumatization of the posterior maxilla.

  3. Tissue-engineered bone repairs sheep alveolar bone defects%组织工程化骨修复羊牙槽骨缺损***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 杨川博; 何惠宇; 崔杰; 杨楠; 马文渊

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Fol owing physicochemical treatment and high-temperature calcinations, heterogeneous biological bone becomes a ceramic-like heterologous bone forming a similar structure to the human bone that is a natural network pore structure, which is conducive to seed cel adhesion and proliferation. OBJECTIVE:To observe the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered bone through combination of sintered bone and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s to repair alveolar defects. METHODS:Sheep bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s as seed cel s were combined with the high temperature sintered bone as scaffold materials to construct tissue-engineered bone. Under general anesthesia, sheep bilateral mandibular first premolars were removed in batches, the alveolar ridge space between the distal root and mesial root of the second premolar to form a bone defect area of 5 mm×5 mm×5 mm. Twelve experimental sheep were equal y randomized into tissue-engineered bone group and sintered bone group, which were implanted with tissue-engineered bone and sintered bone, respectively, at the left surgical area of the mandible. The right surgical area was considered as blank control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After high-temperature calcinations, the sintered bone was chalk in color, exhibiting a porous structure as the natural cancel ous bone. The porosity was (66.10±1.32)%, and the pore size was between 137.44μm and 538.72μm. After 24 hours of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s inoculated to the sintered bone, a large number of cel s are visible adherent to the scaffold;up to day 7, extracel ular matrix was secreted and there was no clear boundary between the cel s and the matrix. X-ray films showed that the tissue-engineered bone and pure sintered bone implants were embedded in the surgical area, and there was a low-density shadow at the edge of the sintered bone. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed bone trabecular formation at the experimental side, but no obvious bone formation at

  4. 大鼠颌骨骨皮质切开术后骨小梁三维结构的改变%Three-dimensional morphology of alveolar trabecular bone after corticotomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄丽; 屈克勤; 周玉玲; 张栋梁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the metabolic changes of alveolar trabecular bone following the corticotomy.Methods 10 healthy Wistar rats were selected.The corticotomy was operated on the mesial and distal alveolar bone of upper left first molars,and the opposite side served as control.The animals were scanned by micro-computed tomography at different time points (Pre,7 d,14 d and 42 d).Structural properties of the trabecular bone around the operation zone were analyzed.Results the bone mineral density decreased significantly at 14 d after operation (P<0.05),and then increased to a level which was more than pre-operation at 42 d (P<0.01).The indices of alveolar bone architecture showed a trend of bone loss first then formation in the operation zone.Conclusions After the corticotomy,bone loss will be observed in the first two weeks,then bone formation increase with time,and the bone will be denser than pre-operation at 42 d.%目的 探索骨皮质切开术后牙槽骨骨小梁的结构改变规律.方法 选取健康Wistar雄性大鼠10只,在其左侧上颌第一臼齿近远中牙槽骨施行骨皮质切开术,右侧不做处理作为对照.分别在手术前,和手术后7、14、21及42天使用活体Micro-CT进行扫描,获得大鼠上颌牙槽骨以及牙齿的影像学数据,并对其进行分析.结果 术后14天大鼠牙槽骨的骨密度显著降低(P<0.05),而术后42天又显著升高至比术前更高的水平(P<0.01).各项三维结构的指标均显示先疏松后致密的趋势.结论 大鼠颌骨骨皮质切开术后,骨质疏松发生在术后14天前,以后逐渐致密,到术后42天已达到比术前更致密的水平.

  5. 阿仑膦酸钠与雷洛昔芬对牙槽骨吸收的影响*%Alendronate and raloxifene affect alveolar bone resorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦波; 刘铁玉; 阎美凤; 曲晓娟

    2013-01-01

    ovariectomized rats. It is confirmed that both alendronate and raloxifene can reduce bone loss to prevent osteoporosis and alveolar bone resorption, but alendronate is a better one.

  6. Massive acetabular bone loss: Limits of trabecular metal cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva-Martínez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive acetabular bone loss (more than 50% of the acetabular area can result in insufficient native bone for stable fixation and long-term bone ingrowth of conventional porous cups. The development of trabecular metal cages with osteoconductive properties may allow a more biological and versatile approach that will help restore bone loss, thus reducing the frequency of implant failure in the short-to-medium term. We report a case of massive bone loss affecting the dome of the acetabulum and the ilium, which was treated with a trabecular metal cage and particulate allograft. Although the trabecular metal components had no intrinsic stability, they did enhance osseointegration and incorporation of a non-impacted particulate graft, thus preventing failure of the reconstruction. The minimum 50% contact area between the native bone and the cup required for osseointegration with the use of porous cups may not hold for new trabecular metal cups, thus reducing the need for antiprotrusio cages. The osteoconductive properties of trabecular metal enhanced allograft incorportation and iliac bone rebuilding without the need to fill the defect with multiple wedges nor protect the reconstruction with an antiprotrusio cage.

  7. Isoflavones prevent bone loss following ovariectomy in young adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li-Ting

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy protein, a rich source of phytoestrogens, exhibit estrogen-type bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine if ingestion of isoflavones before ovariectomy can prevent bone loss following ovariectomy. Twenty-four nulliparous Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the normal diet groups, a sham operation was performed on Group A, while ovariectomy was performed on Group B. For Groups C and D, all rats were fed with an isoflavone-rich (25 mg/day diet for one month, then bilateral ovariectomy were performed. In the rats in Group C, a normal diet was begun following the ovariectomy. The rats in Groups D continued to receive the isoflavone-rich diet for two additional months postoperatively. All rats were sacrificed 60 days after surgery. The weight of bone ash of the long bones and whole lumbar spine were determined. A histological study of cancellous bone was done and biochemical indices of skeletal metabolism were performed and analyzed. The markers of bone metabolism exhibited no significant changes. When compared with the sham-operated rats fed a normal diet, the bone mass of ovariectomized rats decreased significantly; pre-ovariectomy ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet did not prevent bone loss. The bone mass of rats treated with an isoflavone-rich diet for three months was higher than controls two months after ovariectomy. Dietary isoflavones did not prevent the development of post-ovariectomy bone loss, but long-term ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet increased the bone mineral contents after ovariectomy in young rats.

  8. RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in arthritic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Bezerra

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Tissue proteinases released by synovia, chondrocytes and pannus can cause cartilage destruction and cytokine-activated osteoclasts have been implicated in bone erosions. Rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues produce a variety of cytokines and growth factors that induce monocyte differentiation to osteoclasts and their proliferation, activation and longer survival in tissues. More recently, a major role in bone erosion has been attributed to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL released by activated lymphocytes and osteoblasts. In fact, osteoclasts are markedly activated after RANKL binding to the cognate RANK expressed on the surface of these cells. RANKL expression can be upregulated by bone-resorbing factors such as glucocorticoids, vitamin D3, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Supporting this idea, inhibition of RANKL by osteoprotegerin, a natural soluble RANKL receptor, prevents bone loss in experimental models. Tumor growth factor-ß released from bone during active bone resorption has been suggested as one feedback mechanism for upregulating osteoprotegerin and estrogen can increase its production on osteoblasts. Modulation of these systems provides the opportunity to inhibit bone loss and deformity in chronic arthritis.

  9. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  10. Phytoestrogens in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a condition associated with low bone mass resulting from the increased bone resorption that occurs following a decline in estrogen levels. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that have affinity to the estrogen receptor and are able to act as either estrogen agonists or antagonists. Because of their structural similarity to 17-beta-estradiol, they have been studied extensively for their role in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. An extensive number of studies employing different types of isoflavone preparations (including soy foods, soy-enriched foods, and soy isoflavone tablets) have been conducted in a wide range of populations, including Western and Asian women. Although there is considerable variability in study design and duration, study population, type of soy isoflavone employed in the intervention, and study outcomes, the evidence points to a lack of a protective role of soy isoflavones in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

  11. BST2 Mediates Osteoblast Differentiation via the BMP2 Signaling Pathway in Human Alveolar-Derived Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Beom-Su; Lee, Jun; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lim, Hyun-Dae; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Eui-Sic; You, Hyung-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) influences differentiation toward the osteoblasts lineage. BST2 mRNA expression in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) increased during differentiation into osteoblasts. hAD-BMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts and the mRNA expression of the bone-specific markers alkaline phosphatase, collagen type α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were reduced by BST2 knockdown using siRNA. Furthermore, BST2 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs resulted in decreased RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression. We hypothesized that BST2 is involved in differentiation of into osteoblasts via the BMP2 signaling pathway. Accordingly, we evaluated the mRNA expression levels of BMP2, BMP receptors (BMPR1 and 2), and the downstream signaling molecules SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in BST2 knockdown cells. BMP2 expression following the induction of differentiation was significantly lower in BST2 knockdown cells than in cells treated with a non-targeting control siRNA. Similar results were found for the knockdown of the BMP2 receptor- BMPR1A. We also identified significantly lower expression of SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in the BST2 knockdown cells than control cells. Our data provide the first evidence that BST2 is involved in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells via the regulation of the BMP2 signaling pathway.

  12. Histomorphometric Study of Alveolar Bone Healing in Rats Fed a Boron-Deficient Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone healing after tooth extraction in rats is a suitable experimental model to study bone formation. Thus, we performed a study to determine the effects of boron (B) deficiency on bone healing by using this model. Weanling Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (+B; 3 mg B/kg diet), and ...

  13. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  14. Anabolic Vitamin D Analogs as Countermeasures to Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Duncan, Randall L.; Karin, Norman J.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that vitamin D3 influences the effect of PTH on bone cell calcium ion levels. This is a rapid effect, taking place within seconds/minutes. This may prove to be a critical contribution to our understanding of bone physiology in that these two hormones are among the most potent regulators of bone calcium content and of systemic calcium homeostasis. Together with the data gathered from the study of astronauts exposed to microgravity for extended periods, these observations suggest the interaction of vitamin D3 and PTH as a possible therapeutic target in the treatment of bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis and disuse atrophy. Chronic exposure of cultured osteoblasts to vitamin D, altered the number of voltage-sensitive Ca(+2) channels expressed. Estrogen treatment yielded a similar result, suggesting that there is overlap in the mechanism by which these hormones elicit long-term effects on bone cell calcium homeostasis.

  15. Comparison of the changes of alveolar bone thickness in maxillary incisor area in extraction and non-extraction cases: computerized tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barroso Picanço

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare, through computed tomography, alveolar bone thickness changes at the maxillary incisors area during orthodontic treatment with and without tooth extraction. METHODS: Twelve patients were evaluated. They were divided into 2 groups: G1 - 6 patients treated with extraction of right and left maxillary first premolars, with mean initial age of 15.83 years and mean treatment length of 2.53 years; G2 - 6 patients treated without extraction, with mean initial age of 18.26 years and mean treatment length of 2.39 years. Computed tomographies, lateral cephalograms and periapical radiographs were used at the beginning of the treatment (T1 and 18 months after the treatment had started (T2. Extraction space closure occurred in the extraction cases. Intragroup and intergroup comparisons were performed by dependent and independent t test, respectively. RESULTS: In G1, the central incisor was retracted and uprighted, while in G2 this tooth showed vestibularization. Additionally, G1 presented a higher increase of labial alveolar bone thickness at the cervical third in comparison with G2. The incidence of root resorption did not present significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: There were no changes in alveolar bone thickness when extraction and nonextraction cases were compared, except for the labial alveolar bone thickness at the cervical third of maxillary incisors.

  16. Numerical analysis of an osseointegrated prosthesis fixation with reduced bone failure risk and periprosthetic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, P K; van Diest, M; Bulstra, S K; Verdonschot, N; Verkerke, G J

    2012-07-26

    Currently available implants for direct attachment of prosthesis to the skeletal system after transfemoral amputation (OPRA system, Integrum AB, Sweden and ISP Endo/Exo prosthesis, ESKA Implants AG, Germany) show many advantages over the conventional socket fixation. However, restraining biomechanical issues such as considerable bone loss around the stem and peri-prosthetic bone fractures are present. To overcome these limiting issues a new concept of the direct intramedullary fixation was developed. We hypothesize that the new design will reduce the peri-prosthetic bone failure risk and adverse bone remodeling by restoring the natural load transfer in the femur. Generic CT-based finite element models of an intact femur and amputated bones implanted with 3 analyzed implants were created and loaded with a normal walking and a forward fall load. The strain adaptive bone remodeling theory was used to predict long-term bone changes around the implants and the periprosthetic bone failure risk was evaluated by the von Mises stress criterion. The results show that the new design provides close to physiological distribution of stresses in the bone and lower bone failure risk for the normal walking as compared to the OPRA and the ISP implants. The bone remodeling simulations did not reveal any overall bone loss around the new design, as opposed to the OPRA and the ISP implants, which induce considerable bone loss in the distal end of the femur. This positive outcome shows that the presented concept has a potential to considerably improve safety of the rehabilitation with the direct fixation implants.

  17. Fractal texture analysis of the healing process after bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Marta; Szarmach, Janusz; Oczeretko, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Radiological assessment of treatment effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) method in postresectal and postcystal bone loss cases, observed for one year. Group of 25 patients (17 females and 8 males) who underwent root resection with cystectomy were evaluated. The following combination therapy of intraosseous deficits was used, consisting of bone augmentation with xenogenic material together with covering regenerative membranes and tight wound closure. The bone regeneration process was estimated, comparing the images taken on the day of the surgery and 12 months later, by means of Kodak RVG 6100 digital radiography set. The interpretation of the radiovisiographic image depends on the evaluation ability of the eye looking at it, which leaves a large margin of uncertainty. So, several texture analysis techniques were developed and used sequentially on the radiographic image. For each method, the results were the mean from the 25 images. These methods compute the fractal dimension (D), each one having its own theoretic basis. We used five techniques for calculating fractal dimension: power spectral density method, triangular prism surface area method, blanket method, intensity difference scaling method and variogram analysis. Our study showed a decrease of fractal dimension during the healing process after bone loss. We also found evidence that various methods of calculating fractal dimension give different results. During the healing process after bone loss, the surfaces of radiographic images became smooth. The result obtained show that our findings may be of great importance for diagnostic purpose.

  18. 髂骨块状骨植骨术修复恒牙列牙槽突裂的短期临床观察%Alveolar bulk bone grafting:A new surgical approach for alveolar cleft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐燕驰; 杜一飞; 李盛; 袁华; 江宏兵; 万林忠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨牙槽突裂髂骨块状骨植骨术的临床可行性和可靠性。方法回顾分析15例行“牙槽突裂髂骨块状骨植骨术”的恒牙列牙槽突裂患者,随访6个月以上,收集临床资料,并进行影像学分析。结果所有患者均能定期复诊,术后13例患者创口愈合良好,2例因创口裂开导致植骨失败。影像学资料显示术后6个月植骨区间隙消失,骨桥形成,且植骨区无明显吸收。已有2例患者完成正畸及种植治疗。术后3个月所有患者均可正常行走,无明显行动障碍。结论牙槽突裂髂骨块状骨植骨术短期临床效果满意,移植骨吸收少,长期效果还需进一步研究。%Objective To investigate the feasibility and reliability of alveolar bulk bone grafting in clinical practice. Methods 15 cases of alveolar cleft treated with alveolar bulk bone grafting were analyzed retrospectively, and were followed up for over 6 months. Clinical materials were collected to carry out the radiological analysis. Results The clinical over 6-month follow⁃up of 15 cases was finished. 13 patients showed satisfactory recovery of wounds. 2 cases failed due to the dehiscence. The radiological materials showed that after 6 months the bone graft clearances disappeared, bone bridge formed and bone graft area had no obvious absorption.2 patients fin⁃ished the orthodontic treatment and dental implantation. All the patients could walk normally after 3 months and had no obvious action barriers. Conclusions Alveolar bulk bone grafting, a new surgical approach for alveolar cleft, has satisfactory short⁃term clinical effects, and the long⁃term clinical effects need more further studies.

  19. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  20. Generation and Identification of GM-CSF Derived Alveolar-like Macrophages and Dendritic Cells From Mouse Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yifei; Arif, Arif A; Poon, Grace F T; Hardman, Blair; Dosanjh, Manisha; Johnson, Pauline

    2016-06-25

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells found in tissues and lymphoid organs that play a key role in the defense against pathogens. However, they are difficult to isolate in sufficient numbers to study them in detail, therefore, in vitro models have been developed. In vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells are well-established and valuable methods for immunological studies. Here, a method for culturing and identifying both DCs and macrophages from a single culture of primary mouse bone marrow cells using the cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is described. This protocol is based on the established procedure first developed by Lutz et al. in 1999 for bone marrow-derived DCs. The culture is heterogeneous, and MHCII and fluoresceinated hyaluronan (FL-HA) are used to distinguish macrophages from immature and mature DCs. These GM-CSF derived macrophages provide a convenient source of in vitro derived macrophages that closely resemble alveolar macrophages in both phenotype and function.

  1. Effectiveness of Lateral Bone Augmentation on the Alveolar Crest Dimension: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sánchez, I; Ortiz-Vigón, A; Sanz-Martín, I; Figuero, E; Sanz, M

    2015-09-01

    Lateral ridge augmentation procedures are aimed to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges or to build up peri-implant dehiscence and fenestrations. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of these interventions by analyzing data from 40 clinical studies evaluating bone augmentation through either the staged or the simultaneous approach. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline for systematic reviews was used. The primary outcomes were the changes at reentry, in the ridge width, and in the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the peri-implant defect, measured in millimeters, in the staged and simultaneous approaches, respectively. The results of the meta-analysis showed, for the simultaneous approach, a statistically significant defect height reduction when all treatments were analyzed together (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -4.28 mm; 95% confidence interval: [CI] -4.88, -3.69; P bone replacement grafts with barrier membranes was associated with superior outcomes The most frequently used intervention was the combination of xenograft and bioabsorbable membrane. Similarly, for the staged approach, there was a statistically significant horizontal gain when all treatment groups were combined (WMD = 3.90 mm; 95% CI: 3.52, 4.28; P bone blocks. Both treatment strategies led to high survival and success rates (>95%) for the implants placed on the regenerated sites. Nonexposed sites gained significantly more in the simultaneous and staged approaches (WMD = 1.1 and 3.1 mm).

