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Sample records for alveolar bone loss

  1. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

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    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  2. Alveolar bone loss in obese subjects.

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    Alabdulkarim, Maher; Bissada, Nabil; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad; Ficara, Anthony; Siegel, Burton

    2005-04-01

    Obesity was found to be significantly associated with periodontal disease prevalence as measured by probing depth and clinical attachment loss. The aim of this study was to examine if obesity correlates with chronic periodontitis as diagnosed by radiographic alveolar bone loss. Four hundred subjects > or =18 years old were included; 200 with body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m2 (obese) and 200 with BMI periodontitis. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with periodontitis in the uni-variate regression analysis (OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.55-3.63). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, employment, diabetes, marital status, and number of teeth present, obese subjects were found to be 1.86 times more likely to have periodontitis (95% CI, 0.99-3.51) than non-obese ones. When the sample was stratified based on age, the multivariate association was statistically significant among individuals or = 40 years of age the association was statistically insignificant (OR = 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.95). Stratifying the sample based on gender and smoking status revealed a stronger association among females than males (OR = 3.14 vs. 1.95) and among non-smokers than smokers (OR = 3.36 vs. 2.22). Obesity is associated with increased prevalence of periodontitis as measured by radiographic alveolar bone loss, especially among younger individuals. Prevention and management of obesity may be considered to promote better systemic and periodontal health.

  3. The osteoimmunology of alveolar bone loss.

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    Tompkins, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    The mineralized structure of bone undergoes constant remodeling by the balanced actions of bone-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). Physiologic bone remodeling occurs in response to the body's need to respond to changes in electrolyte levels, or mechanical forces on bone. There are many pathological conditions, however, that cause an imbalance between bone production and resorption due to excessive OCL action that results in net bone loss. Situations involving chronic or acute inflammation are often associated with net bone loss, and research into understanding the mechanisms regulating this bone loss has led to the development of the field of osteoimmunology. It is now evident that the skeletal and immune systems are functionally linked and share common cells and signaling molecules. This review discusses the signaling system of immune cells and cytokines regulating aberrant OCL differentiation and activity. The role of these cells and cytokines in the bone loss occurring in periodontal disease (PD) (chronic inflammation) and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) (acute inflammation) is then described. The review finishes with an exploration of the emerging role of Notch signaling in the development of the immune cells and OCLs that are involved in osteoimmunological bone loss and the research into Notch signaling in OTM and PD.

  4. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

  5. Candidate salivary biomarkers associated with alveolar bone loss: cross-sectional and in vitro studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Patricia Yen Bee; Donley, Maureen; Hausmann, Ernest; Hutson, Alan D.; Rossomando, Edward F.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss and the concentration of host-derived bone resorptive factors (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, prostaglandin-E2), and markers of bone turnover [pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), osteocalcin, osteonectin] in stimulated human whole saliva collected from 110 untreated dental patients. Alveolar bone loss scores for ...

  6. Zanthoxylum piperitum reversed alveolar bone loss of periodontitis via regulation of bone remodeling-related factors.

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    Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Hye Ji; Park, Jung-Chul; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-04

    Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100). Sterilized 3-0 nylon ligature was placed into the subgingival sulcus around the both sides of mandibular first molar. After topical application of 1 and 100mg/mL ZP for 2 weeks, mandibles was removed for histology. In addition, SaOS-2 osteoblast cells were treated 1, 10 and 100μg/mL ZP for 24h to analyze the expressions of alveolar bone-related markers. Several alveolar bone resorption pits, which indicate cementum demineralization were decreased by ZP treatment. Topical ZP treatment inhibited periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss. In addition, there were significant reduction of osteoclastic activities following topical ZP treatment in periodontium. The expression of RANKL was decreased in SaOS-2 osteoblast cells by treating ZP, while that of OPG was increased. ZP treatment increased the expressions of Runx2 and Osterix in SaOS-2 cells. In summary, ZP treatment inhibited alveolar bone loss as well as maintained the integrity of periodontal structures via regulation of bone remodeling. ZP may be a therapeutic target for treating periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan aggravated periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

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    Li, Xianxian; Wu, Xiangnan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Hao, Zhichao; Chen, Shenyuan; Fu, Taozi; Chen, Helin; Wang, Hang

    2015-05-01

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is the precursor of serotonin and 5-HTP has been widely used as a dietary supplement to raise serotonin level. Serotonin has recently been discovered to be a novel and important player in bone metabolism. As peripheral serotonin negatively regulates bone, the regular take of 5-HTP may affect the alveolar bone metabolism and therefore influence the alveolar bone loss induced by periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-HTP on alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: (1) the control group (without ligature); (2) the 5-HTP group (5-HTP at 25 mg/kg/day without ligature); (3) the L group (ligature+saline placebo); and (4) the L+5-HTP group (ligature+5-HTP at 25 mg/kg/day). Serum serotonin levels were determined by ELISA. The alveolar bones were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and histology. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was used to assess osteoclastogenesis. The receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in the periodontium as well as the interleukin-6 positive osteocytes were analysed immunohistochemically. 5-HTP significantly increased serum serotonin levels. In rats with experimental periodontitis, 5-HTP increased alveolar bone resorption and worsened the micro-structural destruction of the alveolar bone. 5-HTP also stimulated osteoclastogenesis and increased RANKL/OPG ratio and the number of IL-6 positive osteocytes. However, 5-HTP treatment alone did not cause alveolar bone loss in healthy rats. The present study showed that 5-HTP aggravated alveolar bone loss, deteriorated alveolar bone micro-structure in the presence of periodontitis, which suggests 5-HTP administration may increase the severity of periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alveolar bone loss and mineralization in the pig with experimental periodontal disease

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    Mandee Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To address how experimental periodontal disease affects alveolar bone mass and mineral apposition in a young pig model. Materials and methods: Seven three-month-old pigs were periodically inoculated with 4 types of periodontal bacteria, along with a ligature around the last maxillary deciduous molar for 8 weeks to induce periodontal disease (PG. Eight same-aged pigs served as the control (CG. Segmentations of 3D cone-beam CT images were performed to quantify volumes of the total alveolar bone, alveolar ridge, and all roots of the target molar. Calcein and alizarin were administered for labeling mineral apposition before euthanasia. The harvested molar blocks were sectioned and examined under epifluorescence. The inter-label distance between the two vital markers at regional bone surfaces were measured and mineral apposition rate (MAR was calculated. Results: A significant reduction of total alveolar bone volume was seen in PG with the major loss at the alveolar ridge. MAR was significantly higher at the root furcation region than those at both buccal and palatal ridges in CG. Compared with CG, PG animals showed more interrupted labeled bands with significantly lower MAR at the furcation region. MARs were positively associated with both the volumes of total alveolar bone and ridge in CG, but only with the total alveolar bone in PG. Conclusions: In young growing pigs, mineral apposition is region specific. The experimental periodontal disease not only leads to alveolar bone loss, but also perturbs mineral apposition for new bone formation, thus impairing the homeostasis of alveolar bone remodeling. Keyword: Dentistry

  9. Automatic methods for alveolar bone loss degree measurement in periodontitis periapical radiographs.

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    Lin, P L; Huang, P Y; Huang, P W

    2017-09-01

    Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone loss measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an automatic length-based alveolar bone loss measurement system with emphasis on a cementoenamel junction (CEJ) localization method: CEJ_LG. The bone loss measurement system first adopts the methods TSLS and ABLifBm, which we presented previously, to extract teeth contours and bone loss areas from periodontitis radiograph images. It then applies the proposed methods to locate the positions of CEJ, alveolar crest (ALC), and apex of tooth root (APEX), respectively. Finally the system computes the ratio of the distance between the positions of CEJ and ALC to the distance between the positions of CEJ and APEX as the degree of bone loss for that tooth. The method CEJ_LG first obtains the gradient of the tooth image then detects the border between the lower enamel and dentin (EDB) from the gradient image. Finally, the method identifies a point on the tooth contour that is horizontally closest to the EDB. Experimental results on 18 tooth images segmented from 12 periodontitis periapical radiographs, including 8 views of upper-jaw teeth and 10 views of lower-jaw teeth, show that 53% of the localized CEJs are within 3 pixels deviation (∼ 0.15 mm) from the positions marked by dentists and 90% have deviation less than 9 pixels (∼ 0.44 mm). For degree of alveolar bone loss, more than half of the measurements using our system have deviation less than 10% from the ground truth, and all measurements using our system are within 25% deviation from the ground truth. Our results suggest that the proposed automatic system can effectively estimate degree of horizontal alveolar bone loss in periodontitis radiograph images. We believe that our proposed system, if implemented in routine clinical practice, can serve as a valuable tool for early and accurate

  10. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

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    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  11. Endogenous opioids regulate alveolar bone loss in a periodontal disease model.

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    Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Maltos, Kátia L M; Pacheco, Daniela F; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Albergaria, Juliano D S; Pacheco, Cinthia M F

    2013-10-06

    The anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous opioid compounds have been demonstrated in several conditions. Nevertheless, the function of endogenous opioid peptides released by the host during inflammatory processes deserves further characterization. The aim of this study was to verify whether endogenous opioids are involved in the progression of the inflammatory alveolar bone loss induced by ligature in rats. The experimental model of periodontal disease (PD) induced by ligature in rats was used throughout the study. A silk ligature was placed around the 2nd upper molar of male Holtzman rats, for 7 days. Rats received different doses of either the non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone or vehicle, locally into the afflicted gingival tissue, from the 3rd to the 5th day after ligature placement. In the 7th experimental day, rats were euthanized and their maxillae were collected for evaluation of alveolar bone and fiber attachment loss, presence of neutrophils (myeloperoxidase assay), osteoclast amount, and levels of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-10 in periodontal tissues. Naloxone increased alveolar bone loss significantly, in a dose-dependent manner, in relation to vehicle-treated rats. In contrast, the opioid antagonist did not affect the loss of fiber attachment. The treatment with naloxone also induced a significant increase in myeloperoxidase levels, osteoclast number and cytokines in periodontal tissues of rats with ligature-induced PD. Endogenous opioids protect the host from the progression of inflammatory alveolar bone loss that occurs in chronic periodontitis. © 2013.

  12. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss,

  13. Arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with changes in the composition of oral microbiota.

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    Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Saraiva, Adriana Machado; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Madeira, Mila Fernandes Moreira; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Souza, Danielle Glória; da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are chronic inflammatory disorders that cause bone loss. PD tends to be more prevalent and severe in RA patients. Previous experimental studies demonstrated that RA triggers alveolar bone loss similarly to PD. The aim of this study was to investigate if arthritis-induced alveolar bone loss is associated with modification in the oral microbiota. Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was employed to analyze forty oral bacterial species in 3 groups of C57BL/6 mice: control (n = 12; without any challenge); Y4 (n = 8; received oral inoculation of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans strain FDC Y4) and AIA group (n = 12; chronic antigen-induced arthritis). The results showed that AIA and Y4 group exhibited similar patterns of bone loss. The AIA group exhibited higher counts of most bacterial species analyzed with predominance of Gram-negative species similarly to infection-induced PD. Prevotella nigrescens and Treponema denticola were detected only in the Y4 group whereas Campylobacter showae, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis were only found in the AIA group. Counts of Parvimonas micra, Selenomonas Noxia and Veillonella parvula were greater in the AIA group whereas Actinomyces viscosus and Neisseira mucosa were in large proportion in Y4 group. In conclusion, AIA is associated with changes in the composition of the oral microbiota, which might account for the alveolar bone loss observed in AIA mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia Induce Synergistic Alveolar Bone Loss in a Mouse Periodontitis Model

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    Settem, Rajendra P.; El-Hassan, Ahmed Taher; Honma, Kiyonobu; Stafford, Graham P.

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to tooth loss. Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic pathogen, is thought to promote dental plaque formation by serving as a bridge bacterium between early- and late-colonizing species of the oral cavity. Previous studies have shown that F. nucleatum species synergize with T. forsythia during biofilm formation and pathogenesis. In the present study, we showed that coinfection of F. nucleatum and T. forsythia is more potent than infection with either species alone in inducing NF-κB activity and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in monocytic cells and primary murine macrophages. Moreover, in a murine model of periodontitis, mixed infection with the two species induces synergistic alveolar bone loss, characterized by bone loss which is greater than the additive alveolar bone losses induced by each species alone. Further, in comparison to the single-species infection, mixed infection caused significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingivae and osteoclastic activity in the jaw bones. These data show that F. nucleatum subspecies and T. forsythia synergistically stimulate the host immune response and induce alveolar bone loss in a murine experimental periodontitis model. PMID:22547549

  15. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

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    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  16. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

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    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  17. Piperine inhibit inflammation, alveolar bone loss and collagen fibers breakdown in a rat periodontitis model.

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    Dong, Y; Huihui, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Piperine exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, and has a long history of medicinal use. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of piperine on inflammation, alveolar bone and collagen fibers in experimental periodontitis. We evaluated the related expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-13 to enhance insight into these effects. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each: control group, periodontitis group, periodontitis plus 50 mg/kg piperine group and periodontitis plus 100 mg/kg piperine group. Histopathologic changes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alveolar bone loss and trabecula microstructures were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Changes in collagen fibers were assessed by picrosirius red staining. Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-8 and MMP-13. Piperine clearly inhibited alveolar bone loss and reformed trabecula microstructures in a dose-dependent manner. Histological staining showed that piperine significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammation in soft tissues. Both doses of piperine limited the fractions of degraded areas in collagen fibers. Piperine (100 mg/kg) significantly downregulated the expressions of IL-1β, MMP-8 and MMP-13 in periodontitis, but not that of TNF-α. Piperine displays significantly protective effects on inflammation, alveolar bone loss, bone microstructures and collagen fiber degradation in experimental periodontitis. The effects may be ascribed to its inhibitory activity on the expressions of IL-1β, MMP-8 and MMP-13. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

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    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effectively suppresses bone loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  20. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

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    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (plead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

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    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (palveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  2. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

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    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed

  3. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  4. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  5. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  6. Part II. Minimizing alveolar bone loss during and after extractions. Protocol and techniques for alveolar bone preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shankar; Haribabu, Prashanth Konatham; Xing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar ridge resorption accelerates following extraction of teeth and the residual defect varies from socket to socket. This article proposes a new treatment oriented classification of extraction defects. It also reviews several graft materials and membranes that aid in the decision for selecting an appropriate socket preservation technique. The algorithm developed by the authors helps design a potentially successful treatment plan based on the classification of extraction defects, with choices ranging from no treatment to complex grafting procedures (i.e. allogenic block grafts). In addition, the principles of wound healing and the ideal time points for utilizing the various types of graft materials and implants are discussed. This socket preservation treatment algorithm will guide clinicians to employ surgical procedures using various biomaterials to promote a successful outcome.

  7. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  8. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection

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    Pamela J. Baker

    2009-01-01

    and CD4+ T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4+ T cells.

  10. Massive gingival enlargement and alveolar bone loss: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B L; Pogrel, M A; Perrott, D H; Regezi, J A

    1995-09-01

    We present two cases of massive gingival enlargement and osteolysis of alveolar bone in a 30-year-old female and a 36-year-old male. The etiology could not be established in either case. Histologically, both lesions contained hyperplastic fibrous connective tissue and intense plasma cell infiltrates. Both patients responded well to extensive gingivectomy, extraction of all teeth, and alveoplasty.

  11. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

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    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  12. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p diabetic animals, both with and without periodontal disease (p diabetes and periodontal disease (p periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. PMID:26291983

  13. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

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    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  14. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

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    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  15. Effect of induced diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone loss after 30 days of ligature-induced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Débora Aline Silva; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Pepato, Maria Teresa; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Gonçalves, Andréa; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Pires, Juliana Rico

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have shown that diabetics are more susceptible to the development of severe periodontal disease. Currently, the use of animal models can be considered a feasible alternative in radiographic assessments of these two pathologies. The purpose of this radiographic study was to evaluate the effect of induced diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone loss after 30 days of ligature-induced periodontal disease. Sixty-four Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four experimental groups. Diabetes was induced in Groups II and IV, while periodontal disease was induced in Groups III and IV; Group I was used as control. In order to perform the radiographic assessment of the specimens, the rats were killed on the 3rd and 30th days of the study. Radiographic measurements were assessed with ANOVA and Tukey's test to determine statistically significant differences (p diabetic group with periodontal disease (Group IV) featured statistically significant greater bone loss when compared to the other groups. These results suggested that the alveolar bone loss resulting from the periodontal disease installation is greater when associated to the diabetes mellitus.

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita; Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki; Mariliani Chicarelli Da Silva; Renata Hernandes Tonin

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional...

  17. Alveolar Bone Fracture: Pathognomonic Sign for Clinical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmacher, Zvi; Peled, Eli; Norman, Doron; Lin, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Dental injuries, especially luxation and avulsion, are common. Dental trauma can cause alveolar bone fracture that can lead to tooth loss and malocclusion. Single tooth alveolar bone fractures are difficult to identify unless it protrudes through the overlying mucosa and can be visualized. Pain, malocclusion, and tooth mobility provide signs of suspected alveolar bone fractures. Integrity of the proximate alveolar bone should be examined for fractures where avulsion, luxation, or other t...

  18. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used.

  19. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  20. Evaluation of alveolar crest bone loss via premolar bitewing radiographs: presentation of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Yaser; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Safai, Pooria; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Shamloo, Nafiseh

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the interdental bone level in premolar bitewing radiographs while retracting the cheeks. Seventy-two horizontal bone defects were created on dried mandibles and maxillae. The distance from the bone level to the cement-enamel junction of premolars was detected by a modified digital caliper (considered the gold standard). The reliability of all radiographs was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the validity was compared to the gold standard using the analysis of variance test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. This study showed that the reliability of radiographs without a cheek simulator and with 0.16 second exposure time was significantly higher than that of the two other groups (ICC=0.96 compared to 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). The results from the radiographs without a cheek simulator and with 0.16 second exposure time were more similar to the gold standard measures than those of the two other groups, although the difference was not statistically significant. Retracting the buccal soft tissue plays an important role in increasing the accuracy of radiographs in detecting the interdental alveolar bone level and produces more accurate results than increasing the exposure time, although it does not have a significant role in reliability of results.

  1. Evaluation of the Stress Induced in Tooth, Periodontal Ligament & Alveolar Bone with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss During Various Types of Orthodontic Tooth Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anupam; Mahajan, Shalu; Verma, Santosh; Bhardwaj, Preeti; Sharma, Geeta

    2016-02-01

    The force applied on to a tooth with periodontal bone loss may generate different magnitude and pattern of stresses in the periodontium when compared to a tooth with no bone loss & under the same force system. The intensity of the forces and moment to force ratios needed to be applied during an Orthodontic treatment must be adapted to obtain the same movement as in a tooth with a healthy periodontal support. Evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss; & determination of the most ideal force system producing the Optimum Stress (i.e., stress within optimum range), uniformly (conducive to bodily movement of maxillary canine with varying degrees of bone loss). A human maxillary canine tooth of right side was simulated by means of Finite Element Method (FEM). Five different models were constructed with bone loss ranging from 0mm in model 1, to 8mm in model 5 (progressing at 2mm per model). Ten different loading conditions were applied on these models and the stress generated was charted at various occluso-gingival levels and surfaces around the tooth. The evaluation and assessment of the stress distribution during various types of Orthodontic tooth movement on application of Orthodontic force, at various levels of alveolar bone loss was done. The results showed that there was a high positive correlation between the increase in bone loss & the stress generated, suggesting an elevation in the stress with advancing bone loss. Additionally, the type of tooth movement was found to be changed with bone loss. During the determination of ideal force system it was found that the centre of resistance of the canine migrated apically with bone loss and an increase in the moment to force ratio (Mc:F) was required to control the root position in these cases. A high positive correlation exists between the increase in bone loss and the stress

  2. The effect of alveolar bone loss on the load capability of restored endodontically treated teeth: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin; Preuss, Anja; Dietrich, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the influence of a reduced bone support on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fibre-reinforced posts (FRC). 30 caries-free maxillary central incisors were divided into 3 groups (n=10). Endodontic treatment was performed. Teeth were flattened 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction. Group I (control) simulated a clinical situation without horizontal bone loss. In group II a horizontal bone loss of 25% and in group III of 50% was simulated. All specimens received FRC posts and composite core restorations. All-ceramic crowns were adhesively cemented. Specimens were exposed to thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML) and finally statically loaded until failure in a universal testing machine (v=1 mm/min). Non-parametric tests were used to compare median fracture loads between groups. Fracture modes were compared using Fisher's exact test. The median fracture load values (min/max) in [N] were: group I=501 (326/561), group II=422 (323/495); group III=352 (266/406), p=0.004. Two specimens in each group II and III failed during TCML. Statistical analysis revealed statistically significant differences between all test groups regarding maximum fracture load and mode of fracture. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored adhesively with a FRC post, composite core, and all-ceramic crown is dependent on the level of surrounding supporting periodontal bone. Loss of alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease may lead to an increased risk of failure.

  3. Association between alveolar bone loss and serum C-reactive protein levels in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients

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    Rahul Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP is an acute phase reactant that is produced in response to diverse inflammatory stimuli, and is known predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Aggressive and chronic periodontitis are two main forms of periodontal disease, which differ mainly in the method of disease progression. This study aims at determining and comparing the relative levels of serum CRP and alveolar bone loss in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 subjects, which were divided into 3 groups diagnosed as having generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP and non-periodontitis controls (NP, were selected for the study. Venous blood samples were collected for quantitative CRP analysis using Turbidimetric immunoassay. Alveolar bone loss (ABL was measured at proximal sites of posterior teeth on a panoramic radiograph. The relationship between the mean ratio of ABL to root length and serum CRP levels was statistically analyzed using Student unpaired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Mean CRP levels were significantly greater in both GAP (7.49±2.31 mg/l and CGP (4.88±1.80 mg/l groups as compared to NP (0.68±0.23 mg/l with P value <0.0001. The mean value of ABL (% was 31.58 in CGP group and 36.77 in the GAP group, the difference being statistically significant (P=0.0079. Correlation coefficient between CRP and ABL is 0.9310 in CGP, and 0.9252 in GAP, which indicates a positive correlation between both variables. Conclusion: Both forms of periodontitis are associated with increased systemic inflammatory response with aggressiveness of disease progression determining the degree of response.

  4. Alveolar Bone Fracture: Pathognomonic Sign for Clinical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmacher, Zvi; Peled, Eli; Norman, Doron; Lin, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    Dental injuries, especially luxation and avulsion, are common. Dental trauma can cause alveolar bone fracture that can lead to tooth loss and malocclusion. Single tooth alveolar bone fractures are difficult to identify unless it protrudes through the overlying mucosa and can be visualized. Pain, malocclusion, and tooth mobility provide signs of suspected alveolar bone fractures. Integrity of the proximate alveolar bone should be examined for fractures where avulsion, luxation, or other tooth trauma is detected. Any suggestion of alveolar fractures should be further investigated with an appropriate radiograph. This case report shows a pathognomonic sign that detects and diagnosis single tooth alveolar bone fractures, i.e. , a localized hematoma crossing the attached gingiva from the free gingival margin to the vestibular mucosa. This should serve as a warning for localized alveolar bone fracture. A visualized hematoma and gentle, careful palpation may help detect covered fractures when the overlying mucosa is not perforated.

  5. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  6. Influence of Alveolar Bone Loss and Cement Layer Thickness on the Biomechanical Behavior of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors: A 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the mechanical behavior of a weakened incisor, this study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution caused by different alveolar bone heights and cement layer thickness. A finite element analysis was conducted for this investigation. An intact maxillary central incisor was initially modeled, and the bone of the models was modified in order to simulate 4 levels of bone height: BL0 (no bone loss), BL1 (1/3 bone loss), BL2 (1/2 bone loss), and BL3 (2/3 bone loss). These teeth models were remodeled with a fiber post at 2 different cement thicknesses and restored with a ceramic crown; "A" refers to the well-adapted fiber post (0.3 mm) and "B" to the nonadapted fiber post (1 mm), resulting in 12 models. RelyX ARC (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) cement was simulated for the cementation of the crowns and fiber posts for all groups. Numeric models received a load of 100 N on the lingual surface. All materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. Numeric models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and results were expressed in maximum principal stress. For fiberglass posts, cement, and dentin, the highest stress concentration occurred in the groups with increased bone loss. For cortical bone, the highest values were for the groups with 1/3 bone loss. A greater thickness of cement layer concentrates more stress. More bone loss and greater CLT were the influential factors in concentrating the stress. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Popovski, Stipica

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. Atrophy of the alveolar bone may cause significant esthetic and surgical problems in implantation, as well as at prosthetic and restorative dentistry. Alveolar ridge prophylaxis immediately upon tooth extraction may reduce such sequelae for both, the treating dentist and the patient. Attempts to reduce alveolar bone resorption have included the placement of natural roots, root analogues, and...

  8. Alveolar ridge sockets preservation with bone grafting--review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Sergio; Koening, Bruno; Allegrini, Marcia Rivellino Facci; Yoshimoto, Marcelo; Gedrange, Tomasz; Fanghaenel, Jochen; Lipski, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Alveolar bone seems to play a key role in providing support to the teeth, which are anchored to the bone by desmodontal fibers. The progressive alveolar bone resorption process occurs due to a loss of anatomic, biologic and mechanical factors. Mechanical stimulation of alveolar bone during mastication is crucial in keeping the teeth and underlying bone healthy. Tooth extraction leads to typical bone deficiency of ridge width and height of alveolar crest and reduces the possibility of placing screw titanium implants. When tooth extraction is necessary, trauma should be minimized during the procedure and bone preservation should receive careful attention. The literature has shown that early bone loss can be significantly reduced by socket grafting. The process of socket grafting requires an understanding of wound healing and an appreciation of the biological properties of the products available for socket grafting. Augmentative measures may, thus, be required to guarantee optimal prosthetic replacement of the lost tissue. Success or failure of augmentation procedures is dependent on revascularization and remodelling of the grafted bone into a vital, load bearing bone. In contrast to a visible three-dimensional change, the concept of remodelling refers to the internal turnover of bone, which is a coupled process where osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic formation are more or less balanced. To restore alveolar bone loss and support efficient placement of dental implants, many different bone substitute such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents have been proposed. In order to avoid harvesting an autograft, and thereby eliminating additional surgical procedures and risks, bone grafting materials and substitutes are alternative filler materials to be used for ridge augmentation. To present a literature review about biomaterials applicable in alveolar ridge sockets preservation to future implants insertion. The

  9. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of alveolar bone destruction patterns on maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The defective diagnosis of alveolar structures is one of most serious handicaps when assessing available periodontal treatment options for the prevention of tooth loss. The aim of this research was to classify alveolar bone defects in the maxillary molar region which is a challenging area for dental implant ...

  11. The Effect of Astragalus Extractive on Alveolar Bone Rebuilding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is an estrogen deficiency condition that causes severe loss of bone mass in the vertebrae and long bones. We explored the effect and the possible underlying mechanism of the extracts of Astragalus (AE) on the tooth alveolar bone rebuilding progress of postmenopausal ...

  12. The ability of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists or their combination in counteracting the glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Bassant A; Abbass, Marwa M S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare between three possible osteoporotic treatments in prevention of glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss. Fifty adult female Wistar rats with an average weight 150-200 g were randomized into five groups: group I (control) was intraperitoneally injected with saline. The other experimental groups (II & III, IV & V) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 µg/100 g body weight dexamethasone. The experimental groups III, IV and V received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg/day pheniramine maleate (H1 receptor antagonist), ranitidine hydrochloride (H2 receptor antagonist) and concomitant doses of both H1 & H2 receptor antagonists respectively. After 30 days, the rats have been sacrificed. The mandibles were examined histologically, histochemically and histomorphometrically. The bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Histopathologically the glucocorticoid group showed wide medullary cavities with wide osteocytic lacunae. These marrow cavities were reduced in the prophylactic groups (III, IV) but increased in group V. Bone histomorphometric analysis revealed improvement in static bone parameters in groups III and IV and deterioration in group V in comparison to group II. The DEXA revealed significant reduction in the bone mineral density in all experimental groups compared to the control group. In a rat model, the administration of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists separately could minimize the alveolar bone loss caused by the administration of glucocorticoids while concomitant administration of both H1 and H2 receptor antagonists deteriorated the bone condition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Tonin, Renata Hernandes

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA), Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health(®), Rochester, NY, USA), and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066), periapical with Han-Shin (P periapical (P = 0.0027). Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007). Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004). Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls.

  14. The Effects of Topical Application of Polycal (a 2:98 (g/g Mixture of Polycan and Calcium Gluconate on Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL solutions at 200 μL/rat was topically applied to the ligated gingival regions daily for 10 days. Changes in bodyweight, alveolar bone loss index, and total number of buccal gingival aerobic bacterial cells were monitored, and the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated via myeloperoxidase activity and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and lipid peroxidation (MDA were also evaluated. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis, and alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placements were significantly inhibited after 10 days of continuous topical application of Polycal. These results indicate that topical application of Polycal has a significant inhibitory effect on periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats mediated by antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities.

  15. Alveolar bone resorption after primary tooth loss has a negative impact on straightforward implant installation in patients with agenesis of the lower second premolar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Kristina; Bertl, Michael H; Heimel, Patrick; Burt, Maria; Gahleitner, André; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2018-02-01

    To compare the alveolar bone dimensions in patients with lower second premolar (P2) agenesis prior to and after primary molar loss on CT scans, and assess the possibility for straightforward implant placement. Alveolar bone dimensions were evaluated on 150 mandibular CT scans in three groups: (i) agenesis of P2, with the primary tooth in situ, and regularly erupted first premolar (P1) and molar (M1) (AW); (ii) agenesis of P2, without the primary tooth in situ for ≥3 m, but regularly erupted P1 and M1 (AWO); and (iii) P1, P2, and M1 regularly erupted (CTR). The possibility of straightforward placement of an implant 3.5 or 4.3 mm in Ø × 10 mm long was digitally simulated and compared to the actually performed treatment. Buccolingual width (7.3 ± 2.0 mm) at the coronal aspect of the ridge in the AWO group was statistically significantly smaller comparing with both the AW (9.2 ± 1.4 mm) and the CTR (9.5 ± 1.1 mm) group; width reduction appeared to be mainly due to "collapse" of the buccal aspect of the ridge. Simulated straightforward placement of implants with a diameter of 3.5 or 4.3 mm was possible in 62% and 56% of the cases in the AWO vs. 86% and 84% in the AW group (p = .006 and .002, respectively). Straightforward implant placement was actually possible in all patients (22) in the AW group, while 28% (11 of 39) of the patients in the AWO group needed additional hard tissue augmentation. Significant dimensional differences exist in the alveolar ridge, especially in the coronal part, at lower P2 agenesis sites missing the primary tooth for ≥3 m, when compared to P2 agenesis sites with the primary tooth in situ. It seems thus reasonable to advise that the primary second molar should be kept as long as possible, in order to facilitate straightforward implant installation and reduce the probability of additional bone augmentation procedures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of the cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in ligature induced periodontitis in rats: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone loss is the most striking feature of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontal disease (EPD model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 Wistar rats divided into three groups of 20 rats each and then subjected to a ligature placement around the left maxillary second molars. Group 1 rats were treated with COX inhibitor (diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg/d, group 2 with NOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine hydrochloride 10 mg/kg/d and group 3 served as controls, receiving only saline, intraperitoneally 1h before EPD induction and daily until the sacrifice on the 11 th day. Leukogram was performed before ligation, at 6 h and at the first, seventh and 11 th days after EPD induction. After sacrifice, all the excised maxillae were subjected to morphometric and histometric analysis to measure the alveolar bone loss. Histopathological analysis was carried out to estimate cell influx, alveolar bone and cementum integrity. Results: Induction of experimental periodontitis in the rat model produced pronounced leucocytosis, which was significantly reduced by the administration of diclofenac sodium and aminoguanidine on the 11 th day. In morphometric and histometric examinations, both the test drugs significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the alveolar bone loss as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Both COX inhibitor and NOS inhibitor are equally effective in inhibiting the inflammatory bone resorption in an experimental periodontitis model.

  17. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Raveli, Taisa Boamorte; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years), Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B), lingual (L) and to...

  18. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL. Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control, using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin, digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA, Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health ® , Rochester, NY, USA, and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey′s test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001. CBCT differed from panoramic (P = 0.0130, periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066, periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001, and digital periapical (P = 0.0027. Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007. Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004. Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls.

  19. Computed tomography of the alveolar bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, H.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the conventional radiological methods used in odontology, computed tomography (CT) provides superposition-free images of the mandible and maxilla. Its value has been proved not only in cases of malignancy but also in many other problems. If an examination is performed with a slice thickness of less than 1.5 mm, the form and position of retained teeth in the alveolar bone, as well as subsequent lesions of neighboring permanent teeth, can be visualized so that early treatment can be planned. If the parodontal space of a retained tooth is visible, orthodontic intervention is possible. Precise assessment of horizontal or vertical bone loss is essential in inflammatory dental diseases. The morphology and extent of benign cystic lesions are also shown by CT. With CT surgical strategy of an intended implant therapy can take into account the remaining bone substance and the exact position of nerves and foramina. If such therapy is possible, the location, form and number of implants are easily defined. (orig.) [de

  20. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Schwartz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years, Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B, lingual (L and total (T bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1, midroot (2 and apical (3 levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results: Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. Conclusions: CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance.

  1. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Raveli, Taisa Boamorte; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years), Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B), lingual (L) and total (T) bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1), midroot (2) and apical (3) levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance.

  2. Silver Nanoparticles in Alveolar Bone Surgery Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental implant surfaces and preventing biofilm formation, containing the risk of peri-implant infections. Modifying the structure or surface of bone grafts and membranes with Ag NPs may also prevent the risk of contamination and infection that are common when alveolar bone augmentation techniques are used. On the other hand, Ag NPs have revealed some toxic effects on cells in vitro and in vivo in animal studies. In this setting, the aim of the present paper is to summarize the principle behind Ag NP-based devices and their clinical applications in alveolar bone and dental implant surgery.

  3. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  4. The effect of osteoporosis on periodontal status, alveolar bone and orthodontic tooth movement. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulou-Chatzigiannis, Sossani; Kourtidou, Maria; Tsalikis, Lazaros

    2007-07-01

    Osteoporosis, an age-related condition, is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. It is considered the most common bone metabolic disease and it constitutes a major public health problem. Several studies indicate that osteoporosis may be related to decreased oral bone density and alveolar bone loss. In osteoporotic patients, uncoupling of bone resorption and bone formation has taken place. Both bone resorption and bone formation are accelerated, and excessive bone resorption usually leads to loss of attachment. Osteoporosis could also affect the rate of tooth movement through the involvement of alveolar bone. In healthy individuals, bone is constantly being remodeled in the coupled sequence of bone resorption and formation. When a force is applied to a tooth, alveolar bone formation and resorption occur predominantly on the tension and pressure sides of the root, respectively, and the tooth moves with increased alveolar bone remodeling. Experimental studies suggest that systemic-osteoporotic hormone imbalance increases bone turnover and accelerates tooth movement while under orthodontic treatment. Based on these observations it can be concluded that deviations in bone turnover and consequent periodontal problems influence the response to orthodontic forces, and this should be taken into consideration when planning orthodontic treatment in adult patients with metabolic bone disease, especially postmenopausal females or those on chronic medication affecting bone metabolism.

  5. [Case of prosthodontic treatment for loss of occlusal support in molar regions defect with severe resorption of alveolar bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    The patient's chief complaint was difficulty of mastication in molar regions. The diagnosis was masticatory dysfunction caused by loss of occlusal contacts. Initially provisional restorations were fabricated, then disharmonious contours were corrected during the following treatments including endodontic and periodontic treatments and tooth extraction. Final restorations were made with fixed partial dentures. Preservation of the left incisor of mandible enabled recontouring the provisional restoration and consequently, determining a definitive occlusal scheme for the final restoration. For a patient with collapse of posterior occlusal contacts, hopeless teeth which should be extracted were used as temporary abutment for the provisional restoration. This treatment plan minimized trouble for the patient during treatment, resulting in successful final occlusal reconstruction.

  6. Bone graft healing in alveolar osteoplasty in patients with unilateral lip, alveolar process, and palate clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Dariusz; Wójcicki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Secondary osteoplasty by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting is the most common procedure used in the reconstruction of the continuity of the maxillary alveolar process. The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively the effect of certain factors on the course of the bone graft healing process in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the lip, alveolar process, and palate. The investigations involved 62 children aged 8 to 14 years (mean age, 11 years) with unilateral complete cleft of the lip, alveolar process, and palate operated on at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój from November 2007 to April 2009. All the procedures consisted in the reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar process by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting from the iliac bone. The analysis was performed on the basis of computed tomography scans presenting maxillary alveolar processes in the horizontal cross-sectional planes performed on the second or third postoperative day and after 6 months. They were used as the basis for the measurement of the volume and density (condensation) of the bone graft, the surface of its adhesion to the maxillary alveolar bone, and the volume and density of the healed bone. The following correlation coefficients were determined: between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the volume of the healed bone, between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the density of the healed bone, and between the density of the graft and the volume of the healed bone. Increasing the surface of the graft adhesion to the bone ridges of the alveolar cleft contributes to increased volume of the healed bone and slows down the increase in its density (on 6-month follow-up). Crushing of the bone graft increases its resorption and reduces volume of the healed bone.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone during Alveolar Bone Healing*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee-Young; Kwon, Joseph; Kook, Min-Suk; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun; Sohn, Sungoh; Jung, Seunggon; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build-up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven useful for studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare proteins with altered expression in gingival sof...

  8. Intermittent PTH administration improves alveolar bone formation in type 1 diabetic rats with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ae Ri; Choi, Yun Hui; Kim, Aeryun; Sohn, Yongsung; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

    2018-03-15

    Periodontitis is an infectious disease that manifests as alveolar bone loss surrounding the roots of teeth. Diabetes aggravates periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss via suppression of bone formation. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration displays an anabolic effect on bone. In this study, we investigated the effect of intermittent PTH administration on alveolar bone loss in type 1 diabetic rats with periodontitis. Rats were divided into control (C), periodontitis (P), periodontitis treated with PTH (P + PTH), diabetes with periodontitis (DP), and diabetes with periodontitis treated with PTH (DP + PTH) groups. To induce type 1 diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin and periodontitis was induced bilaterally by applying ligatures to the mandibular first molars for 30 days. During the experimental period, the P + PTH and DP + PTH groups were subcutaneously injected with PTH (40 μg/kg) three times per week, whereas the C, P, and DP groups were injected with citrate buffer. To observe the mineralization of the alveolar bone, the DP and DP + PTH groups were injected with calcein on days 10 and 27, and with alizarin red on day 20. Thirty days after ligation, histological findings and fluorescence labeling were analyzed in the furcations of the mandibular first molars. Sclerostin-positive osteocytes were assessed by immunohistochemical analyses. The DP groups had smaller areas of alveolar bone than the other groups, and the DP + PTH group had a larger alveolar bone area than the DP group. The DP group had less osteoid formation than the C group, whereas the DP + PTH had greater osteoid formation than the DP group. Fluorescence labeling results revealed that the DP + PTH group had more mineral deposition on the alveolar bone than the DP group. The DP + PTH group exhibited lower percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes in alveolar bone than the DP group. Intermittent PTH administration diminishes

  9. Raloxifene reduces the risk of local alveolar bone destruction in a mouse model of periodontitis combined with systemic postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, Ryota; Tominari, Tsukasa; Yoshinouchi, Shosei; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Numabe, Yukihiro; Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by local inflammation leading to tooth loss and severe destruction of alveolar bone. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that halts estrogen deficiency-induced systemic bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis without the side effects of cancer in breast and uterus. In this study, we examined the effects of raloxifene on alveolar bone mass in a mouse model with estrogen deficiency-induced periodontitis. Periodontitis was induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the lower gingiva in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, and the alveolar bone and femur bone mineral density (BMD) were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To explore the direct osteoclast inhibitory effect of raloxifene, a co-culture system for osteoclast formation and organ culture of alveolar bone was established. When OVX mice were treated with raloxifene, the bone loss in both alveolar bone and femur were abrogated. Interleukin 1 and/or LPS stimulated the osteoclast formation and bone-resorbing activity; however, raloxifene did not show any inhibitory effect on the osteoclast formation or function. In vivo local injection of raloxifene also did not prevent bone resorption in a mouse model of periodontitis. However, the systemic treatment of raloxifene using a mini-osmotic pump did prevent the loss of BMD of alveolar bone induced by LPS. These results suggest that the SERM raloxifene systemically maintain alveolar bone mass in a mouse model of periodontitis with osteoporosis. Increasing the alveolar bone mass by SERMs treatment in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis may be a useful approach to preventing the destruction of alveolar bone in late-onset periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  11. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  12. Alveolar cleft closure with iliac bone graft: A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichvy Tammama

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The timing of alveolar bone grafting usually associated with the state of the developing of dentition. Post operative management is important to get a good result, and to prevent any complications.