  2. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the sphenoid sinus mimicking optic neuritis presenting with intermittent visual loss in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wendong Liu,1 Libin Jiang,1 Yulan Jin,2 Bentao Yang,3 Timothy YY Lai4 1Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 4Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A 23-year-old male with intermittent visual loss in his left eye for 4 months was originally treated as optic neuritis elsewhere. Upon presentation to our hospital (Beijing Tongren Hospital, his left eye visual acuity was reduced to hand motion at face. The left eye ocular motility was limited in upgaze, downgaze, adduction, and abduction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions in the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, orbital apex and carvernous sinus invading adjacent extraocular muscles. Endoscopic ethmo-sphenoidostomy and debulking surgery was performed and histopathology of the specimen demonstrated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Despite having treatment with a combination of orbital radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy, the patient developed generalized metastasis with cachexia and the left eye became no light perception due to optic atrophy. Keywords: alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, sphenoid sinus, optic neuritis, misdiagnosis

  3. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  4. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Elizabeth; Hembree, Kelsey D; Davis, McKale R; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Halloran, Bernard P; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w) dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx) activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  5. Clinical effects on the prevention of alveolar bone absorption by site preservation after tooth extraction due to periodontitis%牙周炎患牙位点保存术的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊毅; 汪明敏; 董凯; 朱春晖; 刘瑾; 董妍; 李昂

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察位点保存术在牙周炎患牙拔除后牙槽骨量改变的临床效果。方法纳入门诊确诊为牙周炎不能保留的患牙85颗,随机分为2组:①常规拔牙组,40颗患牙,采用传统的牙拔除术;②位点保存组,45颗患牙,经微创拔牙后牙槽窝同期植入Bio-OSS胶原,覆盖Bio-Gide胶原膜并且严密缝合。对比两组患牙的临床疗效,并分别于术前术后行 X线和锥形束CT(cone beam CT,CBCT)影像学检查,评估2组牙槽骨量变化情况及比较牙槽骨的密度情况。结果两组术区均无感染,愈合良好,牙龈质地坚韧,颜色粉红。X线和CBCT结果显示,常规拔牙组牙槽骨水平和垂直吸收增加,位点保存组牙槽骨垂直和水平吸收量显著低于常规拔牙组(P<0.05),术后6月 CBCT显示位点保存组新生骨密度显著高于常规拔牙组。结论位点保存术可有效预防及减少牙周炎患牙拔除后牙槽骨的吸收,改善牙槽骨高度和宽度,成骨效果良好,有利于满足后期的修复需要。%Objective To observe the clinical effects on prevention of alveolar bone absorption by site preservation after tooth extraction due to periodontitis.Methods The experimental group consisted of 40 patients with 45 extracted teeth due to periodontitis.The fresh sockets were immediately grafted and filled with Bio-oss collagen and Bio-Gide after minimally invasive tooth extraction,while 40 teeth of control group were only treated with cotton balls bitten tightly over the socket for half an hour.Two groups were observed for changes in alveolar bone density by X-ray and cone beam CT (CBCT)after 6 months.Results There were the wound healing and no infection in extraction site of all patients with or without site preservation operation.The gingiva of extraction site was pink and tough in all groups.The alveolar bone loss in regular extraction patients significantly increased in horizontal and vertical aspects by X-ray and CBCT,while site

  6. Influence of orthodontic tooth movement on alveolar bone morphology and bone mineral density%正畸牙移动对牙槽骨形态及骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华

    2015-01-01

    背景:在正畸治疗过程中部分患者出现了牙齿松动、牙槽骨形态异常情况,甚至在一定程度上牙周疾病的概率有所增加.目的:分析正畸牙移动对牙槽骨形态及骨密度的影响.方法:纳入62例正畸治疗患者,其中男34例,女28例,年龄18-30岁,正畸治疗6个月后,利用三维锥形束 CT 机扫描患者上、下颌骨前牙区、后牙区、中切牙牙槽区,以及两侧中切牙与侧切牙牙槽间隔的骨密度.结果与结论:正畸治疗 6 个月后,所有患者牙齿坚固,未见异常动度,牙龈颜色呈现健康的粉红色,质地坚韧而不活动,探诊时无出血情况.正畸治疗前,上颌不同牙槽间隔牙槽骨密度比较差异无显著性意义(P > 0.05),治疗6个月后比较差异也无显著性意义(P > 0.05),但同一牙槽间隔正畸治疗6个月后的骨密度低于治疗前(P 0.05). However, the bone mineral density in the same alveolar space was reduced significantly after 6 months of treatment (P < 0.05). The bone mineral density of the maxilary and mandibular alveolar bone was varied consistently. In addition, the bone mineral density of the maxilary alveolar bone was significantly higher than that of the mandibular alveolar bone both before and after orthodontic treatment (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that under orthodontic treatment, the bone mineral density of the maxilary alveolar bone may be higher than that of the mandibular alveolar bone, but there is no effect on orthodontic results as wel as the morphology and health of alveolar bone.

  7. Support Immersion Endoscopy in Post-Extraction Alveolar Bone Chambers: A New Window for Microscopic Bone Imaging In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Engelke

    Full Text Available Using an endoscopic approach, small intraoral bone chambers, which are routinely obtained during tooth extraction and implantation, provide visual in vivo access to internal bone structures. The aim of the present paper is to present a new method to quantify bone microstructure and vascularisation in vivo. Ten extraction sockets and 6 implant sites in 14 patients (6 men / 8 women were examined by support immersion endoscopy (SIE. After tooth extraction or implant site preparation, microscopic bone analysis (MBA was performed using short distance SIE video sequences of representative bone areas for off-line analysis with ImageJ. Quantitative assessment of the microstructure and vascularisation of the bone in dental extraction and implant sites in vivo was performed using ImageJ. MBA revealed bone morphology details such as unmineralised and mineralised areas, vascular canals and the presence of bleeding through vascular canals. Morphometric examination revealed that there was more unmineralised bone and less vascular canal area in the implant sites than in the extraction sockets.

  8. Effect of bone loss in anterior shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder instability with bone loss can be a difficult problem to treat. It usually involves a component of either glenoid deficiency or a Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent data shows that soft tissue procedures alone are typically not adequate to provide stability to the shoulder. As such, numerous surgical procedures have been described to directly address these bony deficits. For glenoid defects, coracoid transfer and iliac crest bone block procedures are popular and effective. For humeral head defects, both remplissage and osteochondral allografts have decreased the rates of recurrent instability. Our review provides an overview of current literature addressing these treatment options and others for addressing bone loss complicating anterior glenohumeral instability. PMID:26085984

  9. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the sphenoid sinus mimicking optic neuritis presenting with intermittent visual loss in an adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendong; Jiang, Libin; Jin, Yulan; Yang, Bentao; Lai, Timothy YY

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old male with intermittent visual loss in his left eye for 4 months was originally treated as optic neuritis elsewhere. Upon presentation to our hospital (Beijing Tongren Hospital), his left eye visual acuity was reduced to hand motion at face. The left eye ocular motility was limited in upgaze, downgaze, adduction, and abduction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions in the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, orbital apex and carvernous sinus invading adjacent extraocular muscles. Endoscopic ethmo-sphenoidostomy and debulking surgery was performed and histopathology of the specimen demonstrated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Despite having treatment with a combination of orbital radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy, the patient developed generalized metastasis with cachexia and the left eye became no light perception due to optic atrophy. PMID:27932889

  10. [Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Orofacial Cleft: A Survey of a Portuguese Tertiary Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Isabel; Morgado, Hélder; Mariz, Carlos; Estevão-Costa, José Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A fenda lábio-palatina é a malformação congénita craniofacial mais frequente. Na presença de defeito ósseo, a técnica de enxerto ósseo alveolar secundário é o método de correção mais consensual entre os autores. Neste estudo avalia-se o resultado da aplicação desta técnica num hospital terciário. Material e Métodos: Análise dos enxertos ósseos alveolares secundários realizados entre 2007 e 2014, sendo incluídos os casos em que a crista ilíaca foi a região dadora e em que a informação clínica e imagiológica estava completa. A eficácia da intervenção foi avaliada radiologicamente com recurso à escala de Bergland (tipo I-IV), e correlacionada com variáveis associadas à patologia e/ou correção cirúrgica. Resultados: Dos 32 enxertos ósseos alveolares secundários realizados, 29 cumpriam os critérios de inclusão: 13 casos (44,8%) correspondiam a fendas pré-forâmen unilaterais completas; quatro (13,8%) a fendas pré-forâmen bilaterais completas; oito (27,6%) a fendas transforâmen unilaterais e quatro (13,8%) a fendas transforâmen bilaterais. Pela escala de Bergland (aplicada com um seguimento médio de 8 ± 5 meses), seis eram do tipo I, 15 do tipo II, cinco de tipo III e três do tipo IV. Não foi encontrada associação entre a eficácia da intervenção cirúrgica e o tipo de fenda lábio-palatina, presença do incisivo e fase de erupção do canino. Cinco doentes foram submetidos a novo enxerto ósseo alveolar (três tipo II e dois tipo III na avaliação inicial). Discussão: Na presente série, o enxerto ósseo alveolar foi eficaz na maioria dos doentes (72%, tipo I e II), independentemente do tipo de fenda lábio-palatina. A proporção de falências (10,3%) e a necessidade ulterior de reintervenção (17%) foram relativamente altas justificando o seguimento a longo-prazo e a continuação deste estudo. Conclusão: Importa realçar o envolvimento multidisciplinar para identificação atempada do momento

  11. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  12. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  13. Posttraumatic Displacement Management: Lateral Luxation and Alveolar Bone Fracture in Young Permanent Teeth with 5 Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Marques Honório

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental trauma is an important public health problem due to high prevalence and associated limitations. The external impact accounting for trauma may result in different injury types to teeth and supporting structures. This paper describes a clinical case of tooth trauma in an 8-year-old patient exhibiting the displacement of three permanent teeth with open root apexes. Although the traumatic impact resulted in two injury types to teeth and supporting tissues (lateral luxation and alveolar bone fracture, the therapeutic approach was the same in both situations. The bone and teeth were repositioned by digital pressure, stabilized by semirigid splint, and followed up at every week. After six weeks, the splint was removed. At that moment, the clinical and radiographic findings indicated normal soft/hard tissues and absence of pulp/periodontal pathologies. At the fifth year of follow-up, the treatment success of the case was confirmed, although it has been observed that all lower incisors exhibited pulp obliteration as a consequence of the dental trauma.

  14. Technique to assess the alveolar bone width for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Chandraker

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This technique will help the surgeon understand the thickness of labial plate especially the apical region without reflecting the flap, also aid in selection of proper dimension of dental implant, and if bone graft is needed.

  15. Relationship between alveolar cleft bone grafting and facial skeletal growth%牙槽突裂植骨与颌骨生长发育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韶青华; 陈振琦

    2013-01-01

      牙槽突裂植骨是唇腭裂患者序列治疗的重要组成部分。学者们在植骨时机的选择上存在分歧,主要分为一期植骨和二期植骨,原因在于不同时期植骨对颌骨生长发育的影响不同。本文分别从这两个植骨时机上阐述了其植骨来源以及植骨与颌骨生长发育的关系。%Bone grafting of alveolar cleft is an essential step in the sequential management of patients with clefts of lip, alveolus and palate. There is little agreement on the optimal time, which includes primary bone grafting and secondary bone grafting. This is caused by the effects of alveolar bone grafting in different times on facial skeletal growth. This article described the sources of bone graft as well as the relationship between bone grafting and facial skeletal growth from the two bone graft timing.

  16. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

  17. 伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损的临床修复分析%Clinical repair analysis on alveolar bone defect on labial side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损的临床修复方法与效果。方法选择伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损患者50例,采用诱导活性材料进行修复治疗。结果所有患者完成手术,成功率为100.0%。与术前比较,患者植骨材料充填牙槽突缺损的间隙无明显移位,对比差异明显(P<0.05)。结论采用骨诱导活性材料修复伴唇侧牙槽骨缺损能取得很好的临床效果,值得推广应用。%Object: To analysis the strategy and effect of clinical repair on alveolar bone defect on labial side. Methods: 50 cases with alveolar bone defect on labial side were given prosthodontic treatment using induction active material. Results: All the patients underwent the operation successfully and success rate was 100%. Compared with before operation, clearance of alveolar process defect was filled by bone substitute material without obvious displacement, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Using bone substitute material to repair alveolar bone defect on labial side obtained good clinical effect, and worthy of being widely applied in clinic.

  18. Prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors protect from the bone loss in ovariectomy rats by increasing bone vascularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Tu, Yihui; Zhang, Lianfang; Qi, Jin; Ma, Tong; Deng, Lianfu

    2014-05-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is involved in skeletal development, bone repair, and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylases (PHD) enhance vascularity, increase callus formation in a stabilized fracture model, and activate the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. This study examined the effects of estrogen on the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway in osteoblasts and whether PHD inhibitors can protect from bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoblasts were treated with estrogen, and expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were measured at mRNA (qPCR) and protein (Western blot) levels. Further, osteoblasts were treated with inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, and levels of VEGF mRNA and protein expression were detected. In addition, ovariectomized rats were treated with PHD inhibitors, and bone microarchitecture and bone mechanical strength were assessed using micro-CT and biomechanical analyses (lower ultimate stress, modulus, and stiffness). Blood vessel formation was measured with India Ink Perfusion and immunohistochemistry. Estrogen, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, induced VEGF expression at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced HIF-1α protein stability. Further, the estrogen-induced VEGF expression in osteoblasts involved the PI3K/Akt pathway. PHD inhibitors increased bone mineral density, bone microarchitecture and bone mechanical strength, and promoted blood vessel formation in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, estrogen and PHD inhibitors activate the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway in osteoblasts. PHD inhibitors can be utilized to protect bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis by improving bone vascularity and angiogenesis in bone marrow.

  19. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Erika; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Takita, Hiroko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Momose, Takehito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Murakami, Shusuke; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold were, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold greater than those of the control. Particularly, the infiltration of ED2-positive (M2) macrophages and blood vessels were prominent in the GO scaffold. Dog bone-formation tests showed that 1 µg/mL GO scaffold implantation enhanced bone formation. New bone formation following GO scaffold implantation was enhanced fivefold compared to that in control subjects. These results suggest that GO was biocompatible and had high bone-formation capability for the scaffold

  20. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor%人类上颌中切牙拔除后牙槽骨外形变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei LI; Yao WANG‡

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original mor-phological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxilary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired samplet-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shalow layers al showed

  1. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas D. Leventis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques.

  2. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Minas D.; Fairbairn, Peter; Kakar, Ashish; Leventis, Angelos D.; Margaritis, Vasileios; Lückerath, Walter; Horowitz, Robert A.; Rao, Bappanadu H.; Lindner, Annette; Nagursky, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone) in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material) while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques. PMID:27190516

  3. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  4. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  5. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Erika Nishida,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Akihito Kato,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Toshihiko Iwanaga,3 Takehito Momose,1 Kosuke Ogawa,1 Shusuke Murakami,1 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami11Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Graphene oxide (GO consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1

  6. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Jacobs, Reinhilde [OIC, OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noriega, Jorge [Master of Periodontology, Universidad San Martin de Porres, Lima (Peru)

    2014-09-15

    This study was performed to determine the efficacy of observers' prediction for the need of bone grafting and presence of perioperative complications on the basis of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographic (PAN) planning as compared to the surgical outcome. One hundred and eight partially edentulous patients with a need for implant rehabilitation were referred for preoperative imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT images. Four observers carried out implant planning using PAN image datasets, and at least one month later, using CBCT image datasets. Based on their own planning, the observers assessed the need for bone graft augmentation as well as complication prediction. The implant length and diameter, the need for bone graft augmentation, and the occurrence of anatomical complications during planning and implant placement were statistically compared. In the 108 patients, 365 implants were installed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses of both PAN and CBCT preoperative planning showed that CBCT performed better than PAN-based planning with respect to the need for bone graft augmentation and perioperative complications. The sensitivity and the specificity of CBCT for implant complications were 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively, and for bone graft augmentation, they were 95.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Significant differences were found between PAN-based planning and the surgery of posterior implant lengths. Our findings indicated that CBCT-based preoperative implant planning enabled treatment planning with a higher degree of prediction and agreement as compared to the surgical standard. In PAN-based surgery, the prediction of implant length was poor.

  7. Treatment of multiple traumatized anterior teeth associated with an alveolar bone fracture in a 20-year-old patient: a 3-year follow up

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive luxation is a type of recognizable luxation injury represented by a deeper axial displacement of the tooth toward the alveolar bone. Treatment strategies include waiting for the tooth to return to its position, immediate surgical repositioning, and repositioning through dental traction by orthodontic devices. The aim of this case report was to present the management of severe dental trauma and later restoration following IADT. A 20-year-old patient was presented after fainting at ho...

  8. An experimental model of disuse in the alveolar rat bone: A histomorphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan-Cotumacci, Alejandra E; Ubios, Angela M; Bozal, Carola B

    2015-01-01

    Lack of mechanical stimulation is known to cause disuse osteopenia in bones. However, experimental models for disuse osteopenia on bones other than jawbones are not applicable to jawbones. The little available information in this field has been applied to the study of overeruption of teeth lacking antagonists. However, the absence of an antagonist in the opposite jaw means that there is no stimulation by occlusion. Our hypothesis is that the lack of stimulation due to the absence of teeth causes disuse osteopenia in the interradicular bone of the antagonist teeth. Our aim was to develop a model of disuse osteopenia due to the absence of occlusal forces. We used male Wistar rats with 215-230 g body weight, divided into 2 groups: one absolute control group (C) and one experimental group in which the three right lower molars were extracted (E). The left side of the jaw in the experimental group was used as a paired control (PC). The animals were euthanized 7 days after extraction. The jaws were placed in occlusion, fastened and fixed in 10% formalin. The heads were cut in half and radiographs made of both jaws. The upper jaws were processed histologically. After decalcification, bucco-palatine oriented sections were cut at the level of the mesial root and distal roots of the first upper molars. On the radiographs, the distance from the tip of the cusp on the first upper molar to the antagonist edentulous ridge (DA) was measured. On the microphotographs, the following parameters were measured: passive eruption degree (PED), height of periodontal ligament at the level of the furcation (HPL) and interradicular bone volume (BVI). The data were compared statistically using ANOVA and Bonferroni's post-hoc test, considering pexperimental animals was 0.34}0.048 mm. PED in experimental animals was significantly greater than in the control groups, both for the buccal plate and for the palatal plate. HPL showed no significant difference between groups. BVI was significantly

  9. 牙槽嵴裂植骨失败因素的探讨%Discusion of the influence factors of the failure of alveolar cleft bone graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳新华; 张新华; 侯春林; 侯伟; 马雪芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨可能的导致牙槽嵴裂植骨失败的有关因素.方法:对217例病例进行临床研究,分析植骨年龄、裂隙类型以及操作方式与植骨手术成功的关系.结果:大龄患者植骨失败率显著高于9~11岁患者,双侧牙槽嵴裂失败率高于单侧,单侧完全性裂失败率高于不完全性裂和隐裂.结论:植骨年龄、裂隙类型以及操作方式是影响植骨手术成功与否的几个关键因素.双侧裂隙软组织严重缺乏者,可考虑先行一侧牙槽嵴裂骨移植术,待植入骨生长稳定后,再行另一侧植骨,手术操作动作须熟练、力度要准确,无张力严密缝合,减少手术创伤、植骨量要适度.%Objective To explore the factors whith influence the results of alveolar clefe bone graft. Methods 217 patients with alveolar cleft were discussed.we analysis the relationship between the patients' age,clinical classification and operation mode. Results Older patients bone graft failure rate was significantly higher than 9 to 11 patients, bilateral alveolar cleft bone graft! failure rate was higher than unilateral,unilateral complete cleft bone graft failure rate was higher than the incomplete and submucosal cleft. Conclusion The patients'age.clinical classification and operation mode are the key factors in the alveolar cleft bone grafting.If the bilateral alveolar cleft patients'soft tissue are lack seriously.we may be operate one side.During operation.surgical operation action must be skilled.the force should be accurate, suture should be not only no tension but also strict.surgical trauma should be reduced, the bone mass should be modest.