  13. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cassiane Merigo; Cassol, Tiago; da Silva, Fernanda Soares; Bonfleur, Maria Lucia; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) control and ligature group; 3) cafeteria group; and 4) cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01). Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. PMID:24124386

  14. Segment distraction to reduce a wide alveolar cleft before alveolar bone grafting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binger, T.; Katsaros, C.; Rucker, M.; Spitzer, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a method for reduction of wide alveolar clefts prior to bone grafting. This method aims to facilitate bone grafting and achieve adequate soft tissue coverage of the graft with attached gingiva. CASE REPORT: Treatment of a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate with a

  15. Interactive effects of periodontitis and orthodontic tooth movement on dental root resorption, tooth movement velocity and alveolar bone loss in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Fanghänel, Jochen; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Michael; Roldán, J Camilo; Proff, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Many adult orthodontic patients suffer from chronic periodontitis with recurrent episodes of active periodontal inflammation. As their number is steadily increasing, orthodontists are more and more frequently challenged by respective treatment considerations. However, little is currently known regarding interactive effects on undesired dental root resorption (DRR), tooth movement velocity, periodontal bone loss and the underlying cellular and tissue reactions. A total of 63 male Fischer344 rats were used in three consecutive experiments employing 21 animals each (A/B/C), randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups (n=7, 1/2/3), respectively: (A) CBCT; (B) histology/serology; (C) RT-qPCR-(1) control; (2) orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) of the first/second upper left molars (NiTi coil spring, 0.25N); (3) OTM with experimentally induced periodontitis (cervical silk ligature). After 14days of OTM, we quantified blood leukocyte level, DRR, osteoclast activity and relative gene expression of inflammatory and osteoclast marker genes within the dental-periodontal tissue as well as tooth movement velocity and periodontal bone loss after 14 and 28 days. The experimentally induced periodontal bone loss was significantly increased by concurrent orthodontic force application. Periodontal inflammation during OTM on the other hand significantly augmented the extent of DRR, relative expression of inflammatory/osteoclast marker genes, blood leukocyte level and periodontal osteoclast activity. In addition, contrary to previous studies, we observed a significant increase in tooth movement velocity. Although accelerated tooth movement would be favourable for orthodontic treatment, our results suggest that orthodontic interventions should only be performed after successful systematic periodontal therapy and paused in case of recurrent active inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the interaction between periodontitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Eun; Gunawardhana, K S Niluka Darshani; Choi, Seong-Ho; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the interaction between periodontitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia in animal models. Rats were divided into normal, periodontitis, diabetic and diabetic with periodontitis groups. After injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes, periodontitis was induced by ligation of both lower-side first molars for 30 days. Alveolar bone loss and trabecular bone volume fraction (BVF) of the mandibular condyle and tibia were estimated via hematoxylin and eosin staining and micro-computed tomography, respectively. Osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells isolated from tibia and femur was assayed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. The cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar bone crest distance and ratio of periodontal ligament area in the diabetic with periodontitis group were significantly increased compared to those of the periodontitis group. Mandibular condyle BVF did not differ among groups. The BVF of tibia in the diabetic and diabetic with periodontitis groups was lower than that of the normal and periodontitis groups. Osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the non-diabetic groups. However, the BVF of tibia and osteoclastogenesis in the diabetic with periodontitis group were not significantly different than those in the diabetic group. Type 1 diabetes mellitus aggravates alveolar bone loss induced by periodontitis, but periodontitis does not alter the mandibular condyle and tibia bone loss induced by diabetes. Alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia may have different responses to bone loss stimuli in the diabetic environment.

  17. Effect of single and contiguous teeth extractions on alveolar bone remodeling: a study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Askar, Mansour; O'Neill, Rory; Stark, Paul C; Griffin, Terrence; Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2013-08-01

    Tooth extraction is associated with dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge. The aim was to examine the effect of single versus contiguous teeth extractions on the alveolar ridge remodeling. Five female beagle dogs were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of location (anterior or posterior) and number of teeth extracted - exctraction socket classification: group 1 (one dog): single-tooth extraction; group 2 (two dogs): extraction of two teeth; and group 3 (two dogs): extraction of three teeth in four anterior sites and four posterior sites in both jaws. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 months. Sagittal sectioning of each extraction site was performed and evaluated using microcomputed tomography. Buccolingual or palatal bone loss was observed 4 months after extraction in all three groups. The mean of the alveolar ridge width loss in group 1 (single-tooth extraction) was significantly less than those in groups 2 and 3 (p < .001) (multiple teeth extraction). Three-teeth extraction (group 3) had significantly more alveolar bone loss than two-teeth extraction (group 2) (p < .001). The three-teeth extraction group in the upper and lower showed more obvious resorption on the palatal/lingual side especially in the lower group posterior locations. Contiguous teeth extraction caused significantly more alveolar ridge bone loss as compared with when a single tooth is extracted. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Key words: Alveolar bone loss, chronic periodontitis, dental, furcation defect, radiography. Date of Acceptance: 19-Jan- ... cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the alveolar crest (AC) or the bottom of the bony ..... prognosis of periodontal healing of infrabony defects: Two different definitions of defect depth.

  19. Three‑dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone thickness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this randomized study was to compare the alveolar bone thickness (ABT) of the mandibular incisor teeth of dental and skeletal Class I, II, and III adult patients at labial and lingual aspects of the bone and develop recommendations for the associated movements of teeth in this region, taking vertical facial type ...

  20. Bone resorption and complications in alveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Gerlach, Till; Schüsselbauer, Thomas; Gosau, Martin; Reichert, Torsten E; Driemel, Oliver

    2010-10-01

    Distraction osteogenesis presents an alternative procedure for augmentation of atrophic alveolar bone prior to inserting dental implants. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate complications of this method with specific focus on bone resorption during the consolidation period and the follow-up period after dental implant insertion into distracted bone. Thirty partially edentulous patients underwent a total of 36 vertical alveolar distractions with an extraosseous distraction system. Eleven devices were placed in the maxilla and 25 in the mandible. Eighty-two dental implants were inserted after a mean consolidation period of 4.5 months. Treatment results were evaluated by means of panoramic radiographs for distraction follow-up and periapical radiographs for implant follow-up. The mean length of the transport segment was 19 mm. The average alveolar height achieved was 6.4 mm with a mean resorption of 1.8 mm (21.1%) at the time of dental implant insertion. Main problems comprised oral displacement of the transport segment (n = 15) and inadequate soft tissue extension (n = 13). Eighty-two dental implants were inserted with an overall survival rate of 95.1% after 45.8 months. For periimplant marginal bone, an average resorption of 3.5 mm was recorded 50.4 months after implant insertion. Although alveolar distraction osteogenesis seems to be an effective tool to treat vertical defects of the alveolar ridge, it is not an uncomplicated procedure. A combination with vestibular augmentation of autogenous bone grafts should be considered. Overcorrection of 20% may compensate bone relapse during the consolidation period of the distracted alveolar bone. Further bone resorption after dental implantation is common.

  1. The correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis and inflammatory periodontitis regarding bone loss in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    We have invented a mouse model of periodontitis associated with alveolar bone loss induced by lipopolysaccharide. Ovariectomized (OVX) animals are widely used as a model for osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency. To define the relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis, we examined the influence of estrogen deficiency on the mouse alveolar bone mass. In OVX mice, bone loss was detected not only in the femur, but also in the alveolar bone, indicating that estrogen deficiency could induce resorption in alveolar bone. In experiments using a combination of osteoporosis and periodontitis models, OVX significantly enhanced the alveolar bone loss in the model of periodontitis. Therefore, postmenopausal osteoporosis may enhance the risk of periodontitis associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption.

  2. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  3. Biologicals and bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory joint diseases are associated with extra-articular side effects including bone involvement.There is an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. The pathogeneses of local and generalized bone loss share a common pathway. Early and active rheumatoid arthritis is associated with

  4. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium supplement if necessary. • Vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and move it into ... bone density test? • Should I take calcium and vitamin D supplements? How much do I need? • Do I need medication for my bone loss? • ...

  5. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  6. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asa’ad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.

  7. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  8. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were

  9. The development of submucosal injection of platelet rich plasma for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and preserving pressure side alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. W. Liou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical-assisted accelerated orthodontic tooth movement has been proved to be the most effective one currently, its disadvantages are it is a bone surgery, and it causes loss of alveolar bone that undermines the periodontal support of the target teeth. The submucosal injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP is a technique developed for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement by simulating the effects of bone insult without surgery and loss of alveolar bone. We have revealed clinically that submucosal injection of PRP accelerated the mandibular or maxillary alignment 1.7 folds faster in average, and the acceleration was dose-dependent when the PRP fold (platelet count in PRP/platelet count in blood was <12.5. The optimal PRP fold for a more than 2-fold acceleration of orthodontic alignment ranged from 9.5 to 12.5 folds. On the other hand, the injection of PRP on the pressure side of en masse anterior retraction decreased 71–77% of alveolar bone loss, and this was dose-dependent. The pressure side of en masse anterior retraction had no alveolar bone loss when the PRP fold was higher than 11.0. In conclusion, the optimal PRP fold for the best performance in acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement and preservation of the pressure side alveolar bone is 11.0–12.5.

  10. New regenerative treatment for tooth and periodontal bone defect associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Takagi, Mikako; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Fukaya, Takuji

    2009-05-01

    We developed a new regenerative treatment of tooth and periodontal defect and tooth dislocation associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture in the region of the maxillary anterior teeth. Using this method, dislocated teeth are first extracted and crushed alveolar bone is debrided. The dislocated teeth are then reimplanted, and cancellous iliac bone (bone marrow) is grafted to the area surrounding the teeth to regenerate periodontal bone. Tooth reimplantation was completely successful in 2 cases, and periodontal bone regenerated to a sufficient height with the iliac bone graft. Compared with the general method of treatment with a prosthesis (bridge), when using this method to treat cases such as these, there is no sacrifice of healthy teeth adjacent to the defect, and sufficient esthetic and functional recovery is possible. It is thought that this method could be applied as a new treatment of alveolar bone fracture in the future.

  11. Three‑dimensional Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Thickness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... mandibular anterior teeth are going to be retracted, mechanics for torque control should be preferred not to have uncontrolled tipping. In Class I, light orthodontic forces should be applied using elastic arch wires, and time must be allowed for the remodeling and healing of the alveolar bone in these patient ...

  12. Alveolar Bone Housing- A Modified Wilkodontics Approach- A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Eshan; Sanjay, Kothamachu; Bhongade, ML; Shrivastav, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated orthodontic treatment is the need of the hour in current scenario as the conventional orthodontics is time taking. Corticotomy assisted orthodontics have been used for years to reduce the treatment duration by reducing the resistance provided by alveolar bone housing.

  13. Contribution of the tooth bud mesenchyme to alveolar bone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diep, L.; Matalová, Eva; Mitsiadis, T. A.; Tucker, A. S.

    312B, č. 5 (2009), 510-517 ISSN 1552-5007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC524/08/J032; GA AV ČR KJB500450802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tooth * alveolar bone * bud Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.938, year: 2009

  14. Trends over 30 years in the prevalence and severity of alveolar bone loss and the influence of smoking and socio-economic factors--based on epidemiological surveys in Sweden 1983-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, K; Öhrn, K; Nordström, B; Holmlund, A; Hellberg, D

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies of the prevalence of periodontitis over an extended time using the same methodology to investigate and classify periodontitis are sparse in the literature. Smoking and socio-economic factors have been proven to increase the risk for periodontal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate 30-year time trends, using the same methodology to classify the prevalence and severity in alveolar bone loss (ABL) and to investigate the influence of tobacco and socio-economic factors. Four cross-sectional epidemiological studies in an adult population were performed in the county of Dalarna, Sweden, in 1983, 2003, 2008 and 2013. Random samples of 787-1133 individuals aged 35-85 who answered a questionnaire about tobacco use and socio-economic factors were radiographically and clinically examined. A number of teeth, ABL and calculus visible on radiographs were registered. The severity of ABL as detected on radiographs was classified into no bone loss, moderate or severe. The prevalence of moderate ABL decreased from 45% in 1983 to 16% in 2008, but increased to 33% in 2013 (P < 0.05). The prevalence of severe ABL remained the same from 1983 (7%) to 2013 (6%). Calculus visible on radiographs increased from 22% in 2008 to 32% in 2013 (P < 0.05). Socio-economic factors had limited impact on the severity of ABL. Moderate ABL and calculus visible on radiographs significantly increased between 2008 and 2013. Smoking was the strongest factor associated with ABL overall. © 2015 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-10-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (Bmp6), was inhibited by injection of the first mandibular molar of the rat with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against Bmp6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption was either delayed or completely inhibited (seven molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced compared with the erupted first-molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that Bmp6 may be essential for promoting this growth. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Computed tomography of the alveolar bone; Computertomographie des Alveolarkammes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    1996-03-01

    In addition to the conventional radiological methods used in odontology, computed tomography (CT) provides superposition-free images of the mandible and maxilla. Its value has been proved not only in cases of malignancy but also in many other problems. If an examination is performed with a slice thickness of less than 1.5 mm, the form and position of retained teeth in the alveolar bone, as well as subsequent lesions of neighboring permanent teeth, can be visualized so that early treatment can be planned. If the parodontal space of a retained tooth is visible, orthodontic intervention is possible. Precise assessment of horizontal or vertical bone loss is essential in inflammatory dental diseases. The morphology and extent of benign cystic lesions are also shown by CT. With CT surgical strategy of an intended implant therapy can take into account the remaining bone substance and the exact position of nerves and foramina. If such therapy is possible, the location, form and number of implants are easily defined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Computertomographie ermoeglicht in Ergaenzung zu den in der Zahnheilkunde gebraeuchlichen radiologischen Untersuchungsverfahren eine ueberlagerungsfreie Darstellung von Ober- und Unterkiefer. Neben der bereits etablierten Anwendung der CT bei malignen Erkrankungen hat sich ihr Einsatz bei weiteren Fragestellungen bewaehrt. Wird die Untersuchung mit einer Schichtdicke von weniger als 1,5 mm durchgefuehrt, lassen sich Form und Lage retinierter Zaehne im Kieferknochen und die durch die retinierten Zaehne verursachten Schaeden an bleibenden Zaehnen beurteilen, so dass eine fruehzeitige Therapie moeglich ist. Laesst sich der Parodontalspalt des retinierten Zahnes abgrenzen, ist eine kieferorthopaedische Einordnung moeglich. Bei entzuendlichen Zahnerkrankungen ist der horizontale und vertikale Knochenabbau genau zu bestimmen. Die Morphologie und Ausdehnung von benignen zystischen Raumforderungen ist mit der CT erfassbar. Vor einer beabsichtigten

  17. Demineralized dentin matrix scaffolds for alveolar bone engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Woong Um

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of implant dentistry, this review discusses the development and clinical use of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM scaffolds, produced from the patient's own extracted teeth, to repair alveolar bone defects. The structure and the organic and inorganic components of DDM are presented to emphasize the similarities with autogenous bone. Studies of DDM properties, such as osteoinductive and osteoconductive functions as well as efficacy and safety, which are mandatory for its use as a bone graft substitute, are also presented. The clinical applications of powder, block, and moldable DDM are discussed, along with future developments that can support growth factor and stem cell delivery.

  18. Radiographic alveolar bone changes following ridge preservation with two different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardas, Nikos; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Mezzomo, Luis; Arzoumanidi, Marina; Donos, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate radiographical bone changes following alveolar ridge preservation with a synthetic bone substitute or a bovine xenograft. Alveolar ridge preservation was performed in 27 patients randomized in two groups. In the test group (n=14), the extraction socket was treated with Straumann bone ceramic(®) (SBC) and a collagen barrier membrane (Bio-Gide(®)), whereas in the control group (n=13) with deproteinized bovine bone mineral and the same barrier. Standardized periapical X-rays were taken at 4 time points, BL: after tooth extraction, GR: immediately after socket grafting, 4M: 16 weeks, 8M: 32 weeks post-operatively. The levels of the alveolar bone crest at the mesial (Mh), and distal (Dh) and central aspects of the socket were measured at all time points. All the radiographs obtained were subtracted from the follow-up images. The gain, loss and unchanged areas in terms of grey values were tested for significant difference between the two groups. In the test group, the Mh and Dh showed a mean difference (± standard deviation) of 0.9 ± 1.2 and 0.7 ± 1.8 mm, respectively, among BL-8M. In the control group, the Mh and Dh showed a mean difference of 0.4 ± 1.3 and 0.7 ± 1.3 mm, respectively (P>0.05). Both treatments presented similar gain in grey values between BL-GR, BL-4M and BL-8M. The SBC presented less loss in grey values between BL-4M and BL-8M (Palveolar bone changes when used for alveolar ridge preservation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  20. Particulate bioglass in the regeneration of alveolar bone in dogs: clinical, surgical and radiographic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Tsiomis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss, either by trauma or other diseases, generates an increasing need for substitutes of this tissue. This study evaluated Bioglass as a bone substitute in the regeneration of the alveolar bone in mandibles of dogs by clinical, surgical and radiological analysis. Twenty-eight adult dogs were randomly separated into two equal groups. In each animal, a bone defect was created on the vestibular surface of the alveolar bone between the roots of the fourth right premolar tooth. In the treated group, the defect was immediately filled with bioglass, while in the control, it remained unfilled. Clinical evaluations were performed daily for a week, as well as x-rays immediately after surgery and at 8, 14, 21, 42, 60, 90 and 120 days post-operative. Most animals in both groups showed no signs of inflammation and wound healing was similar. Radiographic examination revealed a gradual increase of radiopacity in the region of the defect in the control group. In the treated group, initial radiopacity was higher than that of adjacent bone, decreasing until 21 days after surgery. Then it gradually increased until 120 days after surgery, when the defect became undetectable. The results showed that Bioglass integrates into bone tissue, is biocompatible and reduced the period for complete bone regeneration.

  1. Alveolar bone width preservation after decoronation of ankylosed anterior incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Schwarz-Arad, Dvorah; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the alteration of alveolar ridge dimensions after decoronation procedures in children and adolescents at least 1 year after surgery. Twelve children who underwent decoronation of ankylosed maxillary anterior incisors with at least 1 year after surgery follow-up were recalled for reevaluation. All decoronations were performed when the ankylosed teeth were submerged 1-1.5 mm. During the recall appointment, impressions of the upper arch were obtained. The bucco-palatal alveolar dimensions of the decoronated teeth were measured on the cast at the mid-mesiodistal distance from the missing tooth and were compared with the distance from the contralateral healthy incisor. Overall, 12 children (9 male and 3 female) were reevaluated up to 82 months after decoronation (mean, 49.58 ± 24 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of trauma was 9.83 ± 2.8 years. The average bucco-palatal dimension of the alveolar ridge at the mid-decoronation area was 9 ± 1 mm compared with 10.17 ± 0.9 mm at the contralateral homologous tooth (difference of 1.67 ± 1.12, P = .004). The findings show a positive statistical correlation between the duration of the follow-up period and the bucco-palatal dimension of the alveolar ridge (P = .027). Although decoronation of ankylosed young permanent incisors resulted in a decrease in the bucco-palatal dimension with time, it did not prevent additional alveolar growth that occurs with age in a developing child and thus may help maintain the alveolar bone ridge width, height, and continuity and assist in future rehabilitation with less invasive ridge augmentation procedures required for implant placement. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  3. Influences of Fucoxanthin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Induced Periodontitis in Rat Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

  4. Alveolar Bone Housing- A Modified Wilkodontics Approach- A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Kothamachu; Bhongade, ML; Shrivastav, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated orthodontic treatment is the need of the hour in current scenario as the conventional orthodontics is time taking. Corticotomy assisted orthodontics have been used for years to reduce the treatment duration by reducing the resistance provided by alveolar bone housing. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment combined with the modification in conventional wilkodontic technique in a patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. Firstly plaque control was achieved with supra and subgingival scaling. A modified approach using periodontal access flap followed by vertical bone cuts in the cortical bone from the crest of the alveolar bone margin to 2mm-3mm below the apices of all the anterior teeth extending from upper left canine to upper right canine were performed. These vertical cuts were joined by horizontal cuts apically and flap repositioned. An MBT 0.018 inch appliance was bonded. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every two weeks. The total treatment time was four and half months with active period of two months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The modified decortication technique reduced the treatment time to a considerable extent. The interdental spacing closed and optimum overjet and overbite was achieved. PMID:27656577

  5. Assessment of alveolar bone mineral density as a predictor of lumbar fracture probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Yoshitomo; Arita, Seizaburo; Honda, Mitsugi; Sugishita, Takeshi; Kamada, Aiko; Ikeo, Takashi; Miki, Takami; Fujita, Takuo

    2013-05-01

    Osteoporosis and tooth loss have been linked with advancing age, but no clear relationship between these conditions has been proven. Several studies of bone mineral density measurements of the jaw and spine have shown similarities in their rate of age-related deterioration. Thus, measurements of jawbone density may predict lumbar vertebral bone density. Using jawbone density as a proxy marker would circumvent the need for lumbar bone measurements and facilitate prediction of osteoporotic spinal fracture susceptibility at dental clinics. We aimed to characterize the correlation between bone density in the jaw and spine and the incidence of osteoporotic spinal fractures. We used computerized radiogrammetry to measure alveolar bone mineral density (al-BMD) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure lumbar bone mineral density (L-BMD). L-BMD and al-BMD in 30 female patients (average age: 59 ± 5 years) were correlated with various patient attributes. Statistical analysis included area under the curve (AUC) and probability of asymptomatic significance (PAS) in a receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive strength of L-BMD T-scores (L-BMD[T]) and al-BMD measurements for fracture occurrence was then compared using multivariate analysis with category weight scoring. L-BMD and al-BMD were significantly correlated with age, years since menopause, and alveolar bone thickness. Both were also negatively correlated with fracture incidence. Category weight scores were -0.275 for a L-BMD(T) fracture occurrence than L-BMD. Our results suggest the possible association between al-BMD and vertebral fracture risk. Assessment of alveolar bone density may be useful in patients receiving routine dental exams to monitor the clinical picture and the potential course of osteoporosis in patients who may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.

  6. Comparative Study of Accuracy in E Speed Intra Oral Films, PSP Intra Oral Digital System and Panoramic Digital Systems (PSP&CCD for Identifying the Extent of Alveolar Bone Loss in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moradi Haghgoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diagnosis of periodontal osseous lesions is very important in deter-mining prognosis, treatment plan and maintenance in the long term. This diagnosis can be achieved by using radiography. The aim of this study is to compare accuracy of E speed films, bitewing PSP, panoramic PSP and CCD for identifying the extent of destruction of al-veolar bone in chronic periodontitis. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 272 interproximal surfaces were evaluated by 4 radiographic techniques after clinical examination by a periodontist and indication of flap surgery. The distance between CEJ and the alveolar crest was measured by Williams probe during the surgery and before osseous recontouring. These measures were considered as gold standard. This distance was measured using all 4 radiography techniques by 2 radi-ologists at standard conditions after calibration. Results: There was no significant difference between the 4 techniques. The mean distances from CEJ to alveolar crest in all techniques had no significant difference with gold standard, the least difference was in digital BW PSP and the greatest difference was in panoramic PSP. The non-measurable surfaces by E speed BW and panoramic PSP were the fewest and the most, respectively. Conclusion: Better relative accuracy with regard to variation range, mean difference of meas-ures based on gold standard and number of shown surfaces was observed in digital and conventional BW compared to digital panoramic images. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:41-48

  7. Osteocytic Sclerostin Expression in Alveolar Bone in Rats With Diabetes Mellitus and Ligature-Induced Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Eun; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

    2015-08-01

    Osteocytic sclerostin inhibits bone formation, and its expression is stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This study investigates sclerostin and TNF-α expression in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis. Rats were divided into control (C), periodontitis (P), and DM + periodontitis (DP) groups. After induction of DM by streptozotocin, periodontitis was induced by ligature. At day 0 (control) and at days 3 and 20 after induction of periodontitis, alveolar bone, osteoclasts, osteoid area, and TNF-α and sclerostin expression were evaluated. The distance between the cemento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest of the DP group was longer than that of the P group at day 20 after induction of periodontitis, but the number of osteoclasts was not different. Osteoid area decreased in both the P and DP groups by day 3, but whereas sustained osteoid suppression was observed in the DP group at day 20, osteoid formation was increased in the P group. The number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes increased in both groups at day 3, but the increased number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes was maintained only in the DP group through day 20. The number of TNF-α-positive cells increased more in the DP group than in the P group. Enhanced alveolar bone loss, suppressed bone formation, and prevalent TNF-α expression were characteristic of the DP group compared with the P group. Suppressed bone formation in the DP group was observed simultaneously with increased sclerostin and TNF-α expression. These results suggest that upregulated osteocytic sclerostin expression in periodontitis accompanied by DM may play a role in suppressed bone formation.

  8. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Nascimento CM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassiane Merigo do Nascimento,1 Tiago Cassol,2 Fernanda Soares da Silva,3 Maria Lucia Bonfleur,4 Carlos Augusto Nassar,5 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar5 1Biologica Science and Health Center, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; 2State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; Department of 3Pharmacy, 4Fisiology, 5Periodontology, Dental School, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 control group, 2 control and ligature group; 3 cafeteria group; and 4 cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01. Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. Keywords: periodontal disease, radiography, obesity

  9. Osteopontin regulates dentin and alveolar bone development and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B L; Ao, M; Salmon, C R; Chavez, M B; Kolli, T N; Tran, A B; Chu, E Y; Kantovitz, K R; Yadav, M; Narisawa, S; Millán, J L; Nociti, F H; Somerman, M J

    2018-02-01

    The periodontal complex is essential for tooth attachment and function and includes the mineralized tissues, cementum and alveolar bone, separated by the unmineralized periodontal ligament (PDL). To gain insights into factors regulating cementum-PDL and bone-PDL borders and protecting against ectopic calcification within the PDL, we employed a proteomic approach to analyze PDL tissue from progressive ankylosis knock-out (Ank -/- ) mice, featuring reduced PP i , rapid cementogenesis, and excessive acellular cementum. Using this approach, we identified the matrix protein osteopontin (Spp1/OPN) as an elevated factor of interest in Ank -/- mouse molar PDL. We studied the role of OPN in dental and periodontal development and function. During tooth development in wild-type (WT) mice, Spp1 mRNA was transiently expressed by cementoblasts and strongly by alveolar bone osteoblasts. Developmental analysis from 14 to 240days postnatal (dpn) indicated normal histological structures in Spp1 -/- comparable to WT control mice. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis at 30 and 90dpn revealed significantly increased volumes and tissue mineral densities of Spp1 -/- mouse dentin and alveolar bone, while pulp and PDL volumes were decreased and tissue densities were increased. However, acellular cementum growth was unaltered in Spp1 -/- mice. Quantitative PCR of periodontal-derived mRNA failed to identify potential local compensators influencing cementum in Spp1 -/- vs. WT mice at 26dpn. We genetically deleted Spp1 on the Ank -/- mouse background to determine whether increased Spp1/OPN was regulating periodontal tissues when the PDL space is challenged by hypercementosis in Ank -/- mice. Ank -/- ; Spp1 -/- double deficient mice did not exhibit greater hypercementosis than that in Ank -/- mice. Based on these data, we conclude that OPN has a non-redundant role regulating formation and mineralization of dentin and bone, influences tissue properties of PDL and pulp, but does not

  10. Ozone Treatment of Alveolar Bone in the Cape Chacma Baboon Does Not Enhance Healing Following Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A.; Kotze, Harry F.

    2013-01-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5–4 % O3), ...

  11. Morbidity of chin bone transplants used for reconstructing alveolar defects in cleft patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, A; Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Kalk, WWI; Vissink, A

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the objective and subjective morbidity of symphyseal chin bone harvesting used for reconstruction of alveolar defects in young cleft patients. Design: All patients who had undergone chin bone harvesting for alveolar cleft reconstruction in the period

  12. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  13. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease. (author)

  14. Three-Dimensional Radiological Assessment of Alveolar Bone Volume Preservation Using Bovine Bone Xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qabbani, Ali; Al Kawas, Sausan; A Razak, Noor Hayati; Al Bayatti, Saad Wahby; Enezei, Hamid Hammad; Samsudin, A Rani; Sheikh Ab Hamid, Suzina

    2018-03-01

    Alveolar bone is critical in supporting natural teeth, dental implants as well as a removable and fixed prosthesis. Alveolar bone volume diminishes when its associated natural tooth is lost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction. Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative. There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively). The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume

  15. Alveolar Bone Grafting in Cleft Patients from Bone Defect to Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, Marko; Knežević, Predrag; Jokić, Dražen; Rebić, Jerko; Žabarović, Domagoj; Macan, Darko

    2014-12-01

    Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital deformity affecting craniofacial structures. Orofacial clefts have great impact on the quality of life which includes aesthetics, function, psychological impact, dental development and facial growth. Incomplete fusion of facial prominences during the fourth to tenth week of gestation is the main cause. Cleft gaps are closed with alveolar bone grafts in surgical procedure called osteoplasty. Autogenic bone is taken from the iliac crest as the gold standard. The time of grafting can be divided into two stages: primary and secondary. The alveolar defect is usually reconstructured between 7 and 11 years and is often related to the development of the maxillary canine root. After successful osteoplasty, cleft defect is closed but there is still a lack of tooth. The space closure with orthodontic treatment has 50-75% success. If the orthodontic treatment is not possible, in order to replace the missing tooth there are three possibilities: adhesive bridgework, tooth transplantation and implants. Dental implant has the role of holding dental prosthesis, prevents pronounced bone atrophy and loads the augmentation material in the cleft area. Despite the fact that autologous bone from iliac crest is the gold standard, it is not a perfect source for reconstruction of the alveolar cleft. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) is appropriate as an alternative graft material. The purpose of this review is to explain morphology of cleft defects, historical perspective, surgical techniques and possibilities of implant and prosthodontic rehabilitation.

  16. Mean alveolar bone crest height decrement in subjects with an osteoporosis risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effrianto, H. P. S.; Priminiarti, M.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    People 40-75 years of age have an osteoporosis risk that may be signaled by a decrease in alveolar bone crest height. Thus, this measure can be used as an indicator of osteoporosis risk. This study was conducted to provide a database of decreased alveolar bone crest heights in ages at risk of osteoporosis by using intraoral radiographs. Forty periapical radiographs of the posterior region of tooth 36 (or 46) were measured twice at different times by two different observers. The interproximal decrease in alveolar bone crest height was measured from the alveolar bone crest to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) for each tooth on the mesial and distal sides using a ruler (mm). The mean decrease in alveolar bone crest height in at-risk ages for osteoporosis was 3.50±1.085 mm, with a mean of 3.15±0.864 mm for those 45-59 years of age, and 3.90±1.156 mm for those aged 60-75 years. The mean decrease in alveolar bone crest height in people 60-75 years of age was larger than in people 45-59 years of age. There was a medium correlation between age and decreased alveolar bone crest height.

  17. Bone Replacement Materials and Techniques Used for Achieving Vertical Alveolar Bone Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone augmentation in vertical dimension remains the holy grail of periodontal tissue engineering. Successful dental implant placement for restoration of edentulous sites depends on the quality and quantity of alveolar bone available in all spatial dimensions. There are several surgical techniques used alone or in combination with natural or synthetic graft materials to achieve vertical alveolar bone augmentation. While continuously improving surgical techniques combined with the use of auto- or allografts provide the most predictable clinical outcomes, their success often depends on the status of recipient tissues. The morbidity associated with donor sites for auto-grafts makes these techniques less appealing to both patients and clinicians. New developments in material sciences offer a range of synthetic replacements for natural grafts to address the shortcoming of a second surgical site and relatively high resorption rates. This narrative review focuses on existing techniques, natural tissues and synthetic biomaterials commonly used to achieve vertical bone height gain in order to successfully restore edentulous ridges with implant-supported prostheses.

  18. rhBMP-2 with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold versus autologous iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Cameron S; Mobin, Sheila S Nazarian; Lypka, Michael A; Rommer, Elizabeth; Yen, Stephen; Urata, Mark M; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A

    2013-05-01

    Secondary alveolar cleft reconstruction using autologous iliac crest bone graft is currently the standard treatment for alveolar clefts. Although effective, harvesting autologous bone may result in considerable donor-site morbidity, most commonly pain and the potential for long-term sensory disturbances. In an effort to decrease patient morbidity, a novel technique using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 encased in a demineralized bone matrix scaffold was developed as an alternative to autografting for secondary alveolar cleft reconstruction. A chart review was conducted for the 55 patients who underwent secondary alveolar cleft reconstruction over a 2-year period with a mean follow-up of 21 months. Of these, 36 patients received rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix scaffold (including 10 patients with previously failed repairs using iliac crest bone grafting) and 19 patients underwent iliac crest bone grafting. Postoperatively, bone stock was evaluated using occlusal radiographs rated according to the Bergland and Chelsea scales. Alveolar clefts repaired using rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix scaffold were 97.2 percent successful compared with 84.2 percent with iliac crest bone grafting. Radiographically, initial repairs with rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix scaffold were superior to iliac crest bone grafting according to both Bergland and Chelsea scales, and significantly more patients in the rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix scaffold group had coronal bridging. The postoperative intraoral infection rate following iliac crest bone grafting was significantly greater than for rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix scaffold. The cost of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix scaffold products was offset by cost savings associated with a reduction in operative time averaging 102 minutes. rhBMP-2 encased in a demineralized bone matrix scaffold appears to be a viable alternative for secondary alveolar cleft repair. Patients are spared donor-site morbidity and

  19. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  20. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  1. Clinical study of the alveolar bone height for the dental implant using preoperative computed tomographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Keiko; Mori, Shintaro; Sekiya, Kotaro

    2008-01-01

    CT examination is useful for preoperative dental implant, and many studies of concerning clinical studies using CT images have been reported. However, there are few reports comparing alveolar bone heights among age groups of many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical studies of preoperative CT examinations for alveolar bone heights and patient ages at our department of radiology using 64 multi-detector row CT. The subjects consisted of 5174 regions in 1312 (425 males and 887 females, mean age 55.5 yrs, 16-86 yrs) cases of preoperative CT examinations, between April 2006 and December 2007. CT machine used was the Aquilion TM 64 (Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan), and the workstation used was the ZIOSTATION (ZIOSOFT, Japan). All of CT examinations were performed the position of implant placement and disease examined from CT findings. Alveolar bone heights for dental implants were examined from the CT images. For the maxilla, the alveolar bone height was the distance from the alveolar crest to the base of the nasal cavity, or the base of the maxillary sinus. For the mandible, the alveolar bone height is the distance from the alveolar crest and the upper wall of the mandibular canal, or the distance between the alveolar crest and inferior border of mandible. The numbers of the implant position were 955 site for the first molar of the mandible (the average alveolar bone height is 13.9 mm), 652 site for the second molar of the mandible (12.8 mm), and 567 site for the first molar of the maxilla (6.8 mm). In conclusion, the position where implant were to placed the most was the first molar of the mandible, and it's alveolar bone height got lower with age for women. It is over 60% of the maxillary molar area were lower 8 mm, so some kind of osteogenetic treatment was required in many cases, and hence we reassured the importance of CT. (author)

  2. The effect of peri-implant bone exposure on soft tissue healing and bone loss in two adjacent implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Yun; Kye, Seung-Boem; Hong, Jongrak; Paeng, Jun-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue and bone change around two adjacent implants in one-stage implant surgery. Methods Eleven subjects (7 males, 4 females) who were needed placement of 2 adjacent implants in the molar area were included. The two implants were placed with the platform at the level of the alveolar crest. The interproximal bone between the 2 implants was not covered with gingiva. After surgery, an alginate impression was taken to record the gingival shape and radiographs were taken to evaluate implant placement. Using a master cast, the gingival height was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. In the radiograph, the alveolar bone level was measured at the mesial and distal side of both implants at baseline and 12 weeks. Results The exposed bone was covered with gingiva at both 4 and 12 weeks. Loss of alveolar bone around implants was found in all areas. The alveolar bone level in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in the non-exposed area. Conclusions This study showed that the alveolar bone level and gingival height around 2 adjacent implants in the exposed bone area did not differ from that in unexposed bone area. PMID:22413070

  3. Long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen; Pedersen, Kirsten Mølsted

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) in cleft lip and palate patients and to examine relationships between preoperative and postoperative factors and overall long-term bone graft success. The records of 97 patients with cleft lip and palate......, who had secondary alveolar bone grafting of 123 alveolar clefts, were examined. Interalveolar bone height was assessed radiographically a minimum of 10 years after grafting using a 4-point scale (I-IV), where types I and II were considered a success. After an average follow-up of 16 years after SABG...... to the cleft. No significant differences were found with regard to the other parameters investigated. The timing of secondary alveolar bone grafting is critical with regard to the age of the patient and the stage of eruption of the tooth distal to the cleft....

  4. Quantitative determination of alveolar bone density using digital image analysis of microradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, A.; Radlanski, R.J.; Taufall, D.; Klein, C.; Steinhoefel, N.; Doeler, W.

    1990-01-01

    Horizontal 100 μm ground sections of 20 alveolar bone specimens from adult human mandibles obtained from autopsies were prepared for microradiography. Quantitative analysis of bone density of the alveolar cortex was performed using a semiautomatic digital image analysis system (KONTRON). The results demonstrated that bone density was higher in the lingual than in the labial alveolar cortex (p < 0.05). In addition, the coronal portion of alveolar cortical bone was significantly more porous than the medial and apical ones (p < 0.05). These variances were primarily due to increased canal size rather than to an increased number of canals. No significant age dependent changes in bone density could be determined. (author)

  5. De novo alveolar bone formation adjacent to endosseous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglundh, Tord; Abrahamsson, Ingemar; Lang, Niklaus P; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-06-01

    To describe a model for the investigation of different phases of wound healing that are involved in the process resulting in osseointegration. The implants used for the study of early healing had a geometry that corresponded to that of a solid screw implant with an SLA surface configuration. A circumferential trough had been prepared within the thread region (intra-osseous portion) that established a geometrically well-defined wound compartment. Twenty Labrador dogs received 160 experimental devices totally to allow the evaluation of healing between 2 h and 12 weeks. Both ground sections and decalcified sections were prepared from different implant sites. The experimental chamber used appeared to be conducive for the study of early phases of bone formation. The ground sections provided an overview of the various phases of soft and hard tissue formation, while the decalcified, thin sections enabled a more detailed study of events involved in bone tissue modeling and remodeling. The initially empty wound chamber became occupied with a coagulum and a granulation tissue that was replaced by a provisional matrix. The process of bone formation started already during the first week. The newly formed bone present at the lateral border of the cut bony bed appeared to be continuous with the parent bone, but woven bone was also found on the SLA surface at a distance from the parent bone. This primary bone that included trabeculae of woven bone was replaced by parallel-fibered and/or lamellar bone and marrow. Between 1 and 2 weeks, the bone tissue immediately lateral to the pitch region, responsible for primary mechanical stability of the device, became resorbed and replaced with newly formed viable bone. Despite this temporary loss of hard tissue contact, the implants remained clinically stable at all times. Osseointegration represents a dynamic process both during its establishment and its maintenance. In the establishment phase, there is a delicate interplay between bone

  6. Alveolar bone regeneration pattern following surgical and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-07

    Dec 7, 2002 ... hygiene and degree of mobility with loss of attachment were measured at baseline, 1,3 and 6 months after treatment. Standardized reproducible radiographs of the interproxi- mal sites were taken before and 6 months after treatment. Al- veolar bone levels pre and post treatment were measured with.