  10. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shuji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hosomichi, Jun; Kuma, Yoichiro; Maeda, Hideyuki; Nagai, Hisashi; Usumi-Fujita, Risa; Kaneko, Sawa; Shibutani, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ono, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis) in the mandibular first molar (M1) region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model. PMID:27695422

  11. Changes of hard dental and bone tissue of alveolar process in rats on the orthodontic tooth movement on the background of an experimental goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila A. Kolesnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the state of dental hard and bone tissues of alveolar process in rats with the model of orthodontic tooth movement at the experimental goiter based on the analysis of bone phosphatases and proteases activity. Material and Methods —Experimental study with the model of goiter and orthodontic tooth movement in rats. The experiment was carried out with 30 Wistar rats of gregarious breeding. During the first stage of the experiment the goitre was being simulated by giving 1% solution of potassium perchlorate with drinking water for 20 days. During the second experimental stage using thiopental the orthodontic model of tooth movement (OMtM was being reproduced for 21 days. The lower jaw in rats served to reveal carious cavities and atrophy rate of alveolar process, the upper jaw served for determining the common activity of alkaline, acid phosphatase, elastase and total proteolytic activity (OPA, the pulp of incisors served to determine the activity of bone phosphatases. Statistical analysis — One way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Сomparison between experimental groups was carried out with the help of t-Student U and Mann-Whitney test (p.asymp.sig<0.05 was considered significant. Results — in animals under experiment the orthodontic tooth movement together with thyroid disorders is accompanied by increased proteases activity of bone tissue and impaired activity of bone phosphatases. Conclusions — sudden aggravation in the resorption processes of bone tissue of alveolar process, demineralization of hard dental tissue during the orthodontic tooth movement in relation to experimental goiter show that child with the thyroid gland disorders are in need of active treatment and preventive measures during active apparatus treatment of dentoalveolar anomalies.

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Oishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis in the mandibular first molar (M1 region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  13. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

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    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  14. Alveolar Bone Reduction Curves of Castrated Rats after Incisors Extraction%去势大鼠下切牙拔除后牙槽骨吸收曲线的绘制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰泽栋; 郑雅心; 吴琳琳

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究去势大鼠下切牙拔除后牙槽骨吸收曲线.方法:6组雄性Wistar大鼠在全麻下去势并拔除右下切牙,分别于0、1、2、4、8、12周处死.用软X线拍摄大鼠下颌骨,测量并计算出颊侧、舌侧牙槽骨高度和宽度的吸收值绘制曲线.结果:0~12周颊、舌侧牙槽骨高度吸收值表现为先快速增加后快速下降的曲线;而宽度吸收值未见明显变化.结论:该曲线可作为预防牙槽骨吸收的基础性研究.%Objective:To investigate the alveolar bones reduction curves of of castrated rats after incisors extraction.Methods:Six groups of Wistar rats were castrated after general anesthesia and the right lower incisors were extracted respectively.All rats were sacrificed at 0,1,2,4,8,12 weeks after tooth-extractions.After photographing the rats' mandibules with molybdenum target soft X-ray,we measured and calculated the vertical and horizontal dimension changes of buccal and lingual sides to draw curves.Results:The vertical resorption of buccal and lingual sides of alveolar bones appear to be rapid loss at first few weeks and declined dramatically thereafter during the 12 weeks.However,there were no significant changes of horizontal dimension.Conclusion:These curves can be a theoretical basis for preventing residual alveolar ridge resorption.

  15. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  16. Protection by salidroside against bone loss via inhibition of oxidative stress and bone-resorbing mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kang Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a pivotal pathogenic factor for bone loss in mouse model. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, exhibits potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we used an in vitro oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and a murine ovariectomized (OVX osteoporosis model to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on bone loss and the related mechanisms. We demonstrated that salidroside caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation of cell survival, alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining and activity, calcium deposition, and the transcriptional expression of Alp, Col1a1 and Osteocalcin (Ocn in the presence of H(2O(2. Moreover, salidroside decreased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, and osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL and IL-6 induced by H(2O(2. In vivo studies further demonstrated that salidroside supplementation for 3 months caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA and an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in blood of ovariectomized mouse (P<0.05, it also improved trabecular bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in the fourth lumbar vertebra and distal femur. Our study indicated that the protection provided by salidroside in alleviating bone loss was mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of bone-resorbing mediators and oxidative damage to bone-forming cells, suggesting that salidroside can be used as an effective remedy in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis.

  17. Orthopedic intrusion of premaxilla with distraction devices before alveolar bone grafting in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Chen, Philip K T; Huang, C Shing; Chen, Y Ray

    2004-03-01

    Surgical repositioning of the downward displaced premaxilla in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients remains a controversial and perplexing issue because of its detrimental effects on the growth of the premaxilla. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to introduce and evaluate the treatment results of an innovative technique for nonsurgically intruding the downward displaced premaxilla. Eight consecutive cases of bilateral cleft lip and palate at the age of mixed dentition were included for the correction of their premaxillary deformities. A pair of intraoral tooth-borne distraction devices was used for the orthopedic intrusion. Serial lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs were taken periodically for evaluating the growth of the premaxilla 1 year before the intrusion, changes during the intrusion, and growth/relapse up to 1 year after the intrusion. There was no overgrowth of the premaxilla or overeruption of the maxillary incisors during the 1-year observing period before the orthopedic intrusion. The treatment results revealed that the downward displaced premaxillae were all corrected within 1 month. Cephalometrically, 46 percent of the correction resulted from a true orthopedic intrusion and another 54 percent from a dentoalveolar effect in which the maxillary incisors were intruded and the premaxillary dentoalveolus was shortened. The cephalometric evaluations also implied that what occurred during the orthopedic intrusion was mostly the sutural contraction osteogenesis/osteolysis in the vomeropremaxillary suture combined with slightly mechanical upward displacement of the vomeronasal septum complex and nasal bones. The orthopedic intrusion of the premaxilla with distraction devices is an effective nonsurgical method for correcting the downward displaced premaxilla before alveolar bone grafting in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and the results remained stable after 1 year.

  18. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Todd

    Full Text Available Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an

  19. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  20. Influence of Bushenguchiwan on Alveolar Bone Resorption of Rats with Experimental Periodontitis%补肾固齿丸对大鼠实验性牙周炎牙槽骨吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒; 丁一; 文钦

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察补肾固齿丸对大鼠实验性牙周炎牙槽骨吸收的影响,进一步探讨补肾固齿丸对牙周炎的治疗机理.方法 建立大鼠牙周炎模型,给予补肾固齿丸治疗,采用放射免疫法测定血清骨钙蛋白与Ⅰ型胶原交联C端肽浓度,同时采用体式显微镜进行牙槽骨吸收分析,以评价补肾固齿丸对大鼠实验性牙周炎的治疗作用.结果 经过补肾固齿丸治疗30d后,补肾固齿丸高中低剂量组血清中骨钙蛋白与Ⅰ型胶原交联C端肽的浓度均低于牙周炎模型组(P<0.05),同时体式显微镜观察高中低剂量大鼠牙槽骨吸收总值明显低于牙周炎模型组(P<0.05),而三个剂量组之间无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 补肾固齿丸能改善牙周炎大鼠牙槽骨代谢状况,减少牙槽骨的吸收.%Objective To explore the influence of Bushenguchiwan on alveolar bone resorption of rats with experimental periodontitis, and to discuss the treatment mechanism of Bushenguchiwan. Methods The model of experimental periodontitis of rats were established. Bushenguchi-wan were used to treat experimental periodontitis of rats. The content variation of osteocalcin ( OC1N) and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen ( ICTP) in serum were observed by radioimmunoassay { RIA). Alveolar bone loss was measured aa the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest. Results After 30 days treatment of Bushenguchiwan with the level of OCN and ICTP in serum was decreased in three treatment groups, compared with model control group (P 0. 05). Conclusion Bushenguehiwan could reduce alveolar bone resorption of rats with experimental periodontitis.

  1. Angiogenesis and bone regeneration of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline blocks coated with rhVEGF165 in critical-size alveolar bone defects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Liu, Weizhen; Deng, Yue; Li, Shaobing; Liu, Xiangning; Gao, Yan; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To improve the regenerative performance of nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline (nHA/coral) block grafting in a canine mandibular critical-size defect model, nHA/coral blocks were coated with recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor(165) (rhVEGF) via physical adsorption (3 μg rhVEGF165 per nHA/coral block). After the nHA/coral blocks and VEGF/nHA/coral blocks were randomly implanted into the mandibular box-shaped defects in a split-mouth design, the healing process was evaluated by histological observation and histomorphometric and immunohistological analyses. The histological evaluations revealed the ingrowth of newly formed blood vessels and bone at the periphery and cores of the blocks in both groups at both 3 and 8 weeks postsurgery, respectively. In the histomorphometric analysis, the VEGF/nHA/coral group exhibited a larger quantity of new bone formation at 3 and 8 weeks postsurgery. The percentages of newly formed bone within the entire blocks in the VEGF/nHA/coral group were 27.3% ± 8.1% and 39.3% ± 12.8% at 3 weeks and 8 weeks, respectively, and these values were slightly greater than those of the nHA/coral group (21.7% ± 3.0% and 32.6% ± 10.3%, respectively), but the differences were not significant (P>0.05). The immunohistological evaluations revealed that the neovascular density in the VEGF/nHA/coral group (146 ± 32.9 vessel/mm(2)) was much greater than that in the nHA/coral group (105 ± 51.8 vessel/mm(2)) at the 3-week time point (P0.05). The present study indicated that nHA/coral blocks might be optimal scaffolds for block grafting in critical-size mandibular defects and that additional VEGF coating via physical adsorption can promote angiogenesis in the early stage of bone healing, which suggests that prevascularized nHA/coral blocks have significant potential as a bioactive material for bone regeneration in large-scale alveolar defects.

  2. Enhanced osteogenesis of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells for tooth tissue engineering using fluid shear stress in a rocking culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ki-Taek; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Chang, Jung Uk; Choi, Hwajung; Hexiu, Jin; Cho, Woo Jae; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2013-02-01

    This study instituted a simple approach to stimulate alveolar bone regeneration for tooth tissue engineering by controlling effects of low fluid dynamic shear stress (LFDSS) on growth and differentiation in vitro. Human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs) harvested from human mandibular alveolar bone were cultured with LFDSS to generate cultures containing bone-like formations. To distinguish between osteodifferentiation and bone-like formation, cells were cultured either with or without fluid shear stress. The calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hABMSCs were used as indicators of osteogenesis. Cell viability and proliferation after stimulating with LFDSS for 10-60 min/day were higher than with longer stimulations. Mineralized nodules formed when osteoblasts were cultured with an induction medium, a marker of osteogenic differentiation. ALP activity tended to increase after 10 and 60 min/day of stimulation. In addition, LFDSS conditions also increased gene expression of IBSP, RUNX2, COL-I, ALP, OCN, and OPN, as shown by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From the results of a proteomics array, LFDSS groups were intensely expressed with several factors (EGF, HGF, IGF, TGF, and PDGF). Furthermore, CD146 and Stro-1 expression increased in cells treated with 30 min/day and decreased in cells treated with 120 min/day, as determined by cell surface antigen analysis by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. These results strongly showed that LFDSS at the proper intensity and time enhanced the differentiation and maturation of hABMSCs. In conclusion, an appropriate level of LFDSS can potently and positively modulate proliferation and differentiation in hABMSCs.

  3. Alveolar process fractures in the permanent dentition. Part 2. The risk of healing complications in teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk of pulp canal obliteration (PCO), pulp necrosis (PN), repair-related resorption (RRR), infection-related resorption (IRR), ankylosis-related resorption (ARR), marginal bone loss (MBL), and tooth loss (TL) for teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture and to identify...

  4. Effects of diazepam on orthodontic tooth movement and alveolar bone cAMP levels in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, S J; Sammon, P J; Tuncay, O C

    1986-08-01

    Cyclic AMP has been suggested as a possible intracellular mediator in bone remodeling during tooth movement. Accordingly, an increase in the level of this nucleotide should result in faster tooth movement. Breakdown of cAMP was inhibited by administration of diazepam in eight cats undergoing orthodontic tooth movement; another matched group of eight animals served as controls. Orthodontic appliances consisted of coil springs stretching between the right side maxillary and mandibular canines and third premolars. The data for tooth movement and cAMP concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures factorial analyses of variance. The results indicated that administration of diazepam increased the rate of tooth movement at P less than 0.0005 and, interestingly, although diazepam had no effect on undisturbed tissues, it lowered the cAMP levels in the periodontal tissues of orthodontically moved teeth at P less than 0.01. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the concentration of cAMP did not correlate with bone remodeling in this model and perhaps should not be used as an index of periodontal-tissue response during orthodontic tooth movement.

  5. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  6. Tanshinone prevents cancellous bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao CUI; Tie WU; Yu-yu LIU; Yi-feng DENG; Chun-mei AI; Huai-qing CHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the skeletal effects of total tanshinone in ovariectomized rats by analyzing cancellous bone histomorphometry of fourth lumbar vertebrae (LV4) and proximal tibial metaphyses (PTM). METHODS: Fourmonth-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were sham-operated and treated with vehicle or ovariectomized and treated with either vehicle, total tanshinone (200 mg.kg-1.d-1, equivalent to 35 μg.kg-1.d-1 of tanshinone II A and 16 mg.kg-1.d-1 of gery for 10 weeks. Double in vivo fiuorochrome labeling was administered to all rats. The undecalcified longitudinal LV4 and PTM sections were cut and stained with Goldner's Trichrome (4-μm thickness) or unstained (8-μm thickness) for the bone histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: A significant decrease in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant increase in osteoclast surface (OCS/BS) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) were found in both LV and PTM of vehicle-treated OVX rats compared with sham controls.Tanshinone completely prevented the decreases in BV/TV and Tb.N and the increase in OCS/BS in the LV4, and partially prevented the decreases in BV/TV and Tb.N in the PTM of OVX rats. In addition, tanshinone increased trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) whereas it did not alter MS/BS. Moreover, tanshinone had no effect on uterine weight and body weight of OVX rats. Estrogen treatment increased BV/TV and Tb.N and decreased OCS/BS, but, also markedly decreased MS/BS and increased uterine weight in OVX rats. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that the adequate supply of tanshinone prevented OVX-induced cancellous bone loss in rats through inhibition of elevated bone resorption.

  7. 皮质骨块加松质骨治疗牙槽嵴裂的临床研究%Clinical study on the treatment of alveolar cleft with cortical bone block affiliate with cancellous bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恒丕; 王涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:牙槽嵴裂常与唇腭裂伴发,表现为牙槽嵴的骨质缺损。目前,自体髂骨移植治疗牙槽嵴裂是目前的最广泛治疗方式。但髂骨松质骨移植吸收率高,移植的最终治疗效果并不能完全满足临床要求。本研究采用皮质骨块加松质骨移植治疗牙槽嵴裂,了解是否能提高治疗效果。材料和方法:牙槽嵴裂患者21例,采用髂骨植骨,包括髂骨皮质骨块加骨松质移植和单纯松质骨移植两种方式。术后6个月,采用锥形束CT复查获取影像学资料,对比两种治疗方式的影像学资料中的牙槽骨的剩余量,确定治疗效果。结果:通过髂骨皮质骨块加松质骨移植后的牙槽骨的剩余量大于单纯松质骨移植的牙槽骨的剩余量。结论:对于治疗牙槽嵴裂,皮质骨块加松质骨移植作为一种治疗方法能够提高治疗效果。%Objective :Autologous bone grafts are widely used to treat alveolar cleft associated with cleft lip and palate , showing alveolar bone defects . However ,due to the high absorption rate of iliac cancellous bone grafts ,the clinical requirements are not fully satisfied .In this study ,cortical bone block affiliate with cancellous bone were used to treat alveolar cleft to determine whether there could be any improvement on therapeutic results .Materials and Methods :21 patients with alveolar cleft were treated with cortical bone block affiliate with cancellous bone grafts and cancellous bone grafts from iliac .Six months after the surgical procedures ,Cone-beam CT scanning were executed and the volume of bone of each type of the two treatment methods was calculated to find out the therapeutic results .Results :The volume of alveolar bone formed from cortical bone block affiliate with cancellous bone grafts is greater than cancellous bone grafts alone .Conclusions :For treatment of alveolar cleft ,cortical bone block affiliate with cancellous bone grafts is one method

  8. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  9. Angiogenesis and bone regeneration of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline blocks coated with rhVEGF165 in critical-size alveolar bone defects in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du B

    2015-03-01

    that in the nHA/coral group (105±51.8 vessel/mm2 at the 3-week time point (P<0.05, but no significant difference was observed at the 8-week time point (341±86.1 and 269±50.7 vessel/mm2, respectively, P>0.05. The present study indicated that nHA/coral blocks might be optimal scaffolds for block grafting in critical-size mandibular defects and that additional VEGF coating via physical adsorption can promote angiogenesis in the early stage of bone healing, which suggests that prevascularized nHA/coral blocks have significant potential as a bioactive material for bone regeneration in large-scale alveolar defects. Keywords: angiogenesis, bone regeneration, tissue engineering, block grafting, nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline, critical size, bone defect 

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  11. Phytoestrogens for menopausal bone loss and climacteric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Women have always looked for non-hormonal options to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevent menopausal bone loss. The use of complementary and alternative medicine for these purposes has particularly increased after the publication of the Women's Health Initiative's results suggesting that there might be more risks than benefits with hormone replacement. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived estrogens that, although less potent than estradiol, bind to the estrogen receptor and can function as estrogen agonists or antagonists. Soy isoflavones extracted from soy are the phytoestrogens most commonly used by menopausal women. Because typical Western diets are low in phytoestrogens and taking into account the general difficulty in changing dietary habits, most clinical trials in Western women have used isoflavone-fortified foods or isoflavone tablets. Although some women might experience a reduction in the frequency or severity of hot flashes, most studies point towards the lack of effectiveness of isoflavones derived from soy or red clover, even in large doses, in the prevention of hot flashes and menopausal bone loss. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'.

  12. Evaluation of soft tissue coverage over porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers within nonhealing alveolar bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretlow, James D; Shi, Meng; Young, Simon; Spicer, Patrick P; Demian, Nagi; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2010-12-01

    Current treatment of traumatic craniofacial injuries often involves early free tissue transfer, even if the recipient site is contaminated or lacks soft tissue coverage. There are no current tissue engineering strategies to definitively regenerate tissues in such an environment at an early time point. For a tissue engineering approach to be employed in the treatment of such injuries, a two-stage approach could potentially be used. The present study describes methods for fabrication, characterization, and processing of porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) space maintainers for temporary retention of space in bony craniofacial defects. Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels were used as a porogen. Implants with controlled porosity and pore interconnectivity were fabricated by varying the ratio of hydrogel:polymer and the amount of carboxymethylcellulose within the hydrogel. The in vivo tissue response to the implants was observed by implanting solid, low-porosity, and high-porosity implants (n = 6) within a nonhealing rabbit mandibular defect that included an oral mucosal defect to allow open communication between the oral cavity and the mandibular defect. Oral mucosal wound healing was observed after 12 weeks and was complete in 3/6 defects filled with solid PMMA implants and 5/6 defects filled with either a low- or high-porosity PMMA implant. The tissue response around and within the pores of the two formulations of porous implants tested in vivo was characterized, with the low-porosity implants surrounded by a minimal but well-formed fibrous capsule in contrast to the high-porosity implants, which were surrounded and invaded by almost exclusively inflammatory tissue. On the basis of these results, PMMA implants with limited porosity hold promise for temporary implantation and space maintenance within clean/contaminated bone defects.