  7. Alveolar bone regeneration pattern following surgical and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty six interproximal sites, with periodontal pockets deeper than 5mm and showing loss of bone on standard dental periapical radiographs, were treated by subgingival instrumentation and open periodontal flap debridement in 12 patients properly motivated and given thorough oral hygiene instructions.

  8. Alveolar cleft bone grafts: results and imprecisions of the dental radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Crepeau, R J; Williams, H B; Schwartz, S

    1995-12-01

    Alveolar cleft bone grafts customarily have been evaluated by one-dimensional dental radiographic measurements. Based on the dental radiograph, remarkable successes with just a single bone graft have been reported in the literature. At the Montreal Children's Hospital, the experience with 101 alveolar bone grafts in 62 cleft lip and palate patients was retrospectively reviewed to determine (1) the precision of dental radiographs at evaluating the clinical outcome, (2) the effect of dental maturation on alveolar bone grafts, and (3) the effect of augmentation bone grafts. The dental radiograph significantly overestimated the number of clefts that could be managed orthodontically (p orthodontic closure of the dental gap. Bone grafts performed during the preeruptive canine dentition yielded significantly better results (p < 0.05, chi-squared test). With each subsequent augmentation bone-graft procedure performed, there existed a trend toward improved dental arch stability and radiographic and clinical outcomes.

  9. Initial changes in alveolar bone volume for sham-operated and ovariectomized rats in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Ma, Yihui; Shi, Miusi; Cao, Zhengguo; Zhang, Yufeng; Miron, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass, poor bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration primarily in postmenopausal women. With respect to periodontal disease, osteoporosis is thought to contribute to pre-existing alveolar degeneration although the association between both diseases is not fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to observe the initial changes in mandibular alveolar bone for sham-operated and ovariectomized (OVX) rats in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. A total of 64 Wistar rats (7 weeks of age, 180-200 g) were used in this study (32 control sham-operated animals + ligature placement, 32 OVX animals + ligature placement). Following an 8-week period to induce an OVX model, micro-CT analysis was performed to calculate vertical and furcation bone loss of mandibular first molars at time points 0, 3, 7, and 11 days following ligature placement (six animals per group per time point). Furthermore, histological analysis was performed to calculate the loss of alveolar bone crest height from the cemento-enamel junction, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was utilized to calculate the number of osteoclasts. The results from the present study demonstrate that OVX animals showed significant vertical bone loss at all time points when compared to control sham-operated animals. In the furcation area, no significant difference in bone loss was observed between sham-operated and OVX animals at 0, 3, and 7 days; however by 11 days, a significant decrease in bone volume/total volume and trabecular thickness was observed in the OVX group. The histological analysis also revealed that alveolar bone crest height was significantly reduced in OVX animals, and TRAP staining further revealed the greater number of multinucleated osteoclasts peaking at 3 days postligature placement. The results from the present study demonstrate a direct correlation between the osteoporotic phenotype and

  10. Mechanism of action and morphologic changes in the alveolar bone in response to selective alveolar decortication-facilitated tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloul, S Susan; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Morgan, Elise F; Carvalho, Roberto S; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test if corticotomy-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling underlie orthodontic tooth movement and how selective alveolar decortication enhances the rate of tooth movement. A total of 114 Sprague-Dawley rats were included in 3 treatment groups: selective alveolar decortication alone (SADc); tooth movement alone (TM); and "combined" therapy (SADc + TM). Surgery was performed around the buccal and palatal aspects of the left maxillary first molar tooth and included 5 decortication dots on each side. Tooth movement was performed on the first molar using a 25-g Sentalloy spring. Measurements were done at baseline (day 0: no treatment rendered) and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. Microcomputed tomography, Faxitron analyses, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) of expressed mRNAs were used to assess changes. The combined group showed increased tooth movement (P = 0.04) at 7 days compared with the tooth movement group with significantly decreased bone volume (62%; P = 0.016) and bone mineral content (63%; P = 0.015). RNA markers of osteoclastic cells and key osteoclastic regulators (M-CSF [macrophage colony-stimulating factor], RANKL [receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand], OPG [osteoprotegerin], calcitonin receptor [CTR], TRACP-5b [tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b], cathepsin K [Ctsk]) all showed expression indicating increased osteoclastogenesis in the combined group. RNA markers of osteoblastic cells (OPN [osteopontin], BSP [bone sialoprotein], OCN [osteocalcin]) also showed increased anabolic activity in response to the combination of alveolar decortication and tooth movement. The data suggest that the alveolar decortication enhances the rate of tooth movement during the initial tooth displacement phase; this results in a coupled mechanism of bone resorption and bone formation during the earlier stages of treatment, and this mechanism underlies the rapid orthodontic tooth movement

  11. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  12. Augmentation of residual alveolar bone height with tissue engineering for dental implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of correcting deficient vertical alveolar height for dental implant placement has been there since dental implants came in to regular clinical placement. The ability of various methods to increase the residual alveolar height has met with varying results. The primary reason is that the techniques were not quite successful in maintaining the required residual alveolar height. Use of Bone Morphogentic Protein, especially rhBMP-2 has been met with high degree of success in deficient vertical alveolar height in a mandibular ridge. The demonstration of this using a case has been presented here.

  13. Menopause-related oral alveolar bone resorption: a review of relatively unexplored consequences of estrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, L; Yemini, M; Kase, N G; Birkenfeld, A

    1999-01-01

    The alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible provide the bony framework for tooth support. Osteoporotic changes of these bones may directly affect tooth stability and retention. This report reviews studies that have evaluated the relationship between systemic osteoporosis and oral alveolar bone mass as well as the effect of estrogen use on oral alveolar bone and tooth retention. Ten years (1989-1998) literature review. Studies reviewed demonstrate a positive correlation between systemic bone mass and systemic osteoporosis to oral bone resorption. Estrogen replacement therapy affects oral bone in a manner similar to the way it affects other sites. It is evident that postmenopausal estrogen users may retain more teeth after menopause. Sustained oral health and better tooth retention are potentially additional benefits for hormone replacement therapy users after menopause.

  14. A contemporary perspective on techniques for the clinical assessment of alveolar bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Radiographic techniques, traditional ones as well as newer ones under development, for clinically assessing alveolar bone are critically assessed. Traditional intraoral radiography is reexamined, in particular with regard to the accuracy with which the alveolar crest is seen. Evidence is presented for a more accurate representation of the alveolar crest on bitewings rather than periapical films. Application in periodontics of newer radiographic techniques, subtraction radiography, and single and dual photon aborptiometry presently under clinical development are discussed in regard to their potential and limitations. Similarly, radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the metabolic status of alveolar bone are discussed as well as the potential for using analyses of gingival crevice fluid as a window for assessment of alveolar crest metabolism. 46 references.

  15. A contemporary perspective on techniques for the clinical assessment of alveolar bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic techniques, traditional ones as well as newer ones under development, for clinically assessing alveolar bone are critically assessed. Traditional intraoral radiography is reexamined, in particular with regard to the accuracy with which the alveolar crest is seen. Evidence is presented for a more accurate representation of the alveolar crest on bitewings rather than periapical films. Application in periodontics of newer radiographic techniques, subtraction radiography, and single and dual photon aborptiometry presently under clinical development are discussed in regard to their potential and limitations. Similarly, radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the metabolic status of alveolar bone are discussed as well as the potential for using analyses of gingival crevice fluid as a window for assessment of alveolar crest metabolism. 46 references

  16. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  17. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  18. Alveolar bone protective and hypoglycemic effects of systemic propolis treatment in experimental periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Kesim, Servet; Greenwell, Henry; Kara, Mehmet; Çetin, Aysun; Yakan, Birkan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory effects of propolis on the systemic and local effects on experimental periodontitis and diabetes. Fifty-six Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: (1) negative-control (NC), (2) periodontitis (P), (3) diabetes (D), (4) diabetes+periodontitis (DP), (5) periodontitis+propolis (P-Pro), (6) diabetes+propolis (D-Pro), and (7) diabetes+periodontitis+propolis (DP-Pro). Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement and diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Propolis (Pro) was administrated by oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). On day 21, plasma was obtained for analysis and alveolar bone level was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. Compared to NC the final blood glucose levels for D-Pro was not significantly different (P=.052), however, D, DP, and DP-Pro were significantly different. There were no statistically significant differences in blood glucose concentrations between P and P-Pro, between D and D-Pro, and between DP and DP-Pro. All groups showed significantly more alveolar bone loss compared with NC. A significant difference in bone loss was found between P and P-Pro, and DP and DP-Pro, however there was no difference between D and D-Pro. Plasma interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) levels were not significantly different among groups. In conclusion, propolis reduced fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes. In addition, propolis might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of diabetes associated periodontitis and periodontitis without diabetes.

  19. [Evaluation with different measuring methods for the alveolar bone change of ridge preservation in molar sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-ping; Zhan, Ya-lin; Hu, Wen-jie; Xu, Tao; Wei, Yi-ping; Zhen, Min; Wang, Cui

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the changes of the vertical height and width of the alveolar bone six months after the alveolar ridge preservation in periodontal compromised molar sites of severe alveolar bone defects with clinical direct measurement, parallel periapical radiographs, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to analyze the effect of the three different methods of measurement. In this study, 20 subjects requiring tooth extraction on account of periodontal disease with a total of 23 extracted molars were enrolled. Extractions were performed atraumatically and patients were received alveolar ridge preservation procedure with Bio-Oss and Bio-Gide. Clinical direct measurements were taken after tooth extraction and during the implant surgery 6 months later, CBCT scans and parallel periapical radiographs were taken immediately after ridge preservation and 6 months later. The changes of alveolar ridge width and vertical height after six months were measured and analyzed through the above-mentioned three methods and the similarities and differences of the measured effect were compared. There were no significant difference of alveolar vertical height in the center of the extraction sites, the center of distal aspect, and distobuccal aspect between the clinical direct measurements and the CBCT measurements (P>0.05), alveolar vertical height in other points and alveolar width measurements were statically significant (Palveolar increased significantly and the changes of alveolar vertical height of clinical direct and CBCT measurement were (6.15 ± 1.73) mm and (6.59 ± 2.53) mm, respectively. The measurements of the width of the alveolar bone were (8.45 ± 1.18) mm and (8.52 ± 1.27) mm, respectively. The measurements of the two methods were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The change of the alveolar height in the center of the extraction socket after six months measured by parallel periapical was (5.84 ± 4.28) mm, which was closed to the clinical direct measurement

  20. An Experimental Study of Radiographic Density of Alveolar Bone and Cortical Thickness of Mandible by Osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of the systemic osteoporosis on radiographic density of alveolar bone and cortical thickness of mandible. The bone mineral density values of lumbar and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T scores of lumbar, femur were obtained respectively. Radiographic densities of alveolar bones and panorama mandibular index (PMI, represents as cortical thickness) were analysed statistically according to age and T score variavles. The radiographic density of alveolar bone of maxillary molar showed significant difference by age and femur T group. That of mandibular molar showed significant difference between femur T group. Panorama mandibular index showed significant difference between age groups. The radiographic density of alvealar bones was more dependent on age femur T than lumbar T. Cortical thickness of mandible was correlated with increasing age.

  1. Bone grafting of alveolar socket and ovate seat pontic preparation for natural emergence profile for anterior bridge - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar atrophy following tooth extraction remains a challenge for future prosthetic restorations. Immediate implant placement and postextraction alveolar bone grafting are two methods that are used to prevent significant postextraction bone loss. Grafting is one of the most common methods of socket preservation widely used to prevent the collapse of oral tissues following extraction so that an excellent esthetic prosthesis can be provided particularly in the anterior maxillary region. The present report describes the management of a maxillary tooth extraction socket using a socket preservation technique involving placement of an osteoconductive slowly resorbable grafting material & resorbable collagen membrane in the extraction socket also called as Bio-Col socket preservation technique followed by a provisional restoration to preserve the tissues & interdental papilla for the placement of future final ovate pontic anterior bridge to give the illusion of the tooth emerging from the gums. This technique resulted in a successful prevention of alveolar bone loss following tooth extraction & maintainence of tissue contour & density which provided a good tissue base for the fabrication of Ovate pontic giving excellent esthetic results.

  2. OCLI-023, a Novel Pyrimidine Compound, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Alveolar Bone Resorption In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jung Ihn

    Full Text Available An abnormal increase in osteoclast differentiation and activation results in various bone-resorptive diseases, including periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis. Chemical compounds containing pyrimidine ring have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes. Therefore, in order to identify an antiresorptive agent, we synthesized a series of pyrimidine ring-containing chemical compounds, and found that OCLI-023 suppressed the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts in vitro. OCLI-023 directly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced differentiation of bone marrow macrophages into osteoclasts, without a cytotoxic response. OCLI-023 also downregulated the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast markers as well as inhibited the formation of actin rings and resorption pits. OCLI-023 attenuated the RANKL-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling pathways. In a mouse model of periodontitis, ligature induced an increase of distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ and alveolar bone crest (ABC in the second molar, and OCLI-023 significantly reduced it. Histological analysis showed ligature-induced increase of osteoclast numbers was also significantly reduced by OCLI-023. These data demonstrated the inhibitory effect of OCLI-023 on osteoclast differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in vitro, as well as on ligature-induced bone loss in vivo, and OCLI-023 can be proposed as a novel anti-resorptive compound.

  3. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Distribution of BMP6 in the alveolar bone during mouse mandibular molar eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oralová, Veronika; Chlastáková, Ivana; Radlanski, Ralf Johannes; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Eruption requires synchrony of the tooth with the surrounding tissues, particularly the bone. One important step during eruption is remodelling of the alveolar bone at the base of the tooth and along the roots. Expression of BMP6 was reported to be increased in the basal half of the dental follicle prior to eruption and inhibition of BMP6 affected bone formation at the base of the alveolar crypt. The aim of this study was to further investigate BMP6 protein in relation to tooth eruption and the corresponding bone remodelling using temporospatial correlations of BMP6 localization with morphogenetic events (proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and bone apposition/resorption), other BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) and three-dimensional images of tooth-bone development. BMP6 expression pattern was mapped in the mandibular molar teeth and related structures around eruption. Localization of BMP6 dominated in osteoblasts, in regions of bone formation within the alveolar crypt. These findings positively correlated with proliferation at the tooth base region, osteocalcin expression in the osteoblasts/osteocytes and BMP2 and BMP7 presence in the alveolar bone surrounding the tooth. Osteoclast activity and apoptotic elimination in the root region gradually decreased before eruption and totally ceased at eruption stages. Generally, BMP6 positively correlated with BMP2, BMP7 and osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts, and areas of bone remodelling. Moreover, BMP6 was found in the periodontium and cementoblasts. BMP6 expression in the alveolar bone accompanied tooth eruption. Notably, the expression pattern of BMP6 in the bone did not differ around individual molar teeth at the same stage of development. The expression of BMP6 in periodontal ligaments may contribute to interaction between the tooth and bone during the eruption and anchoring process.

  5. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dao-Cai [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 291st Hospital of P.L.A, Baotou (China); Li, De-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ji, Hui-Cang [Military Sanatorium of Retired Cadres, Baotou (China); Rao, Guo-Zhou [Center of Laboratory, School of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liang, Li-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ma, Ai-Jie [Xi' an Technology University, Xi' an (China); Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2012-04-05

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones.

  6. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dao-Cai; Li, De-Hua; Ji, Hui-Cang; Rao, Guo-Zhou; Liang, Li-Hua; Ma, Ai-Jie; Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones

  7. Diffuse pulmonary uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer in bone scintigraphy of a rare case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallahi, Babak; Ghafary, Bahar Moasses; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare diffuse pulmonary disease representing microliths formed by deposition of calcium phosphonate in the alveolar airspaces. PAM is often diagnosed incidentally during chest X-ray imaging. Most of them are asymptomatic. We present a 39-year-old man referring for a bone scan due to a complaint of right leg pain. Bone scan showed diffuse uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer on both lung fields predominantly in basal regions. The bronchoalveolar lavage test confirmed the diagnosis of PAM

  8. beta-TCP Versus Autologous Bone for Repair of Alveolar Clefts in a Goat Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A. de; Meijer, G.J.; Dormaar, T.; Janssen, N.; Bilt, A. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Bruijn, J. de; Rijn, L. van; Koole, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study in goats was to test the hypothesis that a novel synthetic bone substitute beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) can work as well as autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest for grafting and repair of alveolar clefts. Design : Ten adult Dutch milk goats ( Capra

  9. Interim endodontic therapy for alveolar socket bone regeneration of infected hopeless teeth prior to implant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Marwan Abou

    2010-01-01

    The immediate placement of implants in the fresh extraction sockets of infected teeth with periradicular and periapical lesions is contraindicated because of both the infection and the loss of architecture required for proper implant placement. There are 4 approaches for implant replacement of a hopeless tooth with lesions: (1) extraction and delayed implant placement; (2) extraction, debridement, guided bone regeneration (GBR), guided tissue regeneration (GTR), and delayed implant placement; (3) extraction, intrasocket debridement, and immediate implant placement; or (4) extraction, debridement, GBR, GTR, and simultaneous implant placement. The extraction of such hopeless teeth often results in large bone and soft tissue defects that are difficult to repair. This article introduces an alternative approach: interim endodontic implant site preparation, defined as a transitional, surgical, or nonsurgical endodontic treatment to regenerate the hopeless tooth bone defects and prepare the site for proper implant placement. This article describes 3 distinct interim endodontic protocols used to manage 5 patients, all of whom had severely infected hopeless teeth with large lesions and were treatment planned for implant replacement: the first, interim nonsurgical endodontic treatment to restore the normal anatomy of the infected hopeless tooth; the second, interim surgical endodontics on the hopeless tooth with preexisting endodontic treatment to regenerate apical bone for primary implant stability, thus avoiding the involvement of the maxillary sinus and other critical anatomic structures; and the third, interim surgical endodontics on the hopeless tooth with preexisting endodontic treatment to confine the size of the osseous defect and simplify the GBR and GTR procedures. The outcome of interim endodontic treatment on these 5 patients demonstrated that tooth extraction would have been a less predictable approach. The interim treatment changed the overall direction of the

  10. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong

    2015-01-01

    -implant across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant......Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of transcortical screws on alveolar (bone) ridge preservation following extraction. DESIGN: Four adult beagle dogs had mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. After 6 weeks, using a split-mouth design, two transcortical screws were inserted unilaterally...... below the alveolar crest on the experimental side in the region of the extraction. The dogs were killed after 12 weeks. The bone at the extraction sites was analyzed using μCT and 3D analysis. A cylindrical core was placed around the actual and a virtual screw placed in the identical location...

  11. Placement of fin type dental implant in three different surgical situations of alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different dental implant placements according to surgical implant bed situations were observed in its bone integration 3 months after dental implant insertion. This observation was done on implant system which has plateau or fin system. Elf implants were placed in the upper jaw in two patients. In case one, two implants were inserted immediately after tooth extraction, and the other six implants were placed in the alveolar crest regions in delayed implantation or in which the teeth had been extracted over 6 months of period. In case two, three implants were inserted in the post trauma region in the anterior maxilla, which the labial plate had been lost and reconstructed with bone grafting procedure using a mixture of alloplastic and autogenous bones. The alveolar reconstruction was needed to be performed due to only thin alveolar crest width was left intact. All of those implants observed showed in good integration.

  12. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  13. Alveolar Bone Expansion for Implant Placement in Compromised Aesthetic Zone – Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Jumshad B; Alam, Md Nazish; Singh, Gurudeep; Chandrasekaran, S.N

    2014-01-01

    Implant placement and restoration of compromised alveolar ridges in the aesthetic zone has always been a challenge to the oral implantologists. The use of bone expanders and bone condensers without the use of traditional drilling sequences in this scenario is becoming popular because of its predictable results. Xenograft along with Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) used as scaffold also provides growth factors to accelerate both soft and hard tissue healing as well as regeneration. The paper highlights this combined approach in the placement of implants in compromised alveolar ridges with good results. All implants were successfully restored and followed up for one year. PMID:24701543

  14. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, Dan M. J.; Cheung, Yuk Wah; Žiūkaitė, Laura; Ince, Can; van den Akker, Hans P.; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bone grafting procedures.

  15. Alveolar ridge preservation and biologic width management for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alveolar bone atrophy is a chronically progressive, irreversible process which results in bone loss in both the buccal, lingual and apico-coronal region. Without bone preservation measures, bone resorption is experienced and continues for life. Preservation of alveolar ridge is indicated when a tooth-supported fixed partial ...

  16. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sulcular translation flap in secondary bone grafting: retrospective study of 72 alveolar clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, M; Paquin, R; Valcourt, A-C

    2015-08-01

    Secondary bone grafting from the iliac crest is the gold standard in the reconstruction of maxillary alveolar bone defects in cleft patients. Numerous techniques for this graft have been described, although none is considered clearly superior at this time. A retrospective chart study was performed of 72 alveolar clefts in 59 patients who underwent an alveolar iliac crest bone graft with nasal floor reconstruction, with or without concomitant secondary cheilorhinoplasty. Forty-four patients were included in the bone grafting group and 15 in the concomitant cheilorhinoplasty group. Both groups had a sulcular translation mucoperiosteal flap with anterior repositioning of the gingival papilla as the preferred intraoral flap technique. One-third of patients had undergone previous attempts at oronasal fistula closure. Results showed 100% Bergland stage 1 in the cheilorhinoplasty group and 96% in the bone graft group. Two failures (stage 4) were observed in the bone graft group. The infection rate was 9% in the cheilorhinoplasty group and 2% in the bone graft group. Of clefts in the bone graft group, 10% showed postoperative residual fistulas; none were observed in the cheilorhinoplasty group. The sulcular translation flap is a simple surgical approach and shows a low complication rate. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  19. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis of human alveolar bone repair induced by laser phototherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, M M A; Marques, M M; Cortes, A R G; Horliana, A C R T; Moreira, M S; Lascala, C A

    2015-12-01

    Immediate dental implant placement in the molar region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between alveolar crest thickness and the implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human alveolar bone repair 40 days after molar extraction in patients submitted to LPT. Twenty patients were selected for this randomized controlled clinical trial; 10 underwent LPT (laser group) with a GaAlAs diode laser (808 nm, 100 mW, 0.04 cm(2), 75 J/cm(2), 30s per point, 3 J per point, at five points). The control group patients (n=10) were not irradiated. Forty days later, the tissue formed inside the sockets was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Data from the two groups were compared with Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. The relative bone volume was significantly higher in the laser group (P<0.0001). The control group showed negative correlations (P<0.01) between number and thickness, and between number and separation of trabeculae, and a positive correlation between thickness and separation of trabeculae. The laser group showed a significant negative correlation between the number and thickness of trabeculae (P<0.01). The results suggest that LPT is able to accelerate alveolar bone repair after molar extraction, leading to a more homogeneous trabecular configuration represented by thin and close trabeculae. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHEIKHI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodontal surgery, in the posterior site of two jaws (in 6 and 7 teeth, the bone loss was measured from CEJ to the base of alveolar bone, and compared with the radiographic findings of proximal bone loss. Results. The average of distance between CEJ and alveolar bone in 48 surfaces were 4.27 in clinic, 4.80 in panoramic, 2.62 in periapical (bisecting technique, 2.98 in vertical bitewing and 4.05 in panoramic without magnification. Discussion. In this research we cancluded that both techniques (periapical and vertical bitewing are not accurate in detection of proximal bone loss and there was significant difference between quantity of proximal bone in clinical measurment than radiographic measurment and this study showed that the panoramic (specially panoramic without magnification is more careful than other radiographic techniques in detection of proximal bone loss.

  2. Effect of laser phototherapy on human alveolar bone repair: micro tomographic and histomorphometrical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Marcia M. A.; Marques, Márcia M.; Cortes, Arthur R. G.; Horliana, Anna C. R. T.; Moreira, Maria S.; Lascala, Cesar A.

    2015-06-01

    The immediate dental implant placement in the molars region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between the alveolar crest thickness and the dental implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair thus could accelerate the implant placement. Twenty patients were selected for the study. Ten patients were submitted to LPT with GaAlAs diode laser (808nm) during molar extraction, immediately after, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7 days. The irradiations were applied in contact and punctual mode (100mW, 0.04cm2, 0.75J/cm2, 30s per point, 3J per point). The control group (n=10) received the same treatment; however with the power of the laser off. Forty days later samples of the tissue formed inside the sockets were obtained for further microtomography (microCTs) and histomorphometry analyses. Data were compared by the Student t test, whereas those from the different microCT parameters were compared by the Pearson correlation test (pimplant placement.

  3. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Huja, S S; Chien, H-H; Dalstra, M

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effects of transcortical screws on alveolar (bone) ridge preservation following extraction. Four adult beagle dogs had mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. After 6 weeks, using a split-mouth design, two transcortical screws were inserted unilaterally below the alveolar crest on the experimental side in the region of the extraction. The dogs were killed after 12 weeks. The bone at the extraction sites was analyzed using μCT and 3D analysis. A cylindrical core was placed around the actual and a virtual screw placed in the identical location on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental implant placement on both sides, the bone preservation on the experimental side led to a need for a shorter clinical crown compared to the control side. A higher activity level of the bone in the experimental side was demonstrated histologically. In this dog model the insertion of a mini-implant across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant has to be postponed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  5. Outcomes of Alveolar Ridge Preservation With Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Neda; Khoshkam, Vahid; Rafiee, Sahar; Bahrami, Naghmeh; Aslroosta, Hoori

    2018-02-01

    The main focused question of this systematic review was as follows: Does the application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) placed in extraction sockets reduce the alveolar ridge changes? A systematic literature search was performed up to February 2017. Clinical studies published in English were included. Outcome variables of interest were as follows: changes in alveolar ridge width and height, the quality of new bone, patient's safety, adverse events, and postoperative complications. Seven articles were included. Because of the vast heterogeneity and high risk of bias among the studies, performing a meta-analysis deemed not feasible. Application of rhBMP-2 in the extraction socket was more effective in the reduction of ridge width compared with that of ridge height. The superiority of 1.5 mg/mL rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge over the carrier alone on alveolar ridge width/height remodeling was more significant when it was applied in the sockets with ≥50% buccal bone dehiscence. The limited available data showed that rhBMP-2 did not improve the quality of new bone. Antibodies against rhBMP-2 were detected in the serum in 1 trial. Within the limits of this review, 1.5 mg/mL rhBMP-2 might be beneficial for preserving the alveolar ridge width within extraction sockets given as to whether the cost-effectiveness is justifiable. Studies with lower risk of bias should be performed to confirm the above findings.

  6. Combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wonjae; Jang, Yoon-Je; Kyung, Hee-Moon

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress. ITI solid-screw implants, 10 mm in length and 3.3, 4.1, and 4.8 mm in diameter, and the alveolar bone were modeled using axisymmetric finite elements. Four different alveolar ridge geometries were selected for each implant: 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-mm-wide ridges for the 3.3-mm implants; 6-, 7-, 8-, and 9-mm-wide ridges for the 4.1-mm implants; and 7-, 8-, 9-, and 10-mm-wide ridges for the 4.8-mm implants. A nonaxial oblique load of 100 N was applied at 30 degrees to the implant axis. Regression analysis was used to avoid ambiguity when estimating the peak stress occurring at the coronal contact point between the implant and the crestal bone, ie, the singularity point. Peak stresses were dependent on both implant diameter and alveolar ridge width. Substantially lower stresses were recorded around the implants placed in narrower ridges. A regression analysis may be used to quantify the peak stress at the singularity point. An implant with a diameter that is at least half the ridge width is recommended to reduce the stress concentration in the crestal bone.

  7. Analysis of the root position of the maxillary incisors in the alveolar bone using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hee [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Jun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure the buccal bone thickness and angulation of the maxillary incisors and to analyze the correlation between these parameters and the root position in the alveolar bone using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of 398 maxillary central and lateral incisors from 199 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The root position in the alveolar bone was classified as buccal, middle, or palatal, and the buccal type was further classified into subtypes I, II, and III. In addition, the buccolingual inclination of the tooth and buccal bone thickness were evaluated. A majority of the maxillary incisors were positioned more buccally within the alveolar bone, and only 2 lateral incisors (0.5%) were positioned more palatally. The angulation of buccal subtype III was the greatest and that of the middle type was the lowest. Most of the maxillary incisors exhibited a thin facial bone wall, and the lateral incisors had a significantly thinner buccal bone than the central incisors. The buccal bone of buccal subtypes II and III was significantly thinner than that of buccal subtype I. A majority of the maxillary incisor roots were positioned close to the buccal cortical plate and had a thin buccal bone wall. Significant relationships were observed between the root position in the alveolar bone, the angulation of the tooth in the alveolar bone, and buccal bone thickness. CBCT analyses of the buccal bone and sagittal root position are recommended for the selection of the appropriate treatment approach.

  8. A possible etiology for the dilaceration and flexion of permanent tooth roots relative to bone remodeling gradients in alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Standerwick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trauma, altered tooth germ position and delayed tooth eruption have been hypothesized as possible causes of tooth root dilacerations and flexion, however these anatomical variations appear more commonly associated with posterior teeth and absence of traumatic history. The Hypothesis: Postulated is that tooth root dilaceration or flexion may be a result of tooth root sheath displacement due to gradients of bone remodeling present within alveolar bone. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Alveolar bone displays bone remodeling gradients between coronal, apical and basal sections which affect bone plasticity. As a tooth is erupting or experiences delayed eruption, there are other relative dento-skeletal alterations occurring, such as the mesial drift of the dentition and transverse growth of the maxilla. It is plausible that during the physiologic and growth related alteration of the alveolar and basal bones, portions of developing tooth could be found within one or more of the plasticity zones, contributing to alteration of the root sheath and tooth root dilaceration.

  9. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  10. Changes in the fractal dimension, feret diameter, and lacunarity of mandibular alveolar bone during initial healing of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Erinç; Baksı, B Güniz; Sogur, Elif

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the combination of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity, and Feret diameter (FeD) to quantitatively characterize structural changes of mandibular alveolar bone around dental implants during initial healing. Three standard-sized regions of interest (ROIs) (mesial and distal crest and apical area) around implants and three ROIs of the same size in the alveolar bone on the contralateral side were analyzed on digital panoramic images. FD was calculated using the box-counting method, and lacunarity was calculated using the FracLac plugin of Image J software. FeD was measured in the same ROIs. Comparisons of the groups were done with the Dunnett test. Forty-two implants in the posterior mandibles of 21 patients were used for FD measurements. A total of 189 ROIs was segmented into binary images. Mean FD values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 1.26, 1.36, and 1.4, respectively. The mean FD of alveolar bone around premolars/molars was 1.39 for all ROIs. The mean FeD for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants was 7.63, 7.86, and 8.02, respectively, whereas it ranged between 7.88 and 8.13 for premolar teeth. Mean lacunarity values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.48, respectively. Lacunarity values for ROIs around premolars ranged between 0.45 and 0.50. No significant differences were observed in FD, FeD, or lacunarity measurements between ROIs around implants and around teeth. The satisfactory healing of bone following implant placement may be monitored by calculating FD, lacunarity, and FeD using digital panoramic images. Although preliminary, these values may alert the practitioner to any implants with loss of stability.

  11. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite with Granular Form or Porous Scaffold in Canine Alveolar Sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, SEOK JIN; KIM, SE EUN; HAN, TAE SUNG; SON, JUN SIK; KANG, SEONG SOO; CHOI, SEOK HWA

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess bone regeneration using hydroxyapatite (HA). The primary focus was comparison of bone regeneration between granular HA (gHA) forms and porous HA (pHA) scaffold. The extracted canine alveolar sockets were divided with three groups: control, gHA and pHA. Osteogenic effect in the gHA and pHA groups showed bone-specific surface and bone mineral density to be significantly higher than that of the control group (pBone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and amount of connective tissue related to disturbing osseointegration of the gHA group was higher than in the pHA group. Quantity of new bone formation of the pHA group was higher than that of the gHA group. This study demonstrated that gHA and pHA are potentially good bone substitutes for alveolar socket healing. For new bone formation during 8 weeks' post-implantation, HA with porous scaffold was superior to the granular form of HA. PMID:28438860

  12. Alveolar ridge preservation with deproteinized bovine bone graft and collagen membrane and delayed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Guoliang; Hu, Kaijin

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate clinically and radiographically an alveolar ridge, preservation technique with deproteinized bovine bone graft and absorbable collagen membrane and then restoration with delayed implants were done. The study included 30 patients. The trial group's sockets were filled with deproteinized bovine bone graft (Bio-Oss) and covered with absorbable collagen membrane (Bio-Gide). The control group's sockets healed without any treatment. Panoramic radiograph and computed tomography were taken immediately after graft and 3 and 6 months later to evaluate the height, width, and volume change of the alveolar ridge bone. Dental implants were inserted in all sockets at 6 months, and osseointegration condition was evaluated in the following 12 months. All sockets healed uneventfully. In the trial group, the mean (SD) height reduction of the alveolar ridge bone was 1.05 (0.24) mm at 3 months and 1.54 (0.25) mm at 6 months. The width reduction was 1.11 (0.13) mm at 3 months and 1.84 (0.35) mm at 6 months. Bone volume reduction was 193.79 (21.47) mm at 3 months and 262.06 (33.08) mm at 6 months. At the same trend, in the control group, the bone height reduction was 2.12 (0.15) mm at 3 months and 3.26 (0.29) mm at 6 months. The width reduction was 2.72 (0.19) mm at 3 months and 3.56 (0.28) mm at 6 months. Bone volume reduction was 252.19 (37.21) mm at 3 months and 342.32 (36.41) mm at 6 months. There was a significant difference in alveolar ridge bone height, width, and volume reduction in the 2 groups. The osseointegration condition had no significant difference between the 2 groups. This study suggested that the deproteinized bovine bone graft and absorbable collagen membrane were beneficial to preserve the alveolar ridge bone and had no influence on the osseointegration of delayed implant.

  13. [Expression of STAT3 in alveolar bone during orthodontic tooth movement in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Si-Ru; Dai, Qing-Gang; Zhang, Peng; Ha, Na-Yong; Yang, Shu-Liang; Jiang, Ling-Yong

    2016-12-01

    To study the changes of expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Twenty six-week-old SD rats were selected, the upper left first molars were moved by coil spring and lasted for 7 days. The maxillary tissues were obtained at 0, 1, 3, 7 d and subjected to histological study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software package. The main changes in alveolar bone during orthodontic tooth movement included significant increase in osteoblast number and bone formation in the tension area, and bone resorption in the pressure area. The positive cells of osteocalcin in the tension area increased during OTM. The expression of STAT3 increased in the tension area at 3 d and 7 d in comparison with that at 0 d. Orthodontic force can stimulate alveolar bone remolding. The expression of STAT3 in the tension area may have effects on alveolar bone remolding during orthodontic tooth movement.

  14. Effects of estrogen deficiency on microstructural changes in rat alveolar bone proper and periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongshuang; Liu, Lisha; Kang, Chen; Xie, Qi; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ying

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effects of estrogen deficiency on buccal alveolar bone proper and the periodontal ligament in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, compared with rats that had been subjected to sham treatment. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were analyzed using micro‑computed tomography and paraffin sectioning. Sections were stained using hematoxylin and eosin, and tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase. Expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL), dentin matrix protein 1 C‑terminal (DMP1‑C) and osteopontin (OPN) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Histomorphometric analysis of buccal alveolar bone proper samples revealed porotic changes and disorganized bone structure in OVX rats. Furthermore, bone mineral density and pore spacing were significantly lower in OVX rats compared with sham rats. Porosity was significantly higher in OVX rats compared with sham rats (Posteoporosis is capable of changing the structure of buccal alveolar bone proper and the periodontal ligament, which is likely to increase the risk of periodontal disease.

  15. Guided bone regeneration of a pronounced gingivo-alveolar cleft due to orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Maria Letícia B; Moreira, Teresa Cristina; Feres-Filho, Eduardo J

    2006-06-01

    Gingival invagination is a relatively common occurrence following orthodontic closure of extraction sites. The present paper reports a combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment in a patient with a severe gingivo-alveolar cleft due to orthodontic closure of maxillary central incisor extraction space. A definite interdental gingival cleft, extending 8 mm into the alveolar bone, required the correction of the gingival deformity as a first step, followed by guided bone regeneration (GBR). The GBR approach included the emptying of the incisive foramen to approximately 5 mm in depth followed by the insertion of bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite and covering with a bioabsorbable barrier membrane. Six months afterward, the orthodontic therapy was resumed. Radiographs and clinical examination 4 years after the completion of therapy indicates functionally and aesthetically satisfactory and stable results. The present paper illustrates an additional application for the guided bone regeneration technique.

  16. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Delanghe, J.R.; Loos, B.G.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. Material & Methods The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental

  17. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  18. Measurement of maxillary sinus volume and available alveolar bone height using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hak; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To aid in determining the volume of graft bone required before a maxillary sinus lift procedure and compare the alveolar bone height measurements taken by panoramic radiographs to those by CT images. Data obtained by both panoramic radiographs and CT examination of 25 patients were used in this study. Maxillary sinus volumes from the antral floor to heights of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm , were calculated. Alveolar bone height was measured on the panoramic images at each maxillary tooth site and corrected by magnification rate (PBH). Available bone height (ABH) and full bone height (FBH) was measured on reconstructed CT images. PBH was compared with ABH and FBH at the maxillary incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Volumes of the inferior portion of the sinuses were 0.55 {+-} 0.41 cm{sup 3} for 5 mm lifts, 2.11 {+-} 0.68 cm{sup 3} for 10 mm, 4.26 {+-} 1.32 cm{sup 3} for 15 mm, 6.95 {+-} 2.01 cm{sup 3} for 20 mm. For the alveolar bone measurement, measurements by panoramic images were longer than available bone heights determined by CT images at the incisor and canine areas, and shorter than full bone heights on CT images at incisor, premolar, and molar areas (p<0.001). In bone grafting of the maxillary sinus floor, 0,96 cm{sup 3} or more is required for a 5 mm - lift, 2.79 cm{sup 3} or more for a 10 mm - lift, 5.58 cm{sup 3} or more for a 15 mm - lift, and 8.96 cm{sup 3} or more for a 20 mm - lift. Maxillary implant length determined using panoramic radiograph alone could result in underestimation or overestimation, according to the site involved.

  19. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Boziki Xavier do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA as bone substitute materials. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group. After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results: The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05. We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039 in both groups. Conclusion: The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  20. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, André Boziki Xavier do; Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Miguel, Fúlvio Borges; Calasans-Maia, Jose; Calasans-Maia, Monica Diuana

    2018-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA) and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA) as bone substitute materials. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group). After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05). We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039) in both groups. The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  1. Osteoclastogenesis in Local Alveolar Bone in Early Decortication-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Gao, Long-Hua; Liu, Chang; Jiang, Yu-Xi; Qu, Hong; Li, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Jiu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of alveolar decortication on local bone remodeling, and to explore the possible mechanism by which decortication facilitates tooth movement. Forty rabbits were included in the experiment. The left mandible was subjected to decortication-facilitated orthodontics, and the right mandible underwent traditional orthodontics as a control. The animals were sacrificed on the days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14, after undergoing orthodontic procedures. Tooth movement was measured by Micro-CT, and the local periodontal tissues were investigated using H&E, Masson's trichrome and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to bone remodeling in the alveolar bone were analyzed using real-time PCR. On days 3, 5, 7 and 14, tooth movement was statistically accelerated by decortication (P<0.05) and was accompanied by increased hyperemia. Despite the lack of new bone formation in both groups, more osteoclasts were noted in the decorticated group, with two peak counts (P<0.05). The first peak count was consistent with the maximum values of ctsk and TRAP expression, and the second peak counts accompanied the maximum nfatc1 and jdp2 expression. The increased fra2 expression and the ratio of rankl/opg also accompanied the second peak counts. Following alveolar decortication, osteoclastogenesis was initially induced to a greater degree than the new bone formation which was thought to have caused a regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). The amount of steoclastogenesis in the decorticated alveolar bone was found to have two peaks, perhaps due to attenuated local resistance. The first peak count in osteoclasts may have been due to previously existing osteoclast precursors, whereas the second may represent the differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells which came from circulation as the result of hyperemia.

  2. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.

  4. Assessment of alveolar bone height and width using 64-MDCT examination for dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Kotaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Sekiya, Keiko; Mori, Shintaro; Sakayanagi, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    There have been many reports showing the usefulness of CT examinations for preoperative dental implant treatment, and some reports on clinical statistics using CT examinations. However, there have been few reports on alveolar bone height and width of over 1,000 Japanese cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone height and width of 4,123 sites in 1,056 Japanese cases using preoperative CT examinations. The subjects consisted of 4,123 regions in 1,056 cases (370 males and 686 females, mean age 56.1 years old, range 15-87) of preoperative CT examinations conducted from January 2008 to March 2009. The CT examinations were performed using the Aquilion TM 64 (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation) as the multi detector row CT (MDCT) unit, and ZIOSTATION (ZIOSOFT) as the workstation. The CT images were displayed on the workstation, and the alveolar bone height and width were measured to one decimal place (rounded off to two decimal places). The average alveolar bone height was 14.8 mm (SD±3.8) in the upper anterior area, 11.2 mm (SD±5.5) in the upper premolar area, 6.8 mm (SD±5.4) in the upper molar area, 19.5 mm (SD±5.4) in the lower anterior area, 14.2 mm (SD±3.9) in the lower premolar area, and 13.4 mm (SD±3.4) in the lower molar area. The average alveolar bone width was 4.3 mm (SD±1.9) in the anterior area, 5.7 mm (SD±2.3) in the upper premolar area, 7.9 mm (SD±3.1) in the upper molar area, 4.8 mm (SD±2.1) in the lower anterior area, 5.9 mm (SD±2.2) in the lower premolar area, and 6.9 mm (SD±2.5) in the lower molar area. Our results using preoperative CT examinations indicated that many of the Japanese cases had insufficient alveolar bone height and width for dental implants. (author)

  5. Clinical usefulness of dental X-ray computed tomography for postoperative assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kazuhide; Hamada, Yoshiki; Kondoh, Toshirou; Ishii, Hiroaki; Sonoyama, Tomoo; Kawarada, Takashi; Seto, Kanichi

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the clinical usefulness of dental X-ray computed tomography (CT) for postoperative assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting was investigated. Nineteen bone-grafted alveolar clefts in 15 patients with cleft lip and palate were studied. All bone bridges were examined by dental three-dimensional (3D)-CT (PSR 9000: Asahi Roentgen, Kyoto, Japan). The postoperative 3D morphology of the bone bridges was easily recognized. Dental 3D-CT images were suggested to be useful for assessment before installation of dental implants in bone bridges. In addition, the status of bone surrounding the installed dental implants and the periodontal space of teeth adjacent to the cleft could be clearly evaluated. In conclusion, dental 3D-CT provides clinically valuable information for the postoperative assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  6. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, D.M.J.; Cheung, Y.W.; Ziukaite, L.; Ince, C.; van den Akker, H.P.; Lindeboom, J.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary

  7. Early secondary closure of alveolar clefts with mandibular symphyseal bone grafts and beta-tri calcium phosphate (beta-TCP).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, W.L.J.; Siebers, T.J.H.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Berge, S.J.; Meijer, G.J.; Borstlap, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar reconstruction of bony defects in cleft lip and palate patients is a widely accepted treatment regimen for which multiple donor sites can be used. For 25 years, autogeneous bicortical mandibular symphyseal bone grafts have been used at the authors' centre. In cases in which the alveolar

  8. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  9. Modeling of Trabecular Bone and Lamina Dura Following Selective Alveolar Decortication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaoun, Jean-David; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Turner, John W.; Carvalho, Roberto S.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Modifying the balance between resorption and apposition through selectively injuring the cortical plate of the alveolus has been an approach to speed tooth movement and is referred to as periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. The aim of this study was to investigate the alveolar response to corticotomy as a function of time and proximity to the surgical injury in a rat model. Methods: Maxillary buccal and lingual cortical plates were injured in 36 healthy adult rats adjacent to the upper left first molars. Twenty-four animals were euthanized at 3, 7, or 11 weeks. In one group, the maxillae were removed and stripped of soft tissues, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to study alveolar spongiosa and periodontal ligament (PDL) modeling dynamics. Catabolic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive osteoclasts and preosteoclasts. Anabolic actions were measured using a fluorescent vital bone stain series followed by sacrifice at 30 and 51 days. To further analyze the new bone formation, a separate group of animals were fed with calcein fluorescent stain and processed for non-decalcified fluorescent stain histology. Results: At 3 weeks, the surgery group had significantly (P <0.05) less calcified spongiosa bone surface, greater periodontal ligament surface, higher osteoclast number, and greater lamina dura apposition width. The catabolic activity (osteoclast count) and anabolic activity (apposition rate) were three-fold greater, calcified spongiosa decreased by two-fold, and PDL surface increased by two-fold. Surgical injury to the alveolus that induced a significant increase in tissue turnover by week 3 dissipated to a steady state by postoperative week 11. The impact of the injury was localized to the area immediately adjacent to the decortication injury. Conclusion: Selective alveolar decortication induced increased turnover of alveolar spongiosa, and the activity was localized; dramatic escalation of

  10. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a potent immunoregulator of the periodontal host defense system and alveolar bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, B A; Novince, C M; Kirkwood, K L

    2016-06-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a perio-pathogenic bacteria that has long been associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The mechanisms of its pathogenicity have been studied in humans and preclinical experimental models. Although different serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans have differential virulence factor expression, A. actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), leukotoxin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been most extensively studied in the context of modulating the host immune response. Following colonization and attachment in the oral cavity, A. actinomycetemcomitans employs CDT, leukotoxin, and LPS to evade host innate defense mechanisms and drive a pathophysiologic inflammatory response. This supra-physiologic immune response state perturbs normal periodontal tissue remodeling/turnover and ultimately has catabolic effects on periodontal tissue homeostasis. In this review, we have divided the host response into two systems: non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic. Non-hematopoietic barriers include epithelium and fibroblasts that initiate the innate immune host response. The hematopoietic system contains lymphoid and myeloid-derived cell lineages that are responsible for expanding the immune response and driving the pathophysiologic inflammatory state in the local periodontal microenvironment. Effector systems and signaling transduction pathways activated and utilized in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans will be discussed to further delineate immune cell mechanisms during A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Finally, we will discuss the osteo-immunomodulatory effects induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans and dissect the catabolic disruption of balanced osteoclast-osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling, which subsequently leads to net alveolar bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Polyhedral microcrystals encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Mizoguchi, Megumi; Kotani, Eiji; Oda, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Segami, Natsuki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-08-01

    Atelocollagen sponges incorporating polyhedra encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were implanted into lateral bone defects in the mandible. Half of the bone defects on the left side were treated with atelocollagen sponges containing 1.8 × 10(7) BMP-2 polyhedra, and half were treated with sponges containing 3.6 × 10(6) BMP-2 polyhedra. As controls, we treated the right-side bone defects in each animal with an atelocollagen sponge containing 5 µg of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or 1.8 × 10(7) empty polyhedral. After a healing period of six months, whole mandibles were removed for micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological analyses. Micro-CT images showed that more bone had formed at all experimental sites than at control sites. However, the density of the new bone was not significantly higher at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing BMP-2 polyhedra than at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 or empty polyhedra. Histological examination confirmed that the BMP-2 polyhedra almost entirely replaced the atelocollagen sponges and connected the original bone with the regenerated bone. These results show that the BMP-2 delivery system facilitates the regeneration of new bone in the mandibular alveolar bone ridge and has an advance in the technology of bone regeneration for implant site development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Assessment of vascularity in irradiated and nonirradiated maxillary and mandibular minipig alveolar bone using laser doppler flowmetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Laurin, T.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this animal study was to confirm that laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a reproducible method for the assessment of maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone vascularity and that there is less vascularity in irradiated mandibular and maxillary bone compared to nonirradiated bone.

  13. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations

  14. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I. Methodologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations. 31 refs.

  15. Automated method for measuring alveolar bone resorption by three-dimensional image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a method for estimating regions of alveolar bone resorption and automatically measuring resorption depth using dental 3-D CT images by applying 3-D image processing techniques. The depth of alveolar bone resorption is an important index of the severity of periodontitis. Conventional methods for evaluating alveolar bone resorption have suffered from the limitations of not permitting inspection on the interproximal sides and not providing a 3-D description of resorption. In our proposed method, dental 3-D X-ray CT images are used to estimate the region of resorption and to automatically measure the resorption depth around the tooth of interest. Detailed information concerning the distribution of resorption can be obtained using this method. Regions of resorption are estimated using morphological operations and labeling. Limits are established by fitting convex hulls to the region of the target tooth before searching for the lowest points of resorption. The resorption depth is calculated as the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the lowest point of resorption. The experimental results and comparison of these results against measurements obtained by experts using cross-sectional CT images and the findings of clinical examination showed that the proposed method can be used to measure the resorption depth around the entire tooth automatically. (author)

  16. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Marco; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Muttini, Aurelio; Checchi, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit.

  17. Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy With a Herbal Extract on Alveolar Bone Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Anıl; Elmas, Çiğdem; Seymen, Cemile Merve; Peker, Veysel Tuncay; Altunkaynak, Bülent; Güngör, Mehmet Nadir

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser used in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with the application of Mecsina Hemostopper on mandibular alveolar bone healing. Standard semispherical bone defects were created in left mandibular diastema sites of 32 female Long-Evans rats. Experimental animals were allocated to 1 of 4 groups: control group (no treatment), laser group (GaAlAs LLLT), Mecsina group, and laser-Mecsina combination group. Liquid Mecsina 0.01 mL was applied to the bone defects. Laser treatment was performed for 7 days after surgery at an energy dose of 10 J/cm 2 . All animals were sacrificed to observe hard tissue healing histologically, immunohistochemically, and radiologically at 30 days after surgery. Histologic assessment showed significantly more calcified tissue areas and significantly more osteoblast cells in the laser and laser-Mecsina groups than in the other groups (P < .01). Qualitative morphologic assessment showed that more bone tissue was present in the laser-Mecsina group than in the other groups. This study showed that LLLT, Mecsina application, and combined treatments were effective in healing alveolar bone among all tested treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alveolar socket preservation technique: Effect of biomaterial on bone regenerative pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canullo, Luigi; Pellegrini, Gaia; Canciani, Elena; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Galliera, Emanuela; Dellavia, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    There is a lack of evidence in the literature on the correlation between histomorphometric findings and gene/protein expression markers for bone metabolism. Evaluation of the histological features, changes in protein expression and gene activation for specific markers of bone metabolism following application of the alveolar ridge preservation technique with magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite (MgHA). For each patient (n=15), bone samples were harvested after tooth extraction and processed for immunohistochemical and gene expression analysis (T0). Then, all alveolar sockets were grafted with MgHA. After 4 months (T1), bone samples were harvested for histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical and gene expression analysis. Gene expression and protein expression were evaluated for: RANK, RANKL, OPG, IL-6, TNF-α. For all markers, gene expression increased, but not significantly, from T0 to T1. The mean RANKL/OPG ratio was 1.88±1.24. Protein expression increased significantly (ppreservation with MgHA, markers for bone catabolism were activated. No significant correlation was found between histomorphometrical features of the regenerated tissue and protein expression at baseline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Alveolar bone dynamics in osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene or alendronate: confocal microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Grossi-Oliveira, Gustavo Augusto; Okamoto, Tetuo; Okamoto, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis were examined. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups according to the induction of osteoporosis and drugs administered: OG, osteoporotic rats without treatment (negative control); SG, rats which underwent sham surgery ovariectomy (SHAM); alendronate (AG), osteoporotic rats treated with alendronate; and RG, osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene (RG). On the 8th day after ovariectomy and SHAM surgeries, drug therapy was started with AG or RG. On the 52nd day, 20 mg/kg calcein was administered to all of the rats, and on the 80th day, 20 mg/kg alizarin red was administered. Euthanasia was performed on the 98th day. The bone area marked by fluorochromes was calculated and data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test and Tukey's post-hoc test (p<0.05). The comparison of the induced osteoporosis groups showed no statistically significant differences in bone turnover only between RG and SG (p=0.074) and AG and OG (p=0.138). All other comparisons showed significant differences (p<0.001). The largest bone turnover was observed in RG and SG groups. RG was the medication that improved the dynamics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis, resembling that of healthy rats.

  20. The Impact of Alveolar Bone Grafting on Cleft Lip and Palate: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby J. Gillgras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting between the ages of nine years to eleven years is a routine procedure for children with a cleft involving the alveolus. It is believed to encourage dental development and subsequent treatment within the region of the cleft and to improve nasolabial aesthetics. The aims of this article are to review the literature as to its impact on dental development and subsequent treatment, nasolabial aesthetics and the nasal airway. Methods: An electronic search was conducted using Medline and Embase, with no restriction as to date of publication, study design or language. Results: The results suggest that secondary alveolar bone grafting when carried out at the appropriate time has significant benefits and for subsequent dental treatment, often allows space closure of adjacent teeth and eliminating the need for a prosthesis. Although it has an effect of nasolabial aesthetics it is equivocal as to whether this improves nasolabial aesthetics or merely improves the likelihood of aesthetic improvement of subsequent nasal surgery. Nasal obstruction is a significant issue in patients with cleft lip and palate with smaller nasal volume and mean cross-sectional area. It would appear that there is a reduction in the growth of the airway after an age that approximates to the timing for secondary alveolar grafting, although there are no studies that can refute or confirm its actual impact. Conclusions: Alveolar bone grafting between the ages of 9 – 11 years appears to produce clear benefits in terms of dental development and subsequent dental treatment. Its impact on nasolabial aesthetics appear equivocal as although there are changes in some landmarks post-surgery it is unclear as to whether these changes produce a benefit in terms of aesthetics for the patient.

  1. Age-related new bone formation following the use of cancellous bone-block allografts for reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Joseph; Kolerman, Roni; Chaushu, Liat; Vered, Marilena; Naishlos, Sarit; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2018-02-01

    An age-related decrease in the number of osteogenic progenitor cells may compromise bone augmentation. Histomorphometrical assessment of age-related new bone formation, following atrophic alveolar ridge reconstruction, using cancellous bone-block allografts. Ninety-three consecutive patients (58 females and 35 males) were referred for implant-supported restoration of 122 severe atrophic alveolar ridges. Alveolar ridge deficiency locations were classified as anterior maxilla (n = 58), posterior maxilla (n= 32), and posterior mandible (n = 32). A bony deficiency of at least 3 mm horizontally and up to 3 mm vertically according to computerized tomography (CT) in the posterior mandible and anterior maxilla, served as inclusion criteria. In the posterior maxilla, a residual alveolar ridge up to 4 mm vertically according to CT served as inclusion criteria. Augmentation was performed by the use of cancellous bone-block allografts. Bone biopsies (9-month posterior maxilla, 4 months anterior maxilla and posterior mandible) of young (≤40 years) versus older (>40 years) patients were histomorphometrically evaluated. In the posterior maxilla, no statistically significant histomorphometric differences were noted. While at the anterior maxilla and posterior mandible, statistically significant more newly formed bone was found in young versus older individuals, respectively (38.6% vs 19.8%, P = 0.04 and 69% vs 31%, P = .05). New bone formation following residual alveolar ridge bone grafting is age-related. Longer bone consolidation and healing time may be recommended for older individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Clinical observation of alveolar bone status of ankylos dental implants with completion of restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tie; Li, Yinghua; Li, Zejian; Lai, Renfa

    2012-06-01

    To provide basis for clinical application of ANKYLOS dental implants by following up alveolar bone status of 318 pieces of restored ANKYLOS dental implants. Between February 2008 and August 2009, 170 patients with dentition defect underwent placement of ANKYLOS dental implants (318 pieces). There were 74 males (133 pieces) and 96 females (185 pieces) with an average age of 43.8 years (range, 23-68 years). After operation, the periapical X-ray films were taken to observe osseointegration around the neck of implant, alveolar bone resorption, and survival of implants. All patients were followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. There were 9 failure implants with a total dental implants survival rate of 97.17% (309/318): 3 at 6 months, 4 at 6-12 months, and 2 at 12-24 months, showing no significant difference in dental implants survival rate among 3 time points (chi2=0.470 3, P=0.492 8). New bone formed around the neck of implant in 4 cases at 6 months and in 31 cases at 12 months; at 6, 12, and 24 months, the bone increase was (0.392 7 +/- 0.217 4), (0.633 5 +/- 0.202 1), and (0.709 0 +/- 0.199 1) mm, respectively, showing significant differences among 3 time points (P ANKYLOS dental implant, alveolar bone status is good and the implant success rate is high during short-term follow-up. But further observation and study are required for long-term effectivness.

  3. Effect of Alveolar Segmental Sandwich Osteotomy on Alveolar Height: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Karan S; Prasad, Kavitha; Shetty, Vibha; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Lalitha, R M; Dexith, Jayashree; Munoyath, Sejal K; Kumar, Vineeth

    2017-12-01

    Bone loss following extraction is maximum in horizontal dimension. Height is also reduced which is pronounced on the buccal aspect. Various surgical procedures are available to correct the bone volume viz. GBR, onlay bone grafting, alveolar distraction and sandwich osteotomy. Sandwich osteotomy has been found to increase the vertical alveolar bone height successfully. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of alveolar segmental sandwich osteotomy on alveolar height and crestal width. A prospective study was undertaken from December 2012 to August 2014. Seven patients with 12 implant sites with a mean age of 36 years were recruited. All seven patients with 12 implant sites underwent alveolar segmental sandwich osteotomy and interpositional bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was assessed radiographically preoperatively, immediate post-op, and at 3 months post-op. Alveolar bone width was assessed radiographically preoperatively and at 3 months post-op. Statistical significance was inferred at p  Sandwich osteotomy can be used as an alternative technique to increase alveolar bone height prior to implant placement. Moderate alveolar deficiency can be predictably corrected by this technique.

  4. Reinforcing the Mucoperiosteal Pocket with the Scarpa Fascia Graft in Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting: A Retrospective Controlled Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonic, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Chien-Jung Pai, Betty; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2017-10-01

    Secondary alveolar bone grafting is the gold standard for the treatment of alveolar clefts in cleft lip and palate patients. The authors present a modified method using a Scarpa fascia graft that is placed deep into the mucoperiosteal pocket for watertight sealing of the bone graft chamber and limiting the graft position to the alveolar region for bony stability and tooth support. The outcome was assessed for clinical success in terms of bone graft stability and infection rate. Seventy-four unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients were enrolled in this retrospective study consisting of equal-size Scarpa fascia and control groups of consecutive unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients undergoing secondary alveolar bone grafting. Occlusal radiographs of the alveolar cleft taken at least 1 year postoperatively were evaluated for Spearman correlated Bergland and Witherow scales. Statistical evaluation was conducted using t test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. The clinical success rate (Bergland types I and II) of the Scarpa fascia procedure was significantly higher (67.6 versus 94.6 percent, respectively), with a significantly lower infection rate (16.2 versus 2.7 percent, respectively) and a high correlation of Bergland and Witherow scales (0.964; p fascia group. The authors' new method of alveolar bone grafting with the Scarpa fascia graft is safe and effective, and has one of the highest documented success rates. Therapeutic, III.

  5. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  6. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dejan; Jokanović, Vukoman; Petrović, Bojan; Perić, Tamara; Vukomanović, Biserka

    2014-05-01

    Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material's particles took place after 25 weeks. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects.

  7. Menopausal bone loss and estrogen replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meema, S; Meema, H E

    1976-07-01

    Throughout adult life the bone mineral mass of the radius is greater in males than in females. In males, it decreases after 60 years of age, while in females, it decreases earlier, at approximately 50 years, and the loss is greater. At the average age of 67 years, one half of the normal white female population has less than the normal amount of bone in the radius. Premenopausal women over the age of 50 do not show any decline of bone mineral mass, while in postmenopausal women, regardless of age, there is a loss of bone mass related to the number of years after menopause. Castrated women have significantly less bone mass than premenopausal women of the same average age. No decrease in cortical thickness of the radius was found in oophorectomized women treated with estrogens after castration. In a long-term, follow-up study, untreated postmenopausal women (after a natural or an artifical menopause) showed a significant loss of bone mass, while estrogen-treated, postmenopausal women showed no such loss. Estrogen treatment thus appears to prevent postmenopausal bone loss.

  8. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  9. Alveolar bone healing process in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A radiographic densitometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Natalia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Garcia, Lourdes Maria Gonzáles; Micaroni, Samuel; Carvalho, Antonio Augusto Ferreira de; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Okamoto, Roberta; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Antoniali, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. If undiagnosed or untreated, this pathology represents a systemic risk factor and offers unfavorable conditions for dental treatments, especially those requiring bone healing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate, by analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), that the alveolar bone healing process is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar rats and SHRs were submitted to extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after surgery. Right maxillae were collected, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. BMD was expressed as minimum (min), middle (med) and maximum (max) in the medium (MT) and apical (AT) thirds of the dental alveolus. The results were compared across days and groups. Wistar showed difference in med and max BMD in the MT between 7 and 28 and also between 14 and 28 days. The AT exhibited significant difference in med and min BMD between 7 and 28 days, as well as difference in min BMD between 28 and 42 days. SHRs showed lower med BMD in the MT at 28 days when compared to 21 and 42 days. Differences were observed across groups in med and min BMD at day 28 in the MT and AT; and in max BMD at 14, 21 and 42 days in the MT. These results suggest that the alveolar bone healing process is delayed in SHRs comparing with Wistar rats.

  10. Alveolar socket preservation with demineralised bovine bone mineral and a collagen matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Carlo; Poli, Pier Paolo; Deflorian, Matteo; Testori, Tiziano; Mandelli, Federico; Nagursky, Heiner; Vinci, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the healing of post-extraction sockets following alveolar ridge preservation clinically, radiologically, and histologically. Overall, 7 extraction sockets in 7 patients were grafted with demineralised bovine bone mineral and covered with a porcine-derived non-crosslinked collagen matrix (CM). Soft tissue healing was clinically evaluated on the basis of a specific healing index. Horizontal and vertical ridge dimensional changes were assessed clinically and radiographically at baseline and 6 months after implant placement. For histological and histomorphometric analysis, bone biopsies were harvested from the augmented sites during implant surgery 6 months after the socket preservation procedure. Clinically, healing proceeded uneventfully in all the sockets. A trend towards reduced horizontal and vertical socket dimensions was observed from baseline to the final examination. The mean width and height of resorption were 1.21 mm ( P =0.005) and 0.46 mm ( P =0.004), respectively. Histologically, residual xenograft particles (31.97%±3.52%) were surrounded by either newly formed bone (16.02%±7.06%) or connective tissue (50.67%±8.42%) without fibrous encapsulation. The CM underwent a physiological substitution process in favour of well-vascularised collagen-rich connective tissue. Socket preservation using demineralised bovine bone mineral in combination with CM provided stable dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge associated with good re-epithelialisation of the soft tissues during a 6-month healing period.

  11. Policosanol prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N; González, J

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, abnormal bone architecture and increased fracture risk. Ovariectomy impairs bone mass and metabolism in rats and ovariectomized rats are considered as a suitable model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mevalonate is required for producing lipoids that are important in osteoclast activity and thus drugs affecting mevalonate production can prevent bone loss in rodents. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through an indirect regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether policosanol could prevent bone loss in the bones of ovariectomized rats by comparing its effects with those induced by estradiol. Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in four groups: a sham-operated group treated with Tween/H2O vehicle and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg/day) or policosanol (50 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 3 months. At treatment completion the rats were sacrificed, their bones removed and variables of bone resorption and formation were investigated by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy increased trabecular separation but diminished the number and thickness of trabecules. Estradiol and policosanol prevented these effects compared with ovariectomized controls. Both treatments also prevented an increase in the number of osteoclasts and their surface area induced by ovariectomy. Estradiol, but not policosanol, significantly prevented an increase of osteoblast surface area compared with ovariectomized controls. In conclusion, policosanol prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it should be potentially useful in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  12. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning.

  13. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction in an experimental periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lihua; Li, Chengzhang; Cai, Cia; Xiang, Junbo; Cao, Zhengguo

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: CypA is able to regulate inflammatory responses and MMPs production via interaction with its cell surface receptor, EMMPRIN. This study aimed to address the possible association of CypA with pathological inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues, and whether CypA-EMMPRIN interaction exists in periodontitis. Materials and methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligation according to our previous method. Histological and radiographic examinations were performed. Western blot was used to detect CypA and EMMPRIN expressions in gingival tissues. Immunohistochemistry was applied for CypA, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, as well as cell markers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophil. CypA expression, alveolar bone loss, and inflammatory infiltrations were quantified followed by correlation analyses. Results: Western blot revealed that CypA and EMMRPIN expressions were dramatically elevated in inflamed gingival tissues (ligature group) as compared to healthy gingival tissues (control group). The enhanced CypA and EMMPRIN expressions were highly consistent in cell localization on seriate sections. They were permanently co-localized in infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as osteoclasts and osteoblasts in interradicular bone, but rarely expressed by infiltrating neutrophils. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions were also sharply increased in inflamed gingiva. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mainly over-expressed by macrophages, while MMP-1 was over-produced by fibroblasts and infiltrating cells. The number of CypA-positive cells was strongly correlated with the ACJ-AC distance (r = 0.839, p = 0.000), the number of macrophages (r = 0.972, p = 0.000), and the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.951, p = 0.000). Conclusion: CypA is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction of periodontitis. CypA-EMMPRIN interaction may exist in these pathological processes.

  14. Alveolar Bone Morphology Following Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics: A Clinical and Radiographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackartchi, Tali; Barkana, Idit; Klinger, Avigdor

    The aim of this study was to analyze alveolar bone morphology following periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. Treated patients were called for a full periodontal examination and a cone beam computed tomography scan. Mean treatment time was 6.08 months. Mean probing pocket depth was 2.7 mm. No gingival recessions were noted. In the maxilla, buccal plate thickness was 0.48 to 2.14 mm. In the mandible, bone thickness was 0.2 to 1.82 mm. Root fenestrations and dehiscences were present in up to 40% of the anterior teeth. Although clinical outcomes were favorable, due to the presence of multiple posttreatment bone fenestrations and dehiscences, a revision of the treatment protocol might be considered.

  15. Autogenous Partial Bone Chip Grafting on the Exposed Inferior Alveolar Nerve After Cystic Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi Hyun; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Kim, Soung Min; Lee, Suk Keun

    2018-03-01

    This prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of the new approach of partial autogenous bone chip grafts for the treatment of mandibular cystic lesions related to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). A total of 38 patients treated for mandibular cysts or benign tumors were included in this prospective study and subsequently divided into 3 groups depending on the bone grafting method used: cystic enucleation without a bone graft (group 1), partial bone chip graft covering the exposed IAN (group 2), and autogenous bone graft covering the entire defect (group 3). We evaluated the symptoms, clinical signs, and radiographic changes using dental panorama preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographic densities were compared using Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation with SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Radiopacities were the most increased at 1 year postoperative in group 3; groups 2 and 3 did not show statistically significant differences, whereas groups 1 and 3 were statistically significant. In terms of radiographic bone healing with clinical regeneration of the exposed IAN, healing occurred in all patients, although the best healing was achieved in group 2.This autogenous partial bone chip grafting procedure to cover the exposed IAN is suggested as a new surgical protocol for the treatment of cystic lesions associated with the IAN.

  16. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  17. [Treatment of a patient with considerably thin alveolar bone and severe open bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiya, Zhuo; Zhou, Hu; Qing, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 25-year-old woman with a severe open bite. This patient presented a grade Ⅲ open bite, considerably thin alveolar bone, and evident labial buccal and lingual root form. The open bite was corrected by fixed orthodontic treatment and masticatory exercises. However, the increased pressure in the labial muscle caused by lip muscle exercise suppressed the canines, which resulted in the protrusion of the apices of canine roots out of the alveolar bone. Afterward, HX brackets, instead of self-locking, were used and bonded reversely in the occlusal-gingival direction on the upper canines. The lip muscle exercises were decreased. After adjustment, the roots penetrated back into the cancellous bone, the severe open bite was corrected, and a normal overbite and overjet were achieved. ClassⅠcanine and molar relationships were established. The masticatory function and profile were both considerably improved. This case report showed that a severe nonskeletal open bite can be corrected using orthodontic treatments combined with masticatory exercises.

  18. Relationship between the morphologic features of alveolar trabecular bone and systemic osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jin; Chang, Hoon Sang; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary use of morphologic operation (MO) in analyzing trabecular pattern of alveolar bone for the predicting systemic osteoporosis. Study subjects consisted of 35 females (average age 48.5 years) and 25 males (average age 25.8 years). Bone mineral density BMD (grams/cm) of lumbar spine and proximal femur of these subjects were measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected from the digitized peri apical radiographs of subjects' posterior jaw. A custom computer program processed morphology operations of ROIs. We compared mean values of 11 MO variables according to the osteoporotic group divided by the T-scores of DEXA. We also studied correlation between radiographic density and these MO variables. The mean radiographic densities insignificantly correlated with MO variables. There were statistically significant differences among the values of 9 MO variables according to the osteoporotic group. Morphologic operation can be effective in analyzing trabecular pattern of alveolar bone for the predicting osteoporosis.

  19. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  20. Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R H LeBlanc

    Full Text Available Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone

  1. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  2. Marginal bone loss in implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Fernández-Jiménez, Andrés; O'Valle, Francisco; Silvestre, Francisco J; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Monje, Alberto; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vertical and horizontal graft bone resorption (GR) in grafted maxillary sinuses and the marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants placed in the sinuses with different prosthetic connections and to determine the effect of other clinical factors on these tissue responses at 6 and 18 months postloading. A total of 254 implants were placed in 150 grafted maxillary sinuses of 101 patients (51.5% female) with mean age of 52.2 years (range, 32-82 years). GR and MBL measurements were made in implants placed with two different prosthetic connections (internal and external) at 6 and 18 months postloading. The complex samples general linear model was used to analyze the influence of patient age, gender, smoking habit, history of periodontal disease, implantation timing (simultaneous vs deferred), and prosthetic abutment length on radiographic GR and MBL values. At 18 months postloading, the MBL ranged from 0 mm to 5.89 mm; less than 1 mm was lost around 49.0% (mesial) and 44.3% (distal) of the implants, while no bone was lost around 32.9% (mesial) and 26.7% (distal). The GR was significantly affected by smoking, remnant alveolar bone height, graft length, graft height, gender, and age, and it significantly decreased over time. The MBL was influenced by the type of connection, implantation timing, and prosthetic abutment length. The MBL was greater with longer postloading interval and higher patient age and in smokers. Resorption of grafts that combine autogenous cortical bone with anorganic bovine bone is dependent on the anatomic features of the sinus and is not affected by the time elapsed after the first 6 months. The MBL in implants placed in these grafted areas is time dependent and mainly related to potentially modifiable clinical decisions and patient habits. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Enhancement of the repair of dog alveolar cleft by an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanzheng, Chen; Yan, Gao; Ting, Li; Yanjie, Fu; Peng, Wu; Nan, Bai

    2015-05-01

    Autologous bone graft has been regarded as the criterion standard for the repair of alveolar cleft. However, the most prominent issue in alveolar cleft treatment is the high absorption rate of the bone graft. The authors' objective was to investigate the effects of an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture on the repair of dog alveolar cleft. Twenty beagle dogs with unilateral alveolar clefts created by surgery were divided randomly into four groups: group A underwent repair with an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture; group B underwent repair with autologous iliac bone and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; group C underwent repair with autologous iliac bone and platelet-rich fibrin; and group D underwent repair with autologous iliac bone as the control. One day and 6 months after transplantation, the transplant volumes and bone mineral density were assessed by quantitative computed tomography. All of the transplants were harvested for hematoxylin and eosin staining 6 months later. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin transplants formed the greatest amounts of new bone among the four groups. The new bone formed an extensive union with the underlying maxilla in groups A, B, and C. Transplants with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich fibrin, and their mixture retained the majority of their initial volume, whereas the transplants in the control group showed the highest absorption rate. Bone mineral density of transplants with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich fibrin, and their mixture 6 months later was significantly higher than in the control group (p bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin mixed transplants. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the structure of new bones formed the best in group A. Both bone marrow

  4. A Semi-automatic Algorithm for Preliminary Assessment of Labial Gingiva and Alveolar Bone Thickness of Maxillary Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hong; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Lu, Yongning; Ong, Sim-Heng; Wang, Hom-Lay; Ko, Eng Hong; Chang, Po-Chun

    Soft and hard tissue volumes are critical for implant placement and long-term stability. Although the literature has adequately addressed tissue biotypes of Western populations, pertinent information about Asian populations is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the soft and hard tissue profiles of the maxillary anterior teeth of the Taiwanese population using a semi-automatic algorithm. Cone beam computed tomography images of 11 adults with well-aligned maxillary anterior teeth were overlaid with those of cast models, based on the tooth crowns manually outlined by two independent observers. Each tooth was digitally trisected mesiodistally and apicocoronally. The thicknesses of the labial gingiva and alveolar bone were measured using a customized software program. No obvious difference between the observers was noted regarding the dimension of tooth crowns. The average thicknesses of the labial gingiva, the labial alveolar bone, and the palatal alveolar bone were 1.76 ± 0.11 mm, 1.02 ± 0.12 mm, and 1.80 ± 0.31 mm, respectively, with no significant differences between teeth. All parameters were thicker in the apical region than in the cervical region, and the alveolar bone was thinner in the midlabial region of incisors than in the interproximal regions. The thinnest areas were the midcervical compartment of the right central incisor (0.53 ± 0.33 mm) for the labial gingiva, the midcervical compartment of the right lateral incisor (0.23 ± 0.10 mm) for the labial alveolar bone, and the mesiocervical compartment of the left central incisor (0.33 ± 0.09 mm) for the palatal alveolar bone. This study presents an objective and comprehensive methodology for evaluating the soft and hard tissue profiles of maxillary anterior teeth and may be of value for presurgical planning for immediate implant placement. The results suggest that profiles of the Taiwanese subjects are similar to profiles of Western populations.

  5. Assessment of the changes in alveolar bone quality after fixed orthodontic therapy: A trabecular structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth displacement changes the periodontium. The aim of orthodontic treatment is desired tooth movement with minimum side effects on the alveolar bone quality. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of alveolar trabeculation in children, young adults and adults and the two genders. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 63 patients who had been treated in Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, were chosen with convenient sampling method. They were divided into three groups based on their age. Their digitized panoramic radiographs (PRs were evaluated at six interdental sites from the mesial aspect of the mandibular second molars to the distal aspect of the mandibular first premolars using a visual index. The trabeculation pattern was assigned as either dense (score 3, dense-sparse (score 2 or sparse (score 1. Data were imported to SPSS. Mean of the scores before treatment (score B and mean of them after treatment (score A were compared for each group with paired t-test. Changes between score B and sore A of the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. Mean score A was significantly higher than mean score B in children (P = 0.001. In contrast, mean score A was significantly lower than mean score B in young adults (P = 0.003. Conclusion. Orthodontists should be cautious when treating young adults and adults regarding the probable, yet possibly temporary, negative effects of orthodontic therapy on the alveolar bone quality.

  6. Identification of genes differentially regulated in rat alveolar bone wound healing by subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, T; Myokai, F; Shiomi, N; Yamashiro, K; Yamamoto, T; Murayama, Y; Arai, H; Nishimura, F; Takashiba, S

    2004-07-01

    Periodontal healing requires the participation of regulatory molecules, cells, and scaffold or matrix. Here, we hypothesized that a certain set of genes is expressed in alveolar bone wound healing. Reciprocal subtraction gave 400 clones from the injured alveolar bone of Wistar rats. Identification of 34 genes and analysis of their expression in injured tissue revealed several clusters of unique gene regulation patterns, including the up-regulation at 1 wk of cytochrome c oxidase regulating electron transfer and energy metabolism, presumably occurring at the site of inflammation; up-regulation at 2.5 wks of pro-alpha-2 type I collagen involving the formation of a connective tissue structure; and up-regulation at 1 and 2 wks and down-regulation at 2.5 and 4 wks of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase l3 involving cell cycle, DNA repair, and stress response. The differential expression of genes may be associated with the processes of inflammation, wound contraction, and formation of a connective tissue structure.

  7. Evaluation of unilateral cleft lip and palate using anthropometry measurements post-alveolar bone grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorangkir, H. J.; Hak, M. S.; Tofani, I.

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) requires multiple steps and coordination of multidisciplinary sciences to produce optimal results. Alveolar bone-grafting (ABG) is an important procedure in the treatment of such patients because it influences the eruption of teeth and stabilizes the maxilla. To evaluate the effect and suitability of alveolar bone grafting procedure at Cleft Center Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital on nasal deformity from anthropometry with photogrammetry and aesthetic proportional in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with UCLP. Patients with UCLP were evaluated post-ABG using anthropometry and photogrammetry to investigate the results anteriorly, laterally, and basally. Anthropometric measurements taken photogrammetrically used 14 points and 11 distance items. Evaluations were made of upper lip length, upper lip projection, and nostril sill elevation for both the cleft and non-cleft sides of patients’ faces. A t-test showed that the values for upper lip length and projection were significantly increased, and a correction test using a Fisher exam gave a value of 1. The ABG treatment protocol for patients with UCLP at the Cleft Lip and Palate Unit at Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital is suitable to be performed; it aesthetically satisfies patients and their families.

  8. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs

  9. Dietary lipids, prostaglandin E2 levels, and tooth movement in alveolar bone of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P P; Shaye, R; Alam, B S; Alam, S Q

    1993-11-01

    A previous study showed that certain dietary lipids can alter arachidonic acid concentrations in alveolar bone. Because arachidonic acid is a precursor of prostaglandin (PG) E2, which is known to play an important role in orthodontic tooth movement, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary lipids on PGE2 levels and tooth movement. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (20/group) were fed nutritionally adequate purified diets containing 10% corn oil (group I, rich in n-6 fatty acids) or 9% ethyl ester concentrate of n-3 fatty acids + 1% corn oil (group II rich in n-3 fatty acids). After 5 weeks of feeding the diets, orthodontic force of 56 g was applied to the maxillary incisors to tip them distally. Prior to killing the rats at day 4 and 8 of orthodontic force application, tooth movement was measured by computerized image analysis. Premaxillae were dissected out free of soft tissue and incisors. The alveolar bone was frozen in liquid nitrogen, pulverized, and lipids were extracted. The concentrations of arachidonic acid and fatty acid composition of total phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography. PGE2 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Arachidonic acid and PGE2 concentration were significantly lower (P orthodontic tooth movement can be affected by the type of dietary fat.

  10. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases...