  13. Morfologia alveolar sob a perspectiva da tomografia computadorizada: definindo os limites biológicos para a movimentação dentária Alveolar bone morphology under the perspective of the computed tomography: defining the biological limits of tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a tomografia computadorizada (TC permite a visualização do osso alveolar que recobre os dentes por vestibular e lingual. OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo foi expor e discutir as implicações da morfologia do osso alveolar, visualizado por meio da TC, sobre o diagnóstico e plano de tratamento ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: foram descritas as evidências sobre a inter-relação entre características dentofaciais e a morfologia das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual, assim como evidências sobre a repercussão da movimentação ortodôntica sobre o nível e espessura dessas estruturas periodontais. RESULTADOS: pacientes adultos podem apresentar deiscências ósseas previamente ao tratamento ortodôntico, principalmente na região dos incisivos inferiores. Os pacientes com padrão de crescimento vertical parecem apresentar menor espessura das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual no nível do ápice dos dentes permanentes, comparados a pacientes com padrão de crescimento horizontal. O movimento dentário vestibulolingual descentraliza os dentes do rebordo alveolar e ocasiona deiscências ósseas. CONCLUSÃO: a morfologia do rebordo alveolar constitui um fator limitante para a movimentação dentária e deve ser considerada, de forma individual, na realização do plano de tratamento ortodôntico.INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT permits the visualization of the labial/buccal and lingual alveolar bone. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at reporting and discussing the implications of alveolar bone morphology, visualized by means of CT, on the diagnosis and orthodontic treatment plan. METHODS: Evidences of the interrelationship between dentofacial features and labial/buccal and lingual alveolar bone morphology, as well as the evidences of the effects of the orthodontic movement on the thickness and level of these periodontal structures were described. RESULTS: Adult patients may present bone dehiscences previously to orthodontic

  14. Treatment of excessive bone loss from both crus bones with internal bone transport using an intramedullary nail. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, Przemysław; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Kusz, Damian

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 16-year-old patient who suffered multisite and multiorgan injuries following a road accident. The most prominent musculoskeletal problem was a bilateral crush injury of the crus in combination with open fractures. The aim of this study is to present the possibilities and available methods of treatment of patients with extensive posttraumatic and postinflammatory bone loss of the lower limbs that make it possible to avoid amputation. We used intramedullary nailing and internal bone transport to reconstruct continuity and leg length of both crus bones. The treatment was complicated by poor vascularity and emerging complications. After several months and multi-stage treatment the patient was able to walk with full weight-bearing without crutches. Importantly, the patient is satisfied with the outcome of the treatment and does not consider herself disabled. The study presents our approach to the dilemma of choosing between prolonged reconstruction surgery and amputation as a final method.

  15. Adjusting estimates of alveolar bone loss for missing observations : developing and testing a general model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Thomsen, I O; Holst, D

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of missing teeth is a vexing and growing problem in epidemiological studies of dental disease. The number of units of measurement (i.e., teeth/tooth sites) varies between persons and may affect summary statistics in descriptive studies as well as in analytical studies. The purpose of

  16. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  18. Labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness of adult tooth root★%成人牙根唇舌侧牙槽骨的厚度★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁继群; 方建强; 袁昌青; 陈杰

    2013-01-01

      背景:牙根在牙槽骨的位置及周围骨板厚度影响着口腔治疗,治疗过程中如果对牙齿控制不当可造成医源性并发症。以往对颌骨的研究主要针对解剖学、骨厚度或骨密度,对于牙根在牙槽骨内的空间位置及其与周围骨骼的关系,研究关注较少。目的:建立颌骨的数字化计算机三维模型,测量牙根的唇舌侧牙槽骨厚度。  方法:选择牙列完整无明显骨骼吸收的年轻成人70例,采用牙科专用锥形束 CT机进行颌面部扫描,将扫描中采集的容积信息传入计算机工作站,以及冠状位或矢状位多平面重建,获得高质量的重建图像,原始数据以DICOM格式导入计算机,并输出到整合的3D 设计软件 Invivo5软件进行测量。  结果与结论:重建的颌骨数字化模型可从多平面进行观察及测量,实验测得70例患者各个牙根唇舌侧牙槽骨厚度的均值:上下前牙舌侧牙槽骨厚度大于唇侧(P OBJECTIVE:To establish a digital three-dimensional computer model of the jaw, and then to measure the thickness of labial and lingual alveolar bone around the tooth root, providing a reference for orthodontic tooth movement design and tooth extraction. METHODS:A total of 70 young adult orthodontic patients were selected with complete dentition and with no bone absorption shown on panoramic radiographs. The maxil ofacial region was scanned using dental cone beam CT machine. Col ected data were input into a computer workstation to implement coronal or sagittal multi-planar reconstruction with high-resolution three-dimensional images, and then raw data at DICOM format were outputted to the integrated three-dimensional design software, Invivo5 software, for measurement. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The digital and virtual reconstruction model of the jaw could be observed and measured from the multi-plane, and the mean alveolar thickness was measured with every root in 70

  19. Alveolar process reconstruction after tooth extraction by orthodontic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev М.О.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine indications for alveolar bone reconstruction after tooth extraction according to orthodontic indications. Material and methods. 62 patients (first maturity level with dental arch asymmetry due to loss of a premolar on one side of the mouth were examined and treated. Frontal-diagonal coefficient of the dental arch was used to determine the correlation between tooth size and dental arch parameters. Results. It has been demonstrated that changes of the alveolar ridge following the extraction of the first premolars in patients of the experimental group were less significant as compared with the controls. Conclusion. It is reasonable to apply this method simultaneously with the removal of a tooth for orthodontic indications or when the alveolar ridge in the post-extraction socket leaves insufficient bone volume.

  20. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation.

  1. Difference in the Surgical Outcome of Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with and without Pre-Alveolar Bone Graft Orthodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Shin; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Pai, Betty Chien-Jung; Chen, I.-Ju; Liao, Yu-Fang; Liou, Eric Jen-Wein; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Noordhoff, M. Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Presurgical orthodontic treatment before secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) is widely performed for cleft lip/palate patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has been published comparing SABG outcomes in patients with, and without, presurgical orthodontic treatment. This randomized, prospective, single-blinded trial was conducted between January 2012 and April 2015 to compare ABG volumes 6 months postoperatively between patients with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and randomized and 22 patients completed follow-up. Patients who had presurgical orthodontics before SABG had significantly improved inclination (p < 0.001) and rotation (p < 0.001) of the central incisor adjacent to the defect, significantly improved ABG fill volume (0.81 ± 0.26 cm3 at 6 months compared to 0.59 ± 0.22 cm3 p < 0.05) and less residual alveolar bone defect (0.31 ± 0.08 cm3 at 6 months compared to s 0.55 ± 0.14 cm3 p < 0.001) compared to patients who did not have presurgical orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment combined with SABG results in superior bone volume when compared with conventional SABG alone.

  2. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    in the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss.......Delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1 (DLK1/FA-1) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the Notch/Delta family that acts as a membrane-associated or a soluble protein to regulate regeneration of a number of adult tissues. Here we examined the role of DLK1/FA-1 in bone biology using osteoblast-specific Dlk...

  3. The Science and Practice of Bone Health in Oncology: Managing Bone Loss and Metastasis in Patients With Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Allan; Uzzo, Robert; Amato, Robert J.; Ellis, Georgiana K.; Hakimian, Behrooz; Roodman, G. David; Smith, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can compromise bone health, leading to fracture, pain, loss of mobility, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. Bone metastasis occurs frequently in advanced prostate and breast cancers, and bony manifestations are commonplace in multiple myeloma. Osteoporosis and osteopenia may be consequences of androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, aromatase inhibition for breast cancer, or chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure. Osteoporotic bone loss and bone metastasis ultimately share a pathophysiologic pathway that stimulates bone resorption by increasing the formation and activity of osteoclasts. Important mediators of pathologic bone metabolism include substances produced by osteoblasts, such as RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, which spurs osteoclast differentiation from myeloid cells. Available therapies are targeted to various steps in cascade of bone metastasis. PMID:19878635

  4. Bone augmentation procedures in localized defects in the alveolar ridge: clinical results with different bone grafts and bone-substitute materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgård; Terheyden, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    periods. The heterogeneity of the available data did not allow identifying one superior grafting protocol for any of the osseous defect types under investigation. However, a series of grafting materials can be considered well-documented for different indications based on this review. There is a high level......PURPOSE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of different grafting protocols for the augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search and an additional hand search of selected journals were performed to identify all levels of clinical...... evidence except expert opinions. Any publication written in English and including 10 or more patients with at least 12 months of follow-up after loading of the implants was eligible for this review. The results were categorized according to the presenting defect type: (1) dehiscence and fenestration...

  5. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cheriyan Kovoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods : 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 - 20 cm. The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 - 21 cm. The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 - 164 months. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results : Graft

  6. The influence of ovariectomy, simvastatin and sodium alendronate on alveolar bone in rats Influência da ovariectomia, da sinvastatina e do alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lia Anbinder

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are currently used in the treatment of many diseases involving increased bone resorption such as osteoporosis. Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recent studies have shown that these drugs are also capable of stimulating bone formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an estrogen deficient state and the effects of simvastatin and sodium alendronate therapies on alveolar bone in female rats. Fifty-four rats were either ovariectomized (OVX or sham operated. A month later, the animals began to receive a daily dose of simvastatin (SIN - 25 mg/kg, sodium alendronate (ALN - 2 mg/kg or water (control orally. Thirty-five days after the beginning of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and their left hemimandibles were removed and radiographed using digital X-ray equipment. The alveolar radiographic density under the first molar was determined with gray-level scaling and the values were submitted to analysis of variance (a = 5%. Ovariectomized rats gained more weight (mean ± standard deviation: 20.06 ± 6.68% than did the sham operated animals (12.13 ± 5.63%. Alveolar radiographic density values, expressed as gray levels, were lowest in the OVX-water group (183.49 ± 6.47, and differed significantly from those observed for the groups receiving alendronate (sham-ALN: 193.85 ± 3.81; OVX-ALN: 196.06 ± 5.11 and from those of the sham-water group (193.66 ± 4.36. Other comparisons between groups did not show significant differences. It was concluded that the ovariectomy reduced alveolar bone density and that alendronate was efficient for the treatment of this condition.Os bisfosfonatos são empregados atualmente para o tratamento de várias doenças caracterizadas pelo aumento da reabsorção óssea, como a osteoporose. As estatinas são amplamente utilizadas para redução de níveis elevados de colesterol e estudos recentes têm revelado sua ação anabólica no osso

  7. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  8. Increased osteoblastogenesis and decreased bone resorption protect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in thrombospondin-2-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, K D; James, I E; Apone, S; Stroup, G B; Blake, S M; Liang, X; Lark, M W; Bornstein, P

    2005-08-01

    Although bone is composed primarily of extracellular matrix (ECM), the dynamic role that the ECM plays in regulating bone remodeling secondary to estrogen loss is relatively unexplored. Previous studies have shown that mice deficient in the matricellular protein thrombospondin-2 (TSP2-null) form excess endocortical bone; thus, we postulated that enhanced bone formation in TSP2-null mice could protect against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. Wild-type (WT) OVX mice showed a significant loss of both midfemoral endocortical and proximal tibial trabecular bone, but OVX did not significantly alter TSP2-null bone. TSP2-null mice showed an increase in bone formation, as indicated by a 70% increase in serum osteocalcin two weeks post OVX and a two-fold increase in bone formation rate (BFR) five weeks post OVX as measured by dynamic histomorphometry. WT animals showed only a 20% increase in serum osteocalcin at two weeks and no change in BFR at five weeks. This increase in bone formation in TSP2-null OVX mice was accompanied by a three-fold increase in osteoprogenitor number. Although these results provide a partial explanation for the maintenance of bone geometry post-OVX, TSP2-null mice five weeks post-OVX also showed a significantly lower level of bone resorption than OVX WT mice, as determined by serum levels of the amino-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx). We conclude that the absence of TSP2 protects against OVX-induced bone loss by two complementary processes: increased formation and decreased resorption.

  9. Treatment of multiple traumatized anterior teeth associated with an alveolar bone fracture in a 20-year-old patient: A 3-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Martínez-Viñarta, María; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Faus-Matoses, Ignacio; Faus-Llácer, Vicente J

    2014-10-01

    Intrusive luxation is a type of recognizable luxation injury represented by a deeper axial displacement of the tooth toward the alveolar bone. Treatment strategies include waiting for the tooth to return to its position, immediate surgical repositioning, and repositioning through dental traction by orthodontic devices. The aim of this case report was to present the management of severe dental trauma and later restoration following IADT. A 20-year-old patient was presented after fainting at home four hours before, resulting in a dento-alveolar trauma. Clinical examinations revealed a traumatic intrusion, in 1.2, 1.1 and 2.1, uncomplicated crown fractures in 1.1 and 2.1 and a complicated crown-root fracture in 2.2. The diagnosis was confirmed with CBCT. Following IADT protocol, the emergency treatment consisted of the surgical repositioning and semi-rigid splinting using orthodontic wire-composite, replacing the buccal bone plate, and postoperative instructions to the patient regarding oral hygiene. After 2 weeks the root canal treated and filled with fiberglass posts in 1.2, 1.1, 2.1 and 2.2. Splint was removed after 4 weeks and the IADT reassessment protocol followed, with revisions at 6-8 weeks, 6 months, a year and annual reviews for 5 years. A year after the treatment, the traumatized teeth were restored with minimally invasive preparations of feldspathic ceramic. Esthetics and function were recorded with a 3-year follow-up period. Key words:Intrusive luxation, dental trauma, crown-root fracture, dento-alveolar trauma, permanent tooth, CBCT.

  10. Animal Models of Bone Loss in Inflammatory Arthritis: from Cytokines in the Bench to Novel Treatments for Bone Loss in the Bedside-a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C Henrique; Farrell, Eric; Vis, Marijn; Colin, Edgar M; Lubberts, Erik

    2016-08-01

    Throughout life, bone is continuously remodelled. Bone is formed by osteoblasts, from mesenchymal origin, while osteoclasts induce bone resorption. This process is tightly regulated. During inflammation, several growth factors and cytokines are increased inducing osteoclast differentiation and activation, and chronic inflammation is a condition that initiates systemic bone loss. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory auto-immune disease that is characterised by active synovitis and is associated with early peri-articular bone loss. Peri-articular bone loss precedes focal bone erosions, which may progress to bone destruction and disability. The incidence of generalised osteoporosis is associated with the severity of arthritis in RA and increased osteoporotic vertebral and hip fracture risk. In this review, we will give an overview of different animal models of inflammatory arthritis related to RA with focus on bone erosion and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, a humanised endochondral ossification model will be discussed, which can be used in a translational approach to answer osteoimmunological questions.

  11. Influence of Autologus Adipose Derived Stem Cells and PRP on Regeneration of Dehiscence-Type Defects in Alveolar Bone: A Comparative Histochemical and Histomorphometric Study in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Aly, Lobna Abdel; El- Menoufy, Hala; Hassan, Amal; Ragae, Alyaa; Atta, Hazem Mahmoud; Roshdy, Nagwa Kamal; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Sabry, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Autogenous bone grafts is considered to be the best choice for reconstructive surgery. Adipose Derived Stromal Cells (ASCs) represents a promising tool for new clinical concepts in supporting cellular therapy. The goal of our study was to investigate bone regeneration following application of autologous ASCs with or without Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) at dehiscence-type defects in alveolar bone in dogs. Methods and Results: Standardized buccal dehiscence defects (4× 3×3 mm) were surgically created in eighteen dogs, the defects were grafted with either ASCs -PRP, ASCs alone, or without grafting material. Three months later; a bone core was harvested from grafted and non grafted sites for histological, histochemical and histomorphometric assessment. There was no evidence of inflammation or adverse tissue reaction with either treatment. Defects grafted with ASCs-PRP showed a significantly higher result (p≤ 0.05), with a mean area % of spongy bone and compact bone of (64.96±5.37 and 837.62±24.95), compared to ASCs alone (47.65±1.43 and 661.92±12.65) and without grafting (33.55± 1.74 and 290.85±7.27) respectively. The area % of lamellated bone increased significantly reaching its highest level in group A followed by group B. Also a significant increase in area % of neutral mucopolysaccharides and calcified reactivity of Masson|s Trichrome stain in groups A and B compared to group C was obtained. Conclusions: Our results suggest that, the addition of PRP to ASCs enhances bone formation after 3 months and may be clinically effective in accelerating postsurgical healing in both periodontal and maxillofacial surgical applications. PMID:24298335

  12. Experiment K-310: The effect of space flight on ostenogenesis and dentinogenesis in the mandible of rats. Supplement 1: The effects of space flight on alveolar bone modeling and remodeling in the rat mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, P. T.; Vignery, A.; Bacon, R.

    1981-01-01

    The histomorphometric study of alveolar bone, a non-weight-bearing bone submitted mainly to the mechanical stimulations of mastication, showed that space flight decreases the remodeling activity but does not induce a negative balance between resorption and formation. The most dramatic effect of space flight has been observed along the periosteal surface, and especially in areas not covered with masticatory muscles, where bone formation almost stopped completely during the flight period. This bone, having been submitted to the same mechanical forces in the flight animals and the controls, leads to the conclusion that factors other than mechanical loading might be involved in the decreased bone formation during flight.

  13. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Yasukawa, Takuya; Ibi, Haruna; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS) to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity) were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions.

  14. 犬牙槽骨种植实验及种植体-骨结合评价方法%The evaluation methods of dental implant in canine alveolar bone and bone integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽芳(综述); 吴琳(审校)

    2013-01-01

    种植体与骨形成良好的骨结合界面是种植义齿修复成功的重要标志之一,而动物实验是评价种植体与骨结合界面的重要手段,其中犬牙槽骨是研究牙种植体植入的理想部位之一。本文就犬牙槽骨内植入种植体的实验方法及种植体与骨结合情况的评价方法做一综述。%Good osseointegration interface of implant and bone form is one of important signs of the success of implant denture restoration. Animal experiment is one important means to evaluate dental implant and osseointegration interface. One of ideal sites for dental implant implanted is canine alveolar bone . In this paper the experiment method of dental im-plant implanted in canine alveolar bone and the evaluation methods of dental implant and bone integration will be re-viewed.

  15. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment...... with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone......% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low calorie-diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent....

  16. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and enhanced tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PPY Lui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-tunnel bone loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is commonly observed, both clinically and experimentally. We aimed to study the effect and mechanisms of different doses of alendronate in the reduction of peri-tunnel bone loss and promotion of graft-bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction. Eighty-four ACL-reconstructed rats were divided into 4 groups. Alendronate at different dosages, or saline, were injected subcutaneously weekly, for 2 or 6 weeks post-reconstruction, for vivaCT (computed tomography imaging, biomechanical tests, histology and immunohistochemistry. Alendronate significantly increased bone mass and density of tissue inside bone tunnels except at the epiphyseal region of tibial tunnel. The femoral tunnel diameter decreased significantly in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups compared to that in the saline group at week 6. Alendronate significantly increased the peri-tunnel bone mass and density along all tunnel regions at week 6. Better graft-bone tunnel integration and intra-tunnel graft integrity were observed in the alendronate groups. The ultimate load was significantly higher in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups at week 2, but not at week 6. There was a reduction in matrix metalloprotein (MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells at the peri-tunnel region and graft-bone interface in the alendronate-treated group compared to the saline group. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone resorption, increased mineralised tissue inside bone tunnel as well as histologically and biomechanically promoted graft-bone tunnel healing, probably by reducing the expression of MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells. Alendronate might be used for reducing peri-tunnel bone loss and promoting graft-bone tunnel healing at early stage post-ACL reconstruction.