  11. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  12. Pilot study: digital subtraction radiography as a tool to assess alveolar bone changes in periodontitis patients under treatment with subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, A.D.; Dunn, S.M.; Wolff, M.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Colosi, D.C.; Golub, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Subtle changes in marginal alveolar bone level can be demonstrated using digital subtraction of sequential radiographs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the practical application of geometrically corrected digital subtraction in a clinical study of alveolar bone response to a drug

  13. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Aldir Cordeiro; CAPISTRANO, Anderson; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; CARDOSO, Maurício de Almeida; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; CAPELOZZA, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Material and Methods Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences in root length and buccal and palatal bone levels of canines and adjacent teeth among groups. Conclusions Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis. PMID:28198979

  14. Three-Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography Volumetric Outcomes of rhBMP-2/Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fan; Yen, Stephen L-K; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Sanborn, Luke; Yen, Leia; Yen, Daniel; Nazarian, Sheila; Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Urata, Mark; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a demineralized bone matrix scaffold is a comparable alternative to iliac bone autograft in the setting of secondary alveolar cleft repair. Postreconstruction occlusal radiographs demonstrate improved bone stock when rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffold is used but lack the capacity to evaluate bone growth in three dimensions. This study uses cone beam computed tomography to provide the first clinical evaluation of volumetric and density comparisons between these two treatment modalities. A prospective study was conducted with 31 patients and 36 repairs of the alveolar cleft over a 2-year period. Twenty-one repairs used rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold and 14 repairs used iliac bone grafting. Postoperatively, occlusal radiographs were obtained at 3 months to evaluate bone fill; cone beam computed tomographic images were obtained at 6 to 9 months to compare volumetric and density data. At 3 months, postoperative occlusal radiographs demonstrated that 67 percent of patients receiving rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold had complete bone fill of the alveolus, versus 56 percent of patients in the autologous group. In contrast, cone beam computed tomographic data showed 31.6 percent (95 percent CI, 24.2 to 38.5 percent) fill in the rhBMP-2 group compared with 32.5 percent (95 percent CI, 22.1 to 42.9 percent) in the autologous population. Density analysis demonstrated identical average values between the groups (1.38 g/cc). These data demonstrate comparable bone regrowth and density values following secondary alveolar cleft repair using rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold versus autologous iliac bone graft. Cone beam computed tomography provides a more nuanced understanding of true bone regeneration within the alveolar cleft that may contribute to the information provided by occlusal radiographs alone. Therapeutic, II.

  15. Vitamin C reverses hypogonadal bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, ...

  16. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  17. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  18. Partially Biodegradable Distraction Implant to Replace Conventional Implants in Alveolar Bone of Insufficient Height: A Preliminary Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Shao, Bo; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chen; Cao, Qiang; Kong, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Dental implants have been widely used in the last few decades. However, patients with insufficient bone height need reconstructive surgeries before implant insertion. The distraction implant (DI) has been invented to simplify the treatment procedure, but the shortcomings of DIs have limited their clinical use. We incorporated biodegradable polyester into a novel DI called the partially biodegradable distraction implant (PBDI). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological, histological, and biomechanical properties of the PBDI in animal models. PBDIs were manufactured and inserted into the atrophied mandibles of nine dogs. Box-shaped alveolar bones were segmented and distracted. The dogs were randomly divided into three groups that were sacrificed 1, 2, and 3 months after the implant insertion. Actual augmentation height (AAH) of the bone segments was measured to evaluate the effect of distraction. X-ray examination and micro-CT reconstruction and analysis were used to evaluate the regenerated bone in the distraction gap and bone around the functional element. Histological sections were used to evaluate the osseointegration and absorption of the PBDI. Fatigue tests were used to evaluate the biomechanical properties of the PBDI. Little change was found in AAH among the three groups. X-ray examination and micro-CT reconstruction showed good growth of regenerated bone in the distraction gap. Alveolar bone volume around the functional element increased steadily. No obvious bone absorption occurred in the alveolar crest around PBDI. Three months after distraction, the functional element achieved osseointegration, and the support element began to be absorbed. All PBDIs survived the fatigue test. The PBDI is a novel and reliable dental implant. It becomes a conventional implant after the absorption of the support element and the removal of the distraction screw. It is a promising replacement for conventional implants in patients with insufficient alveolar bone

  19. Relationships between bitewing and periapical radiographs in assessing crestal alveolar bone level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Park, Tae Won [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-11-15

    Bitewing and periapical radiographic techniques are used in clinical and epidermiological studies to assess crest alveolar bone levels. The purpose of the present study investigated relationships between these techniques by assessing alveolar crest location at the same site. Bitewing and periapical radiographs were available from posterior quadrants of 120 subjects. The distance from cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest (CEJ-CR) was measured for each proximal surface from the distal of the cuspid to the distal of the second molar. Data were arranged according to the proximal surface examined, and bitewing and periapical measurements were compared using paired t tests. 1. In maxilla, a significant t ratio with a P value of 0.05 or less was reached for 78% and in mandible reached for 39% .2. Person correlations were calculated 32 surfaces (89%) had values below 0.70 and so, data obtained by these techniques can not be used interchangeably on an individual or group basis. 3. In situations where the periapical measure was greater than the bitewing, it ranged up to 20.7% greater with a mean 9.8%. Where the bitewing was greater than periapical, it ranged up to 51.9% greater, with a mean 18.2%. 4. The percentage difference was greater in maxillary posterior areas than in mandibular molar, premolar areas. A lower prevalence of significant differences was attributed to relatively more simple root and favorable radiographic conditions in mandibular molar and premolar areas.5. The anatomical limitations imposed on periapical radiographic technique, most often result in somewhat foreshortened radiographic images. This situation would tend to be accentated by the anatomical restrictions of the hard palate. 6. Consequently, since the significant differences frequently exist between measurements obtained from bitewing and periapical techniques, it is important to define which technique is used.

  20. Relationships between bitewing and periapical radiographs in assessing crestal alveolar bone level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Park, Tae Won

    1985-01-01

    Bitewing and periapical radiographic techniques are used in clinical and epidermiological studies to assess crest alveolar bone levels. The purpose of the present study investigated relationships between these techniques by assessing alveolar crest location at the same site. Bitewing and periapical radiographs were available from posterior quadrants of 120 subjects. The distance from cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest (CEJ-CR) was measured for each proximal surface from the distal of the cuspid to the distal of the second molar. Data were arranged according to the proximal surface examined, and bitewing and periapical measurements were compared using paired t tests. 1. In maxilla, a significant t ratio with a P value of 0.05 or less was reached for 78% and in mandible reached for 39% .2. Person correlations were calculated 32 surfaces (89%) had values below 0.70 and so, data obtained by these techniques can not be used interchangeably on an individual or group basis. 3. In situations where the periapical measure was greater than the bitewing, it ranged up to 20.7% greater with a mean 9.8%. Where the bitewing was greater than periapical, it ranged up to 51.9% greater, with a mean 18.2%. 4. The percentage difference was greater in maxillary posterior areas than in mandibular molar, premolar areas. A lower prevalence of significant differences was attributed to relatively more simple root and favorable radiographic conditions in mandibular molar and premolar areas.5. The anatomical limitations imposed on periapical radiographic technique, most often result in somewhat foreshortened radiographic images. This situation would tend to be accentated by the anatomical restrictions of the hard palate. 6. Consequently, since the significant differences frequently exist between measurements obtained from bitewing and periapical techniques, it is important to define which technique is used.

  1. Complications related to bone augmentation procedures of localized defects in the alveolar ridge. A retrospective clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Torp; Jensen, Simon Storgård; Worsaae, Nils

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This retrospective clinical study aims to evaluate complications after augmentation of localized bone defects of the alveolar ridge. METHODS: From standardized registrations, the following complications related to bone augmentation procedures were recorded: soft tissue dehiscence......, infection, sensory disturbance, additional augmentation procedures needed, and early implant failure. RESULTS: A total of 223 patients (132 women, 91 men; mean age 23.5 years; range 17-65 years) with 331 bone defects had bone augmentation performed into which 350 implants were placed. Soft tissue dehiscence.......7 %), four after GBR procedures (1.6 %), and two (12 %) after staged vertical ridge augmentation. CONCLUSIONS: Predictable methods exist to augment localized defects in the alveolar ridge, as documented by low complication rates and high early implant survival rates....

  2. Bone Loss Among Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Sharma, Anjali; Yin, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART. As bone loss and resulting increases in fracture incidence are a natural consequence of aging, there is now concern regarding the long-term consequences of HIV/ART-associated premature bone loss, given the transition of the HIV/AIDS population into an older age demographic. The development of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of bone disease within the context of HIV and ART has been an important recent step in raising awareness of the problem and the implications of bone fracture for patient health. Significant progress has also been made in recent years in dissecting the complex and multifactorial mechanisms driving bone loss in HIV/ART and the role of underlying immunological disruption in skeletal dysmorphogenesis. This review examines recent progress in the field and studies by Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)-associated investigators, inside and outside of the WIHS cohort, aimed at identifying skeletal abnormalities, quantifying facture incidence, management, and understanding underlying mechanisms in people living with HIV in the context of chronic ART.

  3. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  4. Correlation between radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around dental implant and resonance frequency of dental implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawoko, S. S.; Nelwan, L. C.; Odang, R. W.; Kusdhany, L. S.

    2017-08-01

    The histomorphometric test is the gold standard for dental implant stability quantification; however, it is invasive, and therefore, it is inapplicable to clinical patients. Consequently, accurate and objective alternative methods are required. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and digital radiographic analysis are noninvasive methods with excellent objectivity and reproducibility. To analyze the correlation between the radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around a dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant. Digital radiographic images for 35 samples were obtained, and the resonance frequency of the dental implant was acquired using Osstell ISQ immediately after dental implant placement and on third-month follow-up. The alveolar bone density around the dental implant was subsequently analyzed using SIDEXIS-XG software. No significant correlation was reported between the alveolar bone density around the dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant (r = -0.102 at baseline, r = 0.146 at follow-up, p > 0.05). However, the alveolar bone density and resonance frequency showed a significant difference throughout the healing period (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Digital dental radiographs and Osstell ISQ showed excellent objectivity and reproducibility in quantifying dental implant stability. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between the results obtained using these two methods.

  5. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aldir Cordeiro da; Capistrano, Anderson; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues de; Cardoso, Maurício de Almeida; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (pteeth among groups. Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis.

  6. Rapid Maxillary Expansion After Alveolar Bone Grafting With rhBMP-2 in UCLP Evaluated by Means of CBCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garib, D.; Miranda, F.; Sathler, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Aiello, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) after alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in complete unilateral cleft lip, alveolus and palate (UCLP) without damage to the grafted area. SETTING: Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies (HRAC), University of Sao

  7. Kinetics of gene expression of alkaline phosphatase during healing of alveolar bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Willian Caetano; Fabris, André Luís da Silva; Hassumi, Jaqueline Suemi; Gonçalves, Alaíde; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Okamoto, Roberta

    2016-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies and molecular biology have enabled us to identify numerous proteins that are involved in the metabolism of bone, and their encoding genes. Among these is alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that is responsible for the initiation of mineralisation of the extracellular matrix during alveolar bone repair. To evaluate the gene expression of ALP during this process, we studied nine healthy adult male rats, which had their maxillary central incisors extracted from the right side and were randomly divided into three groups. During three experimental periods, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days, the alveoli were curetted, the rats killed, and samples analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The RNAm that encodes the gene for the synthesis of ALP was expressed during the three periods analysed, but its concentration was significantly increased at 14 and 28 days compared with at 7 days. There was no significant difference between 14 and 28 days (p=0.0005). We conclude that genes related to ALP are expressed throughout the healing process and more intensively during the later periods (14 and 28 days), which coincides with the increased formation of mineralised bone. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Further evidence of periodontal bone pathology in a juvenile specimen of Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The dentition and alveolar bone of a maxilla of a juvenile Australopithecus africanus have been examined using a high energy X-ray computed tomography scanner. Results indicate the presence of previously undetected severe alveolar bone loss...

  9. Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Takemasa

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric

  10. Estudio histológico comparativo de la reparación ósea entre hueso alveolar y extra-alveolar en los cerdos sometidos a osteotomía con alta y baja velocidad, con refrigeración líquida Comparative study of bone repair between alveolar and extra-alveolar bone in pigs subjected to osteotomy at low speed and high speed with liquid refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Baldo de Toledo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Teniendo en cuenta que el proceso de reparación ósea en los cerdos se muestra en una mayor proximidad entre las variables histológicas estudiadas en comparación con otros modelos biológicos, el presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar el proceso histológico de la reparación ósea de osteotomías realizadas en huesos alveolares y extra-alveolar, utilizando instrumentos rotatorios con refrigeración líquida. Material y método: Dieciocho cerdos Large White con peso comprendido entre 20 y 25Kg fueron divididos en tres grupos de seis animales cada uno, con cada grupo formado por tres animales para evaluar la reparación de osteotomías con baja y alta velocidades en el hueso alveolar y tres en área extra-alveolar en los períodos de estudio de 7, 14 y 28 días. Resultados: Se observó que en el hueso alveolar en los tiempos post-operatorio de 14 y 28 días, los mejores resultados de reparación fueron en las osteotomías realizadas con baja velocidad, mientras que en el período post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con alta velocidad fueron ligeramente mejores tanto en áreas alveolares como extra-alveolares. Para la metodología utilizada, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el proceso de reparación ósea alveolar y extra-alveolar. Conclusiones: El proceso de reparación, por medio de análisis microscópico en la región alveolar y extra-alveolar, son similares con mejores resultados observados en osteotomías hechas con taladros en baja velocidad en los tiempos de catorce y veintiocho días y en el post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con taladros de alta velocidad y la refrigeración fueron ligeramente mejores. Los trabajos de investigación utilizando cerdos como modelo animal son perfectamente viables.Introduction: Taking into account the bone repair process in pigs has shown a greater similarity among the histological variables studied compared to other biological

  11. Stress Distribution on Short Implants at Maxillary Posterior Alveolar Bone Model With Different Bone-to-Implant Contact Ratio: Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Duygu; Bayram, Burak; Oguz, Yener; Cinar, Duygu; Uckan, Sina

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution of the short dental implants and bone-to-implant contact ratios in the posterior maxilla using 3-dimensional (3D) finite element models. Two different 3D maxillary posterior bone segments were modeled. Group 1 was composed of a bone segment consisting of cortical bone and type IV cancellous bone with 100% bone-to-implant contact. Group 2 was composed of a bone segment consisting of cortical bone and type IV cancellous bone including spherical bone design and homogenous tubular hollow spaced structures with 30% spherical porosities and 70% bone-to-implant contact ratio. Four-millimeter-diameter and 5-mm-height dental implants were assumed to be osseointegrated and placed at the center of the segments. Lateral occlusal bite force (300 N) was applied at a 25° inclination to the implants long axis. The maximum von Mises stresses in cortical and cancellous bones and implant-abutment complex were calculated. The von Mises stress values on the implants and the cancellous bone around the implants of the 70% bone-to-implant contact group were almost 3 times higher compared with the values of the 100% bone-to-implant contact group. For clinical reality, use of the 70% model for finite element analysis simulation of the posterior maxilla region better represents real alveolar bone and the increased stress and strain distributions evaluated on the cortical and cancellous bone around the dental implants.

  12. Treatment outcomes of implants performed after regenerative treatment of absorbed alveolar bone due to the severe periodontal disease and endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift without bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Fukaya, Hajime; Sakaguchi, Shinji

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a regenerative medicine therapy for the alveolar bone and endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift without bone grafts, in patients experiencing severe periodontal disease with significant absorption of the maxillary alveolar bone, in which more than 10 mm of bone thickness in the maxillary bone was attained, with satisfactory results. The objective of this study was to examine the treatment outcomes of implants that were performed after these therapies. The participants were 36 patients with severe periodontal disease, who cannot be cured with any other treatments except the extirpation of all teeth. The 36 patients are all patients who underwent regenerative treatment of the alveolar bone through tooth replantation and transplantation of the iliac cancellous bone (the bone marrow) as well as endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift from May 2003 to July 2007 in our clinic. A total of 120 implants were placed in these patients when the replanted teeth fell out because of root resorption, and the success rate was examined. The success rates of the implants were 16 of 33 (48%) in the group when surveyed less than 2 years after the surgery and 84 of 87 (96.5%) in the group when surveyed more than 2 years after the surgery. A statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups (Chi-squared test, P implant placement. Therefore, although the implant treatment should be performed later than 2 years after surgery, chewing is possible during this period, with the replanted teeth that were used for regenerative treatment of the alveolar bone. It is believed that this is an extremely effective treatment method to improve the patients' quality of life.

  13. Bone augmentation procedures in localized defects in the alveolar ridge: clinical results with different bone grafts and bone-substitute materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgård; Terheyden, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of different grafting protocols for the augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search and an additional hand search of selected journals were performed to identify all levels of clinical...... in the augmented bone. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Based on 2,006 abstracts, 424 full-text articles were evaluated, of which 108 were included. Eleven studies were randomized controlled clinical trials. The majority were prospective or retrospective studies including a limited number of patients and short observation...... of evidence (level A to B) to support that survival rates of implants placed in augmented bone are comparable to rates of implants placed in pristine bone....

  14. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  15. Interleukin-10 inhibits bone resorption: a potential therapeutic strategy in periodontitis and other bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  16. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of different consolidation periods on bone formation and implant success in alveolar distraction osteogenesis: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faysal, Ugurlu; Cem, Sener B; Atilla, Sertgöz

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the consolidation periods in alveolar distraction osteogenesis and evaluate the effects of this condition on bone formation, bone relapse and implant success in reconstruction of resorbed edentulous mandibles. Eighteen patients were underwent vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis under the same distraction protocol, except for variations in consolidation time. After a consolidation period of 5 weeks for Group 1 and 14 weeks for Group 2, 36 implants were placed to support their dentures. Bone height and relapse were evaluated using digital orthopantomographic radiographs. The radiological findings showed that the mean distraction was 6.968 mm in Group 1 and 7.031 mm in Group 2. At the end of the consolidation period, the mean bone relapse was 0.832 ± 0.135 mm in Group 1 and 0.738 ± 0.135 mm in Group 2. At the end of 6 months, the mean bone relapse was 1.380 ± 0.144 mm in Group 1 and 1.112 ± 0.144 mm in Group 2. No significant difference existed between the two groups at any time. Consolidation periods may be reduced in alveolar distraction osteogenesis to enable more patient comfort by providing dentures early. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term results of secondary alveolar bone grafting using a technique to harvest pure calvarial cancellous bone: Evaluation based on plain radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Junhyung; Son, Daegu; Oh, Sangho; Kim, Changhyun

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a method to extract the maximum amount of cancellous bone from the calvarium and analyze the outcomes using plain radiography and computed tomography. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafts using a maximal harvesting technique for calvarial cancellous bone. Bone survival was determined based on Enemark's grading system using plain radiographs. Alveolar thickness and height were analyzed by computed tomography and compared with radiographic measurements. Our study enrolled 27 patients, 22 unilateral and 5 bilateral, for a total of 32 alveolar clefts. The mean age at surgery was 9.04 ± 0.41 years (range: 6-12 years). Donor sites were successfully recovered without complications, such as hematomas, seromas, infections, or tears in the dura mater. The mean follow-up duration for obtaining plain radiographs was 6.90 ± 0.61 years (range: 2.0-18.50 years). The mean follow-up duration for computed tomography was 6.51 ± 0.99 years (range: 2.0-14.83 years). A canine tooth erupted in 30 cases. Success (Enemark's grades I or II) was achieved in 26 cases. Alveolar height was strongly correlated with the Enemark scale results (γ = 0.878, p technique resulted in successful graft survival without serious complications, including dural or brain injuries. Although the ilium is widely accepted as the optimal donor site for secondary alveolar bone grafting, the calvarium could be an alternative donor site that results in equivalent outcomes. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inclusion of periodontal ligament fibres in mandibular finite element models leads to an increase in alveolar bone strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W McCormack

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone remodelling is vital for the success of dental implants and orthodontic treatments. However, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms, in particular the function of the periodontal ligament (PDL in bone loading and remodelling, are not well understood. The PDL is a soft fibrous connective tissue that joins the tooth root to the alveolar bone and plays a critical role in the transmission of loads from the tooth to the surrounding bone. However, due to its complex structure, small size and location within the tooth socket it is difficult to study in vivo. Finite element analysis (FEA is an ideal tool with which to investigate the role of the PDL, however inclusion of the PDL in FE models is complex and time consuming, therefore consideration must be given to how it is included. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of including the PDL and its fibrous structure in mandibular finite element models. A high-resolution model of a human molar region was created from micro-computed tomography scans. This is the first time that the fibrous structure of the PDL has been included in a model with realistic tooth and bone geometry. The results show that omission of the PDL creates a more rigid model, reducing the strains observed in the mandibular corpus which are of interest when considering mandibular functional morphology. How the PDL is modelled also affects the strains. The inclusion of PDL fibres alters the strains in the mandibular bone, increasing the strains in the tooth socket compared to PDL modelled without fibres. As strains in the alveolar bone are thought to play a key role in bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement, future FE analyses aimed at improving our understanding and management of orthodontic treatment should include the fibrous structure of the PDL.

  20. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  1. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana dos Reis Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP. For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL. Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  2. The Effect of Calendula officinalis on Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P.; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Carneiro, Virgínia C.; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway. PMID:28701962

  3. The Effect ofCalendula officinalison Oxidative Stress and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mariana Dos Reis; Lopes, Amanda P; Martins, Conceição; Brito, Gerly A C; Carneiro, Virgínia C; Goes, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with reduced antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative damage. Oxidative stress induces inflammation and bone loss contributing to the pathological progression of periodontal disease. Calendula officinalis (CLO) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLO on oxidative stress and bone loss in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). For this, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Naïve, Saline (SAL) and CLO. Rats received SAL or CLO (90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). Periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, scanning electron microscopy; confocal and light polarized microscopy. Immunohistochemical examination of DKK1, WNT 10b and β-catenin was performed. The gingival tissue was collected to reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses. The 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, breakdown of collagen fibers, increased the immunostaining DKK-1 while reduced WNT 10b and β-catenin expressions. Periodontitis reduced GSH, SOD, CAT and increase MDA. All findings were reversed by 90 mg/kg of CLO. In summary our findings demonstrated that CLO reduced oxidative stress and bone loss and preserved collagen fibers in rats with EP, with participation of WNT signaling pathway.

  4. Distribution of micromotion in implants and alveolar bone with different thread profiles in immediate loading: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Kun; Chen, Yung-Chuan; Huang, Ching-Chieh; Lu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Hsun-Heng

    2012-01-01

    To detect the differences in the distribution of micromotion within implants and alveolar bone with different implant thread designs during immediate loading. A three-dimensional finite element model with contact elements was used to simulate the contact behavior between the implant and alveolar bone. Implants with four different thread designs were created: Acme (trapezoidal) thread (AT), buttress thread (BT), square thread (ST), and a standard V-thread (VT). To simulate immediate loading, the model was designed without osseointegration between the implant and alveolar bone. A load of 300 N was applied axially to the model, and the micromovements were measured. The maximum micromotion values of the ST, AT, VT, and BT models were 8.53, 9.57, 11.00, and 15.00 µm, respectively. All micromotion was located near the interface of cortical and cancellous bone. Different thread designs showed different distribution of micromotion during loading. This indicates that initial stability in immediate loading may be affected by thread design. The ST profile showed the most favorable result in the study. An implant with an ST profile might provide the best primary stability in an immediate loading situation.

  5. Evaluating Bone Loss in ISS Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D; Spector, Elisabeth R; Johnston, Smith L; Tarver, William J

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the Medical Assessment Test used at the NASA Johnson Space Center to evaluate whether prolonged exposure to spaceflight increases the risk for premature osteoporosis in International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The DXA scans of crewmembers' BMD during the first decade of the ISS existence showed precipitous declines in BMD for the hip and spine after the typical 6-mo missions. However, a concern exists that skeletal integrity cannot be sufficiently assessed solely by DXA measurement of BMD. Consequently, use of relatively new research technologies is being proposed to NASA for risk surveillance and to enhance long-term management of skeletal health in long-duration astronauts. Sibonga JD, Spector ER, Johnston SL, Tarver WJ. Evaluating bone loss in ISS astronauts.

  6. Volumetric Analysis of Alveolar Bone Defect Using Three-Dimensional-Printed Models Versus Computer-Aided Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengzhou; Li, Binghang; Yin, Ningbei; Cao, Yilin; Wang, Yongqian

    2017-03-01

    Knowing the volume of a graft is essential in repairing alveolar bone defects. This study investigates the 2 advanced preoperative volume measurement methods: three-dimensional (3D) printing and computer-aided engineering (CAE). Ten unilateral alveolar cleft patients were enrolled in this study. Their computed tomographic data were sent to 3D printing and CAE software. A simulated graft was used on the 3D-printed model, and the graft volume was measured by water displacement. The volume calculated by CAE software used mirror-reverses technique. The authors compared the actual volumes of the simulated grafts with the CAE software-derived volumes. The average volume of the simulated bone grafts by 3D-printed models was 1.52 mL, higher than the mean volume of 1.47 calculated by CAE software. The difference between the 2 volumes was from -0.18 to 0.42 mL. The paired Student t test showed no statistically significant difference between the volumes derived from the 2 methods. This study demonstrated that the mirror-reversed technique by CAE software is as accurate as the simulated operation on 3D-printed models in unilateral alveolar cleft patients. These findings further validate the use of 3D printing and CAE technique in alveolar defect repairing.

  7. [Alveolar bone thickness and root length changes in the treatment of skeletal Class III patients facilitated by improved corticotomy: a cone-beam CT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiuhui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Li, Cuiying; Xu, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the alveolar bone thickness and root length changes of anterior teeth with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans were taken for 12 skeletal Class III patients who accepted the improved corticotomy (IC) procedures during pre-surgical orthodontics. The CBCT data in T1 (the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled) and T2 (extraction space closure) were superimposed and the alveolar bone thickness at root apex level and root length measurements were done. From T1 to T2, the buccal alveolar bone thickness for the upper lateral incisors increased from (1.89±0.83) to (2.47±1.02) mm (Pteeth of 72 was located in Grade 1, two teeth in Grade 2, one tooth in Grade 3. The improved corticotomy had the potential to increase the buccal alveolar bone thickness and the root resorption in most teeth was in Grade 1 according to Sharpe grading system.

  8. Effect of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement into bone-grafted alveolar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ohe, Joo-Young; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Su-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) into bone-grafted alveolar defects based on different healing states. Ten male beagles were randomly allocated to 3 groups: group C, OTM alone as a control; group G, OTM into the grafted defects; group GL, OTM into the grafted defects with LLLT. The maxillary second premolars were protracted into the defects for 6 weeks, immediately (G-0 and GL-0) and at 2 weeks (G-2 and GL-2) after surgery. The defects were irradiated with a diode laser (dose, 4.5 J/cm(2)) every other day for 2 weeks. The rates of OTM and alveolar bone apposition, and maturational states of the defects were analyzed by histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, and histology. The total amounts of OTM and new bone apposition rates were decreased by LLLT, with increased bone mineral density and trabecular maturation in the defects. Group GL-2 had the slowest movement with root resorption in relation to less woven bone in the hypermatured defect. LLLT significantly decreased the rate of OTM into the bone-grafted surgical defects by accelerating defect healing and maturation, particularly when the start of postoperative OTM was delayed. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss - an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1-orchiectomy (OCX); 2-OCX sham surgery; or 3-OCX sham surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Tri-Layered Nanocomposite Hydrogel Scaffold for the Concurrent Regeneration of Cementum, Periodontal Ligament, and Alveolar Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S; Mony, Ullas; Jayachandran, P; Reshma, S; Kumar, R Arun; Arzate, H; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2017-04-01

    A tri-layered scaffolding approach is adopted for the complete and concurrent regeneration of hard tissues-cementum and alveolar bone-and soft tissue-the periodontal ligament (PDL)-at a periodontal defect site. The porous tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold is composed of chitin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nanobioactive glass ceramic (nBGC)/cementum protein 1 as the cementum layer, chitin-PLGA/fibroblast growth factor 2 as the PDL layer, and chitin-PLGA/nBGC/platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors as the alveolar bone layer. The tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold is cytocompatible and favored cementogenic, fibrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle stem cells. In vivo, tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with/without growth factors is implanted into rabbit maxillary periodontal defects and compared with the controls at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with growth factors demonstrates complete defect closure and healing with new cancellous-like tissue formation on microcomputed tomography analysis. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses further confirm the formation of new cementum, fibrous PDL, and alveolar bone with well-defined bony trabeculae in comparison to the other three groups. In conclusion, the tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with growth factors can serve as an alternative regenerative approach to achieve simultaneous and complete periodontal regeneration. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Assisted eruption of impacted teeth into an alveolar bone graft in a patient with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peamkaroonrath, Chonthicha; Manosudprasit, Montien; Godfrey, Keith

    2008-11-01

    To assist the eruption of impacted upper teeth into an alveolar bone graft in a patient with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. An 8-year-old Thai boy with left unilateral complete cleft lip and palate had the chief complaint of anterior crossbite. He presented with a mild skeletal 3, dental Class III subdivision malocclusion, anterior crossbite, left unilateral posterior crossbite, moderate crowding in the upper arch with impaction of upper the left lateral incisor (tooth 22) and canine (tooth 23). In the first phase of treatment the posterior crossbite was corrected with a removable appliance with a 3-way screw. In the second phase the impacted teeth were surgically exposed, moved into the alveolar bone graft and the teeth aligned with fixed appliances. The upper left lateral incisor was extracted because of its questionable longevity. The orthodontic treatment resulted in normal overjet, overbite and an acceptable facial profile. A prosthesis replaced tooth 22. Forced eruption of impacted teeth can be carried out successfully in the cleft patients after an appropriate treatment plan has been formulated and following preparation of alveolar bone graft in the cleft site.

  12. Alveolar bone density and its clinical implication in the placement of dental implants and orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasoud, Naif N; Tanneru, Nagaraju; Marei, Hesham F

    2016-06-01

    To assess the bone density in maxilla and mandible in dentate and edentulous patients in Saudi population. This study involved a retrospective analysis of cone beam CT images of 100 patients (50 male and 50 female) who have come to College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2014 and 2015. Using the bone density option in the Simplant software, the Hounsfield unit (HU) was calculated at the edentulous sites. While for dentate sites, a region of interest was selected coronally at 3-5 mm to the root apex using I-CAT vision software. The densities of the buccal bone and cancellous bone were measured at interradicular areas of a specific teeth.  The highest bone density at the edentulous sites was at the mandibular anterior region (776.5 ± 65.7 HU), followed by the mandibular posterior region (502.2 ± 224.2 HU). Regarding the dentate sites, the highest bone density was at the buccal cortical plate of the lower incisor teeth (937.56 ± 176.92 HU) and the lowest bone density was at the cancellous bone around the posterior maxillary teeth (247.12 ± 46.75 HU).  The alveolar bone density at dentate and edentulous sites in our population is generally lower than the norm reference density of other populations, which dictates the need for quantitative assessment of bone density before implants and mini-implants placement.

  13. Average annual crestal bone loss of ITI implants following the first year of loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hosseinzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long term success of dental implants directly depends on marginal bone resorption. The aim of this study was to determine the annual average bone loss on the mesial and distal aspects of implants following the first year of implantation. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytical study of patients treated with ITI (International Team of Implantology implants at the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1998-2002 (1377-81. A total of 15 patients with 41 implants were selected by convenience sampling method. The height of the alveolar bone was measured using panoramic radiography before and after loading with calipers to determine the average bone loss. Other information such as pocket depth, bleeding index, plaque index, gingival recession, was obtained by clinical examinations. The mean bone loss on the mesial & distal sides was analyzed by ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The average bone loss on the proximal sides of ITI implants obtained annually after the first year of loading was 0.084 ± 0.035 mm with slight difference on the mesial (0.092 ± 0.035 and distal (0.072 ± 0.033 sides. There was negligible difference between male and female patients. The average survival rate for thirty three months was 95.1%. CONCLUSION: The average bone loss on the mesial and distal sides of ITI implants compared with other studies was satisfactory. Survival and success rates were acceptable. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, bone resorption, survival rate, dental plaque index.

  14. Puerarin decreases bone loss and collagen destruction in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Li, C

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin, the most abundant isoflavonoid in kudzu root, shows various bioactivities, including bone-sparing, anti-inflammatory and antiproteinase properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of puerarin in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Rat models of periodontitis were developed by bilaterally placing ligatures around the first mandibular molars. Puerarin was administrated daily by gavage at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, starting a day before the placement of ligatures. Rats were humanely killed 7 d after the induction of periodontitis. Micro-computed tomography and sirius red staining were used to evaluate alveolar bone loss and collagen destruction, respectively. Histomorphometrical analysis was used to assess the inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were used to detect receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin expressions, and osteoclast activity in the gingiva and alveolar bone. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the gingiva were assessed by Western blot. Puerarin at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss compared with the vehicle group. Collagen destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly less in the puerarin-treated group (200 mg/kg) compared with that of the vehicle group. Puerarin (200 mg/kg) also reduced the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin and osteoclast activity. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin (200 mg/kg) inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65, which is associated with lower IL-1β and TNF-α production, and reduced the glycosylation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, which is associated with lower

  15. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn; Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27±103.72/117.73±92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29±86.70/388.31±109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98±98.11/366.71±154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57±98.12/383.47±135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02±116.07/384.16±146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  16. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  17. Alveolar bone tissue engineering in critical-size defects of experimental animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Siddharth; Pandis, Nikolaos; Mustafa, Kamal; Nyengaard, Jens R; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Regeneration of large, 'critical-size' bone defects remains a clinical challenge. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is emerging as a promising alternative to autogenous, allogeneic and biomaterial-based bone grafting. The objective of this systematic review was to answer the focused question: in animal models, do cell-based BTE strategies enhance regeneration in alveolar bone critical-size defects (CSDs), compared with grafting with only biomaterial scaffolds or autogenous bone? Following PRISMA guidelines, electronic databases were searched for controlled animal studies reporting maxillary or mandibular CSD and implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or osteoblasts (OBs) seeded on biomaterial scaffolds. A random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome histomorphometric new bone formation (%NBF). Thirty-six studies were included that reported on large- (monkeys, dogs, sheep, minipigs) and small-animal (rabbits, rats) models. On average, studies presented with an unclear-to-high risk of bias and short observation times. In most studies, MSCs or OBs were used in combination with alloplastic mineral-phase scaffolds. In five studies, cells were modified by ex vivo gene transfer of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The meta-analysis indicated statistically significant benefits in favour of: (1) cell-loaded vs. cell-free scaffolds [weighted mean difference (WMD) 15.59-49.15% and 8.60-13.85% NBF in large- and small-animal models, respectively]; and (2) BMP-gene-modified vs. unmodified cells (WMD 10.06-20.83% NBF in small-animal models). Results of cell-loaded scaffolds vs. autogenous bone were inconclusive. Overall, heterogeneity in the meta-analysis was high (I 2  > 90%). In summary, alveolar bone regeneration is enhanced by addition of osteogenic cells to biomaterial scaffolds. The direction and estimates of treatment effect are useful to predict therapeutic efficacy and guide future clinical trials of BTE. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. Evaluation of rat alveolar bone response to Angelus MTA or experimental light-cured mineral trioxide aggregate using fluorochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; de Moraes Costa, Mariana Machado Teixeira; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Duarte, Paulo Carvalho Tobias; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat alveolar bone response after the implantation of experimental light-cured mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Angelus MTA (Angelus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) by histological and fluorescence analysis. Thirty Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups. In the control group, empty polyethylene tubes were inserted into the rat alveolar sockets immediately after extraction. In the other groups, the tubes were filled with light-cured MTA or Angelus MTA. Five animals from each group were injected with calcein on day 7, alizarin on day 14, and oxytetracycline on day 21. On day 30, these animals were killed, and the right hemimaxillas were removed and histologically processed. Half of the maxillas were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The remaining maxillas were processed for fluorescence analysis and stained with Stevenel blue and alizarin red. New bone was histomorphometrically evaluated using a Merz grid. The light-cured MTA presented a similar response when compared with Angelus MTA; it was characterized by a mild inflammatory response and complete bone healing. In the light-cured MTA group, the fluorescence areas were more evident at 21 days, showing an increase in bone formation. However, dystrophic mineralization was observed only with Angelus MTA. It was concluded that both materials present a similar inflammatory response and bone healing, but dystrophic mineralization was observed only with Angelus MTA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of a flapless alveolar ridge preservation procedure with or without a xenograft on buccal bone crest remodeling compared by histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Raquel Rezende Martins; Novaes, Arthur Belém; de Carvalho, Jessica Pires; de Almeida, Adriana Luisa Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated buccal bone crest remodeling, socket composition after healing, and dimensional ridge preservation after flapless tooth extraction procedures with or without a xenograft comparing histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) data. The mandibular premolars of eight dogs were extracted without flaps. One socket on each side received a grafting material (test group), and the other remained only with a blood clot (control group). Twelve weeks after treatment, buccal bone crest, alveolar ridge dimensions, and composition were analyzed by histomorphometry and micro-CT. Two- and three-dimensional evaluations showed better results for the grafted group when compared to the non-grafted group. The flapless alveolar ridge preservation procedure with deproteinized bovine bone material enhanced buccal bone crest, alveolar ridge dimensions and bone formation when compared to sockets with the blood clot only, as observed by histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants wit...

  1. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Babaei, Maryam; Miremadi, S Asghar; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashadi

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar ridge preservation could be performed immediately following tooth extraction to limit dimensional changes of alveolar process due to bone resorption. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and histologic outcomes of socket preservation using two different graft materials; deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) with absorbable collagen membrane. Twenty extraction sockets in 20 patients were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups: 10 sockets were augmented with DBBM and collagen membrane whereas 10 sockets were filled with DFDBA and covered by collagen membrane. Primary closure was achieved over extraction sockets by flap advancement. Horizontal and vertical ridge dimensional changes were assessed at baseline and after 4-6 months at the time of implant placement. For histological and histomorphometrical analysis, bone samples were harvested from the augmented sites with trephine during implant surgery. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (α=0.05). Clinical measurements revealed that average horizontal reduction was 2.3 ± 0.64 mm for DFDBA and 2.26 ± 0.51 mm for DBBM. Mean vertical ridge resorption at buccal side was 1.29 ± 0.68 mm for DFDBA and 1.1 ± 0.17 mm for DBBM. Moreover, mean vertical ridge reduction at lingual site was 0.41 ± 0.38 mm and 0.35 ± 0.34 mm for DFDBA and DBBM, respectively. No significant differences were seen between two groups in any of those clinical parameters. Histologic analysis showed statistically significant more new bone deposition for DFDBA compared to DBBM (34.49 ± 3.19 vs. 18.76 ± 3.54) (P alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less residual graft particles in DFDBA group than in DBBM group.

  2. Investigation of a Novel PLGA/CaP Scaffold in the Healing of Tooth Extraction Sockets to Alveolar Bone Preservation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Vanessa Cristina; Ferreira-Junior, Osny; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Guan, Limin; Davies, John Edward

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that 40% to 60% of initial alveolar bone volume will be lost up to 6 months after tooth extraction. OsteoScaf(TM) (TRT, Toronto, ON, Canada) (poly (DL-lactide-co-glycololide/calcium phosphate [PLGA/CaP] scaffold) is a novel bone substitute material and represents a promising alternative for maintaining alveolar bone integrity in this clinical scenario. Here it was hypothesized that OsteoScaf would reduce alveolar bone lost after tooth extraction in patient, acting as a clot-retention device. A total of 10 patients (32 sockets) were included in the study, of which 16 sockets were grafted with OsteoScaf and 16 were used as control (coagulum alone). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed both immediately following extraction and also at 120 days postoperatively, at which time biopsy samples were also harvested for histological analyses. Quantitative analysis of CBCT showed less bone resorption in the OsteoScaf groups, being 10.5% to 14.4% less bone lost in the center of the socket, 15.4% in the buccal region, and 12.6% in the palatal. Qualitative histological analysis showed new bone tissue in direct apposition to the scaffold - demonstrating its osteoconductive nature. OsteoScaf diminished the expected bone lost during the postextraction remodeling of the alveolar bone ridge at 120 days postextraction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An assessment of maxillary sinus and alveolar bone in cross-sectional linear tomogram of panorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    To evaluate the precision of measurements taken of dental implants in bucco-lingually sectioned views of the maxilla by linear tomograms of the panorama and to assess the visibility of the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus. Eighty sites prepared with implants of gutta percha cone in the sockets of the upper premolars and molars of 10 dry skulls were radiographically examined using linear tomograms of panorama, and scanned coronally and axially by computed tomography. The differences in mm between the measurements in bucco-lingually sectioned images of maxillary alveolar bone and the true length and width of the implanted gutta percha cones were compared as mean values (mean) and standard deviation (SD) for each radiographic technique. Linear tomography of panorama was compared with computed tomography for visualization of the relationship between the inferior wall of maxillary sinus and the end of each implant. The deviations between the actual implant length and the measured values taken from the linear tomograms (0.44 {+-} 0.39 mm) was significantly less than the measured values from the multiplanar reconstructed images of the axially scanned computed tomogram (1.21 {+-} 0.90 mm). There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between two techniques in the differences between the measurements and true implant length. The relationship of the inferior border of maxillary sinus with end of implant was worse identified with the linear tomogram of panorama (68%) than the multiplanar reconstructed image of axially scanned computed tomogram (99%). We could not find any differences in the accuracy of length measurement between the linear tomogram of panorama and computed tomogram, but computed tomogram allowed for a better visualization of the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus than the linear tomogram.

  4. Canine Eruption After Secondary Alveolar Bone Graft in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellone, Valentino; Cirignaco, Giulio; Cavarretta, Bruno; Cascone, Piero

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze dental abnormalities in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by focusing on the role of the secondary alveolar bone graft (SABG) surgery and its outcomes on canine eruption/inclusion. A sample of 24 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were selected.Dental anomalies, canine eruption based on the existence of supernumeraries, agenesis elements, inclination of the major canine axis before and after surgery, distance from the occlusal plane before and after surgery, and sector classification were analyzed. Out of the 24 patients, 87.5% presented a canine spontaneously erupted in the dental arch while 12.5% needed surgical-orthodontic traction.There is also no proof that inclination of the canine significantly influenced the eruption before (P = 0.5889) and after (P = 0.4029) surgery. Also, there is no any correlation between the 2 sides (P = 0.1257).The SABG surgery showed a significant correlation with canine eruption (P = 0.009242); moreover, SABG shows a positive relationship with the radicular development of the canine (P = 0.005163).Lateral incisive (P = 0.8493) and second premolar agenesis (P = 1) are not statistically correlated with the eruption of the canine. This does not happen with supernumerary elements that are correlated with the surgical-orthodontic traction (P = 0.0004464). Agenesis does not play any role in the process of canine eruption while supernumeraries do. There is no relationship between the inclination and eruption of the canine.The SABG surgery has a key role because it contributes to create an appropriate support for the erupting canine, the nasal base and the anterior maxilla.

  5. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

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    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  6. Ridge expansion alone or in combination with guided bone regeneration to facilitate implant placement in narrow alveolar ridges: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Long; Yuan, Jing; Song, Ying-Liang; Ma, Wei; Chao, Xie; Li, De-Hua

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ridge expansion technique in dealing with horizontal bony insufficiency of alveolar ridges for implant placement. During the period 2004-2009, 168 patients with width insufficiency of alveolar ridges were treated using the ridge expansion technique to obtain an improved bony base for implant placement. Depending on the severity of width insufficiency, the surgical procedures were classified into two groups: ridge expansion alone (Group 1) and ridge expansion in combination with guided bone regeneration (Group 2). After 4-6 months of unloaded healing, the implants were restored. The patients were followed up until 2013 with clinical and radiographic examinations. Among the 168 patients, 11 patients underwent a fracture of labial/buccal bony plate during surgery, which was corrected by changing the procedure into bone grafting, yielding a surgical failure rate of 6.5%. In the remaining 157 patients successfully treated by ridge expansion alone or in combination with GBR, 226 implants were simultaneously placed as planned. No implant failed over 2.8 years (6 months to 8 years) of follow-up, yielding a cumulative implant survival rate of 100% in each group. Six implants in Group 1 and 4 implants in Group 2, although osseointegrated and in function, did not fulfill success criteria: Cumulative implants' success rates were 93.2% in Group 1 and 95.6% in Group 2. The mean marginal bone losses during the first year in Group 1 and Group 2 were 0.69 and 0.43 mm, respectively, followed by an annual loss of ~ 0.06 and 0.07 mm, respectively, in the following years. No clinical parameter was abnormal. Twenty-two (10.4%) implants were exposed to peri-implant mucositis, whereas 19 (11.0%) implant-supported restorations were involved in prosthetic complications. The preliminary results of this retrospective study indicate that ridge expansion alone or in combination with GBR can be considered an effective and safe procedure for treatment of

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis on inflammatory bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Joanna Trycia M; Sousa, Luzia Hermínia Teixeira; Lisboa, Mario Roberto Pontes; Furlaneto, Flávia A C; do Val, Danielle Rocha; Marques, Mirna; Vasconcelos, Hellíada C; de Melo, Iracema Matos; Leitão, Renata; Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Goes, Paula

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive effects of Calendula officinalis (CLO) on alveolar bone loss (ABL) in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ABL by ligature with nylon thread around the second upper left molar. The contralateral hemimaxillae were used as control. Rats received saline solution (SAL) or CLO (10, 30, or 90 mg/kg) 30 min before ligature and daily until the 11th day. The maxillae were removed and prepared for macroscopic, radiographic, micro-tomographic, histopathologic, histometric analysis, and immunohistochemical localization of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The gingival tissues were used to quantify the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations by ELISA. Blood samples were collected for leukogram and to evaluate the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity and serum levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST/ALT). The bone loss induced by 11 days of ligature induced bone loss, reduced levels of BALP, leukocyte infiltration, increased MPO activity, gingival concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β, and RANKL while reduced OPG immunoexpressions in the periodontal tissue and leukocytosis. Of the CLO, 90 mg/kg reduced bone loss, neutrophilia, the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and RANKL expression, while it increased OPG immunopositive cells and BALP serum levels, when compared to SAL. CLO did not affect either kidney or liver function, indicated by serum AST/ALT levels. The present data suggests that CLO reduced inflammatory bone resorption in experimental periodontitis, which may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory properties and its effects on bone metabolism. CLO can be a potential therapeutical adjuvant in the treatment of periodontitis.

  8. Residual ridge dimensions at edentulous maxillary first molar sites and periodontal bone loss among two ethnic cohorts seeking tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Aneesha; Hao, Jia; Mattheos, Nikos; Chau, Anson; Shirke, Prashant; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-12-01

    To study residual ridge dimensions at edentulous first molar sites in relation to periodontal bone loss among cohorts of partially edentulous Asian Indian and Hong Kong Chinese subjects seeking tooth replacement. A total of 628 edentulous maxillary first molar sites were analyzed on Cone Beam Computed Tomography scans of 225 Asian Indian (I) and 232 Hong Kong Chinese (C) partially edentulous adults seeking tooth replacement. Age, ethnicity, gender, total tooth loss, the presence or absence of adjacent teeth, categories of periodontal status defined according to radiographic alveolar bone loss (P0: periodontal health, P1: incipient to moderate disease, P2: severe periodontal disease) and sinus membrane abnormalities were noted. Alveolar ridge height (RH), widths at 1 and 3 mm from crest (RW1; RW3), and relative position of the bone crest (RR) were measured. Prevalence of P2 status was most frequent in both cohorts(C: 50.4% I: 49.2%). P2 had lowest ridge heights; 13.1% C P2 and 14%I P2 had RH Periodontal status and sinus membrane abnormality increased the odds of RH periodontal disease was common among Asian Indian and Hong Kong Chinese subjects seeking tooth replacement and associated with lower available bone heights. Ethnicity, gender, sinus membrane thickening affected available bone height in the subsinus region, while the presence of adjacent teeth- and age-affected residual ridge width. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Virtual quad zygoma implant placement using cone beam computed tomography: sufficiency of malar bone volume, intraosseous implant length, and relationship to the sinus according to the degree of alveolar bone atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertos Quílez, J; Guijarro-Martínez, R; Aboul-Hosn Centenero, S; Hernández-Alfaro, F

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the malar bone volume and length that a zygomatic implant can engage, and the relationship to the sinus according to the degree of alveolar bone atrophy. A three-dimensional evaluation was performed using cone beam computed tomography scans from 23 patients with a totally edentulous maxilla; quad zygoma implants were virtually placed. The predictor variable was the amount of malar bone volume and length that a zygomatic implant can engage. The primary outcome variable was the relationship to the sinus according to the degree of alveolar bone atrophy. Other variables were the residual alveolar bone height to the floor of the sinus and the nasal cavity. The mean volume of malar bone engaged in this sample of 92 zygomatic implants was 0.19±0.06cm 3 . The implant had an extrasinus path in 60.9% of cases, a parasinus path in 25%, and an intrasinus path in 14.1%. The results suggest that the average volume of malar bone engaged by a zygomatic implant is constant regardless of implant position and the degree of alveolar bone atrophy. As alveolar atrophy increases, the trajectory of the implant becomes more parasinus and intrasinus. The examiners were able to find enough bone to adequately distribute the implants in all cases. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.E.H.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valasek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandor, G.K.; Marcian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  11. Bilocular Stafne Bone Defect above And Below the Inferior Alveolar Canal Assessed by Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone defect is a bone depression containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue on the lingual surface of the mandible. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. Stafne bone defect appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, it is rarely seen as a multilocular radiolucency. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency above the inferior alveolar canal in a male patient

  12. Correlation of periodontal status and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: A digital radiographic and quantitative ultrasound study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Vishwanath

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Calcaneal BMD was related to alveolar bone loss and, to a lesser extent, to clinical attachment loss, implicating postmenopausal bone loss as a risk indicator for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women.

  13. Novel Radiomitigator for Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-fard, Y.; Terada, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Steczina, S.; Medina, C.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss can occur with radiotherapy patients, accidental radiation exposure and during long-term spaceflight. Bone loss due to radiation is due to an early increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and bone resorption, resulting in an imbalance in bone remodeling. Furthermore, exposure to high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation will impair the bone forming progenitors and reduce bone formation. Radiation can be classified as high-LET or low-LET based on the amount of energy released. Dried Plum (DP) diet prevents bone loss in mice exposed to total body irradiation with both low-LET and high-LET radiation. DP prevents the early radiation-induced bone resorption, but furthermore, we show that DP protects the bone forming osteoblast progenitors from high-LET radiation. These results provide insight that DP re-balances the bone remodeling by preventing resorption and protecting the bone formation capacity. This data is important considering that most of the current osteoporosis treatments only block the bone resorption but do not protect bone formation. In addition, DP seems to act on both the oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Finally, we have preliminary data showing the potential of DP to be radio-protective at a systemic effect and could possible protect other tissues at risk of total body-irradiation such as skin, brain and heart.

  14. Reconstruction of alveolar bone defects using bone morphogenetic protein 2 mediated rabbit dental pulp stem cells seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chen; E, Ling-Ling; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Su, Fang; Wu, Xia; Shi, Zhan-Ping; Lv, Yan; Wang, Jia-Zhu

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2)-mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed postoperatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favored osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity/protein, osteocalcin content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation, and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs' contribution to new bone was detected through transfected eGFP genes. Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for

  15. A histomorphometric study of the effect of doxycycline and erythromycin on bone formation in dental alveolar socket of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahabooei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DOX and erythromycin (EM used for the treatment of peri-implant osteolysis due to their anti-osteoclastogenesis can interfere with the osseous wound healing process in rat alveolar socket. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats had their first maxillary right molar extracted and were divided into three groups. DOX and EM at the doses of 5 mg/kg/day orally (p.o. and 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p. were administered respectively to two separate groups for 7 days after operation. In the control group the animals received normal saline (5 ml/kg. Five rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-extraction in each study group. A histomorphometric analysis was used to evaluate new bone formation inside the alveolar socket. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results: The findings showed that the percentage of new bone formation (NBF enhanced significantly on days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference in the NBF between DOX and EM groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both DOX and EM enhanced new bone formation without any advances in favor of each drug.

  16. Evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafting outcomes performed after canine eruption in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Diego Coelho; Janson, Guilherme; Bastos, Juliana Cunha; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Bastos, José Carlos; de Cássia Moura Carvalho Lauris, Rita; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the results of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), operated after permanent canine eruption (CE). Seventy-four periapical radiographs from patients with complete UCLP (mean age 14 years) submitted to SABG were retrospectively analyzed for the amount of bone in the cleft site through the Bergland and Chelsea scales. Of the cases, 47.3 % was classified as Bergland type I and Chelsea type A, 35.2 % as type II/C, 6.7 % as type III/D, and 10.8 % as type IV/failure. When the canine was moved into the grafted area, the success rate (type I/A) was 56.8 %; for cases in which the space was maintained for an implant or prosthetic finishing, the index was 45.8 %; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Even in advanced ages, after permanent canine eruption, SABG can be considered a highly successful procedure. This research shows good results of secondary alveolar bone grafting performed in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, even when it was performed after eruption of the permanent canine in the cleft area.

  17. Investigating Oral Microbiome Profiles in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate for Prognosis of Alveolar Bone Grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, we sought to investigate the oral microbiota structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP and explore the pre-operative oral bacterial composition related to the prognosis of alveolar bone grafting. In total, 28 patients (19 boys, 9 girls with CLP who were scheduled to undergo alveolar bone grafting for the first time were recruited. According to the clinical examination of operative sites at the third month after the operation, the individuals were divided into a non-inflammation group (n = 15 and an inflammation group (n = 13. In all, 56 unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after the operation. The v3-v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Based on the beta diversity of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the inflammation and non-inflammation samples, the microbial variation in the oral cavity differed significantly between the two groups before and after the operation (P < 0.05. Analysis of the relative abundances of pre-operative OTUs revealed 26 OTUs with a relative abundance higher than 0.01%, reflecting a significant difference of the relative abundance between groups (P < 0.05. According to a principal component analysis of the pre-operative samples, the inflammation-related OTUs included Tannerella sp., Porphyromonas sp., Gemella sp., Moraxella sp., Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella intermedia, most of which were enriched in the inflammation group and showed a significant positive correlation. A cross-validated random forest model based on the 26 different OTUs before the operation was able to fit the post-operative status of grafted sites and yielded a good classification result. The sensitivity and specificity of this classified model were 76.9% and 86.7%, respectively. These findings show that the oral microbiota profile before alveolar bone grafting may be related to the risk of post-operative inflammation at grafted

  18. Periodontal disease-associated compensatory expression of osteoprotegerin is lost in type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlates with alveolar bone destruction by regulating osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliete Aparecida F; Lopes Ferrucci, Danilo; Peroni, Luis Antônio; de Paula Ishi, Eduardo; Rossa-Junior, Carlos; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Stach-Machado, Dagmar Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption results from the inflammatory response to periodontal pathogens. Systemic diseases that affect the host response, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), can potentiate the severity of periodontal disease (PD) and accelerate bone resorption. However, the biological mechanisms by which DM1 modulates PD are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of DM1 on alveolar bone resorption and to evaluate the role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteoclastogenesis in rats. PD was induced by means of ligature in nondiabetic and in streptozotocyn-induced DM1 rats. Morphological and morphometric analyses, stereology and osteoclast counting were performed. RANKL and OPG mRNA levels, protein content, and location were determined. PD caused alveolar bone resorption, increased the number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone crest and also promoted changes in RANKL/OPG mRNA expression. DM1 alone showed alveolar bone destruction and an increased number of osteoclasts at the periapical and furcal regions. DM1 exacerbated these characteristics, with a greater impact on bone structure, resulting in a low OPG content and a higher RANKL/OPG ratio, which correlated with prominent osteoclastogenesis. This work demonstrates that the effects of PD and DM1 enhance bone destruction, confirms the importance of the RANKL signaling pathway in bone destruction in DM1 in animal models and suggests the existence of alternative mechanisms potentiating bone degradation in PD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A full-mouth radiographic survey of periodontal bone loss in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Z.; Erjavec, V.; Erzen, D.; Petelin, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clinically observed periodontal disease indicators and radiographic findings using fullmouth radiographs in poodles. The dogs were divided into three groups according to their age. Upper and lower incisors, canines and premolars/molars were used for clinical and radiographic analyses. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease increased with age. In addition, the deepest pockets and most severe bone loss were found around the canine teeth. The values obtained from radiographic analysis correlated well with clinical measurements. Fullmouth radiographic surveys show clearly the alveolar bone level around the whole dentition of dogs. It should be performed prior to the institution of any treatment

  20. Effect of antiresorptive drugs in the alveolar bone healing. A histometric and immunohistochemical study in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Momesso, Gustavo Antonio Correa; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; de Oliveira Puttini, Igor; Okamoto, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the alendronate and raloxifene influence in the alveolar healing process of osteoporotic rats. Sixty-four female rats were divided in four groups: sham rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats and no medical treatment (OVX NT), ovariectomized rats and submitted to alendronate treatment (OVX ALE), and ovariectomized and submitted to raloxifene treatment (OVX RAL). The histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The quantitative data were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). In the longest period, SHAM and OVX RAL groups showed the better bone formation responses (P alveolar healing process in osteoporotic rats, but not enough to achieve the histometrical and protein expression values that were observed in the SHAM group. Alendronate is largely used as a potent antiresorptive agent. Otherwise, considering the undesirable effects in relation to the alveolar healing, other antiosteoporosis medications should be studied. Raloxifene seems to be a good candidate once its action mechanism involves the activation of osteoblasts.

  1. Comparison of Bone Resorption Rates after Intraoral Block Bone and Guided Bone Regeneration Augmentation for the Reconstruction of Horizontally Deficient Maxillary Alveolar Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alper Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Bone atrophy after tooth loss may leave insufficient bone for implant placement. We compared volumetric changes after autogenous ramus block bone grafting (RBG or guided bone regeneration (GBR in horizontally deficient maxilla before implant placement. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, volumetric changes at RBG or GBR graft sites were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. The primary outcome variable was the volumetric resorption rate. Secondary outcomes were bone gain, graft success, and implant insertion torque. Results. Twenty-four patients (28 grafted sites were included (GBR, 15; RBG, 13. One patient (RBG suffered mucosal dehiscence at the recipient site 6 weeks after surgery, which healed spontaneously. Mean volume reduction in the GBR and RBG groups was 12.48 ± 2.67% and 7.20 ± 1.40%, respectively. GBR resulted in significantly more bone resorption than RBG (P0.05. Conclusions. Both RBG and GBR hard-tissue augmentation techniques provide adequate bone graft volume and stability for implant insertion. However, GBR causes greater resorption at maxillary augmented sites than RBG, which clinicians should consider during treatment planning.

  2. Histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of systemic and topical ozone on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci, F; Gunaydin, Y; Sencimen, M; Bassorgun, I; Ozler, M; Oter, S; Gulses, A; Gunal, A; Sezgin, S; Bayar, G R; Dogan, N; Gider, I K

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic and topical ozone applications on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction. One hundred and twelve male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of 14 rats each; seven groups were experimental (A-G) and one formed the control group (K). The experimental groups were further divided into two sub-groups, with seven rats in each - sacrificed on days 14 and 28 (subgroups 1 and 2). The maxillary right central incisors were extracted under general anaesthesia following the administration of local anaesthesia. After sacrifice, semi-serial histological sections were prepared, and mineralized and trabecular bone and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces were measured. Measurements of the trabecular bone showed statistically higher values in the groups treated with systemic ozone (D(2): 50.01 ± 2.12; E(2): 49.03 ± 3.03; F(2): 48.76 ± 2.61; G(2): 50.24 ± 3.37) than in the groups that underwent topical ozone administration (A(2): 46.01 ± 3.07; B(2): 46.79 ± 3.09; C(2): 47.07 ± 2.12; P = 0.030 (G(2)-A(2), G(2)-B(2), G(2)-C(2))). Within the limitations of the current study, it may be concluded that postoperative long-term systemic ozone application can accelerate alveolar bone healing following extraction. However, additional studies are required to clarify the effects of the different ozone applications on new bone formation. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of simulated reduced alveolar bone support, increased tooth mobility, and distal post-supported, root-treated abutment tooth on load capability of all-ceramic zirconia-supported cantilever FDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, M; von Stein-Lausnitz, M; Rosentritt, M; Walter, C; Meyer-Lückel, H; Sterzenbach, G

    2018-02-06

    The aim of this in vitro study was an analysis of the impact of simulated reduced alveolar bone support and post-restored, endodontically treated distal abutment tooth on load capability of all-ceramic zirconia-based cantilever-fixed dental prosthesis (CFDP). The roots of human lower sound premolars (n = 80) were divided into five experimental groups to be restored with all-ceramic zirconia-supported three-unit CFDP regarding bone loss (BL) relative to the cement-enamel junction (CEJ): 2 mm below CEJ = 0% BL (control group), group 25% distal BL, group 50% distal BL, group 50% mesial and distal BL, and group 50% distal BL and adhesive post-supported restoration. Specimens were exposed to simulated clinical function by thermo-mechanical loading (6.000 cycles 5°-55°; 1.2 × 10 6 cycles 0-50 N) and subsequent linear loading until failure. Tooth mobility increased significantly for groups with simulated bone loss (p tooth fractures at distal abutment teeth, whereas technical failures were more frequent in the control group (p = 0.024). Differences of alveolar bone support and respectively increased tooth mobility between mesial and distal abutments did not influence load capability. A distal adhesively post-and-core-supported, root-treated abutment tooth did not increase risk of three-unit CFDP failure. CFDPs are a treatment option used with caution when reduced alveolar bone support, increased tooth mobility, and distal post-supported, root-treated abutment teeth are involved.

  4. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  5. Biologically rational ways of bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Based on own and literature date to define biologically rational elements of complex approach to bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. Nowadays there are two points of view regarding bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. The first favor pharmaceuticals as a basic and physical exercises as additional. According to the second, therapeutic and prophylactic significance of physical exercises in maintenance and development of structural and functional capacities of musculoskeletal system is fundamental. The latter approach correspond to evolutionary formed biological model in that muscles act upon levers - bones that connected by means of joints and provide the movement of the body against gravity. The present work from pathogenethically point of view establish the systemic approach to the bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. It is based on physical exercises while additional pharmacotherapy that should aim for optimization of regulatory function of bone cells, first of all osteocytes providing for adaptational reorganisation of bone structures.

  6. In Vivo Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffold Implantation Combined with β-TCP Powder for Alveolar Bone Augmentation in a Beagle Defect Model

    OpenAIRE

    Su A. Park; Hyo-Jung Lee; Keun-Suh Kim; Sang Jin Lee; Jung-Tae Lee; Sung-Yeol Kim; Na-Hee Chang; Shin-Young Park

    2018-01-01

    Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL) scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined u...

  7. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  8. Comparing the effects of chlorhexidine and persica on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Shahrabi, Shokufeh; Navabazam, Alireza

    2012-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is broadly prescribed by clinicians for treating extraction socket wounds; however, studies have reported adverse effects for chlorhexidine. Persica, a herbal antibacterial agent, could be an alternative for chlorhexidine. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of persica and chlorhexidine on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three study groups: 0.2% chlorhexidine, 10% persica and controls (tap water). The rats were mouth-rinsed for 14 days. On day 8, the mandibular right first molars of all the rats were extracted. On day 21, the rats were euthanized and histological slides of their extraction sockets were prepared. The amount of new bone formation and the number of inflammatory cells in the extraction socket for each rat were recorded. Data were analysed using linear regression and Mann-Whitney tests. There was no significant difference between the control group and the intervention groups in terms of new bone formation and inflammatory cell count. The mean new bone formation was significantly higher in the persica group than in the chlorhexidine group. There was a significant association between new bone formation and inflammatory cell count in the entire sample. In conclusion, there were no significant differences between rinsing with tap water and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine and 10% persica in enhancing extraction socket wound healing in rats. Extraction socket wound healing in rats was better enhanced with 10% persica than 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  9. Comparative radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone healing associated with autologous platelet-rich plasma after impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célio-Mariano, Ronaldo; de Melo, Willian Morais; Carneiro-Avelino, Cássia

    2012-01-01

    This study radiographically evaluated the performance of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied in tooth sockets. Thirty extractions of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were performed in 15 volunteers (7 men, 8 women; 18 to 22 years old). After extraction of right and left mandibular third molars, the socket at 1 side received the autologous PRP (PRP group) and the other was filled with blood clot (control group). Millimeter periapical radiographs were obtained 7 days, 1 month, and 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Radiographic bone density was quantified 3 times by the same examiner at different moments using HLImage 97 software, and data were statistically analyzed by Statgraf 7.0 software (analysis of variance and Tukey test). In general, there was significantly faster bone formation in sockets treated with PRP (P third month (P < .01) for the PRP group. No statistical differences were observed on the seventh day and sixth month of investigation, yet there were higher means of radiographic bone density in sockets treated with PRP. In the control group, men exhibited significant bone repair compared with women (P < .05). Autologous PRP was found to accelerate alveolar bone regeneration, and men presented better repair after tooth extraction. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective Clinical and Radiographic Study of Alveolar Ridge Preservation Combining Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft With Two Xenogeneic Collagen Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashis, Andreas O; Hawley, Charles E; Stark, Paul C; Ganguly, Rumpa; Hanley, James B; Steffensen, Bjorn

    2016-04-01

    Tooth extractions are followed by significant dimensional changes in the alveolar crest that may preclude implant placement. This randomized, controlled, prospective compares the preservation of soft and hard tissue dimensional changes after alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) using two membranes consisting of collagen matrix (CM) or extracellular matrix (ECM) as barriers over freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA). Standardized clinical and radiographic measurements of soft and hard tissues were recorded by means of a stent before and 4 months after ARP. The surgery entailed sulcular incisions with minimal flap elevation and repositioning without advancement. Of 11 patients in the CM group and 12 in the ECM group who completed the study, gingival thickness (GT) increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mm for both groups along with a 0.5-mm decrease in the width of keratinized tissue after healing. Reductions in ridge width were most pronounced on the coronal aspect, 1.8 mm for CM and 2.0 mm for ECM, whereas vertical reduction was most pronounced on the buccal aspect, 0.7 to 1.0 mm. Differences between groups were not statistically significant. However, significant correlation for changes in GT (P = 0.001) and crestal bone width (P = 0.002) with preoperative buccal plate thickness (BPT) was observed. Both xenogeneic collagen matrices combined with FDBA were effective in maintaining soft tissues and minimizing ridge resorption in all dimensions after ARP. BPT was an important determinant for amount of change in crestal GT and ridge width.

  11. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II. Intra- and inter-examinar variation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.

  12. Protective effect of ellagic acid on healing alveolar bone after tooth extraction in rat--a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Al Batran, Rami; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2014-09-01

    This study has attempted to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats (200-250g) were selected and were anaesthetised for the extraction of upper left incisor. Then, the rats were divided into two groups, comprising 12 rats each; the first group has been considered as a control group and was given only normal saline, whereas, the second group (treated group) was intragastrically administrated with EA daily once, for 28 days. Then three rats from each group had been selected on 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days to dissect their maxilla tissue either for histological observation and homogenisation purposes. The tissues fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5μm thickness were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for the histological study. Similar sections were taken for immunohistochemical analysis to assess osteocalcin (OSC) and osteopontin (OPN). Furthermore, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in homogenated gingival maxilla tissue of rat by commercial kit. Based on the histological analysis we have identified that, EA treatment has induced earlier trabecular bone deposition in the treated group, resulting in more organised bone matrix on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after tooth extraction, as against the control group. In comparison to control group, the positive labelling of OSC and OPN of the treated group have been highly expressed in the alveolar socket on 14th, and 21st days, which has indicated a the possibility of formation of new bone trabeculae at the beginning of the mineralisation process, after tooth extraction. In the EA treatment group, lipid per-oxidation (MDA) was significantly decreased (Phealing process in teeth socket of rats. Furthermore, the EA treated group showed a stronger positive immunolabelling for OSC and OPN, when compared with the control group. Copyright © 2014

  13. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  14. Influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants after extraction of teeth with different defects in the buccal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants with different defects in the buccal bone. We enrolled 60 patients who had one posterior mandibular tooth extracted. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) was used to measure the buccal bone defects in the alveolar ridge before the tooth was extracted (level A=3 to 5 mm, and level B=more than 5 mm). After the tooth had been extracted, the socket either had the alveolar ridge preserved (trial group) or it was left to heal spontaneously (control group). The changes in the dimensions of the alveolar ridge from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively were evaluated by cone-beam CT. Suitable implants were inserted 6 months later, and their length and diameter recorded. The implant stability quotient was evaluated for the following 3 months. The dimensions of the bone in the alveolar ridge in the trial group were significantly less than those in the control groups in both levels. Fifty-seven patients required implants (except 3 in level B in the control group). There were more longer and wider implants in the trial group than in the control group in Level B. 3 months after implantation, there were no significant differences in implant stability quotients between the groups, though in the control group, Level B, the mean (SD) value was 69.50 (1.00) while in the other groups values were all above 70 at 3 months. We conclude that when the defect in the buccal bone was more than 5mm, the alveolar ridge preservation demonstrated a remarkable effect in preserving the alveolar ridge dimension and delayed implantation. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  16. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  17. An open randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate ridge preservation and repair using SocketKAP(™) and SocketKAGE(™) : part 2 - three-dimensional alveolar bone volumetric analysis of CBCT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Alaa; Omran, Mostafa; Bakhshalian, Neema; Tarnow, Dennis; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the efficacy of ridge preservation and repair procedures involving the application of SocketKAP(™) and SocketKAGE(™) devices following tooth removal and (ii) to evaluate alveolar bone volumetric changes at 6 months post-extraction in intact sockets or those with facial wall dehiscence defects using 3-dimensional pre- and postoperative CBCT data. Thirty-six patients required 61 teeth extracted. Five cohorts were established: Group A: Intact Socket Negative Control Group B: Intact Socket + SocketKAP(™) Group C: Intact Socket Filled with Anorganic Bovine Bone Mineral (ABBM) + SocketKAP(™) Group D: Facial Dehiscence Socket Negative Control Group E: Facial Dehiscence Socket Filled with ABBM + SocketKAP(™) + SocketKAGE(™) . Preoperative CBCT scans were obtained followed by digital subtraction of the test teeth. At 6 months post-extraction, another CBCT scan was obtained. The pre- and postoperative scans were then superimposed, allowing highly accurate quantitative determination of the 3D volumetric alveolar bone volume changes from baseline through 6 months. Significant volumetric bone loss occurred in all sockets, localized mainly in the 0-3 mm zone apical to the ridge crest. For intact sockets, SocketKAP(™) + ABBM treatment led to a statistically significant greater percentage of remaining mineralized tissue volume when compared to negative control group. A significant difference favoring SocketKAP(™) + SocketKAGE(™) + ABBM treatment was observed for sockets with facial dehiscence defects compared to the negative control group. SocketKAP(™) , with ABBM, appears effective in limiting post-extraction volumetric bone loss in intact sockets, while SocketKAP(™) + SocketKAGE + ABBM appears effective in limiting post-extraction bone loss in sockets with dehiscence defects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffold Implantation Combined with β-TCP Powder for Alveolar Bone Augmentation in a Beagle Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su A. Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined using computed tomography for designing a customized 3D PCL scaffold block to fit the defect site. After fabricating 3D PCL scaffolds using rapid prototyping, the scaffolds were implanted into the alveolar bone defects along with β-tricalcium phosphate powder. In vivo analysis showed that the PCL blocks maintained the physical space and bone conductivity around the defects. In addition, no inflammatory infiltrates were observed around the scaffolds. However, new bone formation occurred adjacent to the scaffolds, rather than directly in contact with them. More new bone was observed around PCL blocks with 400/1200 lattices than around blocks with 400/400 lattices, but the difference was not significant. These results indicated the potential of 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds to promote alveolar bone regeneration for defect healing in dentistry.

  19. Evaluating of Platelet-Rich Fibrin in the Treatment of Alveolar Cleft With Iliac Bone Graft By Means of Volumetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhan, Nesrin; Ertas, Umit

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin usage in the treatment of alveolar cleft with iliac bone graft by means of volumetric analysis. In this study, 22 patients with alveolar clefts-including 13 unilateral and 9 bilateral-were treated with anterior iliac crest bone grafts. Patients were divided into 2 groups as control (group A) and platelet-rich fibrin (group B) groups. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were obtained preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Three-dimensional reconstructions of CBCT images were created by using Mimics software. Preoperative alveolar cleft volume and postoperative newly formed bone volume were assessed volumetrically. The percentages of preoperative alveolar cleft volume ranged from 0.51 to 2.04 cm, with a mean volume of 0.98 ± 0.33 cm. The percentages of newly formed bone in group B ranged from 50.70% to 80.09%, with a mean percentage of 68.21 ± 10.80%. In Group A, the percentages of bone formation ranged from 47.02% to 79.23%, with a mean percentage of 64.62 ± 9.49%. Platelet-rich fibrin can be used in the treatment of alveolar cleft with corticocancellous bone graft harvested from the anterior iliac crest, but in this study, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups for postoperative newly formed bone volume (P > 0.05).

  20. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  1. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  2. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...

  3. Alveolar wound healing after implantation with a pool of commercially available bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Romeu Felipe Elias; Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lamano-Carvalho, Teresa Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of a commercially available pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to stimulate osteogenesis in the rat alveolar healing was investigated by histometric analysis. Male rats were anesthetized and had their upper incisor extracted. A pool of purified bovine BMPs adsorbed to microgranular resorbable hydroxyapatite was agglutinated with bovine collagen and saline before implantation into the alveolar socket. The implanted and control rats (n=30 per group) were sacrificed 1 to 9 weeks postoperatively, the hemi-maxillae were decalcified, processed for paraffin embedding and semi-serial longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume fraction of alveolar healing components was estimated by a differential point-counting method in histologic images. The results showed that in both, control and implanted rats, the alveolar healing followed the histologic pattern usually described in the literature. Quantitative data confirmed that the BMPs mixture did not stimulate new bone formation in the alveolar socket of implanted rats. These results suggest that the pool of BMPs adsorbed to hydroxyapatite and agglutinated with bovine collagen did not warrant incorporation of the osteoinductive proteins to a slow-absorption system that would allow a BMPs release rate compatible to that of new bone formation, and thus more adequate to osteoinduction.

  4. Bone loss following knee arthroplasty: potential treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasso, Michele; Beaufils, Philippe; Cerciello, Simone; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2014-04-01

    The management of bone loss is a crucial aspect of the revision knee arthroplasty. Bone loss can hinder the correct positioning and alignment of the prosthetic components, and can prevent the achievement of a stable bone-implant interface. There is still controversy regarding the optimal management of knee periprosthetic bone loss, especially in large defects for which structural grafts, metal or tantalum augments, tantalum cones, porous metaphyseal sleeves, and special prostheses have been advocated. The aim of this review was to analyze all possible causes of bone loss and the most advanced strategies for managing bony deficiency within the knee joint reconstruction. Most significant and recent papers about the management of bone defects during revision knee arthroplasty were carefully analyzed and reviewed to report the most common causes of bone loss and the most effective strategies to manage them. Modular metal and tantalum augmentation showed to provide more stable and durable knee revisions compared to allografts, limited by complications such as graft failure, fracture and resorption. Moreover, modular augmentation may considerably shorten operative times with a potential decrease of complications, above all infection which has been frequently associated to the use of allografts. Modular augmentation may significantly reduce the need for allografting, whose complications appear to limit the long-term success of knee revisions.

  5. The Mechanical Properties and Biometrical Effect of 3D Preformed Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration on Alveolar Bone Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyoun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of three-dimensional preformed titanium membrane (3D-PFTM to enhance mechanical properties and ability of bone regeneration on the peri-implant bone defect. 3D-PFTMs by new mechanically compressive molding technology and manually shaped- (MS- PFTMs by hand manipulation were applied in artificial peri-implant bone defect model for static compressive load test and cyclic fatigue load test. In 12 implants installed in the mandibular of three beagle dogs, six 3D-PFTMs, and six collagen membranes (CM randomly were applied to 2.5 mm peri-implant buccal bone defect with particulate bone graft materials for guided bone regeneration (GBR. The 3D-PFTM group showed about 7.4 times higher mechanical stiffness and 5 times higher fatigue resistance than the MS-PFTM group. The levels of the new bone area (NBA, %, the bone-to-implant contact (BIC, %, distance from the new bone to the old bone (NB-OB, %, and distance from the osseointegration to the old bone (OI-OB, % were significantly higher in the 3D-PFTM group than the CM group (p<.001. It was verified that the 3D-PFTM increased mechanical properties which were effective in supporting the space maintenance ability and stabilizing the particulate bone grafts, which led to highly efficient bone regeneration.

  6. The Mechanical Properties and Biometrical Effect of 3D Preformed Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration on Alveolar Bone Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Hyoun; Moon, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Bae, Eun-Bin; Park, Chung-Eun; Jeon, Gye-Rok; Lee, Jin-Ju; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of three-dimensional preformed titanium membrane (3D-PFTM) to enhance mechanical properties and ability of bone regeneration on the peri-implant bone defect. 3D-PFTMs by new mechanically compressive molding technology and manually shaped- (MS-) PFTMs by hand manipulation were applied in artificial peri-implant bone defect model for static compressive load test and cyclic fatigue load test. In 12 implants installed in the mandibular of three beagle dogs, six 3D-PFTMs, and six collagen membranes (CM) randomly were applied to 2.5 mm peri-implant buccal bone defect with particulate bone graft materials for guided bone regeneration (GBR). The 3D-PFTM group showed about 7.4 times higher mechanical stiffness and 5 times higher fatigue resistance than the MS-PFTM group. The levels of the new bone area (NBA, %), the bone-to-implant contact (BIC, %), distance from the new bone to the old bone (NB-OB, %), and distance from the osseointegration to the old bone (OI-OB, %) were significantly higher in the 3D-PFTM group than the CM group (p bone grafts, which led to highly efficient bone regeneration. PMID:29018818

  7. Crestal bone loss and periimplant inflammatory parameters around zirconia implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Fahim; Al-Kheraif, Abdul Aziz; Ab Ghani, Siti Mariam; Abu Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim; Alnassar, Talal; Javed, Fawad

    2015-09-01

    Zirconia implants have been used for oral rehabilitation; however, evidence of their ability to maintain crestal bone and periimplant soft tissue health is not clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate crestal bone loss (CBL) around zirconia dental implants and clinical periimplant inflammatory parameters. The focus question addressed was, "Do zirconia implants maintain crestal bone levels and periimplant soft tissue health?" Databases were searched for articles from 1977 through September 2014 with different combinations of the following MeSH terms: "dental implants," "zirconium," "alveolar bone loss," "periodontal attachment loss," "periodontal pocket," "periodontal index." Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, review articles, and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Thirteen clinical studies were included. In 8 of the studies, the CBL around zirconia implants was comparable between baseline and follow-up. In the other 5 studies, the CBL around zirconia implants was significantly higher at follow-up. Among the studies that used titanium implants as controls, 2 studies showed significantly higher CBL around zirconia implants, and in 1 study, the CBL around zirconia and titanium implants was comparable. The reported implant survival rates for zirconia implants ranged between 67.6% and 100%. Eleven studies selectively reported the periimplant inflammatory parameters. Because of the variations in study design and methodology, it was difficult to reach a consensus regarding the efficacy of zirconia implants in maintaining crestal bone levels and periimplant soft tissue health. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of BMP6 in the alveolar bone during mouse mandibular molar eruption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oralová, Veronika; Chlastáková, I.; Radlanski, R.J.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, 5-6 (2014), s. 357-366 ISSN 0300-8207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/12/J059 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bone morphogenetic protein * bone resorption * bone apposition Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2014

  9. Ridge preservation with or without an osteoinductive allograft: a clinical, radiographic, micro-computed tomography, and histologic study evaluating dimensional changes and new bone formation of the alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Lauren A; Weltman, Robin L

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled clinical trial is to determine whether ridge preservation using an osteoinductive allograft (test) would prevent ridge resorption and promote bone maturation compared to extraction alone (control). Seventeen patients (20 total sites), in need of a non-molar extraction and delayed implant placement were randomly selected to receive either ridge preservation or extraction alone. A cone-beam computed tomography was completed with a radiographic stent in place before extraction and 10 to 12 weeks postoperatively for dimensional and buccal plate analyses. Bone cores were taken for micro-computed tomography (microCT) and histologic analyses. Resorption of the alveolar ridge occurred at all sites with no statistically significant differences found between test and control sites. A significant correlation was found between the initial buccal plate thickness and the loss of vertical ridge height. microCT and histologic analyses found a mean new bone volume of 44.9% with microCT and 37.4% with histology in test sites and 39% and 35.5%, respectively, in control sites. The residual graft volume was 2.4% with microCT and 4.5% with histology. Test and control sites lost similar amounts of alveolar ridge, with the loss of buccolingual width occurring predominantly at the expense of the buccal bone. A thicker buccal plate was associated with less ridge loss in the vertical dimension. The percentage of new bone was not statistically significant between either the test or control sites, using either microCT or histologic analyses.