  17. Evaluation of the degree and pattern of alveolar bone defect inaggressive periodontitis using cone-beam CT%应用锥形束CT分析侵袭性牙周炎患者牙槽骨缺损程度及方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任颂; 赵海礁; 潘亚萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the degree and pattern of alveolar bone defect in aggressive periodontitis(AgP) using cone-beam CT(CBCT),and to investigate the distribution of alveolar bone defects in aggressive periodontitis.Methods Forty AgP patients(age:14-36 years,male:15 cases,female:25 cases) were selected by simple random method and scanned by CBCT.NNT software was applied to measure the average degree of alveolar bone defects and bone loss types in different regions.Results In forty AgP patients,86.6%(3 769/4 352) sites presented moderate and severe alveolar bone defects.In the maxilla,the molar areas presented the heaviest alveolar bone defect[(6.3±0.7) mm],the canine areas showed the lightest bone loss[(4.8±0.8) mm].In the mandible,the incisal areas presented the heaviest alveolar bone defect[(5.9±0.9) mm],the canine areas showed the lightest bone loss[(5.1±0.7) mm].The degree of alveolar bone defect in the areas of maxillary canine,maxillary molars,mandibular premolar was significantly different(P<0.05).The degree of alveolar bone defect in mandibular canine and mandibular molars was significantly differenct (P<0.01).The most serious alveolar bone defect was in the mesial side of maxillary molar[(6.9±0.7) mm] and the mesial side of mandibular incisor[(6.5± 1.1) mm].The oblique bone defects were found in the mesial part of the first molars in mandibula[13.6% (42/308)],the first molars in maxilla[12.0%(39/316)] and the first premolar in maxilla[10.8%(34/316)].Conclusions The alveolar bone defects of generalized AgP patients were serious.The most serious areas were located in the mesial side of maxillary molars and the mesial side of mandibular incisor.%目的 应用锥形束CT分析侵袭性牙周炎(aggressive periodontitis,AgP)患者牙槽骨缺损程度和方式,探讨AgP患者牙槽骨缺损的分布规律.方法 采用简单化随机法选取中国医科大学口腔医学院牙周科门诊广泛型AgP患者40例,年龄14~ 36岁,男性15

  18. Providing Flaxseed Oil but Not Menhaden Oil Protects against OVX Induced Bone Loss in the Mandible of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Longo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are associated with benefits at several skeletal sites in postmenopausal women and in rodent models, but the effect of PUFA-containing oils on tooth-supporting alveolar bone of the mandible has not been studied. Moreover, direct comparison of the effect of flaxseed oil (a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and menhaden oil (a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is unknown. One-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48 were randomized to and fed a diet containing flaxseed oil or menhaden oil from one to six months of age. At three months of age, rats were randomized to receive SHAM or ovariectomy (OVX surgery (n = 12/diet. The inter-radicular septum below the first molar of the mandible was imaged at 6 months of age (study endpoint using micro-computed tomography (μCT at a resolution of 9 μm. As expected, OVX significantly reduced percent bone volume (BV/TV, connectivity density (Conn. D., trabecular number (Tb. N., and increased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp. compared to SHAM rats (p < 0.001. However, post hoc analysis revealed these differences were present in rats fed menhaden oil but not those fed flaxseed oil. These results suggest that providing flaxseed oil, possibly through its high ALA content, provides protection against the OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

  19. Providing Flaxseed Oil but Not Menhaden Oil Protects against OVX Induced Bone Loss in the Mandible of Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Amanda B; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with benefits at several skeletal sites in postmenopausal women and in rodent models, but the effect of PUFA-containing oils on tooth-supporting alveolar bone of the mandible has not been studied. Moreover, direct comparison of the effect of flaxseed oil (a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) and menhaden oil (a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) is unknown. One-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomized to and fed a diet containing flaxseed oil or menhaden oil from one to six months of age. At three months of age, rats were randomized to receive SHAM or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery (n = 12/diet). The inter-radicular septum below the first molar of the mandible was imaged at 6 months of age (study endpoint) using micro-computed tomography (μCT) at a resolution of 9 μm. As expected, OVX significantly reduced percent bone volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn. D.), trabecular number (Tb. N.), and increased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.) compared to SHAM rats (p oil but not those fed flaxseed oil. These results suggest that providing flaxseed oil, possibly through its high ALA content, provides protection against the OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

  20. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28⩾3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (⩽10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Results: Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (−0.7%), (p = 0.015). Conclusion: In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:18408246

  1. The influence of Aloe vera and xenograft XCB toward of bone morpho protein 2 BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast of alveolar bone induced into tooth extraction sockets Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth extraction can cause inflammation leading to alveolar ridge resorption. In addition, prominent ridge has crucial role for making denture su-ccessfully. Thus, socket preservation is needed to prevent greater alveolar ridge resorption. An innovative material, a combination of Aloe vera and xe-nograft (XCB, is then considered as a biogenic stimulator that can reduce inflammation, as a result, the growth of alveolar bone is expected to be impro-ved. This research is aimed to prove whether the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can stimulate BMP2 and increase osteoblasts. Forty-eight Cavia co-baya animals were divided into eight groups each of which consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya animals were then extracted and filled with PEG as Group Control, XCB as Group XCB, Aloe vera as Group Aloe vera, and a combination of Aloe vera +XCB as Group Aloe vera +XCB. Next, the first four groups were sacrificed seven days after extraction, and the second four groups were sacrificed 30 days after extrac-tion. And then, immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to examine BMP2 expression and osteoblasts. Based on the re-sult known that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblasts. It can be concluded that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast cel . It can be used as an alternative material to increase the growth of alveolar bone after extraction.

  2. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided.

  3. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  4. S-Ketoprofen Inhibits Tenotomy-Induced Bone Loss and Dynamics in Weanling Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q. Q.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Wechter, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    The objects of this study were to determine whether S-ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can prevent immobilization (tenotomy)-induced bone loss in weanling rats. Forty five 4 week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were either sham-operated or subjected to knee tenotomy and treated simultaneously with 0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg of S-ketoprofen/kg per day for 21 days. We then studied double-fluorescent labeled proximal tibial longitudinal sections and tibial shaft cross sections using static and dynamic histomorphometry. Less cancellous bone mass in proximal tibial metaphyses was found in tenotomized controls than in basal (36%) and sham-operated (54%) controls. This was due to the inhibition of age-related bone gain and induced bone loss due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. S-ketoprofen prevented both the inhibition of age-related bone gain and the stimulation of bone loss at the 2.5 mg/kg per day dose level, while it only prevented bone loss at the 0.5 mg/kg dose levels. In cancellous bone, dynamic histomorphometry showed that S-ketoprofen prevented the tenotomy induced decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption. In the tibial shaft, tenotomy inhibited the enlargement of total tissue area by depressing periosteal bone formation, and thus inhibited age-related cortical bone gain. S-ketoprofen treatment did not prevent this change at all dose levels, but reduced marrow cavity area to increase cortical bone area at the 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg per dose levels compared to tenotomy controls. However, the cortical bone area in the 0.1 and 0.5 mg dose-treated treated tenotomy rats was still lower than in the age-related controls. S-ketoprofen also prevented the increase in endocortical eroded perimeter induced by tenotomy. In summary, tenotomy inhibited age-related bone gain and stimulated bone loss in cancellous bone sites, and only inhibited age-related bone gain in cortical bone sites. S

  5. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated.

  6. Minyak ikan Lemuru (Sardinella longicep menurunkan apoptosis osteoblas pada tulang alveolaris tikus wistar (Fish oil of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep reduced the osteoblast apoptosis in wistar rat alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Erma Indahyani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is caused by periodontopatogen bacteria resulting the alveolar bone damage. The decrease of osteoblasts and the increased of osteoclasts can cause bone destruction. The decrease of osteoblasts, due to a disturbance of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Inflammatory mediators are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6 also tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α stimulates osteoblast apoptosis through gene expression, signaling molecules and receptor-forming osteoblasts. Fish oil of Lemuru, which is widely encountered in Indonesian coast, containing n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs are quite high. Consumption of fish oil shown to reduce the expression of PGE2, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep fish oil on osteoblast apoptosis of rat alveolar bone induced periodontal infection. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats, male, age 5 days, divided into 3 groups: group I rats induced with normal saline, group II rats induced by LPS, and group III rats induced with lemuru fish oil and LPS. Each group was divided into 2 sub-groups that would be sacrified at 13 days and 21 days of age. Fish oil was given at a dose 1ml/300-350 grams. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced with the purpose to cause periodontal infection in the maxillary buccal fold molar region with dose 5μl LPS/PBS 0.03 ml. After decapitation and decalcification, the maxilla was cut in 5μm thickness. Apoptosis was analyzed on DNA and detected by TUNEL reaction (transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxy-UTP nick end labeling. Results: The results showed that apoptosis of osteoblast cells was significantly smaller in rats induced by Lemuru fish oil. Conclusion: The study showed that Lemuru fish oil reduced the osteoblast apoptosis of rats alveolar bone induced periodontal infection by LPS.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal akibat bakteri peridontopatogen, menyebabkan

  7. Bone loss during simulated weightlessness - Is it glucocorticoid mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Cone, C. M.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Elevating the hindquarters of a rat by the tail unweights the hind limbs but maintains normal weight-bearing by the forelimbs. This maneuver leads to a decrease in bone mass and calcium content in the unweighted bones (e.g., tibia and L1 vertebra), but not in the normally weighted bones (e.g., humerus and mandible). Potentially, the stress of the maneuver, mediated by increased glucocorticoid production and secretion, could explain the decreased bone formation, rather than the skeletal unweighting per se. To test this possibility, the effects of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to the unweighting of the hind limbs of normal rats were evaluated.

  8. 成人安氏Ⅰ类双颌前突患者的上颌切牙区牙槽骨体积%Alveolar bone volume around upper incisors in adult patients with Class Ⅰ bimaxillary protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 李荣荣; 刘梦臖; 张琰; 刘东旭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the alveolar bone volume around upper incisors in adult patients with Class Ⅰbimaxillary protrusion and provide a reference for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.Methods Twenty-two cases with Class Ⅰ bimaxillary protrusion (bimaxillary protrusion group)and Eighteen cases with individual normal occlusion (control group)were recruited.Lateral cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography(CBCT)scan-nings were taken respectively and the alveolar bone volume around four upper incisors in each subject were measured by Mimics 16.0.Results In bimaxillary protrusion group,alveolar bone volume around upper incisors decreased com-pared to the control group (P <0.05),apart from labial root apex zone of central incisors,labial root apex and palatal crest zone of the lateral incisors.Besides,alveolar crest zone,middle root zone,palatal alveolar bone,total alveolar bone of the central incisors,labial alveolar bone,palatal alveolar bone,total alveolar bone of the lateral incisors and total alveolar bone volume of four upper incisors in bimaxillary protrusion group were decreased compared to the control group (P <0.001).Conclusion The alveolar bone volume around upper incisors in adult patients with Class Ⅰ bima-xillary protrusion is fewer than that in the subjects with normal occlusion.It should be more cautious in the process of treatment planning,especially retraction or intrusion of the upper incisors.%目的:研究成人安氏Ⅰ类双颌前突患者上颌切牙区牙槽骨体积,为正畸诊断及治疗计划制定提供参考。方法选择安氏Ⅰ类双颌前突患者22例(双颌前突组)及个别正常牙合志愿者18例(对照组),分别拍摄头颅侧位片及锥体束计算机断层扫描(CBCT),利用 Mimics 16.0测量上颌4颗切牙牙槽骨体积。结果双颌前突组上颌切牙区牙槽骨体积除中切牙唇侧根尖区、侧切牙唇侧根尖区及腭侧牙槽嵴顶区外,

  9. "Tent-Pole" for Reconstruction of Large Alveolar Defects: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Yuyue; Luo, En; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Severe tridimensional alveolar ridge defects complicate the placement of dental implants, and surgical removal of some oral tumors might not leave adequate bone for dental implant placement. Regenerating an adequate amount of bone vertically and horizontally to achieve a satisfying outcome for well-osseointegrated implants and thus ensure long-term success of implant restoration is challenging. This report describes the clinical feasibility of a simple approach using a screw tent-pole combined with guided bone regeneration to augment complicated tridimensional alveolar ridge defects in a case of extensive bone loss due to maxillary tumor surgery. Titanium screws were arranged in "tented" fashion to provide stable room for bone regeneration. Regenerated bone was achieved and 2 more implants were placed in the regenerated ridge 10 months later, leading to a successful maxillary prosthesis.

  10. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis vs. vertical guided bone regeneration for the correction of vertically deficient edentulous ridges: a 1-3-year prospective study on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapasco, Matteo; Romeo, Eugenio; Casentini, Paolo; Rimondini, Lia

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare vertical guided bone regeneration (GBR) and vertical distraction osteogenesis (DO) for their ability in correcting vertically deficient alveolar ridges and their ability in maintaining over time the vertical bone gain obtained before and after implant placement. Eleven patients (group 1) were treated by means of vertical GBR with autogenous bone and e-PTFE membranes, while 10 patients (group 2) were treated by means of DO. In group 1, six patients received implants at the time of GBR (subgroup 1A), while five patients had implants placed at the time of membrane removal (subgroup 1B). In group 2, implants were placed at the time of distraction device removal. A total of 25 implants were placed in group 1 and 34 implants were placed in group 2 patients. Three to 5 months after implant placement, patients were rehabilitated with implant-borne dental prostheses. The following parameters were evaluated: (a) bone resorption of the regenerated ridges before and after implant placement; (b) peri-implant clinical parameters 1, 2, and 3 years after prosthetic loading of implants; (c) survival and success rates of implants. Bone resorption values before and after implant placement were significantly higher in group 1. The results suggested that both techniques may improve the deficit of vertically resorbed edentulous ridges, although distraction osteogenesis seems to be more predictable as far as the long-term prognosis of vertical bone gain is concerned. Implant survival rates as well as peri-implant clinical parameters do not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas the success rate of implants placed in group 2 patients was higher than that obtained in group 1 patients.

  11. 锥形束CT数字成像分析牙槽嵴裂植骨修复的成骨效果%Osteogenesis of alveolar bone graft:evaluation by cone beam CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾月光; 张来健; 秦晗; 徐宏志; 李阳飞

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In alveolar cleft patients, the amount of bone stock after alveolar bone grafting is mostly measured and analyzed by two-dimensional imaging, which can result in a large error. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 6-month osteogenesis of alveolar bone graft in alveolar cleft patients using cone beam CT. METHODS:Alveolar bone grafting was performed in 25 patients with unilateral complete alveolar cleft. The patients were folowed up for 6 months after surgery and the osteogenesis of the bone graft was evaluated by CBCT. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After the surgery, the labial bone support was better than the palatal one. There were significant differences in the alveolar bone thickness of the cleft region and the normal region of the central incisor as wel as the alveolar bone thickness of the cleft region and the normal region of the canine tooth 0 mm distant to the alveolar crest. These findings indicate that the palatal bone support is less than the labial one, and the bone support of the central incisor is not satisfactory, which provide the basis for the tooth movement in the alveolar bone grafting and the orthodontics treatment.%背景:牙槽嵴裂患者植骨后骨存量目前多使用二维影像进行分析测量,结论误差较大。目的:探讨锥形束CT评价牙槽嵴裂植骨后6个月成骨效果的应用。方法:随机抽取25例单侧完全性牙槽嵴裂的患者,进行牙槽嵴裂髂骨移植,6个月后采用锥形束CT进行观察。结果与结论:牙槽嵴裂骨移植后,唇侧牙槽骨保存量较腭侧高;另外中切牙裂隙侧与正常侧的牙槽骨厚度差异有显著性意义,而尖牙缺隙侧与正常侧牙槽骨厚度在距离牙槽嵴顶0 mm处的牙槽骨厚度处差异有显著性意义,其余部位差异无显著性意义。说明牙槽嵴裂骨移植时腭侧支持骨少于唇侧,缺隙侧中切牙的支持骨也不理想,从而为牙槽骨移植和正畸治疗牙齿移动提供依据。

  12. The relevance of mouse models for investigating age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilka, Robert L

    2013-10-01

    Mice are increasingly used for investigation of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis because their genome is easily manipulated, and their skeleton is similar to that of humans. Unlike the human skeleton, however, the murine skeleton continues to grow slowly after puberty and lacks osteonal remodeling of cortical bone. Yet, like humans, mice exhibit loss of cancellous bone, thinning of cortical bone, and increased cortical porosity with advancing age. Histologic evidence in mice and humans alike indicates that inadequate osteoblast-mediated refilling of resorption cavities created during bone remodeling is responsible. Mouse models of progeria also show bone loss and skeletal defects associated with senescence of early osteoblast progenitors. Additionally, mouse models of atherosclerosis, which often occurs in osteoporotic participants, also suffer bone loss, suggesting that common diseases of aging share pathophysiological pathways. Knowledge of the causes of skeletal fragility in mice should therefore be applicable to humans if inherent limitations are recognized.

  13. Accelerated features of age-related bone loss in zmpste24 metalloproteinase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Li, Wei; Akter, Rahima; Henderson, Janet E; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    Age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone cellularity, which include marrow fat infiltration and decreasing levels of osteoblastogenesis. The mechanisms that explain these changes remain unclear. Although nuclear lamina alterations occur in premature aging syndromes that include changes in body fat and severe osteoporosis, the role of proteins of the nuclear lamina in age-related bone loss remains unknown. Using the Zmpste24-null progeroid mice (Zmpste24(-/-)), which exhibit nuclear lamina defects and accumulate unprocessed prelamin A, we identified several alterations in bone cellularity in vivo. We found that defective prelamin A processing induced accelerated features of age-related bone loss including lower osteoblast and osteocyte numbers and higher levels of marrow adipogenesis. In summary, processing of prelamin A could become a new approach to regulate osteoblastogenesis and bone turnover and thus for the prevention and treatment of senile osteoporosis.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cancellous Bone Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Mei; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2, (PGE2) can prevent ovariectomy induced cancellous bone loss. Thirty-five 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the first group were ovariectomized (OVX) while the others received sham operation (sham-OVX). The OVX group was further divided into three treatment groups. The daily doses for the three groups were 0,1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg for 90 days. Bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). We confirmed that OVX induces massive cancellous bone loss (-80%) and a higher bone turnover (+143%). The new findings from the present study demonstrate that bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency can be prevented by a low-dose (1 mg) daily administration of PGE2. Furthermore, a higher-dose (6 mg) daily administration of PGE2 not only prevents bone loss but also adds extra bone to the proximal tibial metaphyses. PGE, at the 1-mg dose level significantly increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, ratio of node to free end, and thus significantly decreased trabecular separation from OVX controls. At this dose level, these same parameters did not differ significantly from sham-OVX controls. However, at the 6-mg dose level PGE2, there were significant increases in trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, and ratio of node to free end, while there was significant decrease in trabecular separation from both OVX and sham-operated controls. The changes in indices of trabecular bone microanatomical structure indicated that PGE2 prevented bone loss as well as the disconnection of existing trabeculae. In summary, PGE2, administration to OVX rats decreased bone turnover and increased bone formation parameters resulting in a positive bone balance that prevented bone loss (in both lower and higher

  15. Management of maxillary alveolar process fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukhrat Boymuradov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of maxillofacial traumas is reported steadily increasing, maxillary fractures being extremely severe. Maxillary alveolar process (AP and front teeth are traumatized more frequently than any other parts of the maxilla. Deprivation of teeth and AP post-traumatic flaw as well as loss of alveolar height not only create a cosmetic defect but also complicate subsequent prosthetics of the patients. The work was initiated to assess efficacy of “CollapAn L” in comparison with a combination of “Osteon”, an osteoplastic material, and “Colla Guide” resorbable membrane in prevention of AP post-traumatic flaws and deformities. 60 patients aged from 16 to 47 with the comminuted fractures of maxillary AP emergently hospitalized were examined and treated. The findings showed that Combination of “Osteon” and “Colla Guide” resorbable membrane is the one to increase efficacy of the treatment, facilitating preservation of and alveolar crest height and shape. In addition, preservation of bone tissue mineralization helps avoid risk of the bone wound inflammatory morbidity.

  16. The Use of Structural Allograft in Primary and Revision Knee Arthroplasty with Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A. Kuchinad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss around the knee in the setting of total knee arthroplasty remains a difficult and challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. There are a number of options for dealing with smaller and contained bone loss; however, massive segmental bone loss has fewer options. Small, contained defects can be treated with cement, morselized autograft/allograft or metal augments. Segmental bone loss cannot be dealt with through simple addition of cement, morselized autograft/allograft, or metal augments. For younger or higher demand patients, the use of allograft is a good option as it provides a durable construct with high rates of union while restoring bone stock for future revisions. Older patients, or those who are low demand, may be better candidates for a tumour prosthesis, which provides immediate ability to weight bear and mobilize.