  10. Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew M; Schenker, Mara L; Ahn, Jaimo; Willett, Nick J

    2017-09-01

    Segmental bone loss remains a challenging clinical problem for orthopaedic trauma surgeons. In addition to the missing bone itself, the local tissues (soft tissue, vascular) are often highly traumatized as well, resulting in a less than ideal environment for bone regeneration. As a result, attempts at limb salvage become a highly expensive endeavor, often requiring multiple operations and necessitating the use of every available strategy (autograft, allograft, bone graft substitution, Masquelet, bone transport, etc.) to achieve bony union. A cost-sensitive, functionally appropriate, and volumetrically adequate engineered substitute would be practice-changing for orthopaedic trauma surgeons and these patients with difficult clinical problems. In tissue engineering and bone regeneration fields, numerous research efforts continue to make progress toward new therapeutic interventions for segmental bone loss, including novel biomaterial development as well as cell-based strategies. Despite an ever-evolving literature base of these new therapeutic and engineered options, there remains a disconnect with the clinical practice, with very few translating into clinical use. A symposium entitled "Building better bone: The weaving of biologic and engineering strategies for managing bone loss," was presented at the 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society Conference to further explore this engineering-clinical disconnect, by surveying basic, translational, and clinical researchers along with orthopaedic surgeons and proposing ideas for pushing the bar forward in the field of segmental bone loss. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1855-1864, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S Vijay; Bhat, Manohar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Satija, Harsha; Sharma, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height. The 3D model was fabricated using software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar with post and restored with a full ceramic crown restoration, which was then analyzed using FEA using FEA ANSYS Workbench V13.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A) software. The FEA showed the maximum stresses of 137.43 Mpa in dentin with alveolar bone height of 4 mm when the titanium post was used, 138.48 Mpa when carbon fiber post was used as compared to 105.91 Mpa in the model with alveolar bone height of 2 mm from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) when the titanium post was used and 107.37 Mpa when the carbon fiber post was used. Stress was observed more in alveolar bone height level of 4 mm from CEJ than 2 mm from CEJ. Stresses in the dentin were almost similar when the carbon fiber post was compared to titanium post. However, stresses in the post and the cement were much higher when titanium post was used as compared to carbon fiber post.

  12. Horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation using autologous press fit bone cylinders and micro-lag-screw fixation: technical note and initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckbein, Philipp; Kähling, Christopher; Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Malik, Christoph-Yves; Schaaf, Heidrun; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; Streckbein, Roland

    2014-07-01

    The use of autologous block bone grafts for horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation in dental implantology is a common surgical procedure. Typically, bone grafts are individually moulded. The aim of this paper is to introduce an innovative procedure in lateral bone augmentation, where the recipient side is adjusted to the graft, not vice versa as in common procedures. Our initial clinical experience of twenty-five consecutive cases is presented. Adjusted trephine drills were used to harvest partly cylindrical grafts from the retromolar region of the mandible. After preparing the recipient site with accurately fitting grinding drills, the bone grafts were transplanted. The horizontally compromised alveolar ridges were successfully augmented and treated with dental implants. No major complication occurred during transplantation, the healing period, and subsequent implant therapy in our experimental setting with 25 patients and 38 augmentation procedures. One out of twenty-five patients presented with temporary dysaesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve. The new method presented is an effective treatment option for horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation prior to single implant installation. Further studies should evaluate the donor site morbidity and long-term outcome on a larger population. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the changes of alveolar bone thickness in maxillary incisor area in extraction and non-extraction cases: computerized tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barroso Picanço

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare, through computed tomography, alveolar bone thickness changes at the maxillary incisors area during orthodontic treatment with and without tooth extraction. METHODS: Twelve patients were evaluated. They were divided into 2 groups: G1 - 6 patients treated with extraction of right and left maxillary first premolars, with mean initial age of 15.83 years and mean treatment length of 2.53 years; G2 - 6 patients treated without extraction, with mean initial age of 18.26 years and mean treatment length of 2.39 years. Computed tomographies, lateral cephalograms and periapical radiographs were used at the beginning of the treatment (T1 and 18 months after the treatment had started (T2. Extraction space closure occurred in the extraction cases. Intragroup and intergroup comparisons were performed by dependent and independent t test, respectively. RESULTS: In G1, the central incisor was retracted and uprighted, while in G2 this tooth showed vestibularization. Additionally, G1 presented a higher increase of labial alveolar bone thickness at the cervical third in comparison with G2. The incidence of root resorption did not present significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: There were no changes in alveolar bone thickness when extraction and nonextraction cases were compared, except for the labial alveolar bone thickness at the cervical third of maxillary incisors.

  14. The role of stromal cells in inflammatory bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, C; Pap, T; Buckley, C D; Naylor, A J

    2017-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, local and systemic bone loss and a lack of compensatory bone repair. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are the most abundant cells of the stroma and a key population in autoimmune diseases such as RA. An increasing body of evidence suggests that these cells play not only an important role in chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia, but also impact bone remodelling. Under inflammatory conditions FLS release inflammatory cytokines, regulate bone destruction and formation and communicate with immune cells to control bone homeostasis. Other stromal cells, such as osteoblasts and terminally differentiated osteoblasts, termed osteocytes, are also involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and are dysregulated during inflammation. This review highlights our current understanding of how stromal cells influence the balance between bone formation and bone destruction. Increasing our understanding of these processes is critical to enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies with which to treat bone loss in RA. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Primary human alveolar bone cells isolated from tissue samples acquired at periodontal surgeries exhibit sustained proliferation and retain osteogenic phenotype during in vitro expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marolt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bone tissue regeneration requires a source of viable, proliferative cells with osteogenic differentiation capacity. Periodontal surgeries represent an opportunity to procure small amounts of autologous tissues for primary cell isolation. Our objective was to assess the potential of human alveolar bone as a source of autologous osteogenic cells for tissue engineering and biomaterials and drug testing studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alveolar bone tissue was obtained from 37 patients undergoing routine periodontal surgery. Tissue harvesting and cell isolation procedures were optimized to isolate viable cells. Primary cells were subcultured and characterized with respect to their growth characteristics, gene expression of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, under osteogenic stimulation. RESULTS: Alveolar bone cells were successfully isolated from 28 of the 30 samples harvested with bone forceps, and from 2 of the 5 samples obtained by bone drilling. The yield of cells in primary cultures was variable between the individual samples, but was not related to the site of tissue harvesting and the patient age. In 80% of samples (n = 5, the primary cells proliferated steadily for eight subsequent passages, reaching cumulative numbers over 10(10 cells. Analyses confirmed stable gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin in early and late cell passages. In osteogenic medium, the cells from late passages increased alkaline phosphatase activity and accumulated mineralized matrix, indicating a mature osteoblastic phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Primary alveolar bone cells exhibited robust proliferation and retained osteogenic phenotype during in vitro expansion, suggesting that they can be used as an autologous cell source for bone regenerative therapies and various in vitro studies.

  16. Temporal bone imaging in osteogenesis imperfecta patients with hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, F.K.R.; Casselman, J.W.; Leenheer, E.M. De; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an autosomal-dominant connective-tissue disorder, predominantly characterized by bone fragility. Conductive hearing loss develops in half of the OI patients and often progresses to mixed loss. Findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic

  17. Human alveolar bone cell proliferation, expression of osteoblastic phenotype, and matrix mineralization on porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Crippa, Grasiele Edilaine; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Taba, Mario; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Beloti, Marcio Mateus

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the influence of the porous titanium (Ti) structure on the osteogenic cell behaviour. Porous Ti discs were fabricated by the powder metallurgy process with the pore size typically between 50 and 400 microm and a porosity of 60%. Osteogenic cells obtained from human alveolar bone were cultured until subconfluence and subcultured on dense Ti (control) and porous Ti for periods of up to 17 days. Cultures grown on porous Ti exhibited increased cell proliferation and total protein content, and lower levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than on dense Ti. In general, gene expression of osteoblastic markers-runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-7, and osteocalcin was lower at day 7 and higher at day 17 in cultures grown on porous Ti compared with dense Ti, a finding consistent with the enhanced growth rate for such cultures. The amount of mineralized matrix was greater on porous Ti compared with the dense one. These results indicate that the porous Ti is an appropriate substrate for osteogenic cell adhesion, proliferation, and production of a mineralized matrix. Because of the three-dimensional environment it provides, porous Ti should be considered an advantageous substrate for promoting desirable implant surface-bone interactions.

  18. Bone loss after bariatric surgery: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2014-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  20. Comparison of digital panoramic radiography versus cone beam computerized tomography for measuring alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zunan; Liu, Xianchu; Chen, Kejia

    2017-02-22

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in dental implanting. However, the local hospitals usually don't have access to CBCT due to the cost and medical investment, especially in West of China. The doctors in local hospitals have to make reasonable dental planting using orthopantomography (OPG) to reduce risks. Therefore, it is clinically meaningful to determine the magnification rate of OPG to obtain correct diagnosis. This study investigated the magnification rate of OPG in measuring different maxillofacial loci compared with CBCT. Eighty-six patients demanding dental implanting were scanned by CBCT and OPG. The vertical distance between the alveolar ridge crest of the maxillary first molar and the sinus bottom of the upper jaw, the distance between the alveolar ridge crest of the mandibular first molars and the top of nerviduct in the mandibular alveolar, and the distance between the alveolar ridge crest of the maxillary central incisors and the bottoms of the nasal cavities were measured. The horizontal distance in those loci were also measured. The distances derived from CBCT were used as reference. The distances between the two methods were compared using paired t-test. The magnification rates at these positions were calculated. The relationship between the data acquired from the two methods was analyzed Pearson correlation. The correlation coefficients (R) between the paired samples obtained from OPG and CBCT were highly related (P < 0.05) with R values varying from 0.840 and 0.959 in vertical distances and R values varying from 0.703 and 0.904 in horizontal distances. Compared with data obtained from CBCT, the mean vertical magnification rates were 11.38% and 12.95% vertically and 8.55% and 9.43% horizontally for the first molars in the right and left maxilla respectively; 7.26% and 6.35% vertically and 5.33% and 4.96% horizontally for the first molars in the right and left mandible respectively; and 5.55% and 4.84% vertically and

  1. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants with SCI longitudinally and 16 on one occasion; 21 participants without SCI served as controls. In the first year post-SCI, 15% to 35% of BMD was lost at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal fibula. Bone loss at the distal fibula accelerated between 1 and 2 years post-SCI. BMD at these sites reached a steady state value of ~50% of the non-SCI value 4 years post-SCI. At the tibia diaphysis, cortical CSA decline was slower, eventually reaching 65% of the non-SCI value. Because of the extensive loss of bone observed at these sites, careful consideration needs to be given to the dose of musculoskeletal stress delivered during rehabilitation interventions like standing, muscle electrical stimulation, and aggressive stretching of spastic muscles.

  2. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-06-26

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  3. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702

  4. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  5. Release of titanium ions from an implant surface and their effect on cytokine production related to alveolar bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachi, Takanori; Shuto, Takahiro; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Matono, Yoshinari; Makihira, Seicho

    2015-01-01

    Although interest in peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis has recently been increasing, the mechanisms driving these diseases remain unknown. Here, the effects of titanium ions on the inflammation and bone resorption around an implant were investigated. First, the accumulated amount of Ti ions released into gingival and bone tissues from an implant exposed to sodium fluoride solution was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Next, the cellular responses in gingival and bone tissues to Ti ions and/or Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) were assessed using a rat model. More Ti ions were detected in the gingival tissues around an implant after treatment with sodium fluoride (pH 4.2) than in its absence, which suggests that the fluoride corroded the implant surface under salivary buffering capacity. The injection of Ti ions (9 ppm) significantly increased the mRNA expression and protein accumulation of chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2, as well as the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to osteoprotegerin, in rat gingival tissues exposed to P. gingivalis-LPS in a synergistic manner. In addition, the enhanced localization of toll-like receptor 4, which is an LPS receptor, was observed in gingival epithelium loaded with Ti ions (9 ppm). These data suggest that Ti ions may be partly responsible for the infiltration of monocytes and osteoclast differentiation by increasing the sensitivity of gingival epithelial cells to microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, Ti ions may be involved in the deteriorating effects of peri-implant mucositis, which can develop into peri-implantitis accompanied by alveolar bone resorption

  6. Response of human alveolar bone-derived cells to a novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, L N; Crippa, G E; Gimenes, R; Zaghete, M A; de Oliveira, P T; Rosa, A L; Beloti, M M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the response of human alveolar bone-derived cells to a novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (P(VDF-TrFE)/BT) membrane. Osteoblastic cells were cultured in osteogenic conditions either on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for up to 14 days. At 7 and 14 days, the mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Type I collagen (COL I), Osteopontin (OPN), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), and Osteocalcin (OC), key markers of the osteoblastic phenotype, and of Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Survivin (SUR), associated with the control of the apoptotic cell death, was assayed by real-time PCR. In situ ALP activity was qualitatively evaluated by means of Fast red staining. Surface characterization was also qualitatively and quantitatively assayed in terms of topography, roughness, and wettability. Cells grown on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT exhibited a significantly higher mRNA expression for all markers compared to the ones on PTFE, except for Bcl-2, which was not detected for both groups. Additionally, Fast red staining was noticeably stronger in cultures on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT at 7 and 14 days. At micron- and submicron scale, SEM images and roughness analysis revealed that PTFE and P(VDF-TrFE)/BT exhibited a smooth topography and a similar roughness, respectively. PTFE membrane displayed higher contact angles compared with P(VDF-TrFE)/BT, as indicated by wettability assay. The novel P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane supports the acquisition of the osteoblastic phenotype in vitro, while up-regulating the expression of apoptotic markers. Further in vivo experiments should be carried out to confirm the capacity of P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane in promoting bone formation in guided bone regeneration.

  7. Osteopenia in anorexia nervosa: specific mechanisms of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennkh, C; de Zwaan, M; Bailer, U; Strnad, A; Nagy, C; el-Giamal, N; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Vytiska, E; Huber, J; Kasper, S

    1999-01-01

    Osteopenia is a well recognized medical complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). The mechanism of bone loss is not fully understood and there is uncertainty about its management. New markers of bone turnover have been developed. C-terminal type 1 propeptide (PICP) is a measure of bone formation and urinary pyridinolines such as deoxypyridinoline (DPYRX) and serum carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide (ICTP) are markers of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to examine these bone markers in patients with AN. Twenty female patients with AN and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of AN patients was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Lumbar bone density was significantly reduced in the AN group compared to standardised values of thirty year old adults (t-score 83.2%, S.D. 12.1). Femoral neck bone density showed an even greater reduction (t-score 79.4%, S.D. 13.5). We found a significant negative correlation between femoral BMD and the duration of the illness. Femoral BMD correlated significantly with minimal body weight (r(16) = 0.504, p = 0.033). The markers of bone resorption were significantly higher in the patients with AN compared to the values of the control group (ICTP t(30) = -2.15, p = 0.04, DPYRX t(25) = -2.26, p = 0.033), whereas the markers of bone formation did not differ significantly between the groups. AN appears to be a low turn over state associated with increased bone resorption without concomitant bone formation. This pattern differs from osteopenia in menopausal women and should, therefore, lead to the development of specific therapeutic strategies in AN associated osteopenia. Hormone replacement therapy as well as calcium and vitamine D-supplementation are so far discussed controversially. Long-term treatment studies are warranted.

  8. A multi-method assessment of bone maintenance and loss in an Imperial Roman population: Implications for future studies of age-related bone loss in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, Patrick; Agarwal, Sabrina C

    2017-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of contemporary osteoporosis and bone loss is dramatically higher prevalence of loss and fragility in females post-menopause. In contrast, bioarchaeological studies of bone loss have found a greater diversity of age- and sex-related patterns of bone loss in past populations. We argue that the differing findings may relate to the fact that most studies use only a single methodology to quantify bone loss and do not account for the heterogeneity and complexity of bone maintenance across the skeleton and over the life course. We test the hypothesis that bone mass and maintenance in trabecular bone sites versus cortical bone sites will show differing patterns of age-related bone loss, with cortical bone sites showing sex difference in bone loss that are similar to contemporary Western populations, and trabecular bone loss at earlier ages. We investigated this hypothesis in the Imperial Roman population of Velia using three methods: radiogrammetry of the second metacarpal (N = 71), bone histology of ribs (N = 70), and computerized tomography of trabecular bone architecture (N = 47). All three methods were used to explore sex and age differences in patterns of bone loss. The suite of methods utilized reveal differences in the timing of bone loss with age, but all methods found no statistically significant differences in age-related bone loss. We argue that a multi-method approach reduces the influence of confounding factors by building a reconstruction of bone turnover over the life cycle that a limited single-method project cannot provide. The implications of using multiple methods beyond studies of bone loss are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  10. Bone loss rate in adrenal incidentalomas: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, I; Torlontano, M; Carnevale, V; Guglielmi, G; Cammisa, M; Trischitta, V; Scillitani, A

    2001-11-01

    Although by definition patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) do not have evident clinical syndromes, they may frequently suffer from subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). This is of some importance because of evidence that SH may lead to clinical complications, including bone loss. Thus, the understanding of bone involvement due to SH may be extremely important in the management of AI. Unfortunately, the available data on bone mineral density (BMD) in AI patients come from cross-sectional studies, which, to further complicate our understanding, are also conflicting, probably due to a different selection of patients and/or the variability in cortisol secretion (CS) often described in AI. To gain further insight about this topic, we performed a longitudinal study evaluating the rate of spinal and femoral bone loss levels in 24 females with AI. AI subjects were subdivided in two groups on the basis of the median of urinary cortisol secretion (UFC): group I (n = 12; UFC, 140.4 nmol/24 h). Spinal BMD was measured by both single energy quantitative computed tomography (L1-L4) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; L2-L4), and femoral BMD was determined by DXA. Bone loss rate was expressed as the change in z-score per yr. The spinal bone loss rate was higher (P < 0.005) in group II than in group I when measured by both quantitative computed tomography (-0.19 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.15) and DXA (-0.19 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.00 +/- 0.11). Moreover, CS and spinal bone loss rate were significantly correlated when patients were considered together. In conclusion, our data show that 1) AI patients with higher CS have increased lumbar trabecular bone loss rate than those with lower CS; and 2) the degree of spinal bone loss rate is related to the degree of CS. Thus, lumbar spine (LS) BMD has to be evaluated for well balanced decision-making on the treatment of choice for AI female patients.

  11. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  12. Technique to assess the alveolar bone width for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Chandraker

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This technique will help the surgeon understand the thickness of labial plate especially the apical region without reflecting the flap, also aid in selection of proper dimension of dental implant, and if bone graft is needed.

  13. Severe Bone Loss induced by Orthodontic Elastic Separator: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Vishwanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A displaced orthodontic elastic separator was proposed as being the source of a gingival abscess that progressed to severe bone loss and exfoliation in a healthy adolescent patient with sound periodontal status prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment. After 1 year of undergoing orthodontic treatment, the patient presented with dull pain and mobility in the left upper permanent molar for which there was no apparent etiology. On clinical examination, the patient had gingival inflammation, associated with a deep pocket and severe mobility (grade III in relation to the same teeth. Radiographic examination of an orthopantomogram and intraoral periapical radiography (IOPAR revealed a chronic periodontal abscess with severe necrosis of the periodontal ligament and severe alveolar bone loss. A radiopaque mass on the distal surface below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ was also observed. The patient was referred to the department of periodontics for assessment and appropriate treatment. On curettage, it was found that there was orthodontic elastic separator which was displaced subgingivally.

  14. Effects of diclofenac and celecoxib on osteoclastogenesis during alveolar bone healing, in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily: Receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on the RANKL/OPG balance during the healing of the alveolar process. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, carried on 45 male Wistar rats (200 ± 25 g, 8-10 weeks old. After extraction of the right maxillary first molar, 15 rats received 5 mg/kg/day of diclofenac and 15 rats received 15 mg/kg/day of celecoxib and 15 rats received normal saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. The number of osteoclasts, OPG and RANKL messenger ribonucleic acid expression were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR respectively. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: On days 7, 14 and 21 the ratio of RANKL/OPG in the control group was higher than diclofenac and celecoxib groups. TRAP immunolabeling of the control group was more than diclofenac group on day 7 and was more than celecoxib group on day 14. On day 21, no significant differences were noted among the three studied groups. Conclusion: Both drugs affect RANKL/OPG gene expression and also osteoclastogenesis in alveolar socket during the experimental period of 21 days.

  15. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  16. Rapid cortical bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Stein, Emily M; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Komandah-Kosseh, Mafo; Zhang, Chiyuan A; McMahon, Donald J; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cremers, Serge; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may have high rates of bone loss and fractures, but microarchitectural and biochemical mechanisms of bone loss in CKD patients have not been fully described. In this longitudinal study of 53 patients with CKD Stages 2 to 5D, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), and biochemical markers of bone metabolism to elucidate effects of CKD on the skeleton. Median follow-up was 1.5 years (range 0.9 to 4.3 years); bone changes were annualized and compared with baseline. By DXA, there were significant declines in areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip and ultradistal radius: -1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.1 to -0.6) and -2.4% (95% CI -4.0 to -0.9), respectively. By HRpQCT at the distal radius, there were significant declines in cortical area, density, and thickness and increases in porosity: -2.9% (95% CI -3.7 to -2.2), -1.3% (95% CI -1.6 to -0.6), -2.8% (95% CI -3.6 to -1.9), and +4.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 6.4), respectively. Radius trabecular area increased significantly: +0.4% (95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), without significant changes in trabecular density or microarchitecture. Elevated time-averaged levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers predicted cortical deterioration. Higher levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted decreases in trabecular network heterogeneity. These data suggest that significant cortical loss occurs with CKD, which is mediated by hyperparathyroidism and elevated turnover. Future investigations are required to determine whether these cortical losses can be attenuated by treatments that reduce PTH levels and remodeling rates. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Alveolar process preservation at implants installed immediately into extraction sockets using deproteinized bovine bone mineral - an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneva, Marco; Botticelli, Daniele; Morelli, Fabrizio; Cesaretti, Gianfranco; Beolchini, Marco; Lang, Niklaus P

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the soft tissue and the dimensional changes of the alveolar bony crest at sites where deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particles, concomitantly with the placement of a collagen membrane, were used at implants installed into sockets immediately after tooth extraction. The pulp tissue of the mesial roots of (3) P(3) was removed in six Labrador dogs, and the root canals were filled. Flaps were elevated bilaterally, the premolars hemi-sectioned, and the distal roots removed. Recipient sites were prepared in the distal alveolus, and implants were placed. At the test sites, DBBM particles were placed in the residual marginal defects concomitantly with the placement of a collagen membrane. No treatment augmentation was performed at the control sites. A non-submerged healing was allowed. Impressions were obtained at baseline and at the time of sacrifice performed 4 months after surgery. The cast models obtained were analyzed using an optical system to evaluate dimensional variations. Block sections of the implant sites were obtained for histological processing and soft tissue assessments. After 4 months of healing, no differences in soft tissue dimensions were found between the test and control sites based on the histological assessments. The location of the soft tissue at the buccal aspect was, however, more coronal at the test compared with the control sites (1.8 ± 0.8 and 0.9 ± 0.8 mm, respectively). At the three-dimensional evaluation, the margin of the soft tissues at the buccal aspect appeared to be located more apically and lingually. The vertical dislocation was 1 ± 0.6 and 2.7 ± 0.5 mm at the test and control sites, respectively. The area of the buccal shrinkage of the alveolar crest was significantly smaller at the test sites (5.9 ± 2.4 mm(2) ) compared with the control sites (11.5 ± 1.7 mm(2) ). The use of DBBM particles concomitantly with the application of a collagen membrane used at implants placed into sockets immediately after

  18. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  19. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  20. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  1. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  2. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  3. Staged subtalar fusion for severe calcaneus fractures with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chad G; Coffey, Michael J; Shorten, Peter; Lyions, James D; Laughlin, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    With high energy fractures to the calcaneus there is the potential for significant bone loss. The loss of bone can make it difficult to fully regain calcaneal alignment. In addition these fractures are often associated with significant soft tissue injury. These two factors make it difficult to address this injury in a single stage, and can have significant complications. To address these issues our initial goal in treatment has been restoration of calcaneal alignment and stabilization of the surrounding soft tissue, followed by delayed/staged subtalar arthrodesis. Patients with calcaneus fractures treated by a single surgeon from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed. Injuries which were found to have medial extrusion of the posterior facet and bone loss, and subsequently underwent a staged protocol involving early provisional fixation and late subtalar fusion were included. We treated 6 calcaneus fractures with bone loss. All patients were treated with staged subtalar fusion after initial irrigation and debridement and provisional fixation. No soft-tissue complications were noted after the fusion procedure in any of the six cases. Fusion occurred in all six patients at an average of 20.6 weeks (range, 13-23 weeks). All patients were able to ambulate and wear a regular shoe by one year following the initial injury. It is important in the high energy calcaneus fracture to assess for both soft tissue integrity and bone loss. A thorough debridement of both the soft tissues and any devitalized bone should be performed as well as provisional fixation which attempts to restore near normal calcaneal anatomy. Definitive fusion should not be performed until the soft tissues have fully recovered.

  4. Peri-implant bone loss of dental implants with platform-switching design after 5 years of loading: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Michelaki, Ioanna; Heydecke, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate bone loss of implants with platform-switching design and analyze possible risk indicators after 5 years of loading in a multi-centered private practice network. Peri-implant bone loss was measured radiographically as the distance from the implant shoulder to the mesial and distal alveolar crest, respectively. Risk factor analysis for marginal bone loss included type of implant prosthetic treatment concept and dental status of the opposite arch. A total of 316 implants in 98 study patients after 5 years of loading were examined. The overall mean value for radiographic bone loss was 1.02 mm (SD ± 1.25 mm, 95% CI 0.90- 1.14). Correlation analyses indicated a strong association of peri-implant bone loss > 2 mm for removable implant-retained prostheses with an odds ratio of 53.8. The 5-year-results of the study show clinically acceptable values of mean bone loss after 5 years of loading. Implant-supported removable prostheses seem to be a strong co-factor for extensive bone level changes compared to fixed reconstructions. However, these results have to be considered for evaluation of the included special cohort under private dental office conditions.

  5. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  6. Cleft Patient-Reported Postoperative Donor Site Pain Following Alveolar Autologous Iliac Crest Bone Grafting: Comparing Two Minimally Invasive Harvesting Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Denadai, Rafael; Chammas, Danilo Zanardo; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Pinho, André Silveira; Roberto, Wellington Matheus; Buzzo, Celso Luiz; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    Autologous bone grafting is still considered the standard method for alveolar cleft repair. However, donor site morbidities remain a relevant problem in cleft care. Thus, the authors assessed postoperative donor site pain in cleft patients who underwent alveolar cleft repair by iliac crest bone graft transferring through a prospective randomized study comparing 2 minimally invasive harvesting techniques. Fifty-six consecutive patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent iliac crest bone grafting for alveolar cleft repair were randomly divided into 2 groups: bone graft harvested by minimally invasive techniques without (group 1) and with (group 2) periosteum elevation. Postoperative donor site pain was evaluated using a unidimensional numerical pain intensity rating scale (0, "no pain;" 10, "worst pain imaginable") at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours after the procedures and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days after surgeries. Intergroup comparisons were performed. The mean measurements of donor site pain revealed no significant differences (all P > 0.05) in any of the evaluated postoperative period comparisons between groups 1 and 2. There was a greater number (P < 0.05) of group 1 patients who reported "no pain" in the donor site compared with group 2, suggesting that periosteum elevation may play a role in pain intensity measurement. This prospective randomized study showed no difference in pain intensity among cleft patients who had postoperative pain. However, a greater number of patients in group 1 reported "no pain" in comparison to patients in group 2.

  7. [Morphological analysis of alveolar bone of anterior mandible in high-angle skeletal class II and class III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Jiang, J H

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the difference of features of alveolar bone support under lower anterior teeth between high-angle adults with skeletal class II malocclusions and high-angle adults presenting skeletal class III malocclusions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients who had taken the images of CBCT were selected from the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between October 2015 and August 2017. The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adult cases without orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: skeletal class II and skeletal class III. vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and the width of alveolar bone were measured respectively at the 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level and at the apical level. After that, independent samples t-tests were conducted for statistical comparisons. The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in the patients of skeletal class III than those of skeletal class II, especially in terms of the apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides and the ABA at 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III than those of skeletal class II, especially regarding the apical level on the labial and lingual side and at the level of 4 mm, 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III adult patients with high-angle when compared with the sample of high-angle skeletal class II adult cases. We recommend orthodontists to be more cautious in treatment of high-angle skeletal class III patients, especially pay attention to control the torque of lower anterior teeth during forward and backward movement, in case that the apical root might be absorbed or fenestration happen in the area of lower anterior teeth.

  8. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  9. Soy Isoflavones and Osteoporotic Bone Loss: A Review with an Emphasis on Modulation of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Lee, Sun-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that affects both women and men, although estrogen deficiency induced by menopause accelerates bone loss in older women. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of men and women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Since the current drug therapies available have multiple side effects, including increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or complications, a search for potential nonpharmacologic alternative therapies for osteoporosis is of prime interest. Soy isoflavones (SI) have demonstrated potential bone-specific effects in a number of studies. This article provides a systematic review of studies on osteoporotic bone loss in relation to SI intake from diet or supplements to comprehensively explain how SI affect the modulation of bone remodeling. Evidence from epidemiologic studies supports that dietary SI attenuate menopause-induced osteoporotic bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Other studies have also illustrated that bone site-specific trophic and synergistic effects combined with exercise intervention might contribute to improve the bioavailability of SI or strengthen the bone-specific effects. To date, however, the effects of dietary SI on osteoporotic bone loss remain inconclusive, and study results vary from study to study. The current review will discuss the potential factors that result in the conflicting outcomes of these studies, including dosages, intervention materials, study duration, race, and genetic differences. Further well-designed studies are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanism and evaluate the effects of SI on osteoporosis in humans. PMID:26670451

  10. Bone transport and compression-distraction in the treatment of bone loss of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavini, Franco; Dall'Oca, Carlo; Bartolozzi, Pietro

    2010-11-01

    A clinical series of 17 adult patients operated due to significant by bone loss of the long bones of the lower extremity (3 femurs and 11 tibias), is presented. Their management consisted of 6 bone transports (6 tibias) and 11 compression distraction procedures (3 femurs and 8 tibiae) using monolateral external fixators. Bone loss ranged from 3.9 cm to 14.7 cm. Mean healing time was 301 days with a mean healing index of 45.6 days for cm of lengthening achieved. The clinical and radiological results were excellent in 9, good in 6 and fair in 2 patients according to the utilised criteria of assessment. Consolidation was achieved in all but one patient who developed an aseptic stiff non-union. Two patients developed residual limb-length discrepancy less than 1.5 cm, three tibias ended up with less than 5° of valgus deviation. In two cases the half-pins were re-inserted due to early loosening. In two cases reoperation was needed for late bending of the callus after fixator removal. Three cases of bone transport and 1 case of compression distraction needed bone grafting at the docking site. Bone transport and compression-distraction are effective methods for treating bone loss in the lower extremity. It is suggested that the compression-distraction technique is preferable, since this is associated with a lower incidence of complications than bone transport procedures. The deciding factor, however, is the actual extent of the bone loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G determines osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harre, Ulrike; Lang, Stefanie C; Pfeifle, René; Rombouts, Yoann; Frühbeißer, Sabine; Amara, Khaled; Bang, Holger; Lux, Anja; Koeleman, Carolien A; Baum, Wolfgang; Dietel, Katharina; Gröhn, Franziska; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Krönke, Gerhard; Kocijan, Roland; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Toes, René E M; Herrmann, Martin; Scherer, Hans Ulrich; Schett, Georg

    2015-03-31

    Immunglobulin G (IgG) sialylation represents a key checkpoint that determines the engagement of pro- or anti-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and the direction of the immune response. Whether IgG sialylation influences osteoclast differentiation and subsequently bone architecture has not been determined yet, but may represent an important link between immune activation and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that desialylated, but not sialylated, immune complexes enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that the Fc sialylation state of random IgG and specific IgG autoantibodies determines bone architecture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In accordance with these findings, mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), which results in increased IgG sialylation, are less susceptible to inflammatory bone loss. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism by which immune responses influence the human skeleton and an innovative treatment approach to inhibit immune-mediated bone loss.

  12. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-09-04

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-ε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-ε and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Comparison of Peri-Implant Bone Loss and Survival of Maxillary Intrasinus and Extrasinus Implants After 2 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hemati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low quality of the bone and insufficient bone due to the size of the sinus and resorption of the alveolar ridge decrease the long-term survival of implants in the posterior maxilla compared to other regions of the jaws. Surgical procedures to increase bone volume make it possible to place implants longer than 8 mm. In this situation sinus elevation makes it possible to place implants. We intend to evaluate peri-implant bone loss and survivalof implants placed in elevated sinuses after 2 years and to compare with implants placed in the native posterior maxilla.Materials and Methods:Twenty-five implants placed in sinuses that had been reconstructed with Bio-Oss and healed after 9 months were compared with 30 implants placed in the posterior maxilla without any surgery. The groups were compared using probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, Plaque Index and bone loss immediately after implant placement surgery and 2 years postoperatively. The criterion for implant survival was presence or absence of the implant in the oral cavity, which was recorded in relevant forms in both groups.Results: Three implants were lost; one in control and two in grafted sinuses. No significant differences were observed in the survival rates. In general, the mean bone loss around intrasinus and extrasinus implants was not significantly different. In the same context, no differences were observed between bleeding on probing, Plaque Index and probing pocket depths of two groups (P=0.397, P=0.637 and P=0.224, respectively.Conclusion: The survival and bone loss around intrasinus and extrasinus implants are similar.

  14. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  15. Interleukin-1 is essential for systemic inflammatory bone loss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzer, K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Gasser, J.; Distler, J.H.; Ruiz, G.; Baum, W.; Redlich, K.; Bobacz, K.; Smolen, J.S.; Berg, W. van den; Schett, G.; Zwerina, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for systemic bone loss leading to osteoporotic fracture and substantial morbidity and mortality. Inflammatory cytokines, particularly tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL1), are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of

  16. Patterns of bone loss around teeth restored with endodontic posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsamakis, S.; Timmerman, M.; van der Velden, U.; de Cleen, M.; van der Weijden, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study described the pattern of bone loss around teeth with endodontic posts in periodontitis patients, and compared it with contra-lateral teeth without posts. Material and Methods: From full-mouth radiographic surveys of 146 periodontitis patients (35 years), 194

  17. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between interdental and interradicular bone loss and clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred-twenty intraoral periapical radiographs of first molars were obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis ...

  18. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  19. Micro-architecture and mineralization of the human alveolar bone obtained with microCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Y.; Gravestijn, F.A.; van Ruijven, L.J.; Koolstra, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The primary dental implant stability depends on the location of the implant in the jaw. This study analysed the architecture and mineralization of the trabecular bone at different jaw locations and thereby identified potential prognostic factors for implant failure. It has checked the

  20. Bone growth stimulators. New tools for treating bone loss and mending fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James F; Morley, Paul; Willick, Gordon E

    2002-01-01

    In the new millennium, humans will be traveling to Mars and eventually beyond with skeletons that respond to microgravity by self-destructing. Meanwhile in Earth's aging populations growing numbers of men and many more women are suffering from crippling bone loss. During the first decade after menopause all women suffer an accelerating loss of bone, which in some of them is severe enough to result in "spontaneous" crushing of vertebrae and fracturing of hips by ordinary body movements. This is osteoporosis, which all too often requires prolonged and expensive care, the physical and mental stress of which may even kill the patient. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is caused by the loss of estrogen. The slower development of osteoporosis in aging men is also due at least in part to a loss of the estrogen made in ever smaller amounts in bone cells from the declining level of circulating testosterone and is needed for bone maintenance as it is in women. The loss of estrogen increases the generation, longevity, and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The destructive osteoclast surge can be blocked by estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as well as antiosteoclast agents such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin. But these agents stimulate only a limited amount of bone growth as the unaffected osteoblasts fill in the holes that were dug by the now suppressed osteoclasts. They do not stimulate osteoblasts to make bone--they are antiresorptives not bone anabolic agents. (However, certain estrogen analogs and bisphosphates may stimulate bone growth to some extent by lengthening osteoblast working lives.) To grow new bone and restore bone strength lost in space and on Earth we must know what controls bone growth and destruction. Here we discuss the newest bone controllers and how they might operate. These include leptin from adipocytes and osteoblasts and the statins that are widely used to reduce blood cholesterol and cardiovascular damage. But

  1. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  2. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Erika Nishida,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Akihito Kato,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Toshihiko Iwanaga,3 Takehito Momose,1 Kosuke Ogawa,1 Shusuke Murakami,1 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami11Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 3Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Graphene oxide (GO consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1

  3. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  4. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  5. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  6. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  7. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  8. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Jacobs, Reinhilde [OIC, OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noriega, Jorge [Master of Periodontology, Universidad San Martin de Porres, Lima (Peru)

    2014-09-15

    This study was performed to determine the efficacy of observers' prediction for the need of bone grafting and presence of perioperative complications on the basis of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographic (PAN) planning as compared to the surgical outcome. One hundred and eight partially edentulous patients with a need for implant rehabilitation were referred for preoperative imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT images. Four observers carried out implant planning using PAN image datasets, and at least one month later, using CBCT image datasets. Based on their own planning, the observers assessed the need for bone graft augmentation as well as complication prediction. The implant length and diameter, the need for bone graft augmentation, and the occurrence of anatomical complications during planning and implant placement were statistically compared. In the 108 patients, 365 implants were installed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses of both PAN and CBCT preoperative planning showed that CBCT performed better than PAN-based planning with respect to the need for bone graft augmentation and perioperative complications. The sensitivity and the specificity of CBCT for implant complications were 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively, and for bone graft augmentation, they were 95.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Significant differences were found between PAN-based planning and the surgery of posterior implant lengths. Our findings indicated that CBCT-based preoperative implant planning enabled treatment planning with a higher degree of prediction and agreement as compared to the surgical standard. In PAN-based surgery, the prediction of implant length was poor.

  9. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas D. Leventis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques.