  17. 脂肪干细胞和生物支架应用于牙槽骨修复%Adipose stem cells and biological scaffolds used in alveolar bone repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹娜; 裴路; 张微

    2014-01-01

      结果与结论:脂肪干细胞具有与骨髓基质干细胞相似的分化潜能,因其来源广、易采集、易培养低衰老,成骨分化好和风险小等特点被广泛关注,尤其和生物支架应用于骨修复表现出更好的成骨效果。随着有关各科学的发展牙槽骨缺损的修复有关问题都可以解决,脂肪干细胞和生物支架构建工程骨将是实现真正意义上牙槽骨再生的发展趋势且具有良好的发展前景。%BACKGROUND:Alveolar bone absorption and defect caused by various physiological or pathological factors is a common problem in oral clinical medicine, but the most commonly used methods to repair alveolar bone defects cannot ful y meet clinical needs. The emergence of bone tissue engineering for bone defect repair has become a research hotspot. OBJECTIVE:To review the source and application of adipose stem cells, the types and characteristics of biological scaffolds, the effect of biological scaffold on seed cells and the application of adipose stem cells composite scaffolds in animal experiment research. METHODS:A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed (1995-01/2013-04) was performed to retrieve the related articles about adipose stem cells, biological scaffold and bone repair. The keywords were“adipose stem cells, differentiation, proliferation and osteogenesis, biological scaffold, alveolar bone, bone tissue engineering”in Chinese and English, respectively. Articles published recently or in authorized journals were preferred. There were163 articles after the initial survey. Then, 40 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Adipose stem cells have a differentiating potential similar to bone marrow stromal stem cells. Adipose stem cells have been widely drawn by variety of sources, easy col ection, easy to cultivate and low aging, good osteogenetic differentiation and low risk. Especial y, adipose stem cells and biological scaffolds used in bone repair

  18. Loss of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in the lung alveolar epithelium of mice leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation in cobalt-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Steven P; Saini, Yogesh; Greenwood, Krista K; Bramble, Lori A; Downing, Nathaniel J; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2014-02-01

    Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt-containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown. Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Previous work revealed that though HIF1α contrib utes to cobalt toxicity in vitro, loss of HIF1α in the alveolar epithelial cells does not provide in vivo protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation. HIF1α and HIF2α show unique tissue expression profiles, and HIF2α is known to be the predominant HIF mRNA isoform in the adult lung. Thus, if HIF2α activation by cobalt contributes to pathophysiology of HMLD, we hypothesized that loss of HIF2α in lung epithelium would provide protection from cobalt-induced inflammation. Mice with HIF2α-deficiency in Club and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) (HIF2α(Δ/Δ)) were exposed to cobalt (60 µg/day) or saline using a subacute occupational exposure model. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, cytokines, qRT-PCR, and histopathology were analyzed. Results show that loss of HIF2α leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation and increased goblet cell metaplasia. Additionally, control mice demonstrated a mild recovery from cobalt-induced lung injury compared with HIF2α(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a role for epithelial HIF2α in repair mechanisms. The expression of important cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, displayed significant differences following cobalt exposure when HIF2α(Δ/Δ) and control mice were compared. In summary, our data suggest that although loss of HIF2α does not afford protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation, epithelial HIF2α signaling does play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and repair response in the lung.

  19. Salvianolic acid B improves bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into alveolar epithelial cells type I via Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Yang, Jingxian; Gao, Xi; Xu, Dan; Niu, Dongge; Li, Jinglin; Wen, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is among the most common causes of mortality in intensive care units. Previous studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may attenuate pulmonary edema. In addition, alveolar epithelial cells type I (ATI) are involved in reducing the alveolar edema in response to ALI. However, the mechanism involved in improving the efficiency of differentiation of MSCs into ATI remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI and the activities of the Wnt signaling pathways were investigated. The BMSCs were supplemented with conditioned medium (CM). The groups were as follows: i) CM group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM; ii) lithium chloride (LiCl) group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 5 mM LiCl; iii) Sal B group: BMSCs were supplemented with CM and 10 mM Sal B. The samples were collected and assessed on days 7 and 14. It was revealed that aquaporin (AQP)-5 and T1α were expressed in BMSCs, and induction with LiCl or Sal B increased the expression of AQP-5 and T1α. Furthermore, the Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a signaling pathways were activated during the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI. In conclusion, it was suggested that the promotive effects of Sal B on the differentiation of BMSCs into ATI occurred through the activation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  20. Contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Diko, Sindi; Baehr, Leslie M; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C; Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-10-01

    Development of osteoarthritis commonly involves degeneration of epiphyseal trabecular bone. In previous studies, we observed 30-44% loss of epiphyseal trabecular bone (BV/TV) from the distal femur within 1 week following non-invasive knee injury in mice. Mechanical unloading (disuse) may contribute to this bone loss; however, it is unclear to what extent the injured limb is unloaded following injury, and whether disuse can fully account for the observed magnitude of bone loss. In this study, we investigated the contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone changes observed following non-invasive knee injury in mice (female C57BL/6N). We investigated changes in gait during treadmill walking, and changes in voluntary activity level using Open Field analysis at 4, 14, 28, and 42 days post-injury. We also quantified epiphyseal trabecular bone using μCT and weighed lower-limb muscles to quantify atrophy following knee injury in both ground control and hindlimb unloaded (HLU) mice. Gait analysis revealed a slightly altered stride pattern in the injured limb, with a decreased stance phase and increased swing phase. However, Open Field analysis revealed no differences in voluntary movement between injured and sham mice at any time point. Both knee injury and HLU resulted in comparable magnitudes of trabecular bone loss; however, HLU resulted in considerably more muscle loss than knee injury, suggesting another mechanism contributing to bone loss following injury. Altogether, these data suggest that mechanical unloading likely contributes to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury, but the magnitude of this bone loss cannot be fully explained by disuse. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1680-1687, 2016.

  1. Reconstrucción alveolar de maxilar atrófico con injerto de calota craneal: A propósito de dos casos Alveolar bone reconstruction of atrophic maxilla with calvarial bone graft: Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    A. Modelo Pérez; I. Rendón Infante; S.M. Budiño Carbonero

    2009-01-01

    La atrofia alveolar del maxilar superior es un reto difícil de solventar en la práctica clínica para la rehabilitación dental sobre implantes. Existen varios métodos de reconstrucción con dicha finalidad. Aunque la elección del método depende de varios factores, de los más importantes son la cantidad de hueso remanente y los deseos del paciente. Presentamos dos casos en los que hemos efectuado la rehabilitación prostodóncica sobre implantes MG Osseous, no removible en uno y removible en el ot...

  2. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  3. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X Z; Rathe, F; Gilissen, C; van der Zande, M; Veltman, J; Junker, R; Yang, F; Jansen, J A; Walboomers, X F

    2014-06-01

    Emdogain® is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain® on expression profiles of human-derived bone cells with the help of the micro-array, and subsequent validation. Bone was harvested from non-smoking patients during dental implant surgery. After outgrowth, cells were cultured until subconfluence, treated for 24 h with either Emdogain® (100 µg/ml) or control medium, and subsequently RNA was isolated and micro-array was performed. The most important genes demonstrated by micro-array data were confirmed by qPCR and ELISA tests. Emdogain tipped the balance between genes expressed for bone formation and bone resorption towards a more anabolic effect, by interaction of the PGE2 pathway and inhibition of IL-7 production. In addition the results of the present study indicate that Emdogain possibly has an effect on gene expression for extracellular matrix formation of human bone cells, in particular on bone matrix formation and on proliferation and differentiation. With the micro-array and the subsequent validation, the genes possibly involved in Emdogain action on bone cells were identified. These results can contribute to establishing new products and pathways promoting bone formation.

  4. Immunolocalization of CSF-1, RANKL and OPG in the enamel-related periodontium of the rat incisor and their implications for alveolar bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, J S; Salmon, C R; Omar, N F; Narvaes, E A O; Gomes, J R; Novaes, P D

    2009-07-01

    The enamel-related periodontium (ERP) in rat incisors is related to bone resorption. In these teeth the face of the socket related to the enamel is continuously removed at the inner side and newly formed at the outer side. CSF-1, RANKL and OPG are regulatory molecules essential for osteoclastogenesis. To verify the effects of impeded eruption on bone remodeling, the tooth eruption was prevented by immobilization of lower rat incisor and CSF-1, RANKL and OPG distribution in the ERP was analyzed after 18 days of immobilization and in normal eruption. The region of the alveolar crest of the rat incisor was used. Immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were performed. The immunostaining of the dental follicle was quantified using Leica QWin software. Positive-TRAP osteoclasts were counted, and both groups were compared. In the normal incisor, the number of osteoclasts was significantly greater than in the immobilized tooth. In the dental follicle, there was no significant difference in the immunostaining intensity for CSF-1 and OPG between the groups (p > 0.05), but for RANKL the immobilized incisor group showed immunostaining intensity smaller than the normal incisor group (p incisor, modify the RANKL/OPG ratio, in the presence of CSF-1, altering the metabolism of cells that participate in the bone remodeling.

  5. Bone marrow transplantation improves autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss in SH3BP2 knock-in cherubism mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Kittaka, Mizuho; Ishida, Shu; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Ueki, Yasuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Cherubism (OMIM#118400) is a genetic disorder in children characterized by excessive jawbone destruction with proliferation of fibro-osseous lesions containing a large number of osteoclasts. Mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) are responsible for cherubism. Analysis of the knock-in (KI) mouse model of cherubism showed that homozygous cherubism mice (Sh3bp2(KI/KI)) spontaneously develop systemic autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss and that cherubism is a TNF-α-dependent hematopoietic disorder. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is effective for the treatment of inflammation and bone loss in Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. Bone marrow (BM) cells from wild-type (Sh3bp2(+/+)) mice were transplanted to 6-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice with developing inflammation and to 10-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice with established inflammation. Six-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(+/+) BM cells exhibited improved body weight loss, facial swelling, and survival rate. Inflammatory lesions in the liver and lung as well as bone loss in calvaria and mandibula were ameliorated at 10weeks after BMT compared to Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(KI/KI) BM cells. Elevation of serum TNF-α levels was not detected after BMT. BMT was effective for up to 20weeks in 6-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice transplanted with Sh3bp2(+/+) BM cells. BMT also ameliorated the inflammation and bone loss in 10-week-old Sh3bp2(KI/KI) mice. Thus our study demonstrates that BMT improves the inflammation and bone loss in cherubism mice. BMT may be effective for the treatment of cherubism patients.

  6. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  7. 拔牙后牙槽骨愈合速度及骨密度变化的横向研究%Mineral density of alveolar bone after tooth extraction in the male and famale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温宁; 陆怀秀; 王忠义; 刘洪臣; 储冰峰

    2000-01-01

    Objevect :To study the influence of sex on alveolar bone density after tooth extraction. Methods:Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the mineral density of alveolar bone after extraction of first or second molar in left mandible in the idividuals with different age in 22 males and 22 famales. Results:There was no remarkable difference in the density of alveolar bone between men and women in 35~ 54-year-groups (P>0.05),the alveolar bone density in men was heigher than that in momen in 55~64year-groups. Conclusions:After tooth extraction wound healing of alveolar bone in men is faster than that in women with ageing.%目的:探讨性别差异对拔牙创牙槽骨愈合速度的影响。方法:采用双能x线吸收法测量不同年龄组的男性、女性拔牙后的牙槽骨骨密度。结果:35~54岁之间,男性与女性之间牙槽骨骨密度值无显著差异,而牙槽骨愈合速度有一定差异;55~64岁年龄组男性牙槽骨骨密度值高于女性。结论:年龄、性别对牙槽骨骨密度变化有显著影响,随着年龄的增长,男性牙槽骨愈合速度高于女性。

  8. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  9. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  10. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  11. 四环素骨诱导活性材料整复牙槽缺损的实验研究%Experimental study on repairing the defect in alveolar bone with tetracycline activated materials for bone guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘牧菲

    2000-01-01

    目的:将盐酸四环素处理的人离体非功能牙块用于诱导骨再生技术中,观察和比较其对牙槽骨再生修复的影响。方法:拔除大鼠第一磨牙近中根做人工牙槽缺损。置入盐酸四环素处理的离体人牙块,以盐酸处理的离体人牙块为阳性对照,未做任何处理的离体人牙块为阴性对照。不同时期取材做组织观察和评价。结果:四环素处理组炎症反应小,早期成骨明显。中晚期成骨量明显高于对照组。结论:盐酸四环素处理的人离体非功能牙块有抑制骨吸收,诱导、促进牙槽骨再生等作用。%Objective:The effect on alveolar bone regeneration and repair was observed and compared with guide bone regeneration technique -isolated human dentin blocks treated with tetracycline-HCL.Methods:The first molar mesial roots of rats were extracted as defects in alveolar bone and the isolated human dentin blocks treated with tetracycline-HCL as positive control and and untreated with anything as negative control were implanted the defect sites for histologic observation and evaluation at the different periods.Results:There is less inflammatory (in tetracycline treatment groups than control at early stages and they showed marked osteaogenesis),but the osteogenic quantity is larger than control groups at middle and late stages. Conclusion:The isolated teeth blocks treated with tetracycline HCL have actions on inhibiting bone resorption, and promoting alveolar bone generation.

  12. Three-D imaging of dental alveolar bone change after fixed orthodontic treatment in patients with periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhi-Gui; Yang, Chi; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun-Hui; Mao, Li-Xia; Feng, Yi-Miao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to radiographically quantify bone height and bone density in patients with periodontitis after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 81 patients including 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 41 patients with normal periodontal tissues (group 2) were selected. CBCT scanning for anterior teeth were taken before and after orthodontic treatment. Measurements of bone hei...

  13. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  14. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Bone Loss in Prednisone-Treated Rats through Stimulation of Osteogenesis and Bone Marrow Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liao; Li, Ting; Liu, Yuyu; Zhou, Le; Li, Pinghua; Xu, Bilian; Huang, Lianfang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yanzhi; Tian, Xiaoyan; Jee, Webster S. S.; Wu, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIO) is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1) In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d) not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2) In vitro study: In concentration from 10−6 mol/L to 10−7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin mRNA expression with

  15. Clinical Impact and Cellular Mechanisms of Iron Overload-Associated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, Viktória

    2017-01-01

    Diseases/conditions with diverse etiology, such as hemoglobinopathies, hereditary hemochromatosis and menopause, could lead to chronic iron accumulation. This condition is frequently associated with a bone phenotype; characterized by low bone mass, osteoporosis/osteopenia, altered microarchitecture and biomechanics, and increased incidence of fractures. Osteoporotic bone phenotype constitutes a major complication in patients with iron overload. The purpose of this review is to summarize what we have learnt about iron overload-associated bone loss from clinical studies and animal models. Bone is a metabolically active tissue that undergoes continuous remodeling with the involvement of osteoclasts that resorb mineralized bone, and osteoblasts that form new bone. Growing evidence suggests that both increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation are involved in the pathological bone-loss in iron overload conditions. We will discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in this detrimental process. Fuller understanding of this complex mechanism may lead to the development of improved therapeutics meant to interrupt the pathologic effects of excess iron on bone. PMID:28270766

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Morinda officinalis Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yan Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent.

  17. Associations of genetic lactase non-persistence and sex with bone loss in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marika M L; Impivaara, Olli; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma S A; Lehtimäki, Terho J; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Välimäki, Matti; Heikkinen, Jorma; Kröger, Liisa M; Kröger, Heikki P J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Kähönen, Mika A P; Raitakari, Olli T

    2009-05-01

    Some studies have reported that after attainment of peak bone mass (PBM), slow bone loss may occur in both men and women; however, findings are inconsistent. Genetic factors play a significant role in bone loss, but the available evidence is conflicting. Genetic lactase non-persistence (lactase C/C(-13910) genotype) is suggested to increase risk for inadequate calcium intake predisposing to poorer bone health. We investigated whether this genotype is associated with PBM and bone loss in young Finnish adults. Subjects belong to the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study that is an ongoing multi-centre follow-up of atherosclerosis risk factors. From the original cohort, randomly selected subjects aged 20-29 participated in baseline bone mineral density (BMD) measurements (n=358), and in follow-up measurements 12 years later (n=157). Bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) were measured at baseline and follow-up with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lactase C/T(-13910) polymorphism was determined by PCR and allele-specific fluorogenic probes. Information on lifestyle was elicited with questionnaires. During the follow-up, bone loss at both bone sites was greater in males (LS BMD: -1.1%, FN BMD: -5.2%) than in females (LS BMD: +2.1%, FN BMD: -0.7%) (both bone sites p=0.001). Younger age predicted greater loss of FN BMC and BMD in females (p=0.013 and p=0.001, respectively). Increased calcium intake predicted FN BMD gain in both sexes (in females B=0.007 g/cm(2)/mg, p=0.002; in males B=0.006, p=0.045), and increased physical activity LS BMD gain in females (B=0.091 g/cm(2)/physical activity point, p=0.023). PBM did not differ between the lactase genotypes, but males with the CC(-13910) genotype seemed to be prone to greater bone loss during the follow-up (LS BMD: C/C vs. T/T p=0.081). In conclusion, bone loss in young adulthood was more common in males than in females and seemed to occur mainly at the femoral neck. Young

  18. Inflammation, bone loss and fracture risk in spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Karine; Roux, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis (ie, low bone mineral density) is common in ankylosing spondylitis, related to both systemic inflammation and decreased mobility. Vertebral fracture risk is increased; acute back pain in these patients is not always a flare-up of the disease, as it can be related to bone complications. Intervertebral disc fractures in the ankylosed spine are associated with severe neurological complications. As expected from pathophysiology, treatments effective against inflammation have a positive effect on bone, and prospective open studies have shown that tumour-necrosis-factor blockers can improve bone mineral density at the spine and the hip. There is so far no evidence of a decreased risk of fractures with such treatment. PMID:26509065

  19. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(R)) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, X.Z.; Rathe, F.; Gilissen, C.; Zande, M. van der; Veltman, J.; Junker, R.; Yang, F.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2014-01-01

    Emdogain(R) is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain(R) on expression profiles of h

  20. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  1. Disruption of PTH Receptor 1 in T Cells Protects against PTH-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham; Bedi, Brahmchetna; Li, Jau-Yi; Adams, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Pacifici, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperparathyroidism in humans and continuous parathyroid hormone (cPTH) treatment in mice cause bone loss by regulating the production of RANKL and OPG by stromal cells (SCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). Recently, it has been reported that T cells are required for cPTH to induce bone loss as the binding of the T cell costimulatory molecule CD40L to SC receptor CD40 augments SC sensitivity to cPTH. However it is unknown whether direct PTH stimulation of T cells is required for cPTH to induce bone loss, and whether T cells contribute to the bone catabolic activity of PTH with mechanisms other than induction of CD40 signaling in SCs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that silencing of PTH receptor 1 (PPR) in T cells blocks the bone loss and the osteoclastic expansion induced by cPTH, thus demonstrating that PPR signaling in T cells is central for PTH-induced reduction of bone mass. Mechanistic studies revealed that PTH activation of the T cell PPR stimulates T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF). Attesting to the relevance of this effect, disruption of T cell TNF production prevents PTH-induced bone loss. We also show that a novel mechanism by which TNF mediates PTH induced osteoclast formation is upregulation of CD40 expression in SCs, which increases their RANKL/OPG production ratio. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate that PPR signaling in T cells plays an essential role in PTH induced bone loss by promoting T cell production of TNF. A previously unknown effect of TNF is to increase SC expression of CD40, which in turn increases SC osteoclastogenic activity by upregulating their RANKL/OPG production ratio. PPR-dependent stimulation of TNF production by T cells and the resulting TNF regulation of CD40 signaling in SCs are potential new therapeutic targets for the bone loss of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:20808842

  2. Disruption of PTH receptor 1 in T cells protects against PTH-induced bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Tawfeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperparathyroidism in humans and continuous parathyroid hormone (cPTH treatment in mice cause bone loss by regulating the production of RANKL and OPG by stromal cells (SCs and osteoblasts (OBs. Recently, it has been reported that T cells are required for cPTH to induce bone loss as the binding of the T cell costimulatory molecule CD40L to SC receptor CD40 augments SC sensitivity to cPTH. However it is unknown whether direct PTH stimulation of T cells is required for cPTH to induce bone loss, and whether T cells contribute to the bone catabolic activity of PTH with mechanisms other than induction of CD40 signaling in SCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that silencing of PTH receptor 1 (PPR in T cells blocks the bone loss and the osteoclastic expansion induced by cPTH, thus demonstrating that PPR signaling in T cells is central for PTH-induced reduction of bone mass. Mechanistic studies revealed that PTH activation of the T cell PPR stimulates T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF. Attesting to the relevance of this effect, disruption of T cell TNF production prevents PTH-induced bone loss. We also show that a novel mechanism by which TNF mediates PTH induced osteoclast formation is upregulation of CD40 expression in SCs, which increases their RANKL/OPG production ratio. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that PPR signaling in T cells plays an essential role in PTH induced bone loss by promoting T cell production of TNF. A previously unknown effect of TNF is to increase SC expression of CD40, which in turn increases SC osteoclastogenic activity by upregulating their RANKL/OPG production ratio. PPR-dependent stimulation of TNF production by T cells and the resulting TNF regulation of CD40 signaling in SCs are potential new therapeutic targets for the bone loss of hyperparathyroidism.

  3. Network Analysis Implicates Alpha-Synuclein (Snca) in the Regulation of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Gina; Mesner, Larry D.; Foley, Patricia L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The postmenopausal period in women is associated with decreased circulating estrogen levels, which accelerate bone loss and increase the risk of fracture. Here, we gained novel insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a model of human menopause, using co-expression network analysis. Specifically, we generated a co-expression network consisting of 53 gene modules using expression profiles from intact and OVX mice from a panel of inbred strains. The expression of four modules was altered by OVX, including module 23 whose expression was decreased by OVX across all strains. Module 23 was enriched for genes involved in the response to oxidative stress, a process known to be involved in OVX-induced bone loss. Additionally, module 23 homologs were co-expressed in human bone marrow. Alpha synuclein (Snca) was one of the most highly connected “hub” genes in module 23. We characterized mice deficient in Snca and observed a 40% reduction in OVX-induced bone loss. Furthermore, protection was associated with the altered expression of specific network modules, including module 23. In summary, the results of this study suggest that Snca regulates bone network homeostasis and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. PMID:27378017

  4. Antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ashwani; Leitzel, Kim; Ali, Suhail; Lipton, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Cancer treatment-induced bone loss treatment has an important role to prevent bone loss-related events like fracture, significant morbidity, mortality, disfigurement and loss of self-esteem, and health-care expenditure. Numerous factors, including treatment regimens and bone metastasis, increase the risk of osteoporosis or local bone destruction in most breast and prostate cancer patients. Cytotoxic chemotherapies, radiation, and hormonal therapies can lead to premature menopause and decrease bone mineral density. Over 60 % of breast cancer patients within 1 year of beginning postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy experience ovarian failure. Also, ovarian ablation and aromatase inhibitors used to treat breast cancer and orchiectomy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; to treat prostate cancer) cause substantial bone loss. In this article, we will focus mainly on antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). An understanding of CTIBL is critical for determining how to assess the risk and identify which patients may benefit from preventive therapy.

  5. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Aruna; Soroushian, Sheila; Ganguly, Rumpa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an as...

  6. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M T; Felson, D T; Dawson-Hughes, B; Tucker, K L; Cupples, L A; Wilson, P W; Kiel, D P

    2000-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated risk factors for bone loss in elderly women and men. Thus, we examined risk factors for 4-year longitudinal change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, radius, and spine in elders. Eight hundred elderly women and men from the population-based Framingham Osteoporosis Study had BMD assessed in 1988-1989 and again in 1992-1993. BMD was measured at femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's area, radial shaft, ultradistal radius, and lumbar spine using Lunar densitometers. We examined the relation of the following factors at baseline to percent BMD loss: age, weight, change in weight, height, smoking, caffeine, alcohol use, physical activity, serum 25-OH vitamin D, calcium intake, and current estrogen replacement in women. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted with simultaneous adjustment for all variables. Mean age at baseline was 74 years +/-4.5 years (range, 67-90 years). Average 4-year BMD loss for women (range, 3.4-4.8%) was greater than the loss for men (range, 0.2-3.6%) at all sites; however, BMD fell with age in both elderly women and elderly men. For women, lower baseline weight, weight loss in interim, and greater alcohol use were associated with BMD loss. Women who gained weight during the interim gained BMD or had little change in BMD. For women, current estrogen users had less bone loss than nonusers; at the femoral neck, nonusers lost up to 2.7% more BMD. For men, lower baseline weight and weight loss also were associated with BMD loss. Men who smoked cigarettes at baseline lost more BMD at the trochanter site. Surprisingly, bone loss was not affected by caffeine, physical activity, serum 25-OH vitamin D, or calcium intake. Risk factors consistently associated with bone loss in elders include female sex, thinness, and weight loss, while weight gain appears to protect against bone loss for both men and women. This population-based study suggests that current estrogen use may help to maintain bone in women, whereas current

  7. Loss of bone mass after Colles' fractrur:a follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴力扬; 蒋雷生

    2004-01-01

    Background Colles' fracture usually associated with osteoporosis is regarded as the predictor of subsequent osteoporotic fracture. However, it is not clear how the local changes of bone mass take place during the course of treatment and whether the changes are related to clinical practice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the local changes of bone mass in patients with Colles' fracture and their possible clinical relevance in a follow-up study.Methods The radiograms of the second metacarpal in 64 patients with Colles' fracture were assessed for bone density immediately after fracture, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after fracture, respectively. Functional results were evaluated at one year.Results Bone mass six weeks after Colles' fracture was significantly decreased without returning to normal at one year though increased bone mass had been identified 6 months after fracture (P< 0.05), (P< 0.01). At one year significant (P< 0.05) or highly significant (P< 0.01) correlations were observed between bone mass indices of metacarpal and functional results, indicating that poor function is associated with lower bone density. Significant differences (P< 0.05) between fracture patterns also suggested that patients with more severe fractures have a more pronounced bone loss.Conclusions Bone loss during the course of treatment will have a direct effect upon the prognosis, so different treatment should be proposed for different patterns of fractures. Active exercise should be made to improve the recovery of bone mass.

  8. Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela Banu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Women drastically loose bone during and after menopause leading to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass increasing the risk of fractures with minor trauma. Existing therapies mainly reduce bone resorption, however, all existing drugs have severe side effects. Recently, the focus is to identify alternative medicines that can prevent and treat osteoporosis with minimal or no side effects. We used Cissus quadrangularis (CQ, a medicinal herb, to determine its effects on bone loss after ovariectomy in C57BL/6 mice. Two-month old mice were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed CQ diet. After eleven weeks, mice were sacrificed and the long bones scanned using pQCT and μCT. In the distal femoral metaphysis, femoral diaphysis, and proximal tibia, control mice had decreased cancellous and cortical bone, while CQ-fed mice showed no significant differences in the trabecular number, thickness, and connectivity density, between Sham and OVX mice, except for cortical bone mineral content in the proximal tibia. There were no changes in the bone at the tibio-fibular junction between groups. We conclude that CQ effectively inhibited bone loss in the cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in these mice.

  9. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss and its management with bisphosphonates in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available M Bauer,1 J Bryce,2 P Hadji11University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2National Cancer Institute, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis due to loss of the bone-protective effects of estrogen. Disease-related processes may also contribute to the risk of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. One of the most common and severe safety issues associated with cancer therapy for patients with breast cancer is bone loss and the associated increase in risk of fractures. This paper reviews the recent literature pertaining to aromatase inhibitor (AI-associated bone loss, and discusses suggested management and preventative approaches that may help patients remain on therapy to derive maximum clinical benefit. A case study is presented to illustrate the discussion. We observed that AIs are in widespread use for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and are now recommended as adjuvant therapy, either as primary therapy or sequential to tamoxifen, for postmenopausal women. AIs target the estrogen biosynthetic pathway and deprive tumor cells of the growth-promoting effects of estrogen, and AI therapies provide benefits to patients in terms of improved disease-free survival. However, there is a concern regarding the increased risk of bone loss with prolonged AI therapy, which can be managed in many cases with the use of bisphosphonates and other interventions (eg, calcium, vitamin D supplementation, exercise.Keywords: aromatase inhibitors, bisphosphonates, bone loss, breast cancer, estrogen

  10. Premature loss of bone remodeling compartment canopies is associated with deficient bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Søe, Kent;

    2011-01-01

    A remarkable property of bone remodeling is that osteoblasts form bone matrix exactly where and when osteoclasts have removed it. The bone remodeling compartment (BRC) canopies that cover bone surfaces undergoing remodeling, were proposed to be critical players in this mechanism. Here, we provide...... support to this hypothesis by analyzing the changes in prevalence of BRC canopies during the progress of the remodeling cycle in a cohort of healthy individuals and in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), and by relating these changes in prevalence with the extent of bone forming surfaces...

  11. 原核表达的重组人骨形态发生蛋白7增高牙槽嵴的实验%Experimental study on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 expressed in prokaryocyte augmenting alveolar ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖水清; 卞翠荣

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After loss of teeth, the dynamic equilibrium between osteoblast and osteoclast in alveolar bone is destroyed because of systematic and local factors, and residual ridge resorption and atrophy occur irreversibly, which result in the loss of massive alveolar bone. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) exerts an important effect in the development and traumatic repair of bone and tooth.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) on new bone formation of alveolar ridge and absorption of alveolar ridge.DESIGN: Control experiment.SETTING: Department of Orthodontics, Jinan Stomatological Hospital;Shangdong Academy of Medical Sciences.MATERIALS: This study was conducted at the Shangdong Academy of Medical Sciences from June 2003 to December 2004. Totally 28 New Zealand white rabbits, of either gender, weighing 2 kg, were used in this study.METHODS: Animal extracted wound models were created on the rabbits.The mandibular left and right central incisor of the rabbits were removed.Two carriers containing BMP7 complex (40 μg/each) were implanted into the mandibular right central incisor (experimental group), two empty carriers containing only phosphate buffer solution(PBS) (40 μg/each) were implanted into the mandibular left central incisor (control group). The animals were sacrificed at postoperative 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The specimen from the operated regions were harvested and observed by scanning electron microscope, and calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also measured.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Result of scanning electron microscope (SEM). ② ALP activity and calcium content.RESULTS: ① The bone wound healing was 4-6 weeks earlier in the experimental group than in the control group . ② The ALP activity was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group [week 2:(38.191±5.384, (19.821±2.084) μkat/g;week 4: (160.815±9.669), (126.709±1.634)

  12. Influence of wavelength and pulse duration on peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin and alveolar bone during IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the peripheral thermal damage produced during the laser ablation of alveolar bone and dentin for clinically relevant IR laser systems. Previous studies have demonstrated that a char layer produced around the laser incision site can inhibit the wound healing process. Moreover, in the case of dentin, a char layer is unsightly and is difficult to bond to with restorative materials. Thermal damage was assessed using polarized light microscopy for laser pulse widths from 500 ns to 300 microseconds at 2.94 micrometer and 9.6 micrometer. Water- cooling was not employed to alleviate thermal damage during the laser irradiation. At 9.6 micrometer, minimal thermal damage was observed for pulse widths on the order of the thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy in the tissue, 3 - 4 microseconds, and peripheral thermal damage increased with increasing pulse duration. At 2.94 micrometer, thermal damage was minimal for the Q-switched (500 ns) laser system. This study shows that 9.6 micrometer CO2 laser pulses with pulse widths of 5 - 10 microseconds are well suited for the efficient ablation of dentin and bone with minimal peripheral damage. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR R29DE12091.

  13. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  14. Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2) and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective N...

  15. Stem cell property of postmigratory cranial neural crest cells and their utility in alveolar bone regeneration and tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il-Hyuk; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Zhao, Hu; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Shi, Songtao; Chai, Yang

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate neural crest is a multipotent cell population that gives rise to a variety of different cell types. We have discovered that postmigratory cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) maintain mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and show potential utility for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. We are able to induce the osteogenic differentiation of postmigratory CNCCs, and this differentiation is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. After transplantation into a host animal, postmigratory CNCCs form bone matrix. CNCC-formed bones are distinct from bones regenerated by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, CNCCs support tooth germ survival via BMP signaling in our CNCC-tooth germ cotransplantation system. Thus, we conclude that postmigratory CNCCs preserve stem cell features, contribute to craniofacial bone formation, and play a fundamental role in supporting tooth organ development. These findings reveal a novel function for postmigratory CNCCs in organ development, and demonstrate the utility of these CNCCs in regenerating craniofacial structures.

  16. Methodological approach for the evaluation of homologous bone graft use in post-extractive atrophic alveolar ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Musante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the in vivo efficacy of Puros® cancellous particulate allograft bone in the regeneration of post-extractive sites. Twelve molar or premolar sites were selected. Seven days after minimally invasive tooth extraction, Puros® cancellous particulate allografts were inserted into the elected sites. TC Cone-Beam investigation and at 4 months from surgery; bone height and width were evaluated. Five months after surgery, biopsy samples of the regenerated sites were taken and histologically analyzed to qualitatively evaluate bone regeneration. TC analysis showed, a mean bone gain of 4.1 mm in height and 2.02 mm in width. The histological analysis of the samples showed intense bone metabolic activity with active osteoblasts on the implant surface, at the level of the native bone-graft interface and in the grafted area. The radiographic and histological analyses demonstrate an optimal bonen regeneration, both in terms of quality and quantity using Puros®.

  17. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  18. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority.

  19. Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Is there a Risk for Accelerated Osteoporosis after Return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-to to-date suggests that the rapid rate of site-specific bone loss in space, due to the unbalanced stimulation of bone resorption, may predispose crew members to irreversible changes in bone structure and microarchitecture. No analyses conducted in the postflight period to assess microarchitectural changes. There is no complete analysis of skeletal recovery in the postflight period to evaluate the structural changes that accompany increases in DXA aBMD. Postflight analyses based upon QCT scans performed on limited crew members indicate reductions in hip bone strength and incomplete recovery at 1 year. No recovery of trabecular vBMD after 1 year return (HRP IWG). Time course of bone loss in space unknown.

  20. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Influence of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue on Bone Loss and of Osteocalcin on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira L. Mendonça

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow adipose tissue has been associated with low bone mineral density. However, no data exist regarding marrow adipose tissue in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disorder associated with bone loss in conditions of high bone turnover. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between marrow adipose tissue, bone mass and parathyroid hormone. The influence of osteocalcin on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also evaluated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university hospital, involving 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT and 21 controls (CG. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and marrow adipose tissue was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biochemical evaluation included the determination of parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: A negative association was found between the bone mass at the 1/3 radius and parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.69; p<0.01. Marrow adipose tissue was not significantly increased in patients (CG = 32.8±11.2% vs PHPT = 38.6±12%. The serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in patients (CG = 8.6±3.6 ng/mL vs PHPT = 36.5±38.4 ng/mL; p<0.005, but no associations were observed between osteocalcin and insulin or between insulin and both marrow adipose tissue and bone mass. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the increment of adipogenesis in the bone marrow microenvironment under conditions of high bone turnover due to primary hyperparathyroidism is limited. Despite the increased serum levels of osteocalcin due to primary hyperparathyroidism, these patients tend to have impaired insulin sensitivity.

  1. Biochemical markers of bone turnover, hip bone loss, and fracture in older men: the MrOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Douglas C; Garnero, Patrick; Harrison, Stephanie L; Cauley, Jane A; Eastell, Richard; Ensrud, Kris E; Orwoll, Eric

    2009-12-01

    We used data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study to test the hypothesis that men with higher levels of bone turnover would have accelerated bone loss and an elevated risk of fracture. MrOS enrolled 5995 subjects >65 yr; hip BMD was measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.6 yr. Nonspine fractures were documented during a mean follow-up of 5.0 yr. Using fasting serum collected at baseline and stored at -190 degrees C, bone turnover measurements (type I collagen N-propeptide [PINP]; beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [betaCTX]; and TRACP5b) were obtained on 384 men with nonspine fracture (including 72 hip fractures) and 947 men selected at random. Among randomly selected men, total hip bone loss was 0.5%/yr among those in the highest quartile of PINP (>44.3 ng/ml) and 0.3%/yr among those in the lower three quartiles (p = 0.01). Fracture risk was elevated among men in the highest quartile of PINP (hip fracture relative hazard = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.68; nonspine relative hazard = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.05) or betaCTX (hip fracture relative hazard = 1.76, 95 CI: 1.04, 2.98; nonspine relative hazard = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.69) but not TRACP5b. Further adjustment for baseline hip BMD eliminated all associations between bone turnover and fracture. We conclude that higher levels of bone turnover are associated with greater hip bone loss in older men, but increased turnover is not independently associated with the risk of hip or nonspine fracture.

  2. Protective effect of Pycnogenol® on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster and has potent antioxidant activities. The protective effect of PYC on bone loss was studied in multiparous ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pycnogenol® (30 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to 8-month-old OVX rats for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, bone strength was measured by a three-point bending test and bone mineral density was estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Ovariectomy significantly decreased femur bone strength and bone density. Supplementation with PYC suppressed the bone loss induced by OVX. The OVX treatment significantly increased serum osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Supplementation with PYC reduced the serum OC and CTx in OVX rats to a level similar to that of the sham-operated group. The results indicated that orally administered PYC can decrease the bone turnover rate in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on the biomechanical strength of bone and bone mineral density.

  3. 人工骨加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损的临床研究%Clinical study of the artificial bone and autogenous bone in repairing traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects in the middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福琴; 朱菲; 张昊; 张丽军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胶原基纳米骨(nHAC)加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损的临床疗效.方法 选择23例中老年因外伤前牙牙槽骨缺损需植骨者,用nHAC加术区游离的自体骨修复缺损,采用固定正畸技术对松动牙进行固定.术后1、2、3、6、12个月复诊,术前术后均对病损部位进行临床及X线检查,观察缺损程度及新骨形成和骨密度改变.结果 nHAC加自体骨修复中老年外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损愈合成功率95.65%,脱位牙复位固定治疗成功率88.23%,所有患者无不良症状和体征,牙槽骨高度和宽度明显得到改善.X线片显示:胶原基纳米骨(nHAC)加自体骨植入区可见新生骨小梁,骨密度增强,骨质疏松有所改善,植入骨与宿主骨组织融为一体,牙槽骨缺损修复.结论 nHAC加自体骨修复外伤性前牙牙槽骨缺损可以增强牙槽骨密度,恢复牙槽骨的丰满度,保留了更多的牙齿,也为义齿修复提供了良好的生理基础.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of the mixture of nano-hydroxyapative/collagen composite (nHAC)and autogenous bone on repairing traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects in the middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Twenty-three middle-aged and elderly patients,who had traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects and needed bone transplanting,were selected.They were treated with the mixture of nHAC and autogenous bone to repair the traumatic alveolar bone defects.Edgewise appliance was used for reduction and fixation in traumatic dislocated teeth.After1,2,3,6,and 12 months,all the patients needed subsequent visit.Clinical and X-ray examination of bone defects were performed to observe the degree of bone defects,new bone formation,and bone mineral density before and after the treatment.Results Among all the 23 patients,the therapeutic effective rate of using the mixture of nHAC and autogenous bone to repair traumatic anterior alveolar bone defects was 95.65

  4. A Losing Battle: Weight Regain Does Not Restore Weight Loss-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Karen L.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2. They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (−1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (−0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (−0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: −3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  5. Hydroxyapatite combined with hyaluronic acid metronidazole gel increased the quantity of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone graft material have been used extensively in bone healing and periodontal treatment. Alloplast such as hydroxyapatite are frequently used to repair and reconstruct bone defects. By merely applying hydroxyapatite for the treatment of bone is not fully effective yet to produce new bone regeneration. Locally applied high molecular hyaluronic acid (HA has been shown to stimulate differentiation and migration of mesenchymal cells. Recent studies on regenerative surgical procedures indicate that reduction of bacterial burden at the wound site may improve the clinical outcome of regenerative therapy. Metronidazole has the greatest bacteriostatic effect. A clinical application of HA metronidazole gels during the surgical therapy may reduce the bacterial contamination of surgical wound site. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of combination hydroxyapatite and HA metronidazole gel 1% on osteoblast cell number after wound healing process in the wistar rats incisor tooth extraction socket. Method: Twenty seven wistar rats were divided randomly into 3 groups. The first group consisted of wistar rats given hydroxyapatite were subjected to the mandibular incisor extraction socket. The second group were given hydroxyapatite combined with HA metronidazole gel 1%. The control group were filled with blood. Wistar rats were euthanized on day 14 and then preparation for histological examination was stained using hematoxylin-eosin and then the numbers of the osteoblasts were calculated. Result: The differences in each group were tested by one way Anova test (α=0.05. The numbers of osteoblasts in each group had a significant difference (p<0.05: the highest numbers of osteoblasts were found in the group that was given hydroxyapatite combined with HA metronidazole, followed by the lower numbers of osteoblasts in the hydroxyapa ite group and the lowest numbers of osteoblasts were found in the control group. Conclusion

  6. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  7. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  8. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  9. Orthodontic treatment results following grafting autologous mandibular bone to the alveolar cleft in patients with a complete unilateral cleft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A. de; Bilt, A. van der; Meijer, G.J.; Koole, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze orthodontic treatment results following mandibular symphysis bone grafting and postoperative orthodontic treatment. DESIGN: Randomized selection of 75 patients out of 308 with unilateral cleft of lip, alveolus, and palate, operated upon according to protocol between 1990 and 20

  10. Preventing bone loss and weight gain with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Lewis, Richard D; Hamrick, Mark W; Hartzell, Diane L; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin D and certain natural compounds have been shown to regulate both lipid metabolism and bone formation. Treatments that prevent or reverse age-related increase in bone marrow adiposity could both increase new bone formation and inhibit bone destruction. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals inhibits bone loss and decreases adiposity to a greater extent than control or vitamin D-alone diets. Aged ovariectomized female rats (12 months old, n=50, initial body weight=240 g) were given control (AIN-93M diet), vitamin D (2,400 IU/kg), or vitamin D plus resveratrol (16, 80, or 400 mg/kg of diet [low, medium, and high dose, respectively]), quercetin (80, 400, or 2,000 mg/kg of diet), and genistein (64, 256, or 1,040 mg/kg of diet) for 8 weeks. The high-dose treatment (vitamin D+400 mg/kg resveratrol+2,000 mg/kg quercetin+1,040 mg/kg genistein) reduced body weight gain (P<.05) and the fat pad weights (P<.05). This treatment also increased the serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (P<.05) and the bone mineral content of the femur. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the high-dose treatment prevented loss of trabecular bone (P<.05) and reduced marrow adipocytes (P<.001) and osteoclasts (P<.05) compared with the control and vitamin D alone (P<.05). We conclude that aged ovariectomized female rats supplemented with vitamin D combined with genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol had improved bone mineral density and reduced body weight gain and a significant decrease in bone marrow adipocytes. The synergistic effects of a combination of phytochemicals with vitamin D may be effective in reducing bone loss and weight gain after menopause.

  11. Protective Effects of Vildagliptin against Pioglitazone-Induced Bone Loss in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yu, Seung Hee; Lee, Sihoon; Kim, Yeun Sun; Park, Ie Byung; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) have several benefits in many systems in addition to glycemic control. In a previous study, we reported that exendin-4 might increase bone mineral density (BMD) by decreasing the expression of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes in a T2DM animal model. In this study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on TZD-induced bone loss in a T2DM animal model. We randomly divided 12-week-old male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats into four groups; control, vildagliptin, pioglitazone, and vildagliptin and pioglitazone combination. Animals in each group received the respective treatments for 5 weeks. We performed an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) before and after treatment. BMD and the trabecular micro-architecture were measured by DEXA and micro CT, respectively, at the end of the treatment. The circulating levels of active GLP-1, bone turnover markers, and sclerostin were assayed. Vildagliptin treatment significantly increased BMD and trabecular bone volume. The combination therapy restored BMD, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular bone thickness that were decreased by pioglitazone. The levels of the bone formation marker, osteocalcin, decreased and that of the bone resorption marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b increased in the pioglitazone group. These biomarkers were ameliorated and the pioglitazone-induced increase in sclerostin level was lowered to control values by the addition of vildagliptin. In conclusion, our results indicate that orally administered vildagliptin demonstrated a protective effect on pioglitazone-induced bone loss in a type 2 diabetic rat model. PMID:27997588

  12. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  13. Age-related bone loss in the LOU/c rat model of healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo; Rivas, Daniel; Li, Wei; Li, Ailian; Henderson, Janet E; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2009-03-01

    Inbred albino Louvain (LOU) rats are considered a model of healthy aging due to their increased longevity in the absence of obesity and with a low incidence of common age-related diseases. In this study, we characterized the bone phenotype of male and female LOU rats at 4, 20 and 27 months of age using quantitative micro computed tomographic (mCT) imaging, histology and biochemical analysis of circulating bone biomarkers. Bone quality and morphometry of the distal femora, assessed by mCT, was similar in male and female rats at 4 months of age and deteriorated over time. Histochemical staining of undecalcified bone showed a significant reduction in cortical and trabecular bone by 20 months of age. The reduction in mineralized tissue was accompanied by reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and a significant increase in marrow adiposity. Biochemical markers of bone turnover, C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, correlated with the age-related bone loss whereas the calciotropic hormones PTH and vitamin D remained unchanged over time. In summary, aged LOU rats exhibit low-turnover bone loss and marrow fat infiltration, which are the hallmarks of senile osteoporosis, and thus represent a novel model in which to study the molecular mechanisms leading to this disorder.

  14. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  15. Bone grafting versus distraction osteogenesis in pre-implant surgery. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios TZERMPOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an increasing demand for implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation of the edentulous ridges. However problems occur regarding adequate bone support for implants. Loss of alveolar bone may be gradual due to age resorption or due to previous local pathology. Alveolar bone augmentation may be achieved by using a variety of different techniques.The aim of the present paper is to compare two methods for bone augmentation: distraction osteogenesis and bone grafting. Advantages and disadvantages of each one are presented and discussed together with their ability to reconstruct the deficient edentulous ridges with ultimate purpose the placement of implants upported prostheses.

  16. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins e Souza, Patricia [Fleury Medicina e Saude and Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brandao, Bruno Lobo; Motta, Geraldo; Monteiro, Martim [Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brown, Eduardo [Grupo Fleury Medicina Diagnostica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  17. Association of testosterone and bone mineral density with tooth loss in men with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balendra P; Makker, Annu; Tripathi, Arvind; Singh, Man M; Gupta, Vivek

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the mean testosterone and bone mineral density (BMD) levels in men with and without tooth loss. Two hundred three male subjects aged 30-65 years satisfying the study criteria were selected and then examined for bone mineral density, testosterone level, clinical attachment loss, probing pocket depth, tooth mobility and tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 15.0) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA), and differences were considered to be significant at P < 0.05. Independent sample "t" test was used to compare the results, and receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was performed to obtain the cut-off. The mean testosterone level in subjects without tooth loss was 4.41 ± 2.57, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 2.79 ± 1.15 (P = 0.001). The mean BMD in subjects without tooth loss was 0.99 ± 0.13, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 0.96 ± 0.12 (P = 0.046). The testosterone level and BMD in subjects with tooth loss were significantly lower than those in subjects without tooth loss. Testosterone is a good predictor of tooth loss, but its efficiency decreases with increasing tooth loss. BMD is not a good predictor of tooth loss.

  18. Subchondral bone loss following orthodontically induced cartilage degradation in the mandibular condyles of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Wang, Mei-Qing; Dai, Juan; Yu, Shi-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jun

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease generally characterized by progressive cartilage degradation and subchondral bone changes. Subchondral bone changes have been proposed to initiate or accompany with cartilage degradation in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize cartilage damage, subchondral bone remodeling, and the possible mechanism involved in these morphological changes in our reported rat model with OA-like lesions in the mandibular condyle. In experimental groups, the dental occlusion was orthodontically disturbed. By histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-CT scanning and serum tests, changes in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone were analyzed at 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The mRNA and protein levels of bone pro-resorptive and pro-formative factors by chondrocytes were investigated. Increased degraded cartilage areas and obvious cartilage calcification were observed in 8- and 12-week treated (EXP) groups compared to the age-matched controls. Subchondral bone loss, characterized as decreased bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), was observed in the 12-week but not the 8-week EXP group, respectively, versus their age-matched controls. The subchondral bone loss in the 12-week EXP group was accompanied with decreased new bone formation rate, but increased serum carboxy terminal telopeptides (CTXs), and increased osteoclast numbers and proportion of surface area in the subchondral bone regions. Increased mRNA and protein levels of M-CSF, VEGF, RUNX and RANKL/OPG ratio, but decreased OPG, were found in condylar cartilage in the 12-week EXP group versus its age-matched controls, and those of RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the 12-week EXP group than the 8-week EXP. In addition, increased mRNA levels of VEGF, RUNX and RANKL/OPG ratio, but decreased OPG, were also found in condylar

  19. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on wound healing of alveolar bone socket after extraction of rat maxillary molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Yosue, Takashi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Nasu, Masanori

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of radiation on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds. X-ray doses of 10 Gy or 20 Gy were delivered, once, to the maxillofacial area of Wistar-strain rats. Then, 24 hours after irradiation, the maxillary first molars were extracted bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 42, and 84 days after tooth extraction, and the maxilla were sliced, to make thin sections. These specimens were then double stained with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The ratio of bone area to socket area (bone formation ratio), the ratio of bone length to ALP positive area length (ALP positive ratio), and the number of TRAP-positive cells, were evaluated. The results showed: The bone formation ratios at days 3 and 7 after tooth extraction were significantly low in both irradiation groups, compared with those for the non-irradiation group. The ALP positive reaction ratio peaked 7 days after in the non-irradiation group. In both irradiation groups, the ratios that were worked out at 3 days and 7 days after were significantly lower than those in the non-irradiation group. There was no significant difference in the number of TRAP-positive cells between the non-irradiation group and the 10 Gy irradiation group. In the 20 Gy irradiation group, the TRAP-positive cell count plummeted to a significantly low level at 3 days after tooth extraction, compared with that in the non-irradiation group. (author)

  1. A Patient Specific Biomechanical Analysis of Custom Root Analogue Implant Designs on Alveolar Bone Stress: A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anssari Moin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse by means of FEA the influence of 5 custom RAI designs on stress distribution of peri-implant bone and to evaluate the impact on microdisplacement for a specific patient case. Materials and Methods. A 3D surface model of a RAI for the upper right canine was constructed from the cone beam computed tomography data of one patient. Subsequently, five (targeted press-fit design modification FE models with five congruent bone models were designed: “Standard,” “Prism,” “Fins,” “Plug,” and “Bulbs,” respectively. Preprocessor software was applied to mesh the models. Two loads were applied: an oblique force (300 N and a vertical force (150 N. Analysis was performed to evaluate stress distributions and deformed contact separation at the peri-implant region. Results. The lowest von Mises stress levels were numerically observed for the Plug design. The lowest levels of contact separation were measured in the Fins model followed by the Bulbs design. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the applied methodology, adding targeted press-fit geometry to the RAI standard design will have a positive effect on stress distribution, lower concentration of bone stress, and will provide a better primary stability for this patient specific case.

  2. A new three-dimensional scale in the evaluation of the secondary alveolar bone grafting%牙槽突裂植骨疗效的影像学评价方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐玮; 马莲; 林久祥; 贾绮林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a new three-dimensional method or grading scale in the evaluation of the secondary alveolar bone grafting,thus modifying the Bergland grading scale.Methods A total of 40 patients (26 male,14 female) with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP),who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting at least 3 months ago,were enrolled.Regional cone-beam CT(CBCT) scans were taken to evaluate the height and thickness of the postoperative bone bridges.A new three-dimensional grafting scale was established,including four grades respectively in alveolar height and thickness.Results According to the new three-dimensional scale in this study,15 grafted sites were rated grade T-Ⅰ or T-Ⅱ in the alveolar thickness among 18 sites of grade H-Ⅰ in height,and 10 among 15 of grade H-Ⅱ in height.Therefore,25 grafted sites were considered as clinical success in the alveolar thickness (grade T-Ⅰ or T-Ⅱ) among 33 sites with clinical success in alveolar height (grade H-Ⅰ and H-Ⅱ).There were 24% of 33 sites with clinical success in height,which were considered as clinical failure in the alveolar thickness.Conclusions It is necessary to establish a new three-dimensional method or grading scale for evaluating the secondary alveolar bone grafting.The three-dimensional scale can take comprehensive view of the bone-grafted alveolar clefts and thus modify the Bergland grading scale.%目的 提出评价牙槽突裂植骨疗效的三维分级标准,完善Bergland评价系统.方法 本研究选择于2014年1至4月在北京大学口腔医学院·口腔医院就诊的单侧完全性唇腭裂患者40例,均在二期牙槽突裂植骨术后3个月拍摄植骨区牙槽突局部锥形束CT片,提出牙槽突高度分级(H-Ⅰ~H-Ⅳ级)、厚度分级(T-Ⅰ ~T-Ⅳ级)、牙槽突综合分级(H+T)及临床成功标准(高度和厚度总分级均为Ⅰ或Ⅱ级时,属于临床成功型).结果 33侧植骨区牙槽突高度为临床成功型(18侧H-Ⅰ级和15侧H-Ⅱ

  3. [Dento-alveolar injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorsmit, R A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    1992-11-01

    Most dento-alveolar traumas can be managed by the dentist-general practitioner. Still, there are some specific injuries which should be treated by dental specialists. Some specific guidelines are given for the combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of fracture of the coronal part of the root, intrusive luxation, abnormal position of the permanent tooth due to traumatic displacement of the deciduous tooth, ankylosis and tooth loss.

  4. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  5. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil Hayatullina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx, and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO. Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  6. Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  7. Management of humeral and glenoid bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Randy; Rusen, Jamie; Saltzman, Bryan M; Leiter, Jeff; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Romeo, Anthony A; MacDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted.

  8. Management of Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Recurrent Glenohumeral Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted.

  9. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  10. Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space

  11. Trabecular metal cup without augments for acetabular revision in case of extensive bone loss and low bone-prosthesis contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierannunzii, L; Mambretti, A; D'Imporzano, M

    2011-01-01

    Current evidences in revision hip arthroplasty suggest to treat severe acetabular bone loss with dedicated implants, such as anti-protrusio cages, stemmed cups, modular systems supplied with iliac flanges and obturatory hook. However recent literature is reporting satisfactory outcomes with simple elliptical Trabecular Metal cups. Purpose of the study was to evaluate mid-term results of such a surgical procedure. All hip revisions performed from 2008 to 2009 with implantation of a TMT multi-hole acetabular cup without augmentations were retrospectively reviewed. The cases with low-degree acetabular bone loss (stage I and II according to GIR classification), with surgical report poorly describing the bone defect, with inadequate pre- and post-operative x-rays were ruled out. Twenty-five cases were identified, but four were lost to follow-up. The twenty-one patients were 71 year-old on average (from 60 to 82), with stage IV bone loss in 6 cases and stage III bone loss in 15 cases. Mean interval from surgery to evaluation was 20.9 months (from 13 to 30). The evaluation included bone-prosthesis contact estimation, component position, survivorship, complications, final Harris Hip Score, presence of periprosthetic radiolucencies. Host bone-prosthesis contact was estimated to be about 35%. Only three implant were subsequently reoperated (for infection, early migration, recurrent dislocation). The HHS among non-reoperated 18 patients was 81.96 on average (from 63.44 to 95.82). Six cases showed thin radiolucencies in one of the three Charnley zones, while three cases showed radiolucencies in two. None of these images was evolutive, thus they were not considered signs of loosening. The mid-term results of this series confirm the hypothesis that a porous tantalum acetabular cup is an effective option to deal with difficult acetabular revisions. Although no extra-acetabular fixation device is available, the very high surface friction guaranteed by the material and the

  12. 钛膜引导骨生长保持牙槽骨骨量的临床研究%Clinical research on using titanium membrane to promote bone regeneration and maintain content of alveolar bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴纪楠; 胡文; 梁国谦

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluated the clinical skills and results of using Titanium Membrane to promot bone regeneration and maintain bone volume after tooth extraction. Methods 62 patients with one frant teeth removed were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group Ⅰ(21 patients) was used as control. The socket was not treated. In group Ⅱ(20 patients), the socket was covered by Titanium Membrance. In group Ⅲ(21 patients), the socket was filled with artificial bone and covered with titanium Membrane. The heitht and density of the surrounding alveolar bone were measured 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after extraction. Results The results revealed that the bone height and the alveolar bone density were diffirent in these 3 groups. The absorption rate of the 3 groups were (26.42 ± 0.89)%, (14.71 ± 0.92)% and (7.43 ± 0.76)% separately. The bone density in the 3 group were 0.192 ± 0.056, 0.123 ± 0.043 and 0.389 ± 0.058 separately. Conclusion Titanium Membrane might help to maintain the bone volume after tooth extraction.%目的 评价钛膜在拔牙后引导骨生长保持牙槽骨骨量的临床效果,并探讨其应用技巧.方法 选取 62例只拔除1颗前牙的病例,随机分为3组,第1组(21例)为对照组,拔牙后3 ~ 4个月回院接受种植牙手术,第2组(20例)为钛膜组,拔牙后牙槽窝经过修整,放置稍大于牙槽窝的纯钛膜并将周围组织拉拢缝合,5 ~ 6个月回院接受种植牙手术或钛膜取出手术.第3组(21例)为钛膜加人工骨组,拔牙后牙槽窝即刻填入人工骨并放置稍大于牙槽窝的纯钛膜并缝合,5 ~ 6个月回院接受种植牙手术或钛膜取出手术.在曲面断层片上测量牙槽骨高度的变化.以上各组分别于拔牙后1、2、3及6个月后进行牙槽骨密度的测量.结果 在拔牙后5 ~ 6个月时,牙槽骨平均退缩率分别为(26.42 ± 0.89)%,(14.71 ± 0.92)%,(7.43 ± 0.76)%.第1、2组间差异具有统计学意义(P < 0.01);在术后1 ~ 2个月时,第2、3组

  13. Orthodonti