  10. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Minas D.; Fairbairn, Peter; Kakar, Ashish; Leventis, Angelos D.; Margaritis, Vasileios; Lückerath, Walter; Horowitz, Robert A.; Rao, Bappanadu H.; Lindner, Annette; Nagursky, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone) in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material) while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques. PMID:27190516

  11. CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, M; García-Giralt, N; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Servitja, S; Balcells, S; Pecorelli, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Tusquets, I; Nogués, X

    2015-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (Pbone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Effects of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells and Platelet-rich Plasma on Healing Response of Canine Alveolar Surgical Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Shafieian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the known disadvantages of autologous bone grafting, tissue engineering approaches have become an attractive method for ridge augmentation in dentistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to evaluate the potential therapeutic capacity of PRP-assisted hADSCs seeded on HA/TCP granules on regenerative healing response of canine alveolar surgical bone defects. This could offer a great advantage to alternative approaches of bone tissue healing-induced therapies at clinically chair-side procedures. Methods: Cylindrical through-and-through defects were drilled in the mandibular plate of 5 mongrel dogs and filled randomly as following: I- autologous crushed mandibular bone, II- no filling material, III- HA/TCP granules in combination with PRP, and IV- PRP-enriched hADSCs seeded on HA/TCP granules. After the completion of an 8-week period of healing, radiographic, histological and histomorphometrical analysis of osteocyte number, newly-formed vessels and marrow spaces were used for evaluation and comparison of the mentioned groups. Furthermore, the buccal side of mandibular alveolar bone of every individual animal was drilled as normal control samples (n=5. Results: Our results revealed that hADSCs subcultured on HA/TCP granules in combination with PRP significantly promoted bone tissue regeneration as compared with those defects treated only with PRP and HA/TCP granules (P

  13. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  14. Sclerostin Antibody Reverses Bone Loss by Increasing Bone Formation and Decreasing Bone Resorption in a Rat Model of Male Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Villasenor, Kelly S; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Frank J; Xia, Xuechun; Grisanti, Mario; Wronski, Thomas J; Simonet, W Scott; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis. We treated 9-month-old ORX Sprague Dawley rats (3 months after ORX) subcutaneously twice weekly with vehicle or Scl-Ab (5 or 25 mg/kg) for 6 weeks (n = 10 per group). Both doses of Scl-Ab fully reversed the BMD deficit in the lumbar spine and femur and tibia in ORX rats. Microcomputed tomography showed that the bone mass in the fifth lumbar vertebral body, femur diaphysis, and femoral neck were dose-dependently restored by Scl-Ab. The bone strength at these sites increased significantly with Scl-Ab to levels matching those of sham-operated controls and correlated positively with improvements in bone mineral content, demonstrating bone quality maintenance. Dynamic histomorphometry of the tibial diaphysis and second lumbar vertebral body demonstrated that Scl-Ab significantly increased bone formation on periosteal, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces and significantly decreased bone resorption on endocortical and trabecular surfaces. The effects of Scl-Ab on increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption led to restoration of bone mass and strength in androgen-deficient rats. These findings support the ongoing evaluation of Scl-Ab as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in men. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  15. Increase in age is associated with worse outcomes in alveolar bone grafting in patients with bilateral complete cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Adriana Maria; Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; Carvalho, Roberta Martineli; de Souza Faco, Renato André; Ozawa, Terumi Okada; Cintra, Flávia; Trindade, Alceu Sergio; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2014-03-01

    This prospective study aimed at evaluating the surgical outcomes of alveolar bone grafting (ABG) in subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate treated at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil, by means of cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty-five patients with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, resulting in 50 clefts, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to the dentition status at the time of surgery: (1) SABG group: subjects with mixed dentition operated on before or immediately after eruption of the permanent canine (10-13 years); (2) TABG group: subjects with permanent dentition (15-23 years). Cone-beam computed tomography analysis was performed in the buccal, intermediate, and palatal views, 2 and 6 to 12 months postoperatively. In the SABG group, 96% of the grafts were classified as successful, and no failure cases were observed. In the TABG group, successful cases decreased to 65%, and failures were seen in 27% of the cleft sites. In both postoperative periods, significantly better outcomes (lower mean scores) were observed for the SABG group in all the cone-beam computed tomography views (P < 0.05). Results show that the timing of surgery is an important factor in determining the outcomes of ABG in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate, with increasing age being associated with the worse outcomes.

  16. Effectiveness of standardized approach versus usual care on physiotherapy treatment for patients submitted to alveolar bone graft: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Laís Silva; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Alencar, Tatiane Romanini Rodrigues; Silva, Thaísa Maria Santos; Probst, Vanessa Suziane

    2015-07-01

    To compare the acute effects of a standardized physiotherapy protocol versus a typical non-standardized physiotherapy protocol on pain and performance of patients undergoing alveolar bone graft (ABG). Sixteen patients (9 males; 12 [11-13] years) with cleft lip and palate undergoing ABG were allocated into two groups: (1) experimental group--EG (standardized physiotherapy protocol); and (2) control group--CG (typical, non-standardized physiotherapy treatment). Range of motion, muscle strength, gait speed, and pain level were assessed prior to surgical intervention (PRE), as well as on the first, second, and third post-operative days (1st, 2nd, and 3rd PO, respectively). Recovery with respect to range of motion of hip flexion was more pronounced in the EG (64.6 ± 11.0°) in comparison to the CG (48.5 ± 17.7° on the 3rd PO; p physiotherapy protocol appears to be better than a non-standardized physiotherapy protocol for acute improvement of range of motion of hip flexion and for reducing pain in patients undergoing ABG.

  17. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  18. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone.

  19. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  20. To assess the efficacy of socket plug technique using platelet rich fibrin with or without the use of bone substitute in alveolar ridge preservation: a prospective randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish Kumar, N; Chaudhary, Rupanzal; Kumar, Ish; Arora, Srimathy S; Kumar, Nilesh; Singh, Hem

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) as a socket plug with or without use of Plaster of Paris (POP) as bone substitute to preserve the alveolar ridge post-extraction. A prospective randomised single blind controlled study, was conducted for 18 months from November 2014 to May 2016 on 48 patients requiring extraction. All teeth were extracted atraumatically using periotomes and luxators without raising mucoperiosteal flap. Sockets were randomly allotted to groups A, B and C. Group A sockets were chosen as control, where figure of eight suture was placed. In group B sockets, PRF obtained by centrifugation was used as a socket plug and stabilised with figure of eight suture. Group C sockets were filled with POP and then covered with PRF. The socket was then closed with a figure of eight suture. Patients were informed of need for 6 months follow-up. Ninety sockets in 48 patients were subjected to our study. We found that results in the sockets where we have grafted POP showed better ridge preservation and post-operative comfort even though the difference in ridge resorption between the three groups was not statistically significant. Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from the Aries Systems Corporation. Atraumatic extraction may minimise the post-operative pain and discomfort to patient as well as the post-extraction alveolar height and width changes. The use of PRF and/or bone substitute even though clinically contributes to better post-operative healing and minimal loss of alveolar width and height, the values were not statistically significant.

  1. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-12-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss.

  2. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  3. Management of metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Beltrame, Arianna; Colombo, Elia; Miani, Enrick; Bassini, Fabrizio

    2017-06-07

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually made more complex by the presence of bone defects, which may be caused by periprosthethic infection, polyethylene wear, implant loosening or fractures. The main aim of the present work is to review the available literature to understand the current options to manage with the bone loss during knee revisions. Available English literature for bone defects in revision TKAs has been evaluated looking at treatment options and their results in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes and failure rates. Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute (AORI) classification is the most frequently used because it helps in the choice of the most suitable treatment. Several options are available in the management of metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty. For small and contained defects (AORI type 1) cement with or without screws and auto- or allograft morcellized bone are available. In uncontained but mild defects (AORI type 2A) metal augments should be use while large and uncontained defects (AORI type 2B and 3) are best addressed with structural allograft or metal filling devices (cones and sleeves). Stemmed components, either cemented or cementless, are recommended to reduce the strain at the interface implant-host. The treatment of bone defects in revision TKAs has evolved during the last years providing different options with good results at a short/medium term follow up. With the increasing revision burden, further scientific evidence is requested to identify the best approach for each patient. Long-term clinical outcome as well as implant survival after revision TKA are still sub-optimal and depend upon many factors including cause for revision, surgical approach, type of implants used and various patient factors.

  4. Basis of bone metabolism around dental implants during osseointegration and peri-implant bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Angel; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Miron, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants. An update on the coupling mechanism occurring during bone resorption-bone remodeling is provided, focused on the relevance of the osteocytes, bone lining cells and immune cells during bone maintenance. An electronic and manual literature search was conducted by three independent reviewers in several databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases for articles up to September 2016 with no language restriction. Local bone metabolism is subject to signals from systemic calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. Three areas of interest were reviewed due to recent reported compromises in bone healing including the putative effects of (1) cholesterol, (2) hyperlipidemia, and (3) low vitamin D intake. Moreover, the prominent influence of osteocytes and immune cells is discussed as being key regulators during dental implant osseointegration and maintenance. These cells are of crucial importance in the presence of biofilm accumulation and their associated byproducts that leads to hard and soft tissue breakdown; the so called peri-implantitis. Factors that could negatively impact osteoclastogenesis or osteal macrophage activation should be monitored in future research including implant placement/torque protocols, bone characteristics, as well as meticulous maintenance programs to favor osseointegration and future long-term stability and success of dental implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res

  5. Bone loss and human adaptation to lunar gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T. S.; Strauss, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Long-duration space missions and establishment of permanently manned bases on the Moon and Mars are currently being planned. The weightless environment of space and the low-gravity environments of the Moon and Mars pose an unknown challenge to human habitability and survivability. Of particular concern in the medical research community today is the effect of less than Earth gravity on the human skeleton, since the limits, if any, of human endurance in low-gravity environments are unknown. This paper provides theoretical predictions on bone loss and skeletal adaptation to lunar and other nonterrestrial-gravity environments based upon the experimentally derived relationship, density approximately (mass x gravity)(exp 1/8). The predictions are compared to skeletal changes reported during bed rest, immobilization, certrifugation, and spaceflight. Countermeasures to reduce bone losses in fractional gravity are also discussed.

  6. First-in-human study and clinical case reports of the alveolar bone regeneration with the secretome from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu

    2016-01-15

    Secreted growth factors and cytokines in the conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) have several effects on cell behavior. Our previous studies revealed that MSC-CM enhances bone regeneration by increasing cell mobilization, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. This clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and use of MSC-CM for alveolar bone regeneration in eight patients who were diagnosed as needing bone augmentation prior to dental implant placement. The protocol of this clinical study was approved by the ethics committee of Nagoya University Hospital. MSC-CM was prepared from conditioned medium from commercially available human bone marrow-derived MSCs. Patients were treated with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or an atelocollagen sponge soaked with MSC-CM. Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed during the follow-up period. Histological assessments were also performed in some cases. Clinical and histological data from patients who underwent the SFE procedure without MSC-CM were also used retrospectively as reference controls. MSC-CM contained several cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and hepatocyte growth factor in relatively low amounts. No systemic or local complications were reported throughout the study. Radiographic evaluation revealed early bone formation in all cases. Histological evaluation also supported the radiographic findings. Furthermore, infiltration of inflammatory cells was scarce throughout the specimens. MSC-CM was used safely and with less inflammatory signs and appears to have great osteogenic potential for regenerative medicine of bone. This is the first in-human clinical study of alveolar bone regeneration using MSC-CM.

  7. The effect of peri-implant bone exposure on soft tissue healing and bone loss in two adjacent implants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung-Yun; Kye, Seung-Boem; Hong, Jongrak; Paeng, Jun-Young; Yang, Seung-Min

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soft tissue and bone change around two adjacent implants in one-stage implant surgery. Methods Eleven subjects (7 males, 4 females) who were needed placement of 2 adjacent implants in the molar area were included. The two implants were placed with the platform at the level of the alveolar crest. The interproximal bone between the 2 implants was not covered with gingiva. After surgery, an alginate impression was taken to record the gingival...

  8. Angiogenesis and bone regeneration of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline blocks coated with rhVEGF165 in critical-size alveolar bone defects in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du B

    2015-03-01

    that in the nHA/coral group (105±51.8 vessel/mm2 at the 3-week time point (P<0.05, but no significant difference was observed at the 8-week time point (341±86.1 and 269±50.7 vessel/mm2, respectively, P>0.05. The present study indicated that nHA/coral blocks might be optimal scaffolds for block grafting in critical-size mandibular defects and that additional VEGF coating via physical adsorption can promote angiogenesis in the early stage of bone healing, which suggests that prevascularized nHA/coral blocks have significant potential as a bioactive material for bone regeneration in large-scale alveolar defects. Keywords: angiogenesis, bone regeneration, tissue engineering, block grafting, nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline, critical size, bone defect 

  9. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  10. Comparison of Bone Loss around Bone Platform Shift and Non-Bone Platform Shift Implants After 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirReza Rokn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present randomized clinical trial was to evaluate marginal bone loss around two types of implants modified at the neck area: Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy, both manufactured by Nobel Biocare.Materials and Methods: A total of 25 Nobel Active and 21 Nobel Replace Groovy implants were included in the present study. The implants were placed based on the relevant protocol and patient inclusion and exclusion criteria. The amount of bone loss around implants was compared at 6 and 12-month intervals using digital periapical radiographs.Results: The mean bone loss values in the Nobel Active and Nobel Replace Groovy groups were 0.682 mm and 0.645 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant difference based on the results of independent t-test (P=0.802.Conclusion: Use of both implant types yielded favorable results, with high durability.The two implant types exhibited no superiority over each other in terms of bone loss.

  11. Alveolar Ridge Preservation After Tooth Extraction with DFDBA and Platelet Concentrates: A Radiographic Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Behrang; Evrard, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate vertical alveolar bone loss 3 months after tooth extraction when a technique of ridge preservation was applied using a particulate demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft 300 - 500 µm associated with platelet concentrates (platelet-rich-fibrin) in the form of gel and membranes. A retrospective radiological clinical study was conducted on 56 patients for whom 95 extractions had been performed immediately followed by alveolar filling. Among the patients, 17 were smokers and 16 were provided with an immediate removable temporary prosthesis after extractions. Vertical bone loss was measured radiologically by panoramic X-ray before extractions and by a computed tomography scan 3 months after, at the level of mid-buccal bone wall, by two independent observers. For statistical analysis, Student's t-test was performed to compare the mean bone loss between mono- and pluri-radicular teeth and to compare the mean bone loss between tobacco users versus non users and finally to compare the mean bone loss between individuals that had provisional removable prosthesis and those that had not. Three months after tooth extraction, the mean of vertical loss of the mid-buccal bone wall was 0.72 (SD 0.71) mm (5.53% SD 5.19). No significant difference between bone loss at mono-radicular and pluri-radicular teeth (P = 0.982) was observed. There was no significant correlation between tobacco habits and bone loss (P = 0.2), nor between provisional removable prosthesis and bone loss (P = 0.786). These results indicate a good potential for the technique using Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft 300 - 500 µm and platelet concentrates in alveolar bone preservation.

  12. Morfologia alveolar sob a perspectiva da tomografia computadorizada: definindo os limites biológicos para a movimentação dentária Alveolar bone morphology under the perspective of the computed tomography: defining the biological limits of tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a tomografia computadorizada (TC permite a visualização do osso alveolar que recobre os dentes por vestibular e lingual. OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo foi expor e discutir as implicações da morfologia do osso alveolar, visualizado por meio da TC, sobre o diagnóstico e plano de tratamento ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: foram descritas as evidências sobre a inter-relação entre características dentofaciais e a morfologia das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual, assim como evidências sobre a repercussão da movimentação ortodôntica sobre o nível e espessura dessas estruturas periodontais. RESULTADOS: pacientes adultos podem apresentar deiscências ósseas previamente ao tratamento ortodôntico, principalmente na região dos incisivos inferiores. Os pacientes com padrão de crescimento vertical parecem apresentar menor espessura das tábuas ósseas vestibular e lingual no nível do ápice dos dentes permanentes, comparados a pacientes com padrão de crescimento horizontal. O movimento dentário vestibulolingual descentraliza os dentes do rebordo alveolar e ocasiona deiscências ósseas. CONCLUSÃO: a morfologia do rebordo alveolar constitui um fator limitante para a movimentação dentária e deve ser considerada, de forma individual, na realização do plano de tratamento ortodôntico.INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT permits the visualization of the labial/buccal and lingual alveolar bone. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at reporting and discussing the implications of alveolar bone morphology, visualized by means of CT, on the diagnosis and orthodontic treatment plan. METHODS: Evidences of the interrelationship between dentofacial features and labial/buccal and lingual alveolar bone morphology, as well as the evidences of the effects of the orthodontic movement on the thickness and level of these periodontal structures were described. RESULTS: Adult patients may present bone dehiscences previously to orthodontic

  13. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  14. In vivo comparison of Kodak E-speed film and direct digital imaging system for assessment of interproximal bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellekatte C Neetha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography as compared to a conventional radiographic film for the assessment of interproximal bone loss with intrasurgical measurements as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients, with untreated moderate-to-advanced periodontal disease, were included in the study. The presurgical radiographs were made using a Kodak E-speed film and a Dexis digital sensor simultaneously, for sites with interproximal bone loss. At the time of surgery, the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the bone defect (CEJ-BD was measured for 331 interproximal defects. The radiographs were randomized and then linear measurements were taken for the same sites in both conventional and digital radiographs. Stastistical Analysis: Comparison between the conventional, digital, and intrasurgical measurements was done statistically using the Student′s t-test. The agreement and correlation among the methods was assessed using the weighted Kappa measure of agreement and Pearson′s correlation, respectively. Results: The results showed that the conventional (5.15 ± 2.19 mm and digital analyzing techniques (5.13 ± 2.19 mm underestimated the interproximal bone loss, as compared to the intrasurgical measurements (6.07 ± 2.05 mm (p < 0.001. The difference between conventional and digital radiographic methods was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.92. Conclusion: Under normal clinical use, the alveolar bone levels revealed on intraoral direct digital radiographs and Kodak E speed film were almost same. Therefore, the digital radiographic system can be routinely used in clinical practice as an alternative to conventional film.

  15. Lateral expansion of the rat lower dental arch by applying an active plate model to the mandibular first molar region: observation of histological changes in the lower alveolar bone over a 2-week period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Eiwa; Ogihara, Kazuhiko; Aiyama, Shigeo

    2004-03-01

    Lateral expansion of the lower dental arch has rarely been conducted clinically because the structure of the lower jaw is considered to be unsuitable for this type of treatment. However, successful lateral expansion of the lower dental arch using SCHWALZ, an orthopedic appliance has been reported in recent years. Therefore, an experimental study was performed to examine the histological changes in the lower alveolar bone when lateral expansion is applied to the lower dental arch for periods of up to 2 weeks. An active plate model based on the Schwarz appliance was attached to the first molar region in rats. The distance between the right and left first molars was measured, and the mandible and first molar tooth were processed for light microscopy at different times after the fitting. The lateral expansion caused by lateral movement of the right and left first molars following the application of the active plate amounted to an average of 1.06 mm over a period of 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining revealed bone deposition on the periosteal surface of the buccal alveolar bone and the periodontal surface of the lingual alveolar bone, whereas bone absorption was observed on the periodontal surface of the buccal alveolar bone and the periosteal surface of the lingual alveolar bone. These findings demonstrate that lateral expansion of the lower dental arch through the application of an active plate model was achieved by bony deposition and absorption of alveolar bone, similar to the process that occurs in association with lateral expansion of the upper dental arch.

  16. Difference in the Surgical Outcome of Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with and without Pre-Alveolar Bone Graft Orthodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Shin; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Pai, Betty Chien-Jung; Chen, I.-Ju; Liao, Yu-Fang; Liou, Eric Jen-Wein; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Noordhoff, M. Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Presurgical orthodontic treatment before secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) is widely performed for cleft lip/palate patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has been published comparing SABG outcomes in patients with, and without, presurgical orthodontic treatment. This randomized, prospective, single-blinded trial was conducted between January 2012 and April 2015 to compare ABG volumes 6 months postoperatively between patients with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and randomized and 22 patients completed follow-up. Patients who had presurgical orthodontics before SABG had significantly improved inclination (p < 0.001) and rotation (p < 0.001) of the central incisor adjacent to the defect, significantly improved ABG fill volume (0.81 ± 0.26 cm3 at 6 months compared to 0.59 ± 0.22 cm3 p < 0.05) and less residual alveolar bone defect (0.31 ± 0.08 cm3 at 6 months compared to s 0.55 ± 0.14 cm3 p < 0.001) compared to patients who did not have presurgical orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment combined with SABG results in superior bone volume when compared with conventional SABG alone.

  17. Comparative Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Allogenous Tooth Graft versus Free-dried Bone Allograft: A Randomized, Controlled, Prospective, Clinical Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chaitanya Pradeep; D'Lima, Cynthia Bernardo; Samat, Urmila Chandrashekhar; Karde, Prerna Ashok; Patil, Agraja Ganpat; Dani, Nitin Hemchandra

    2017-01-01

    For the first time in India, allografts from human extracted teeth were prepared. A randomized, prospective, clinicoradiographical, histological study was conducted to evaluate their efficacy in comparison with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) in alveolar ridge preservation. Graft preparation: with written consent, teeth were collected from three donors (full mouth extraction cases). Once donors' serums were tested negative for HIV, HBV, HCV, and Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), mineralized whole tooth allograft (WTA) and dentin allograft (DA) were prepared using the standard protocol of Tissue Bank at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. In this randomized controlled trial, 15 patients undergoing extraction of at least four teeth were selected. In each patient after atraumatic extractions, one socket was grafted with WTA, second with DA, third with FDBA, and fourth was left ungrafted (control site). All the sites were covered with chorion membrane. To estimate three-dimensional alveolar crest changes, cone beam computed tomography scans were taken immediately after grafting and 4 months postoperatively. Bone biopsies using 3 mm trephine bur were obtained from four patients at the time of implant placement and evaluated histologically. Clinically uneventful healing was observed at all sites. Compared to other sites, WTA and DA consistently showed superior results demonstrating least reduction in alveolar crest height and width which was statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Between WTA and DA sites, there was no statistically significant difference. Histological analysis also confirmed more new bone formation at WTA and DA sites. Rather than disposing extracted human teeth as a biomedical waste (common practice), they can be collected from suitable systemically healthy donors. With the help of tissue bank, they can be processed into an allograft, serving as an excellent alternative to conventional allografts.

  18. Conditional TNF-α Overexpression in the Tooth and Alveolar Bone Results in Painful Pulpitis and Osteitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B E; Zhang, L; Sun, Z J; Utreras, E; Prochazkova, M; Cho, A; Terse, A; Arany, P; Dolan, J C; Schmidt, B L; Kulkarni, A B

    2016-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proalgesic cytokine that is commonly expressed following tissue injury. TNF-α expression not only promotes inflammation but can also lead to pain hypersensitivity in nociceptors. With the established link between TNF-α and inflammatory pain, we identified its increased expression in the teeth of patients affected with caries and pulpitis. We generated a transgenic mouse model (TNF-α(glo)) that could be used to conditionally overexpress TNF-α. These mice were bred with a dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1)-Cre line for overexpression of TNF-α in both the tooth pulp and bone to study oral pain that would result from subsequent development of pulpitis and bone loss. The resulting DMP1/TNF-α(glo) mice show inflammation in the tooth pulp that resembles pulpitis while also displaying periodontal bone loss. Inflammatory infiltrates and enlarged blood vessels were observed in the tooth pulp. Pulpitis and osteitis affected the nociceptive neurons innervating the orofacial region by causing increased expression of inflammatory cytokines within the trigeminal ganglia. With this new mouse model morphologically mimicking pulpitis and osteitis, we tested it for signs of oral pain with an oral function assay (dolognawmeter). This assay/device records the time required by a mouse to complete a discrete gnawing task. The duration of gnawing required by the DMP1/TNF-α(glo) mice to complete the task was greater than that for the controls; extended gnaw time in a dolognawmeter indicates reduced orofacial function. With the DMP1/TNF-α(glo) mice, we have shown that TNF-α expression alone can produce inflammation similar to pulpitis and osteitis and that this mouse model can be used to study dental inflammatory pain. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  19. Alveolar bone loss in radiographic modalities for diagnosis of periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskaitė, Deimantė

    2011-01-01

    Rentgeniniai tyrimo metodai taikomi, kad būtų papildyti klinikinio tyrimo duomenys. Tiriant periodontą, kurį sudaro dantenos, dantinė atauga, periodonto raiščiai ir cementas, rentgeninis tyrimas svarbus diagnozuojant periodonto ligas, nes jo metu nustatomi dantinės ataugos pokyčiai. Dantinės ataugos pokyčiams vertinti daromos rentgeno nuotraukos taikant vidinių burnos rentgeno nuotraukų darymo metodus, t. y. kandimo ar dantų šaknų rentgeno nuotraukų darymo metodus, ir išorinės burnos rentgeno...

  20. Marginal bone loss around implants placed in maxillary native bone or grafted sinuses: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, P; Fernández-Jiménez, A; Avila-Ortiz, G; Silvestre, F J; Hernández-Cortés, P; Wang, H L

    2014-03-01

    To assess differences in marginal bone loss around implants placed in maxillary pristine bone and implants placed following maxillary sinus augmentation over a period of 3 years after functional loading. Two cohorts of subjects (Group 1: Subjects who received sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement; Group 2: Subjects who underwent conventional implant placement in posterior maxillary pristine bone) were included in this retrospective study. Radiographic marginal bone loss was measured around one implant per patient on digitized panoramic radiographs that were obtained at the time of prosthesis delivery (baseline) and 12, 24, and 36 months later. The influence of age, gender, smoking habits, history of periodontal disease, and type of prosthetic connection (internal or external) on marginal bone loss was analyzed in function of the type of osseous support (previously grafted or pristine). A total of 105 subjects were included in this study. Cumulative radiographic marginal bone loss ranged from 0 mm to 3.9 mm after 36 months of functional loading. There were statistically significant differences in marginal bone loss between implants placed in grafted and pristine bone at the 12-month assessment, but not in the subsequent progression rate. External prosthetic connection, smoking, and history of periodontitis negatively influenced peri-implant bone maintenance, regardless of the type of osseous substrate. Implants placed in sites that received maxillary sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants placed in pristine bone, although marginal bone loss mainly occurred during the first 12 months after functional loading. Implants with external implant connection were strongly associated with increased marginal bone loss overtime. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, respectively). Conclusions: Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. Keywords: hookah; shisha; tobacco; periodontal health; alveolar ...

  3. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaliya, A; Laine, Marja L; Delanghe, Joris R; Loos, Bruno G; Van Wijk, Arjen J; Van der Velden, Ubele

    2015-04-01

    To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental radiographs was obtained of each subject and amount of ABL was assessed. In addition, the following parameters were evaluated: plasma vitamin C, vitamin D3 , HbA1c and CRP, the haptoglobin phenotype, presence of putative periodontopathic bacteria and viruses, dietary habits, smoking and anthropometrics. In this population 45% showed vitamin C depletion/deficiency, 82% had vitamin D3 insufficiency/deficiency, 70% were in a pre-diabetic state, 6% had untreated diabetes, 21% had elevated CRP values ranging from 3.1 to 16.1 mg/l. Results of the regression analysis, including all above mentioned parameters, showed four significant predictors, explaining 19.8% of the variance of ABL. Number of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells and CRP values showed a positive relationship with ABL, whereas BMI and number of guava fruit servings were negatively related. Results confirm previous findings that elevated levels of P. gingivalis may be indicative for periodontitis progression. A new finding is that guava fruit consumption may play a protective role in periodontitis in a malnourished population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  5. Annual bone loss and success rates of dental implants based on radiographic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bone loss around dental implants is generally measured by monitoring changes in marginal bone level using radiographs. After the first year of implantation, an implant should have <0.2 mm annual loss of marginal bone level to satisfy the criteria of success. However, the process of

  6. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) show microstructural bone loss during hibernation but preserve bone macrostructural geometry and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Stoll, Danielle M; Mantila, Emily R; Fahrner, Bryna K; Carey, Hannah V; Donahue, Seth W

    2011-04-15

    Lack of activity causes bone loss In most animals. Hibernating bears have physiological processes to prevent cortical and trabecular bone loss associated with reduced physical activity, but different mechanisms of torpor among hibernating species may lead to differences in skeletal responses to hibernation. There are conflicting reports regarding whether small mammals experience bone loss during hibernation. To investigate this phenomenon, we measured cortical and trabecular bone properties in physically active and hibernating juvenile and adult 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, previous genus name Spermophilus). Cortical bone geometry, strength and mineral content were similar in hibernating compared with active squirrels, suggesting that hibernation did not cause macrostructural cortical bone loss. Osteocyte lacunar size increased (linear regression, P=0.001) over the course of hibernation in juvenile squirrels, which may indicate an osteocytic role in mineral homeostasis during hibernation. Osteocyte lacunar density and porosity were greater (+44 and +59%, respectively; Phibernating compared with active squirrels, which may reflect a decrease in osteoblastic activity (per cell) during hibernation. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was decreased (-20%; P=0.028) in hibernating compared with physically active adult squirrels, but was not different between hibernating and active juvenile squirrels. Taken together, these data suggest that 13-lined ground squirrels may be unable to prevent microstructural losses of cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation, but importantly may possess a biological mechanism to preserve cortical bone macrostructure and strength during hibernation, thus preventing an increased risk of bone fracture during remobilization in the spring.

  7. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  8. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  9. COMPARSION BETWEEN PANORAMIC PERIAPICAL AND VERTICAL BITEWING RADIOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    M SHEIKHI; V DAVOODI; P ZIAIE MOGHADDAM

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. For diagnosis and treatment planing and detection the quality of remaining Alveolar bone the radiography is very useful so the type of radiography is very important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panoramic, periapical (bisecting technique) and vertical bitewing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods. Twelve patients (3 male and 9 female) with a mean age of 35, with a moderate to advanced periodontitis were evaluated. At the time of periodon...

  10. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Yasukawa, Takuya; Ibi, Haruna; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS) to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity) were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions.

  11. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions.

  12. Conductive hearing loss and bone conduction devices: restored binaural hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; van Opstal, John; Snik, Ad F M

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of binaural hearing is the proper detection of interaural sound level differences and interaural timing differences. Assessments of binaural hearing were made in patients with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL, n = 11) or congenital UCHL (n = 10) after unilateral application of a bone conduction device (BCD), and in patients with bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss after bilateral BCD application. Benefit (bilateral versus unilateral listening) was assessed by measuring directional hearing, compensation of the acoustic head shadow, binaural summation and binaural squelch. Measurements were performed after an acclimatization time of at least 10 weeks. Unilateral BCD application was beneficial, but there was less benefit in the patients with congenital UCHL as compared to patients with acquired UCHL. In adults with bilateral hearing loss, bilateral BCD application was clearly beneficial as compared to unilateral BCD application. Binaural summation was present, but binaural squelch could not be proven. To explain the poor results in the patients with congenital UCHL, two factors seemed to be important. First, a critical period in the development of binaural hearing might affect the binaural hearing abilities. Second, crossover stimulation, referring to additional stimulation of the cochlea contralateral to the BCD side, might deteriorate binaural hearing in patients with UCHL. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cheriyan Kovoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods : 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 - 20 cm. The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 - 21 cm. The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 - 164 months. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results : Graft

  14. Bioactive silica nanoparticles reverse age-associated bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ha, Shin-Woo; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Beck, George R

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that in vitro, engineered 50nm spherical silica nanoparticles promote the differentiation and activity of bone building osteoblasts but suppress bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Furthermore, these nanoparticles promote bone accretion in young mice in vivo. We have now investigated the capacity of these nanoparticles to reverse bone loss in aged mice, a model of human senile osteoporosis. Aged mice received nanoparticles weekly and bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and bone turnover were quantified. Our data revealed a significant increase in BMD, bone volume, and biochemical markers of bone formation. Biochemical and histological examinations failed to identify any abnormalities caused by nanoparticle administration. Our studies demonstrate that silica nanoparticles effectively blunt and reverse age-associated bone loss in mice by a mechanism involving promotion of bone formation. The data suggest that osteogenic silica nanoparticles may be a safe and effective therapeutic for counteracting age-associated bone loss. Osteoporosis poses a significant problem in the society. Based on their previous in-vitro findings, the authors' group investigated the effects of spherical silica nanoparticles in reversing bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis. The results showed that intra-peritoneal injections of silica nanoparticles could increase bone mineral density, with little observed toxic side effects. This novel method may prove important in future therapy for combating osteoporosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The influence of Aloe vera and xenograft XCB toward of bone morpho protein 2 BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast of alveolar bone induced into tooth extraction sockets Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth extraction can cause inflammation leading to alveolar ridge resorption. In addition, prominent ridge has crucial role for making denture su-ccessfully. Thus, socket preservation is needed to prevent greater alveolar ridge resorption. An innovative material, a combination of Aloe vera and xe-nograft (XCB, is then considered as a biogenic stimulator that can reduce inflammation, as a result, the growth of alveolar bone is expected to be impro-ved. This research is aimed to prove whether the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can stimulate BMP2 and increase osteoblasts. Forty-eight Cavia co-baya animals were divided into eight groups each of which consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya animals were then extracted and filled with PEG as Group Control, XCB as Group XCB, Aloe vera as Group Aloe vera, and a combination of Aloe vera +XCB as Group Aloe vera +XCB. Next, the first four groups were sacrificed seven days after extraction, and the second four groups were sacrificed 30 days after extrac-tion. And then, immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to examine BMP2 expression and osteoblasts. Based on the re-sult known that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblasts. It can be concluded that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast cel . It can be used as an alternative material to increase the growth of alveolar bone after extraction.

  16. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were...

  17. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated

  18. Subantibiotic dose of azithromycin attenuates alveolar bone destruction and improves trabecular microarchitectures in a rat model of experimental periodontitis: A study using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Shin; Lee, Yong Sun; Choi, Eun-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-06-01

    Azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities apart from its antibacterial properties. In this study, we examined the efficacy of subantibiotic dose of azithromycin on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging and bone parameter analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to the following four groups: non-ligation (NL) group; ligation-only (L) group; ligation-plus-subantibiotic dose azithromycin (SA) group; and 4) ligation-plus-antibiotic dose azithromycin (AA) group. The rats from Groups L, SA and AA were subjected to periodontitis by placing a ligature around lower right first molar. Immediately after ligation, the rats in SA and AA groups received daily intraperitoneal injections of azithromycin at a dosage of 3.5 or 10mg/kg body weight, respectively. The ligatures were maintained for 2weeks at which time the rats had their mandibles hemisected for micro-CT analysis. Subantibiotic dose of azithromycin strongly suppressed reductions in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction caused by experimental periodontitis. When subantibiotic dosage of azithromycin was administered to rats, ligature-induced alterations in microarchitectural parameters of trabecular bone were significantly reversed. Rats treated with subantibiotic dose of azithromycin presented no significant difference compared to rats with antibiotic dosage in all parameters. While further studies are necessary, subantibiotic dose of azithromycin could be utilized as a host modulator for the treatment of periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical application of autogenous partially demineralized dentin matrix prepared immediately after extraction for alveolar bone regeneration in implant dentistry: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamizato, T; Koga, T; I, Takashi; Nakatani, Y; Umebayashi, M; Sumita, Y; Ikeda, T; Asahina, I

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of autogenous partially demineralized dentin matrix (APDDM) prepared onsite, for clinical application in bone regeneration procedures related to implant dentistry, including socket preservation, alveolar ridge augmentation, and maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In this study, 16 patients underwent dental implant placement using APDDM transplantation. There were no systemic or local complications (including surgical site infection) in any of the cases, and oral rehabilitation using dental implants was successful in all cases for at least 2 years after attachment of the suprastructure. This report describes the clinical application of APDDM prepared immediately after tooth extraction to bone augmentation, taking advantage of the relatively short preparation time due to partial demineralization. APDDM, as introduced in this study, is an efficient, safe, and reasonable bone substitute. Consequently, this material has the potential to become one of the options as a bone substitute in implant dentistry. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marginal bone loss as success criterion in implant dentistry: beyond 2 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; León-Cano, Ana; Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Monje, Alberto; O'Valle, Francisco; Catena, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze marginal bone loss (MBL) rates around implants to establish the difference between physiological bone loss and bone loss due to peri-implantitis. Five hundred and eight implants were placed in the posterior maxilla in 208 patients. Data were gathered on age, gender, bone substratum (grafted or pristine), prosthetic connection, smoking and alcohol habits, and previous periodontitis. MBL was radiographically analyzed in three time frames (5 months post-surgery and at 6 and 18 months post-loading). Nonparametric receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis and mixed linear model analysis were used to determine whether implants could be classified as high or low bone loser type (BLT) and to establish the influence of this factor on MBL rates. Marginal bone loss rates were significantly affected by BLT, connection type, bone substratum, and smoking. Bone loss rates at 18 months were associated with initial bone loss rates: 96% of implants with an MBL of >2 mm at 18 months had lost 0.44 mm or more at 6 months post-loading. Implants with increased MBL rates at early stages (healing and immediate post-loading periods) are likely to reach MBL values that compromise their final outcome. Initial (healing, immediate post-loading) MBL rates around an implant of more than 0.44 mm/year are an indication of peri-implant bone loss progression. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Some risk factors for periodontal bone loss in 50-year-old individuals. A 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulander, Jörgen; Wennström, Jan L; Axelsson, Per; Lindhe, Jan

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this 10-year prospective study of 50-year-old individuals was to analyze the incidence of periodontal bone loss and potential risk factors for periodontal bone loss. The subject sample was generated from an epidemiological survey performed in 1988 of subjects living in the County of Värmland, Sweden. A randomized sample of 15% of the 50-year-old inhabitants in the county was drawn. At the 10-year follow-up in 1998, 320 (75%) of the 449 individuals examined at baseline were available for re-examination, out of which 4 had become edentulous. Full-mouth clinical and radiographic examinations and questionnaire surveys were performed in 1988 and 1998. Two hundred and ninety-five individuals (69%) had complete data for inclusion in the analysis of radiographic bone changes over 10 years. Non-parametric tests, correlations and stepwise multiple regression models were used for statistical analysis of the data. The mean alveolar bone level (ABL) in 1988 was 2.2 mm (0.05) and a further 0.4 mm (0.57) (p=0.000) was lost over the 10 years. Eight percent of the subject sample showed no loss, while 5% experienced a mean bone loss of >/=1 mm. Smoking was found to be the strongest individual risk predictor (RR=3.2; 95% CI 2.03-5.15). When including as smokers only those individuals who had continued with the habit during the entire 10-year follow-up period, the relative risk was slightly increased (3.6; 95% CI 2.32-5.57). Subjects who had quit smoking before the baseline examination did not demonstrate a significantly increased risk for disease progression (RR=1.3; 95% CI 0.57-2.96). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that smoking, % approximal sites with probing pocket depth >/=4 mm, number of teeth and systemic disease were significant explanatory factors for 10-year ABL loss (R(2)=0.12). For never smokers, statistically significant predictors were number of teeth, mean ABL, % periodontally healthy approximal sites and educational level (R(2)=0.20). The

  3. Post traumatic immediate GBR: alveolar ridge preservation after a comminuted fracture of the anterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Leem, Dae Ho

    2015-04-01

    Without a proper intervention, a crushed alveolar process fracture can cause significant dimensional changes on affected hard and soft tissue that lead to difficult circumstances for post traumatic bone augmentation and dental implant placement. We present herein the cases of immediate guided bone regeneration (GBR) for the maxillary anterior alveolar process with comminuted fracture. Shortly after the hospital visit, guided bone regeneration was conducted for three patients using only xenograft material and bone fragments from traumatic site, without an additional donor site. Resorbable collagen membrane was used on the bone graft site, and titanium mesh was also used if significant bone loss were expected. Radiographic evaluation 6 months after GBR confirmed that all three cases had sufficiently preserved alveolar bone which is clinically required for implant placement. Dental implant installation was carried out for two patients and no specific findings were noted in follow-up after the placement. In this method, additional operation sites for bone collection are not necessary and the number of surgical steps before implant placement can be reduced. Furthermore, this immediate intervention can effectively minimize the alveolar ridge shrinkage of anterior maxilla after injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie