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Sample records for alveolar bone loss

  1. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavstvedt, S.; Bolin, A.; Henrikson, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    Four hundred and six individuals from an unselected sample from the County of Stockholm aged 18 to 65 years in 1970 were examined radiographically in 1970 and 1980. The differences in proximal alveolar bone height were recorded, attention being paid to the divergences in projection between the two investigations. The mean of the alveolar bone differnce was 5.5% of the mean root length, which corresponds to an average annual bone loss of 0.09 mm. Ninety per cent of the individuals had a difference in alveolar bone height of less than 10% of the root length, that is an average bone loss of 1.6 mm or less during 10 years. By linear regression analysis it was shown that the difference in alveolar bone height is a function of the initial bone loss; that is, the greater the initial bone loss, the greater the alveolar bone loss during the 10-year period. The result of the regression analysis may facilitate predictions of alveolar bone loss

  2. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Sweden people in all age groups now have more remaining teeth than previosly. An investigation has been made to identify some predictors of alveolar bone loss in a 10-year period in subjects with at least 20 remaining teeth. The material consisted of 349 individuals, examined radiographically, clinically and by interview in 1970 and in 1980. These subjects, born in 1904-1952, constituted a subgroup, with regard to remaining teeth, of an unselected sample of the population of the old county of Stockholm. In the unselected sample statistically significant predictors of alveolar bone loss found in a stepwise multiple regression analysis were 1) alveolar bone loss in 1970, 2) age, 3) number of lost teeth and 4) Russell's Periodontol Index (PI). In the subgroup the predictors were in the order 1) Russell's PI and 2) smoking. The prediction values (R 2 ) of further variables were marginal. The analyses showed that there was an interaction between PI and smoking, implying that the effect of smoking on alveolar bone loss was increased in individuals with high PI values. Furthermore, a tendency was found for a dose-response effect of tobacco consumption. This tendency almost disappeared when controlling for PI

  3. A radiographic study of alveolar bone loss in Irish schoolchildren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bitewing radiographs were used to assess evidence of alveolar bone loss in 1492 children in the age range 7-12 years. According to the method used in this study, alveolar bone loss was shown to occur in 1.7% of the children, and maxillary teeth were affected twice as frequently as mandibular teeth. (Author)

  4. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

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    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  5. Alveolar bone loss and mineralization in the pig with experimental periodontal disease

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    Mandee Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To address how experimental periodontal disease affects alveolar bone mass and mineral apposition in a young pig model. Materials and methods: Seven three-month-old pigs were periodically inoculated with 4 types of periodontal bacteria, along with a ligature around the last maxillary deciduous molar for 8 weeks to induce periodontal disease (PG. Eight same-aged pigs served as the control (CG. Segmentations of 3D cone-beam CT images were performed to quantify volumes of the total alveolar bone, alveolar ridge, and all roots of the target molar. Calcein and alizarin were administered for labeling mineral apposition before euthanasia. The harvested molar blocks were sectioned and examined under epifluorescence. The inter-label distance between the two vital markers at regional bone surfaces were measured and mineral apposition rate (MAR was calculated. Results: A significant reduction of total alveolar bone volume was seen in PG with the major loss at the alveolar ridge. MAR was significantly higher at the root furcation region than those at both buccal and palatal ridges in CG. Compared with CG, PG animals showed more interrupted labeled bands with significantly lower MAR at the furcation region. MARs were positively associated with both the volumes of total alveolar bone and ridge in CG, but only with the total alveolar bone in PG. Conclusions: In young growing pigs, mineral apposition is region specific. The experimental periodontal disease not only leads to alveolar bone loss, but also perturbs mineral apposition for new bone formation, thus impairing the homeostasis of alveolar bone remodeling. Keyword: Dentistry

  6. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

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    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  7. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

  8. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavstvedt, S.; Bolin, A.; Henrikson, C.O.; Carstensen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal radiographic investigation was made of the progression of the proximal alveolar bone loss over a 10-year period (1970-1980). The material was unselected and consisted of 669 individuals in the county of Stockholm. 61 individuals were randomly selected for evaluation of a recording system using alternative methods of measurement, and 90% of the measurement sites could then be assessed. The correlations between some of the methods were high, such as between measurement of alveolar bone height and root length and between aleveolar bone height and tooth length. To reduce the number of measurements, a partial recording was made, giving a high correlation coefficient between the partial recording and total recording. When five measurement sites were used, the correlation coefficient was 0.96, and a slight increase of the coefficient was obtained when using additional sites

  9. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

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    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via microRNAs regulation.

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    Zhang, Zhiguo; Song, Changheng; Zhang, Fangzhen; Xiang, Lihua; Chen, Yanjing; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2015-02-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX), estradiol valerate (EV), or RDE. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD) and the three-dimensional microarchitecture of the alveolar bone were analyzed to assess bone mass. Microarrays were used to evaluate microRNA expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of microRNAs was validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the target genes of validated microRNAs were predicted and further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using qRT-PCR. Our results show that RDE inhibits alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs and downregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs in the alveolar bone in the microarray analysis. qRT-PCR helped validate 13 of 16 differentially expressed microRNAs, and 114 putative target genes of the validated microRNAs were retrieved. The IPA showed that these putative target genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/Smad signaling pathway (Tgfbr2/Bmpr2, Smad3/4/5, and Bcl-2) and interleukin (IL)-6/oncostatin M (OSM)/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathway (Jak1, STAT3, and Il6r). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may involve the simultaneous inhibition of bone formation and bone resorption, which is associated with modulation of the TGF-β/BMPs/Smad and the IL-6/OSM/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathways via microRNA regulation.

  11. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

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    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  12. Glycemic control and alveolar bone loss progression in type 2 diabetes.

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    Taylor, G W; Burt, B A; Becker, M P; Genco, R J; Shlossman, M

    1998-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the risk for alveolar bone loss is greater, and bone loss progression more severe, for subjects with poorly controlled (PC) type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) compared to those without type 2 DM or with better controlled (BC) type 2 DM. The PC group had glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) > or = 9%; the BC group had HbA1 or = 75% were used to identify the worst bone score (WBS) in the dentition. Change in worst bone score at follow-up, the outcome, was specified on a 4-category ordinal scale as no change, or a 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-category increase over baseline WBS (WBS1). Poorly controlled diabetes, age, calculus, time to follow-up examination, and WBS1 were statistically significant explanatory variables in ordinal logistic regression models. Poorly controlled type 2 DM was positively associated with greater risk for a change in bone score (compared to subjects without type 2 DM) when the covariates were included in the model. The cumulative odds ratio (COR) at each threshold of the ordered response was 11.4 (95% CI = 2.5, 53.3). When contrasted with subjects with BC type 2 DM, the COR for those in the PC group was 5.3 (95% CI = 0.8, 53.3). The COR for subjects with BC type 2 DM was 2.2 (95% CI = 0.7, 6.5), when contrasted to those without type 2 DM. These results suggest that poorer glycemic control leads to both an increased risk for alveolar bone loss and more severe progression over those without type 2 DM, and that there may be a gradient, with the risk for bone loss progression for those with better controlled type 2 DM intermediate to the other 2 groups.

  13. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

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    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pchronic periodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  14. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

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    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  15. Protective effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling.

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    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yan-Jing; Xiang, Li-Hua; Pan, Jing-Hua; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Da-Hong

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on preventing rat alveolar bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX), and to determine the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in this effect. Female Wistar rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery. The rats that had undergone OVX were treated with RDE (RDE group), vehicle (OVX group) or 17β-estradiol subcutaneous injection (E2 group). Subsequently, bone metabolic activity was assessed by analyzing 3-D alveolar bone construction, bone mineral density, as well as the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover. The gene expression of alveolar bone in the OVX and RDE groups was evaluated by IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays, and differentially expressed genes were determined through reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The inhibitory effect of RDE on alveolar bone loss in the OVX group was demonstrated in the study. In comparison with the OVX group, the RDE group exhibited 19 downregulated genes and 1 upregulated gene associated with the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in alveolar bone. Thus, RDE was shown to relieve OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats, an effect which was likely associated with decreased abnormal bone remodeling via regulation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  16. The protective effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK signaling.

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    Zhang, Zhiguo; Xiang, Lihua; Bai, Dong; Wang, Wenlai; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Shaojun; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2014-12-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX) or RDE by oral gavage or with 17β-estradiol (E2) subcutaneously. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD), the three-dimensional bone architecture of the alveolar bone and the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover were analyzed to assess bone metabolism, and the histomorphometry of the alveolar bone was observed. Microarrays were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of genes was further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that RDE inhibited alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 207 genes and downregulated expression levels of 176 genes in the alveolar bone. The IPA showed that several genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Wnt7a, Fzd2, Tcf3, Spp1, Frzb, Sfrp2 and Sfrp4) and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Il1rn and Mapk14). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may be involved in the reduced abnormal bone remodeling, which is associated with the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin and the p38 MAPK signaling pathways via gene regulation.

  17. Cigarette smoke inhalation increases the alveolar bone loss caused by primary occlusal trauma in a rat model.

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    Campos, M L G; Corrêa, M G; Júnior, F H N; Casati, M Z; Sallum, E A; Sallum, A W

    2014-04-01

    Occlusal trauma (OT) and smoking are both factors that alter alveolar bone metabolism and therefore could synergistically act on alveolar bone loss. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of short-term cigarette smoke inhalation (CSI) on inter-radicular alveolar bone loss promoted by primary OT in a rat model. Forty-eight animals were randomly assigned to one of three groups based on treatment type: OT + CSI (n = 16), animals were exposed to CSI three times per day, for 8 min per exposure, and they concomitantly received unilateral vertical augmentation creating an occlusal interference inducing experimental OT; OT (n = 16), animals received only unilateral vertical augmentation; negative control (NC; n = 16), animals maintained for equal periods to achieve periodontal baseline values of periodontal ligament dimension. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 8) based on treatment length: 7 or 14 d. After 7 d, the OT + CSI group exhibited significantly higher bone loss compared to the NC group (p = 0.0022). After 14 d, the OT (p < 0.0001) and OT + CSI (p < 0.0001) groups presented significantly higher bone loss compared to the NC group, and OT + CSI resulted in significantly higher bone loss than OT alone (p = 0.0241). The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells on the linear surface of the bone crest after 7 d was significantly higher in the OT + CSI group as compared to the NC and OT groups (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0045, respectively) and remained significantly higher in the OT + CSI group after 14 d, compared to the OT group (p < 0.0001). Short-term CSI increases early bone loss in association with OT after 7 d, and this worsens in severity after 14 d of exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of alveolar bone loss in healthy children treated at private pediatric dentistry clinics.

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    Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Machado; de Araújo, Valéria Martins; Avena, Márcia Raquel; Duarte, Daniel Rocha da Silva; Freitas, Francisco Valter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alveolar bone loss (BL) in healthy children treated at private pediatric dentistry clinics in Brasília, Brazil. The research included 7,436 sites present in 885 radiographs from 450 children. The BL prevalence was estimated by measuring the distance from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to alveolar bone crest (ABC). Data were divided in groups: (I) No BL: distance from CEJ to ABC is 2 and 3 mm. Data were treated by the chi-square nonparametric test and Fisher's exact test (pchildren should never be underestimated because BL occurs even in healthy populations, although in a lower frequency.

  19. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

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    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  20. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  1. Damping ratio analysis of tooth stability under various simulated degrees of vertical alveolar bone loss and different root types.

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    Ho, Kuo-Ning; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using damping ratio (DR) analysis combined with resonance frequency (RF) and periotest (PTV) analyses to provide additional information about natural tooth stability under various simulated degrees of alveolar vertical bone loss and various root types. Three experimental tooth models, including upper central incisor, upper first premolar, and upper first molar were fabricated using Ti6Al4V alloy. In the tooth models, the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone were simulated using a soft lining material and gypsum, respectively. Various degrees of vertical bone loss were simulated by decreasing the surrounding bone level apically from the cementoenamel junction in 2-mm steps incrementally downward for 10 mm. A commercially available RF analyzer was used to measure the RF and DR of impulse-forced vibrations on the tooth models. The results showed that DRs increased as alveolar vertical bone height decreased and had high coefficients of determination in the linear regression analysis. The damping ratio of the central incisor model without a simulated periodontal ligament were 11.95 ± 1.92 and 27.50 ± 0.67% respectively when their bone levels were set at 2 and 10 mm apically from the cementoenamel junction. These values significantly changed to 28.85 ± 2.54% (p = 0.000) and 51.25 ± 4.78% (p = 0.003) when the tooth model was covered with simulated periodontal ligament. Moreover, teeth with different root types showed different DR and RF patterns. Teeth with multiple roots had lower DRs than teeth with single roots. Damping ratio analysis combined with PTV and RF analysis provides more useful information on the assessment of changes in vertical alveolar bone loss than PTV or RF analysis alone.

  2. Comparative effects of riboflavin, nicotinamide and folic acid on alveolar bone loss: A morphometric and histopathologic study in rats

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    Akpınar Aysun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory and osteolytic disease. Vitamin B complex is a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of riboflavin (RBF, nicotinamide (NA, and folic acid (FA on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis rat model. Methods. Sixty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following eight groups: Control, Ligated, RBF50 (RBF, 50 mg/kg daily, NA50 (NA, 50 mg/kg daily, FA50 (FA, 50 mg/kg daily, RBF100 (RBF, 100 mg/kg daily, NA100 (NA, 100 mg/kg daily, and FA100 (FA, 100 mg/kg daily. Periodontitis was induced using silk ligature around the right first mandibular molar. After 11 days the rats were sacrificed. Mandible and serum samples were collected. Changes in alveolar bone levels were measured clinically, and periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically. Serum IL-1β (pg/ml levels were analyzed by using ELISA. Results. Mean alveolar bone loss in the mandibular first molar tooth revealed to be significantly lower in RBF100 group than in the Control group. In the Ligated group, alveolar bone loss was significantly higher than in all other groups. The ratio of presence of inflammatory cell infiltration in the Ligated group was significantly higher than in the Control group. The differences in the serum IL-1β levels between the groups were not statistically significant. Osteoclasts that were observed in the Ligated group were significantly higher than those of the Control and FA100 groups. The osteoblastic activity in the Ligated group, RBF100, and NA100 groups were shown to be significantly higher than those in the Control group. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that systemic administration of RBF, NA, and FA in different dosages (50-100 mg/kg reduced alveolar bone loss in periodontal disease in rats.

  3. Assessment of Alveolar Bone Status in Middle Aged Chinese (40-59 Years) with Chronic Periodontitis--Using CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haijiao; Li, Chen; Lin, Li; Pan, Yaping; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Jian; Tan, Lisi; Pan, Chunling; Song, Jia; Zhang, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    This study used con-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the prevalence and severity of alveolar bone loss in middle-aged (40-59 years) Chinese with chronic periodontitis. The study group comprised 145 dentate individuals aged 40 to 59 years residing in China who suffered from chronic periodontitis. CBCT and the application of NNT software were used to examine the level and location of alveolar bone loss. The study revealed that 40-59 year old patients with chronic periodontitis had severe bone loss. At 5,286 sites (34.7%), alveolar bone loss was mild; severe alveolar bone loss was found at 5,978 sites (39.2%). A comparison of bone loss in different jaws revealed that the area with the highest degree of bone loss was on the lingual side of the maxillary molar (56.3 ± 7.2%), and that the area with the lowest degree was primarily on the lingual side of the mandibular canine (27.5 ± 6.3%). There was a lower degree of alveolar bone loss in males than females. Differences were observed when comparing the incidence of bone loss between males and females (P chronic periodontitis, the highest degrees of bone loss in the incisors, premolars, and molars were on the lingual side, mesial side and lingual side, respectively. Menopause in females and smoking may affect the level of bone loss.

  4. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed

  5. Classification of alveolar bone destruction patterns on maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The defective diagnosis of alveolar structures is one of most serious handicaps when assessing available periodontal treatment options for the prevention of tooth loss. The aim of this research was to classify alveolar bone defects in the maxillary molar region which is a challenging area for dental implant ...

  6. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p periodontal disease (p periodontal disease (p periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. PMID:26291983

  7. Effects of β-Glucans Ingestion on Alveolar Bone Loss, Intestinal Morphology, Systemic Inflammatory Profile, and Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Rats with Periodontitis and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Viviam de O.; Lobato, Raquel V.; Orlando, Débora R.; Borges, Bruno D.B.; de Sousa, Raimundo V.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of β-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). Besides, intestinal morphology was determined by the villus/crypt ratio. A total of 48 Wistar rats weighing 203 ± 18 g were used. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) and periodontal inflammation, by ligature. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2 × 2 × 2 (diabetic or not, with or without periodontitis, and ingesting β-glucan or not). The animals received β-glucan by gavage for 28 days. Alveolar bone loss was determined by scanning electron microscopy (distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest) and histometric analysis (bone area between tooth roots). β-glucan reduced plasmatic levels of TNF-α in diabetic animals with PD and of IL-10 in animals with PD (p < 0.05). β-glucan reduced bone loss in animals with PD (p < 0.05). In diabetic animals, β-glucan improved β-cell function (p < 0.05). Diabetic animals had a higher villus/crypt ratio (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-glucan ingestion reduced the systemic inflammatory profile, prevented alveolar bone loss, and improved β-cell function in diabetic animals with PD. PMID:28906456

  8. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  9. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Assessment of Alveolar Bone Status in Middle Aged Chinese (40-59 Years with Chronic Periodontitis--Using CBCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiao Zhao

    Full Text Available This study used con-beam computed tomography (CBCT to investigate the prevalence and severity of alveolar bone loss in middle-aged (40-59 years Chinese with chronic periodontitis.The study group comprised 145 dentate individuals aged 40 to 59 years residing in China who suffered from chronic periodontitis. CBCT and the application of NNT software were used to examine the level and location of alveolar bone loss.The study revealed that 40-59 year old patients with chronic periodontitis had severe bone loss. At 5,286 sites (34.7%, alveolar bone loss was mild; severe alveolar bone loss was found at 5,978 sites (39.2%. A comparison of bone loss in different jaws revealed that the area with the highest degree of bone loss was on the lingual side of the maxillary molar (56.3 ± 7.2%, and that the area with the lowest degree was primarily on the lingual side of the mandibular canine (27.5 ± 6.3%. There was a lower degree of alveolar bone loss in males than females. Differences were observed when comparing the incidence of bone loss between males and females (P < 0.05. Menopause in females and smoking in both genders may affect the level of bone loss. Male smokers experienced a greater degree of bone loss (41.67 ± 5.76% than male non-smokers (32.95 ± 4.31%. A 42.23 ± 6.34% bone loss was found in menopausal females versus 31.35 ± 3.62% in non-menopausal females.The study revealed that different sites and teeth exhibited a diverse degree of bone loss. In middle-aged patients with chronic periodontitis, the highest degrees of bone loss in the incisors, premolars, and molars were on the lingual side, mesial side and lingual side, respectively. Menopause in females and smoking may affect the level of bone loss.

  11. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and evaluation of novel biodegradable chitosan based metformin intrapocket dental film for the management of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Deepak Kumar; Patil, Omprakash Nandikamba; Karasik, David; Razdan, Rema

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan-metformin based intrapocket dental film (CMIDF) for applications in the treatment of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in an rat model of periodontitis. CMIDF inserts were fabricated by the solvent casting technique. The fabricated inserts were evaluated for physical characteristics such as folding endurance, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, metformin content uniformity, and release. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates no crystallinity of metformin in presence of chitosan which confirmed successful entrapment of metformin into the CMIDF. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed stability of CMIDF and compatibility between metformin and chitosan. Periodontitis was induced by a combination of Porphyromonas gingivalis- lipopolysaccharide injections in combinations with ligatures around the mandibular first molar. We divided rats into 5 groups (8 rats/group): healthy, untreated periodontitis; periodontitis plus CMIDF-A (1.99±0.09mg metformin; total mass-4.01±0.05mg), periodontitis plus CMIDF-B (2.07±0.06mg metformin; total mass-7.56±0.09mg), and periodontitis plus chitosan film (7.61±0.08mg). After four weeks, mandibles were extracted to evaluate alveolar bone loss by micro-computerized tomography and histological techniques. Alveolar bone was intact in the healthy group. Local administration of CMIDF resulted in significant improvements in the alveolar bone properties when compared to the untreated periodontitis group. The study reported here demonstrates that novel CMIDF showed good antibacterial activity and effectively reduced alveolar bone destruction in a rat model of experimental periodontitis. Novel CMIDF showed good antibacterial activity and improved alveolar bone properties in a rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  14. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

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    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  15. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  16. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settem, Rajendra P; Honma, Kiyonobu; Sharma, Ashu

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone) erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of the cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in ligature induced periodontitis in rats: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone loss is the most striking feature of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontal disease (EPD model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 Wistar rats divided into three groups of 20 rats each and then subjected to a ligature placement around the left maxillary second molars. Group 1 rats were treated with COX inhibitor (diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg/d, group 2 with NOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine hydrochloride 10 mg/kg/d and group 3 served as controls, receiving only saline, intraperitoneally 1h before EPD induction and daily until the sacrifice on the 11 th day. Leukogram was performed before ligation, at 6 h and at the first, seventh and 11 th days after EPD induction. After sacrifice, all the excised maxillae were subjected to morphometric and histometric analysis to measure the alveolar bone loss. Histopathological analysis was carried out to estimate cell influx, alveolar bone and cementum integrity. Results: Induction of experimental periodontitis in the rat model produced pronounced leucocytosis, which was significantly reduced by the administration of diclofenac sodium and aminoguanidine on the 11 th day. In morphometric and histometric examinations, both the test drugs significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the alveolar bone loss as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Both COX inhibitor and NOS inhibitor are equally effective in inhibiting the inflammatory bone resorption in an experimental periodontitis model.

  18. Bone graft healing in alveolar osteoplasty in patients with unilateral lip, alveolar process, and palate clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Dariusz; Wójcicki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Secondary osteoplasty by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting is the most common procedure used in the reconstruction of the continuity of the maxillary alveolar process. The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively the effect of certain factors on the course of the bone graft healing process in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the lip, alveolar process, and palate. The investigations involved 62 children aged 8 to 14 years (mean age, 11 years) with unilateral complete cleft of the lip, alveolar process, and palate operated on at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój from November 2007 to April 2009. All the procedures consisted in the reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar process by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting from the iliac bone. The analysis was performed on the basis of computed tomography scans presenting maxillary alveolar processes in the horizontal cross-sectional planes performed on the second or third postoperative day and after 6 months. They were used as the basis for the measurement of the volume and density (condensation) of the bone graft, the surface of its adhesion to the maxillary alveolar bone, and the volume and density of the healed bone. The following correlation coefficients were determined: between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the volume of the healed bone, between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the density of the healed bone, and between the density of the graft and the volume of the healed bone. Increasing the surface of the graft adhesion to the bone ridges of the alveolar cleft contributes to increased volume of the healed bone and slows down the increase in its density (on 6-month follow-up). Crushing of the bone graft increases its resorption and reduces volume of the healed bone.

  19. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  20. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo

    1972-01-01

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  1. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  2. 3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

  3. Alternatives to Autologous Bone Graft in Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction: The State of Alveolar Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fan; Leland, Hyuma; Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Auslander, Allyn; Maniskas, Seija; Swanson, Jordan; Urata, Mark; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey; Magee, William

    2018-05-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction has historically relied on autologous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG), but donor site morbidity, pain, and prolonged hospitalization have prompted the search for bone graft substitutes. The authors evaluated bone graft substitutes with the highest levels of evidence, and highlight the products that show promise in alveolar cleft repair and in maxillary augmentation. This comprehensive review guides the craniofacial surgeon toward safe and informed utilization of biomaterials in the alveolar cleft.A literature search was performed to identify in vitro human studies that fulfilled the following criteria: Level I or Level II of evidence, ≥30 subjects, and a direct comparison between a autologous bone graft and a bone graft substitute. A second literature search was performed that captured all studies, regardless of level of evidence, which evaluated bone graft substitutes for alveolar cleft repair or alveolar augmentation for dental implants. Adverse events for each of these products were tabulated as well.Sixteen studies featuring 6 bone graft substitutes: hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), calcium phosphate, recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and rhBMP7 fit the inclusion criteria for the first search. Through our second search, the authors found that DBM, TCP, rhBMP-2, and rhBMP7 have been studied most extensively in the alveolar cleft literature, though frequently in studies using less rigorous methodology (Level III evidence or below). rhBMP-2 was the best studied and showed comparable efficacy to ICBG in terms of volume of bone regeneration, bone density, and capacity to accommodate tooth eruption within the graft site. Pricing for products ranged from $290 to $3110 per 5 mL.The balance between innovation and safety is a complex process requiring constant vigilance and evaluation. Here, the authors profile several bone graft substitutes that demonstrate the most

  4. Association between alveolar bone loss and serum C-reactive protein levels in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rahul; Patil, Sudhir R; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Mathur, Shivani

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant that is produced in response to diverse inflammatory stimuli, and is known predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Aggressive and chronic periodontitis are two main forms of periodontal disease, which differ mainly in the method of disease progression. This study aims at determining and comparing the relative levels of serum CRP and alveolar bone loss in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. A total of 45 subjects, which were divided into 3 groups diagnosed as having generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP) and non-periodontitis controls (NP), were selected for the study. Venous blood samples were collected for quantitative CRP analysis using Turbidimetric immunoassay. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) was measured at proximal sites of posterior teeth on a panoramic radiograph. The relationship between the mean ratio of ABL to root length and serum CRP levels was statistically analyzed using Student unpaired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mean CRP levels were significantly greater in both GAP (7.49±2.31 mg/l) and CGP (4.88±1.80 mg/l) groups as compared to NP (0.68±0.23 mg/l) with P value periodontitis are associated with increased systemic inflammatory response with aggressiveness of disease progression determining the degree of response.

  5. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  6. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation. III. Some predictors with a possible influence on the progress in an unselected material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the /sup A/BD index/sup ,/ has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor /sup t/he alveolar bone loss 1970/sup /(ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index. 21 refs.

  7. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asa'ad, Farah; Pagni, Giorgio; Pilipchuk, Sophia P.; Giann?, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the qu...

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone during Alveolar Bone Healing*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee-Young; Kwon, Joseph; Kook, Min-Suk; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun; Sohn, Sungoh; Jung, Seunggon; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build-up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven useful for studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare proteins with altered expression in gingival sof...

  9. B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Baker

    2009-01-01

    and CD4+ T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4+ T cells.

  10. Radiolabeled microsphere measurements of alveolar bone blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.L.; Jeffcoat, M.K.; Goldhaber, P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolabeled microspheres were injected into the left cardiac ventricle in healthy adult dogs to quantify blood in maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse contour were monitored throughout each experiment. Blood flow in maxillary alveolar bone was more than 30 % greater (p<.001) than in mandibular alveolar bone. Alveolar bone blood flow (mean +- S.D.) measured as ml/min per gram was 0.12 +- .02 in the maxilla compared to 0.09 +- .02 in the mandible. The cardiovascular parameters monitored were constant immediately prior to the injection of microspheres and remained unchanged during and following injection. It is possible that radiolabeled microspheres can be used to quantify the circulatory changes in alveolar bone during the development of destructive periodontal disease in dogs. (author)

  11. Alveolar bone-loss area localization in periodontitis radiographs based on threshold segmentation with a hybrid feature fused of intensity and the H-value of fractional Brownian motion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P L; Huang, P W; Huang, P Y; Hsu, H C

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone-loss (ABL) measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an effective method for ABL area localization and denote it as ABLIfBm. ABLIfBm is a threshold segmentation method that uses a hybrid feature fused of both intensity and texture measured by the H-value of fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model, where the H-value is the Hurst coefficient in the expectation function of a fBm curve (intensity change) and is directly related to the value of fractal dimension. Adopting leave-one-out cross validation training and testing mechanism, ABLIfBm trains weights for both features using Bayesian classifier and transforms the radiograph image into a feature image obtained from a weighted average of both features. Finally, by Otsu's thresholding, it segments the feature image into normal and bone-loss regions. Experimental results on 31 periodontitis radiograph images in terms of mean true positive fraction and false positive fraction are about 92.5% and 14.0%, respectively, where the ground truth is provided by a dentist. The results also demonstrate that ABLIfBm outperforms (a) the threshold segmentation method using either feature alone or a weighted average of the same two features but with weights trained differently; (b) a level set segmentation method presented earlier in literature; and (c) segmentation methods based on Bayesian, K-NN, or SVM classifier using the same two features. Our results suggest that the proposed method can effectively localize alveolar bone-loss areas in periodontitis radiograph images and hence would be useful for dentists in evaluating degree of bone-loss for periodontitis patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease. (author)

  13. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss by regulating the cell cycle: A predictive study based on the protein‑protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Song, Chang-Heng; Zhang, Fang-Zhen; Chen, Yan-Jing; Xiang, Li-Hua; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Da-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) exhibits a protective effect on alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The aim of this study was to predict the pathways or targets that are regulated by RDE, by re‑assessing our previously reported data and conducting a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. In total, 383 differentially expressed genes (≥3‑fold) between alveolar bone samples from the RDE and OVX group rats were identified, and a PPI network was constructed based on these genes. Furthermore, four molecular clusters (A‑D) in the PPI network with the smallest P‑values were detected by molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, two molecular clusters (A and B) were enriched for biological process in Gene Ontology (GO). Only cluster A was associated with biological pathways in the IPA database. GO and pathway analysis results showed that cluster A, associated with cell cycle regulation, was the most important molecular cluster in the PPI network. In addition, cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) may be a key molecule achieving the cell‑cycle‑regulatory function of cluster A. From the PPI network analysis, it was predicted that delayed cell cycle progression in excessive alveolar bone remodeling via downregulation of CDK1 may be another mechanism underling the anti‑osteopenic effect of RDE on alveolar bone.

  14. Implant and root supported overdentures - a literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. RESULTS Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth an...

  15. The ability of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists or their combination in counteracting the glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Bassant A; Abbass, Marwa M S

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare between three possible osteoporotic treatments in prevention of glucocorticoid-induced alveolar bone loss. Fifty adult female Wistar rats with an average weight 150-200 g were randomized into five groups: group I (control) was intraperitoneally injected with saline. The other experimental groups (II & III, IV & V) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 µg/100 g body weight dexamethasone. The experimental groups III, IV and V received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg/day pheniramine maleate (H1 receptor antagonist), ranitidine hydrochloride (H2 receptor antagonist) and concomitant doses of both H1 & H2 receptor antagonists respectively. After 30 days, the rats have been sacrificed. The mandibles were examined histologically, histochemically and histomorphometrically. The bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Histopathologically the glucocorticoid group showed wide medullary cavities with wide osteocytic lacunae. These marrow cavities were reduced in the prophylactic groups (III, IV) but increased in group V. Bone histomorphometric analysis revealed improvement in static bone parameters in groups III and IV and deterioration in group V in comparison to group II. The DEXA revealed significant reduction in the bone mineral density in all experimental groups compared to the control group. In a rat model, the administration of H1 or H2 receptor antagonists separately could minimize the alveolar bone loss caused by the administration of glucocorticoids while concomitant administration of both H1 and H2 receptor antagonists deteriorated the bone condition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  17. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... loss in patients with chronic periodontitis: A clinical ... Key words: Alveolar bone loss, chronic periodontitis, dental, furcation defect, ..... cases for regeneration. ... According to report given by AAP[29] on the clinical reality.

  18. Influence of image filters on the reproducibility measurements of alveolar bone loss Influência dos filtros de imagem sobre a reprodutibilidade de medidas da perda óssea alveolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wivian Eiras Garcia Wong Alves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproducibility of measurements of alveolar bone loss on radiographs may be a problem on epidemiologic studies, as they are based on comparisons of the diagnosis of various examiners. The aim of the present research paper was to assess the inter- and intra-examiner reproducibility of measurements of the interproximal alveolar bone loss on non-manipulated digital radiographs and after the application of image filters. Five Oral Radiologists measured the distance between the cementoenamel junction (CEJ to the alveolar crest or to the deepest point of the bony defect on 12 interproximal digital radiographs of molars and bicuspids of a dry human skull. The digital manipulation and the linear measurements were obtained with the Trophy Windows software (Throphy®. For each image, six different versions were created: 1 non-manipulated; 2 bright-contrast adjustment; 3 negative; 4 negative with brightness-contrast adjustment; 5 pseudo-colored; 6 pseudo-colored with brightness-contrast adjustment. In order to prevent interpretation bias because of the repetition of measurements, the examiners measured the radiographs in a random sequence. The two-way ANOVA test at 5% level of significance to compare the means of readings of the same operator with each filter indicated p0.05 for all filters. Based on the results, we concluded that linear measurements of interproximal alveolar bone loss on digital radiographs are highly reproducible among examiners. Nevertheless, the application of image filters significantly influenced the degree of intra-examiner reproducibility. Some filters even reduced the reproducibility of intra-examiner readings.A reprodutibilidade de medidas da perda óssea alveolar em radiografias pode se tornar um problema em levantamentos epidemiológicos, que são baseados em comparações de diagnóstico de vários observadores. O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a reprodutibilidade intra e inter-examinador de medidas da perda

  19. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease.

  20. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  1. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: revive and restore the native bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Sumedha; Jagtap, Amit

    2009-12-01

    In prosthodontics, knife-edge bony alveolar ridges can cause a problem in their rehabilitation. The distraction osteogenesis process raises the medullary component of the alveolus, allowing the labial plate of the existing natural bone to be displaced. This process involves mobilization, transport, and fixation of a healthy segment of bone adjacent to the deficient site. It entails use of the gradual controlled displacement of surgically created fractures, which results in simultaneous expansion of soft tissue and bone volume. A mechanical device, the alveolar distraction device, is used for this purpose. This modality of treatment can be used in implant dentistry cases for rehabilitation of resorbed ridges. The objective of this overview is to explain this procedure wherein the alveolar housing, including the osseous and soft-tissue components, is enlarged in a single, simultaneous process, which makes creation of an appropriate alveolar morphology possible.

  2. Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Patients Born With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: A 20-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatemeh; Wiklander, Laila; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    To identify factors of oral health important for the final outcome, after secondary alveolar bone grafting in patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate and compare occlusal radiographs with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in assessment of alveolar bone height. Observational follow-up study. Cleft Lip and Palate Team, Craniofacial Center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. 40 nonsyndromic, Caucasian patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Clinical examination, CBCT, and occlusal radiographs. Alveolar bone height was evaluated according to Bergland index at a 20-year follow-up. The alveolar bone height in the cleft area was significantly reduced compared to a previously reported 10-year follow-up in the same cohort by total ( P = .045) and by subgroup with dental restoration ( P = .0078). This was positively correlated with the gingival bleeding index (GBI) ( r = 0.51, P = .0008) and presence of dental restorations in the cleft area ( r = 0.45, P = .0170). There was no difference in the Bergland index generated from scoring the alveolar bone height on occlusal radiographs as with the equivalent index on CBCT. Patients rehabilitated with complex dental restoration seems to be at higher risk for progression of bone loss in the cleft area. Supportive periodontal therapy should be implemented after complex dental restorations in cleft patients. Conventional occlusal radiographs provide an adequate image for evaluating postoperative bone height in clinical follow-up.

  3. Dressing for alveolopalatal wounds after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Shoji; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kikuchi, Nirou; Ban, Ryokuya

    2003-09-01

    Cotton gauze with alpha cyanoacrylate was used for alveolopalatal wound dressing after alveolar bone grafting to treat 93 alveolar clefts in 74 cleft patients to reduce mechanical injuries, tension for wound dehiscence, and adhesion of food remnants. T-shaped cotton gauze was put on the gingivoperiosteal flaps and was impregnated with cyanoacrylate. The procedure required no preoperative preparation and its intraoperative execution took less than 5 minutes. The gauze with cyanoacrylate was removed approximately 1 week after surgery. No infection was observed at any of the operational sites, but tiny fistulas developed at four of them. The mean bone graft score was 1.4 point. No complications such as thermal injury resulted from the use of cyanoacrylate. Gauze impregnated with cyanoacrylate proved to be a convenient and dependable dressing for alveolopalatal wounds resulting from gingivoperiosteoplasty for alveolar bone grafting.

  4. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  5. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  6. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asa’ad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.

  7. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... This was followed by Tukeys HSD post hoc tests to know the significant difference ... Key words: Alveolar bone loss, chronic periodontitis, dental, furcation defect, ... The main goals of the diagnosis of periodontal disease.

  8. Silver Nanoparticles in Alveolar Bone Surgery Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental implant surfaces and preventing biofilm formation, containing the risk of peri-implant infections. Modifying the structure or surface of bone grafts and membranes with Ag NPs may also prevent the risk of contamination and infection that are common when alveolar bone augmentation techniques are used. On the other hand, Ag NPs have revealed some toxic effects on cells in vitro and in vivo in animal studies. In this setting, the aim of the present paper is to summarize the principle behind Ag NP-based devices and their clinical applications in alveolar bone and dental implant surgery.

  9. Bone grafting of alveolar socket and ovate seat pontic preparation for natural emergence profile for anterior bridge - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar atrophy following tooth extraction remains a challenge for future prosthetic restorations. Immediate implant placement and postextraction alveolar bone grafting are two methods that are used to prevent significant postextraction bone loss. Grafting is one of the most common methods of socket preservation widely used to prevent the collapse of oral tissues following extraction so that an excellent esthetic prosthesis can be provided particularly in the anterior maxillary region. The present report describes the management of a maxillary tooth extraction socket using a socket preservation technique involving placement of an osteoconductive slowly resorbable grafting material & resorbable collagen membrane in the extraction socket also called as Bio-Col socket preservation technique followed by a provisional restoration to preserve the tissues & interdental papilla for the placement of future final ovate pontic anterior bridge to give the illusion of the tooth emerging from the gums. This technique resulted in a successful prevention of alveolar bone loss following tooth extraction & maintainence of tissue contour & density which provided a good tissue base for the fabrication of Ovate pontic giving excellent esthetic results.

  10. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  11. Alveolar bone healing in rats: micro-CT, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Suemi HASSUMI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats is a classical model of preclinical studies. The underlying morphometric, cellular and molecular mechanism, however, remains imprecise in a unique study. Objectives The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats by micro computed tomographic (Micro-CT, immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. Material and Methods Thirty animals (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus Wistar were divided into three groups after upper incisors extraction at 7, 14, and 28 days. Micro-CT was evaluated based on the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, the histological analyses and immunostaining of osteoprotegerin (OPG, receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL and tartrate resistant acid phosphate (TRAP was performed. In addition, RT-PCR analyses of OPG, RANKL, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, osteocalcin (OC, osteopontin (OPN, osterix (OST and receptor activator of nuclear kappa B (RANK were performed to determine the expression of these proteins in the alveolar bone healing. Results Micro-CT: The morphometric parameters of bone volume and trabecular thickness progressively increased over time. Consequently, a gradual decrease in trabecular separation, trabecular space and total bone porosity was observed. Immunohistochemical: There were no differences statistically significant between the positive labeling for OPG, RANKL and TRAP in the different periods. RT-PCR: At 28 days, there was a significant increase in OPG expression, while RANKL expression and the RANKL/OPG ratio both decreased over time. Conclusion Micro-CT showed the newly formed bone had favorable morphometric characteristics of quality and quantity. Beyond the RUNX2, OC, OPN, OST, and RANK proteins expressed in the alveolar bone healing, OPG and RANKL activity showed to be essential for activation of basic

  12. Increasing the amount of corticotomy does not affect orthodontic tooth movement or root resorption, but accelerates alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurohama, Takeshi; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Tajima, Takako; Arita, Kotaro; Kondo, Takanobu; Ino, Airi; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships among the volume of bone cut during corticotomy, amount of tooth movement, volume of root resorption, and volume of the resultant alveolar bone resorption after tooth movement. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were distributed into the corticotomy groups and a control group that underwent sham corticotomy. Two experiments employing two different orthodontic forces (10 or 25g) and experimental periods (14 or 21 days) were performed. The volumes of the bone cut by corticotomy were 0.1, 1.0, and 1.7mm3 in the 25g groups, and 1.0 and 1.7mm3 in the 10g groups. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were set on the maxillary left first molars to induce mesial movement. After orthodontic tooth movement, the amount of tooth movement, volume of root resorption, and volume of alveolar bone resorption were measured. Despite differences in the volume of bone cut among the different corticotomy groups, there were not significant differences in the amount of tooth movement and volume of root resorption between the control group and any of the corticotomy groups. However, higher volume of bone cut during corticotomy was significantly related to the decreased alveolar bone volume-in particular, to the reduced height of the alveolar bone crest after tooth movement. The volume of the alveolar bone cut during corticotomy does not affect tooth movement or root resorption in 10-week-old female Wistar rats; however, it may increase alveolar bone loss after tooth movement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Particulate bioglass in the regeneration of alveolar bone in dogs: clinical, surgical and radiographic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Tsiomis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss, either by trauma or other diseases, generates an increasing need for substitutes of this tissue. This study evaluated Bioglass as a bone substitute in the regeneration of the alveolar bone in mandibles of dogs by clinical, surgical and radiological analysis. Twenty-eight adult dogs were randomly separated into two equal groups. In each animal, a bone defect was created on the vestibular surface of the alveolar bone between the roots of the fourth right premolar tooth. In the treated group, the defect was immediately filled with bioglass, while in the control, it remained unfilled. Clinical evaluations were performed daily for a week, as well as x-rays immediately after surgery and at 8, 14, 21, 42, 60, 90 and 120 days post-operative. Most animals in both groups showed no signs of inflammation and wound healing was similar. Radiographic examination revealed a gradual increase of radiopacity in the region of the defect in the control group. In the treated group, initial radiopacity was higher than that of adjacent bone, decreasing until 21 days after surgery. Then it gradually increased until 120 days after surgery, when the defect became undetectable. The results showed that Bioglass integrates into bone tissue, is biocompatible and reduced the period for complete bone regeneration.

  14. Age-related new bone formation following the use of cancellous bone-block allografts for reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Joseph; Kolerman, Roni; Chaushu, Liat; Vered, Marilena; Naishlos, Sarit; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2018-02-01

    An age-related decrease in the number of osteogenic progenitor cells may compromise bone augmentation. Histomorphometrical assessment of age-related new bone formation, following atrophic alveolar ridge reconstruction, using cancellous bone-block allografts. Ninety-three consecutive patients (58 females and 35 males) were referred for implant-supported restoration of 122 severe atrophic alveolar ridges. Alveolar ridge deficiency locations were classified as anterior maxilla (n = 58), posterior maxilla (n= 32), and posterior mandible (n = 32). A bony deficiency of at least 3 mm horizontally and up to 3 mm vertically according to computerized tomography (CT) in the posterior mandible and anterior maxilla, served as inclusion criteria. In the posterior maxilla, a residual alveolar ridge up to 4 mm vertically according to CT served as inclusion criteria. Augmentation was performed by the use of cancellous bone-block allografts. Bone biopsies (9-month posterior maxilla, 4 months anterior maxilla and posterior mandible) of young (≤40 years) versus older (>40 years) patients were histomorphometrically evaluated. In the posterior maxilla, no statistically significant histomorphometric differences were noted. While at the anterior maxilla and posterior mandible, statistically significant more newly formed bone was found in young versus older individuals, respectively (38.6% vs 19.8%, P = 0.04 and 69% vs 31%, P = .05). New bone formation following residual alveolar ridge bone grafting is age-related. Longer bone consolidation and healing time may be recommended for older individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  16. Long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen; Pedersen, Kirsten Mølsted

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) in cleft lip and palate patients and to examine relationships between preoperative and postoperative factors and overall long-term bone graft success. The records of 97 patients with cleft lip and palate......, who had secondary alveolar bone grafting of 123 alveolar clefts, were examined. Interalveolar bone height was assessed radiographically a minimum of 10 years after grafting using a 4-point scale (I-IV), where types I and II were considered a success. After an average follow-up of 16 years after SABG...... to the cleft. No significant differences were found with regard to the other parameters investigated. The timing of secondary alveolar bone grafting is critical with regard to the age of the patient and the stage of eruption of the tooth distal to the cleft....

  17. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  18. Ozone Treatment of Alveolar Bone in the Cape Chacma Baboon Does Not Enhance Healing Following Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A.; Kotze, Harry F.

    2013-01-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5–4 % O3), ...

  19. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  20. Diffuse pulmonary uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer in bone scintigraphy of a rare case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallahi, Babak; Ghafary, Bahar Moasses; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare diffuse pulmonary disease representing microliths formed by deposition of calcium phosphonate in the alveolar airspaces. PAM is often diagnosed incidentally during chest X-ray imaging. Most of them are asymptomatic. We present a 39-year-old man referring for a bone scan due to a complaint of right leg pain. Bone scan showed diffuse uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer on both lung fields predominantly in basal regions. The bronchoalveolar lavage test confirmed the diagnosis of PAM

  1. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  2. Radiographic bone loss in a Scottish non-smoking Type 1 Diabetes mellitus population; a Bitewing Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, Anastasios; Robertson, Douglas P; Hodge, Penny J

    2018-05-15

    The dental complications of uncontrolled diabetes include reduced salivary flow rate, candidiasis and periodontal manifestations. A recent meta-analysis concluded that diabetes patients have a significantly higher severity, but not extent, of destructive periodontal disease than non-diabetes people. The authors reported that most type-1 diabetes studies using dental radiographic data have not controlled for confounding factors such as smoking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare radiographic alveolar bone loss between type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and non-diabetes (NDM) participants in a Scottish non-smoking population. Digital bitewing radiographs for 174 Scottish adult never or ex-smoker (> 5 years) participants (108 T1DM, 66 NDS), recruited from outpatient clinics throughout Greater Glasgow and Clyde, were included in the analysis. A single blinded, trained and calibrated examiner recorded the radiographic bone loss seen on bitewing radiographs using the digital screen caliper. The bone loss was measured as the distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the deepest radiographic alveolar bone margin interproximally of each tooth. T1DM participants had more radiographic alveolar bone loss throughout the all teeth measured (median:1.27 mm vs 1.06 mm, P diabetes subjects. Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes are at higher risk of periodontitis even when controlling for multiple possible confounding factors and this difference can be detected on routine dental radiographs at an early stage. These data confirm radiographically the previously reported association between T1DM and periodontal bone loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  3. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Tonin, Renata Hernandes

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth – directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA), Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health®, Rochester, NY, USA), and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P digital periapical (P = 0.0027). Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007). Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004). Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls. PMID:25191066

  5. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  6. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 ± 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 ± 4.7 .deg. C (p 0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 ± 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 ± 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 ± 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 ± 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  7. Clinical usefulness of dental X-ray computed tomography for postoperative assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kazuhide; Hamada, Yoshiki; Kondoh, Toshirou; Ishii, Hiroaki; Sonoyama, Tomoo; Kawarada, Takashi; Seto, Kanichi

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the clinical usefulness of dental X-ray computed tomography (CT) for postoperative assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting was investigated. Nineteen bone-grafted alveolar clefts in 15 patients with cleft lip and palate were studied. All bone bridges were examined by dental three-dimensional (3D)-CT (PSR 9000: Asahi Roentgen, Kyoto, Japan). The postoperative 3D morphology of the bone bridges was easily recognized. Dental 3D-CT images were suggested to be useful for assessment before installation of dental implants in bone bridges. In addition, the status of bone surrounding the installed dental implants and the periodontal space of teeth adjacent to the cleft could be clearly evaluated. In conclusion, dental 3D-CT provides clinically valuable information for the postoperative assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  8. Chin Symphysis Bone, Allograft, and Platelet-Rich Fibrin: Is the Combination Effective in Repair of Alveolar Cleft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian Attar, Bijan; Naghdi, Navid; Etemadi Sh, Milad; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2017-05-01

    Secondary grafting of alveolar defects with iliac crest bone is a common treatment method in cleft patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of symphysis bone, allograft, and platelet-rich fibrin in regeneration of alveolar defects compared with iliac bone graft. In this randomized clinical trial, patients with unilateral alveolar defects were divided randomly into two categories. Group A comprised patients in whom the combination of chin symphysis bone plus allogeneic bone material plus leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin was considered for treatment. Group B comprised patients in whom iliac bone graft was considered. Cone beam computed tomography before treatment and 1 year postoperatively was used for measurement of bone formation (bone volume in cubic centimeters). The data were analyzed by paired t and χ 2 tests via SPSS software (version 23; IBM, Armonk, NY). P platelet-rich fibrin is a proper combination for bone regeneration in alveolar defects with a small to moderate volume range. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dao-Cai [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 291st Hospital of P.L.A, Baotou (China); Li, De-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ji, Hui-Cang [Military Sanatorium of Retired Cadres, Baotou (China); Rao, Guo-Zhou [Center of Laboratory, School of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liang, Li-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ma, Ai-Jie [Xi' an Technology University, Xi' an (China); Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2012-04-05

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones.

  10. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dao-Cai; Li, De-Hua; Ji, Hui-Cang; Rao, Guo-Zhou; Liang, Li-Hua; Ma, Ai-Jie; Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones

  11. Implant and root supported overdentures - a literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2014-08-01

    To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth and use them or their roots for a tooth or root-supported overdenture substantially reduces bone loss. Jaws with implant-supported prostheses show less bone loss than jaws with conventional dentures. Mandibular 2-implant overdentures provide patients with better outcomes than do conventional dentures, regarding satisfaction, chewing ability and oral-health-related quality of life. There is no strong evidence for the superiority of one overdenture retention-system over the others regarding patient satisfaction, survival, peri-implant bone loss and relevant clinical factors. Mandibular single midline implant overdentures have shown promising results but long-term results are not yet available. For a maxillary overdenture 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar provide high survival both for implants and overdenture. In edentulous mandibles, 2-implant overdentures provide excellent long-term success and survival, including patient satisfaction and improved oral functions. To further reduce the costs a single midline implant overdenture can be a promising option. In the maxilla, overdentures supported on 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar have demonstrated good functional results.

  12. Implant and root supported overdentures - a literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To present a literature review on implant overdentures after a brief survey of bone loss after extraction of all teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Papers on alveolar bone loss and implant overdentures have been studied for a narrative review. RESULTS Bone loss of the alveolar process after tooth extraction occurs with great individual variation, impossible to predict at the time of extraction. The simplest way to prevent bone loss is to avoid extraction of all teeth. To keep a few teeth and use them or their roots for a tooth or root-supported overdenture substantially reduces bone loss. Jaws with implant-supported prostheses show less bone loss than jaws with conventional dentures. Mandibular 2-implant overdentures provide patients with better outcomes than do conventional dentures, regarding satisfaction, chewing ability and oral-health-related quality of life. There is no strong evidence for the superiority of one overdenture retention-system over the others regarding patient satisfaction, survival, peri-implant bone loss and relevant clinical factors. Mandibular single midline implant overdentures have shown promising results but long-term results are not yet available. For a maxillary overdenture 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar provide high survival both for implants and overdenture. CONCLUSION In edentulous mandibles, 2-implant overdentures provide excellent long-term success and survival, including patient satisfaction and improved oral functions. To further reduce the costs a single midline implant overdenture can be a promising option. In the maxilla, overdentures supported on 4 to 6 implants splinted with a bar have demonstrated good functional results. PMID:25177466

  13. Bilayered construct for simultaneous regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedhitha Sundaram, M; Sowmya, S; Deepthi, S; Bumgardener, Joel D; Jayakumar, R

    2016-05-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes destruction of tooth-supporting tissues and if left untreated leads to tooth loss. Current treatments have shown limited potential for simultaneous regeneration of the tooth-supporting tissues. To recreate the complex architecture of the periodontium, we developed a bilayered construct consisting of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) multiscale electrospun membrane (to mimic and regenerate periodontal ligament, PDL) and a chitosan/2wt % CaSO4 scaffold (to mimic and regenerate alveolar bone). Scanning electron microscopy results showed the porous nature of the scaffold and formation of beadless electrospun multiscale fibers. The fiber diameter of microfiber and nanofibers was in the range of 10 ± 3 µm and 377 ± 3 nm, respectively. The bilayered construct showed better protein adsorption compared to the control. Osteoblastic differentiation of human dental follicle stem cells (hDFCs) on chitosan/2wt % CaSO4 scaffold showed maximum alkaline phosphatase at seventh day followed by a decline thereafter when compared to chitosan control scaffold. Fibroblastic differentiation of hDFCs was confirmed by the expression of PLAP-1 and COL-1 proteins which were more prominent on PCL multiscale membrane in comparison to control membranes. Overall these results show that the developed bilayered construct might serve as a good candidate for the simultaneous regeneration of the alveolar bone and PDL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafts in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: Review of 501 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Fahradyan, Artur; Gould, Daniel J; Liang, Fan; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Urbinelli, Leo; Nguyen, JoAnna T; Magee, William; Yen, Stephen; Urata, Mark M

    2017-08-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction using iliac crest bone graft is considered standard of care for children with complete cleft lip and palate at the time of mixed dentition. Harvesting bone may result in donor-site morbidity and additional operating time and length of hospitalization. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with a demineralized bone matrix is an alternative bone source for alveolar cleft reconstruction. The authors investigated the outcomes of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix versus iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction by reviewing postoperative surgical complications and cleft closure. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 258 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix procedures (mean follow-up, 2.9 years) and 243 iliac crest bone graft procedures (mean follow-up, 4.1 years) on 414 patients over a 12-year period. The authors compared complications, canine eruption, and alveolar cleft closure between the two groups. In the rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix group, one patient required prolonged intubation because of intraoperative airway swelling not thought to be caused by rhBMP-2, 36 reported facial swelling and one required outpatient steroids as treatment, and 12 had dehiscence; however, half of these complications resolved without intervention. Twenty-three of the 228 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix patients and 28 of the 242 iliac crest bone graft patients required repeated surgery for alveolar cleft repair. Findings for canine tooth eruption into the cleft site through the graft were similar between the groups. The rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative for alveolar cleft repair. The authors found no increase in serious adverse events with the use of this material. Local complications, such as swelling and minor wound dehiscence, predominantly improved without intervention. Therapeutic, III.

  16. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  17. Multidisciplinary Management of An Unusual Isolated Alveolar Bone Infection- A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    K, Pimpale Sandeep; B, Dixit Mala; S, Kulkarni Rahul; M, Ramugade Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of proximal defect of tooth is of paramount importance as its improper restoration usually results in fracture of the restoration or deteriorated periodontal health. The article reports a case with a discreet mass of alveolar bone necrosis closed to the overhanged amalgam restoration in the proximal box of the maxillary molar. As a result of this improper proximal restoration it led to deep periodontal pocket and subsequent alveolar bone necrosis which was managed successfully wit...

  18. Assessment of alveolar bone height and width using 64-MDCT examination for dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Kotaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Sekiya, Keiko; Mori, Shintaro; Sakayanagi, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    There have been many reports showing the usefulness of CT examinations for preoperative dental implant treatment, and some reports on clinical statistics using CT examinations. However, there have been few reports on alveolar bone height and width of over 1,000 Japanese cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone height and width of 4,123 sites in 1,056 Japanese cases using preoperative CT examinations. The subjects consisted of 4,123 regions in 1,056 cases (370 males and 686 females, mean age 56.1 years old, range 15-87) of preoperative CT examinations conducted from January 2008 to March 2009. The CT examinations were performed using the Aquilion TM 64 (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation) as the multi detector row CT (MDCT) unit, and ZIOSTATION (ZIOSOFT) as the workstation. The CT images were displayed on the workstation, and the alveolar bone height and width were measured to one decimal place (rounded off to two decimal places). The average alveolar bone height was 14.8 mm (SD±3.8) in the upper anterior area, 11.2 mm (SD±5.5) in the upper premolar area, 6.8 mm (SD±5.4) in the upper molar area, 19.5 mm (SD±5.4) in the lower anterior area, 14.2 mm (SD±3.9) in the lower premolar area, and 13.4 mm (SD±3.4) in the lower molar area. The average alveolar bone width was 4.3 mm (SD±1.9) in the anterior area, 5.7 mm (SD±2.3) in the upper premolar area, 7.9 mm (SD±3.1) in the upper molar area, 4.8 mm (SD±2.1) in the lower anterior area, 5.9 mm (SD±2.2) in the lower premolar area, and 6.9 mm (SD±2.5) in the lower molar area. Our results using preoperative CT examinations indicated that many of the Japanese cases had insufficient alveolar bone height and width for dental implants. (author)

  19. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  20. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  1. Enhancement of the repair of dog alveolar cleft by an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanzheng, Chen; Yan, Gao; Ting, Li; Yanjie, Fu; Peng, Wu; Nan, Bai

    2015-05-01

    Autologous bone graft has been regarded as the criterion standard for the repair of alveolar cleft. However, the most prominent issue in alveolar cleft treatment is the high absorption rate of the bone graft. The authors' objective was to investigate the effects of an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture on the repair of dog alveolar cleft. Twenty beagle dogs with unilateral alveolar clefts created by surgery were divided randomly into four groups: group A underwent repair with an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture; group B underwent repair with autologous iliac bone and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; group C underwent repair with autologous iliac bone and platelet-rich fibrin; and group D underwent repair with autologous iliac bone as the control. One day and 6 months after transplantation, the transplant volumes and bone mineral density were assessed by quantitative computed tomography. All of the transplants were harvested for hematoxylin and eosin staining 6 months later. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin transplants formed the greatest amounts of new bone among the four groups. The new bone formed an extensive union with the underlying maxilla in groups A, B, and C. Transplants with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich fibrin, and their mixture retained the majority of their initial volume, whereas the transplants in the control group showed the highest absorption rate. Bone mineral density of transplants with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich fibrin, and their mixture 6 months later was significantly higher than in the control group (p platelet-rich fibrin mixed transplants. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the structure of new bones formed the best in group A. Both bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet

  2. An improved cost-effective, reproducible method for evaluation of bone loss in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Daniel H; Schreiner, Helen; Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Greenberg, Barbara; Jiang, Shuying; Markowitz, Kenneth; Furgang, David

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the utility of two "new" definitions for assessment of bone loss in a rodent model of periodontitis. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), group 2 was infected with an Aa leukotoxin knock-out, and group 3 received no Aa (controls). Microbial sampling and antibody titres were determined. Initially, two examiners measured the distance from the cemento-enamel-junction to alveolar bone crest using the three following methods; (1) total area of bone loss by radiograph, (2) linear bone loss by radiograph, (3) a direct visual measurement (DVM) of horizontal bone loss. Two "new" definitions were adopted; (1) any site in infected animals showing bone loss >2 standard deviations above the mean seen at that site in control animals was recorded as bone loss, (2) any animal with two or more sites in any quadrant affected by bone loss was considered as diseased. Using the "new" definitions both evaluators independently found that infected animals had significantly more disease than controls (DVM system; p<0.05). The DVM method provides a simple, cost effective, and reproducible method for studying periodontal disease in rodents.

  3. Effects of a herbal gel containing carvacrol and chalcones on alveolar bone resorption in rats on experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Montenegro, Danusa; Bandeira, Mary Anne Menezes; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves Cruz; Nogueira, Nadia Accioly Pinto; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro

    2008-04-01

    Carvacrol and dimeric chalcones are the respective bioactive components of Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva, popular medicinal plants of Northeastern Brazil with proven antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Periodontal disease is associated with inflammation and microbiological proliferation, thus the study aimed to investigate the effect of a topical gel based on carvacrol and chalcones in the experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Animals were treated with carvacrol and/or chalcones gel, immediately after EPD induction, three times a day for 11 days. Appropriate controls were included in the study. Animals were weighed daily. They were killed on day 11, the mandibles dissected and alveolar bone loss was measured. The periodontium were examined at histopathology and the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity. The bacterial flora were assessed through culture of the gingival tissue. Alveolar bone loss was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by combined carvacrol and chalcones gel, compared with the vehicle and non-treated groups. The treatment with the combined gel reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, decreased myeloperoxidase activity in gingival tissue and inhibited the growth of oral microorganisms as well as the weight loss. Carvacrol and chalcones combination gel has a beneficial effect upon EPD in this model. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Alveolar cleft closure with iliac bone graft: A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichvy Tammama

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The timing of alveolar bone grafting usually associated with the state of the developing of dentition. Post operative management is important to get a good result, and to prevent any complications.

  5. In vivo microcomputed tomography evaluation of rat alveolar bone and root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Nan; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Zhuang, Li; Li, Song; Bai, Yuxing

    2013-05-01

    To observe the real-time microarchitecture changes of the alveolar bone and root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A 10 g force was delivered to move the maxillary left first molars mesially in twenty 10-week-old rats for 14 days. The first molar and adjacent alveolar bone were scanned using in vivo microcomputed tomography at the following time points: days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Microarchitecture parameters, including bone volume fraction, structure model index, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and trabecular separation of alveolar bone, were measured on the compression and tension side. The total root volume was measured, and the resorption crater volume at each time point was calculated. Univariate repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections were performed to compare the differences in each parameter between time points with significance level at P Root resorption volume of the mesial root increased significantly on day 7 of orthodontic loading. Real-time root and bone resorption during orthodontic movement can be observed in 3 dimensions using in vivo micro-CT. Alveolar bone resorption and root resorption were observed mostly in the apical third on day 7 on the compression side; bone formation was observed on day 14 on the tension side during orthodontic tooth movement.

  6. Estudio histológico comparativo de la reparación ósea entre hueso alveolar y extra-alveolar en los cerdos sometidos a osteotomía con alta y baja velocidad, con refrigeración líquida Comparative study of bone repair between alveolar and extra-alveolar bone in pigs subjected to osteotomy at low speed and high speed with liquid refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Baldo de Toledo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Teniendo en cuenta que el proceso de reparación ósea en los cerdos se muestra en una mayor proximidad entre las variables histológicas estudiadas en comparación con otros modelos biológicos, el presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar el proceso histológico de la reparación ósea de osteotomías realizadas en huesos alveolares y extra-alveolar, utilizando instrumentos rotatorios con refrigeración líquida. Material y método: Dieciocho cerdos Large White con peso comprendido entre 20 y 25Kg fueron divididos en tres grupos de seis animales cada uno, con cada grupo formado por tres animales para evaluar la reparación de osteotomías con baja y alta velocidades en el hueso alveolar y tres en área extra-alveolar en los períodos de estudio de 7, 14 y 28 días. Resultados: Se observó que en el hueso alveolar en los tiempos post-operatorio de 14 y 28 días, los mejores resultados de reparación fueron en las osteotomías realizadas con baja velocidad, mientras que en el período post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con alta velocidad fueron ligeramente mejores tanto en áreas alveolares como extra-alveolares. Para la metodología utilizada, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el proceso de reparación ósea alveolar y extra-alveolar. Conclusiones: El proceso de reparación, por medio de análisis microscópico en la región alveolar y extra-alveolar, son similares con mejores resultados observados en osteotomías hechas con taladros en baja velocidad en los tiempos de catorce y veintiocho días y en el post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con taladros de alta velocidad y la refrigeración fueron ligeramente mejores. Los trabajos de investigación utilizando cerdos como modelo animal son perfectamente viables.Introduction: Taking into account the bone repair process in pigs has shown a greater similarity among the histological variables studied compared to other biological

  7. Analysis of the root position of the maxillary incisors in the alveolar bone using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hee [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Jun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure the buccal bone thickness and angulation of the maxillary incisors and to analyze the correlation between these parameters and the root position in the alveolar bone using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of 398 maxillary central and lateral incisors from 199 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The root position in the alveolar bone was classified as buccal, middle, or palatal, and the buccal type was further classified into subtypes I, II, and III. In addition, the buccolingual inclination of the tooth and buccal bone thickness were evaluated. A majority of the maxillary incisors were positioned more buccally within the alveolar bone, and only 2 lateral incisors (0.5%) were positioned more palatally. The angulation of buccal subtype III was the greatest and that of the middle type was the lowest. Most of the maxillary incisors exhibited a thin facial bone wall, and the lateral incisors had a significantly thinner buccal bone than the central incisors. The buccal bone of buccal subtypes II and III was significantly thinner than that of buccal subtype I. A majority of the maxillary incisor roots were positioned close to the buccal cortical plate and had a thin buccal bone wall. Significant relationships were observed between the root position in the alveolar bone, the angulation of the tooth in the alveolar bone, and buccal bone thickness. CBCT analyses of the buccal bone and sagittal root position are recommended for the selection of the appropriate treatment approach.

  8. Multidisciplinary Management of An Unusual Isolated Alveolar Bone Infection- A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Dixit Mala; S, Kulkarni Rahul; M, Ramugade Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of proximal defect of tooth is of paramount importance as its improper restoration usually results in fracture of the restoration or deteriorated periodontal health. The article reports a case with a discreet mass of alveolar bone necrosis closed to the overhanged amalgam restoration in the proximal box of the maxillary molar. As a result of this improper proximal restoration it led to deep periodontal pocket and subsequent alveolar bone necrosis which was managed successfully with combined Endodontic-Periodontic treatment. This article highlights the unfortunate sequelae of bone necrosis as a consequence of an incorrect or overlooked dental treatment and its comprehensive management. PMID:26155587

  9. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL. Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control, using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin, digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA, Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health ® , Rochester, NY, USA, and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey′s test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001. CBCT differed from panoramic (P = 0.0130, periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066, periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001, and digital periapical (P = 0.0027. Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007. Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004. Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls.

  11. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  13. Evaluation of bone loss due to primary occlusal trauma in two experimental models of occlusal overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Távora de Albuquerque LOPES

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary occlusal trauma (OT is an injury of the periodontium with normal height as a result of occlusal forces which exceed their adaptive capacity. Objective To evaluate, histometrically, the alveolar bone loss in the furcation region of rats experimentally submitted to 2 models of occlusal overload. Material and method 45 animals randomly divided into 3 groups: Occlusal Interference (OI, n = 15 - fixing an orthodontic wire segment on the occlusal surface of the first lower molar; Occlusal Overload (OO, n = 15 - wearing of the cusps of the lower contralateral molars, the second and third molars next to the first molar that had its dimensions maintained; Negative Control (NC, n = 15 - evaluation of the initial dimensions of the periodontal ligament (PL. Five animals / group were sacrificed after 14, 21 and 28 days. Result Intergroup evaluation showed significant bone loss in OI (p0.05. The thickness of the PL remained stable in NC (p>0.05. Conclusion OI and OO were effective in the experimental reproduction of OT, and OI promoted greater alveolar bone loss compared to OO, showing that the impact of occlusal overload in OI increased the extent of the OT injury.

  14. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  15. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Delanghe, J.R.; Loos, B.G.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. Material & Methods The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental

  16. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  17. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  18. Placement of fin type dental implant in three different surgical situations of alveolar bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different dental implant placements according to surgical implant bed situations were observed in its bone integration 3 months after dental implant insertion. This observation was done on implant system which has plateau or fin system. Elf implants were placed in the upper jaw in two patients. In case one, two implants were inserted immediately after tooth extraction, and the other six implants were placed in the alveolar crest regions in delayed implantation or in which the teeth had been extracted over 6 months of period. In case two, three implants were inserted in the post trauma region in the anterior maxilla, which the labial plate had been lost and reconstructed with bone grafting procedure using a mixture of alloplastic and autogenous bones. The alveolar reconstruction was needed to be performed due to only thin alveolar crest width was left intact. All of those implants observed showed in good integration.

  19. Alveolar process fractures in the permanent dentition. Part 2. The risk of healing complications in teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk of pulp canal obliteration (PCO), pulp necrosis (PN), repair-related resorption (RRR), infection-related resorption (IRR), ankylosis-related resorption (ARR), marginal bone loss (MBL), and tooth loss (TL) for teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture and to identify ...

  20. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  1. Three-Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography Volumetric Outcomes of rhBMP-2/Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fan; Yen, Stephen L-K; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Sanborn, Luke; Yen, Leia; Yen, Daniel; Nazarian, Sheila; Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Urata, Mark; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a demineralized bone matrix scaffold is a comparable alternative to iliac bone autograft in the setting of secondary alveolar cleft repair. Postreconstruction occlusal radiographs demonstrate improved bone stock when rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffold is used but lack the capacity to evaluate bone growth in three dimensions. This study uses cone beam computed tomography to provide the first clinical evaluation of volumetric and density comparisons between these two treatment modalities. A prospective study was conducted with 31 patients and 36 repairs of the alveolar cleft over a 2-year period. Twenty-one repairs used rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold and 14 repairs used iliac bone grafting. Postoperatively, occlusal radiographs were obtained at 3 months to evaluate bone fill; cone beam computed tomographic images were obtained at 6 to 9 months to compare volumetric and density data. At 3 months, postoperative occlusal radiographs demonstrated that 67 percent of patients receiving rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold had complete bone fill of the alveolus, versus 56 percent of patients in the autologous group. In contrast, cone beam computed tomographic data showed 31.6 percent (95 percent CI, 24.2 to 38.5 percent) fill in the rhBMP-2 group compared with 32.5 percent (95 percent CI, 22.1 to 42.9 percent) in the autologous population. Density analysis demonstrated identical average values between the groups (1.38 g/cc). These data demonstrate comparable bone regrowth and density values following secondary alveolar cleft repair using rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold versus autologous iliac bone graft. Cone beam computed tomography provides a more nuanced understanding of true bone regeneration within the alveolar cleft that may contribute to the information provided by occlusal radiographs alone. Therapeutic, II.

  2. The potential of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana peel extract, combined with demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft, to reduce ridge resorption and alveolar bone regeneration in preserving the tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The induction of MPEs and DFBBX is effective in reducing inflammation, lowering osteoclasts, decreasing alveolar bone resorption, and also increasing BMP2 expression and alveolar bone regeneration.

  3. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

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    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  5. A Semi-automatic Algorithm for Preliminary Assessment of Labial Gingiva and Alveolar Bone Thickness of Maxillary Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hong; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Lu, Yongning; Ong, Sim-Heng; Wang, Hom-Lay; Ko, Eng Hong; Chang, Po-Chun

    Soft and hard tissue volumes are critical for implant placement and long-term stability. Although the literature has adequately addressed tissue biotypes of Western populations, pertinent information about Asian populations is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the soft and hard tissue profiles of the maxillary anterior teeth of the Taiwanese population using a semi-automatic algorithm. Cone beam computed tomography images of 11 adults with well-aligned maxillary anterior teeth were overlaid with those of cast models, based on the tooth crowns manually outlined by two independent observers. Each tooth was digitally trisected mesiodistally and apicocoronally. The thicknesses of the labial gingiva and alveolar bone were measured using a customized software program. No obvious difference between the observers was noted regarding the dimension of tooth crowns. The average thicknesses of the labial gingiva, the labial alveolar bone, and the palatal alveolar bone were 1.76 ± 0.11 mm, 1.02 ± 0.12 mm, and 1.80 ± 0.31 mm, respectively, with no significant differences between teeth. All parameters were thicker in the apical region than in the cervical region, and the alveolar bone was thinner in the midlabial region of incisors than in the interproximal regions. The thinnest areas were the midcervical compartment of the right central incisor (0.53 ± 0.33 mm) for the labial gingiva, the midcervical compartment of the right lateral incisor (0.23 ± 0.10 mm) for the labial alveolar bone, and the mesiocervical compartment of the left central incisor (0.33 ± 0.09 mm) for the palatal alveolar bone. This study presents an objective and comprehensive methodology for evaluating the soft and hard tissue profiles of maxillary anterior teeth and may be of value for presurgical planning for immediate implant placement. The results suggest that profiles of the Taiwanese subjects are similar to profiles of Western populations.

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

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    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  7. Relationship between betel quid chewing and radiographic alveolar bone loss among Taiwanese aboriginals: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Nan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ko, Edward Chengchuan

    2014-11-04

    Betel quid chewing is associated with the periodontal status; however, results of epidemiological studies are inconsistent. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) associated with betel quid chewing. This survey was conducted in an aboriginal community in Taiwan because almost all betel quid chewers were city-dwelling cigarette smokers. In total, 114 subjects, aged 30-60 years, were included. Full-mouth intraoral RABL was retrospectively measured and adjusted for age, gender, and plaque index (PI). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between RABL and potential risk factors. Age-, gender-, and PI-adjusted mean RABL was significantly higher in chewers with or without cigarette smoking than in controls. Multiple regression analysis showed that the RABL for consumption of 100,000 pieces betel quid for the chewer group was 0.40 mm. Full-mouth plotted curves for adjusted mean RABL in the maxilla were similar between the chewer and control groups, suggesting that chemical effects were not the main factors affecting the association between betel quid chewing and the periodontal status. Betel quid chewing significantly increases RABL. The main contributory factors are age and oral hygiene; however, the major mechanism underlying this process may not be a chemical mechanism. Regular dental visits, maintenance of good oral hygiene, and reduction in the consumption of betel quid, additives, and cigarettes are highly recommended to improve the periodontal status.

  8. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning.

  9. Correlation between radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around dental implant and resonance frequency of dental implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawoko, S. S.; Nelwan, L. C.; Odang, R. W.; Kusdhany, L. S.

    2017-08-01

    The histomorphometric test is the gold standard for dental implant stability quantification; however, it is invasive, and therefore, it is inapplicable to clinical patients. Consequently, accurate and objective alternative methods are required. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and digital radiographic analysis are noninvasive methods with excellent objectivity and reproducibility. To analyze the correlation between the radiographic analysis of alveolar bone density around a dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant. Digital radiographic images for 35 samples were obtained, and the resonance frequency of the dental implant was acquired using Osstell ISQ immediately after dental implant placement and on third-month follow-up. The alveolar bone density around the dental implant was subsequently analyzed using SIDEXIS-XG software. No significant correlation was reported between the alveolar bone density around the dental implant and the resonance frequency of the dental implant (r = -0.102 at baseline, r = 0.146 at follow-up, p > 0.05). However, the alveolar bone density and resonance frequency showed a significant difference throughout the healing period (p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Digital dental radiographs and Osstell ISQ showed excellent objectivity and reproducibility in quantifying dental implant stability. Nonetheless, no significant correlation was observed between the results obtained using these two methods.

  10. A full-mouth radiographic survey of periodontal bone loss in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Z.; Erjavec, V.; Erzen, D.; Petelin, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clinically observed periodontal disease indicators and radiographic findings using fullmouth radiographs in poodles. The dogs were divided into three groups according to their age. Upper and lower incisors, canines and premolars/molars were used for clinical and radiographic analyses. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease increased with age. In addition, the deepest pockets and most severe bone loss were found around the canine teeth. The values obtained from radiographic analysis correlated well with clinical measurements. Fullmouth radiographic surveys show clearly the alveolar bone level around the whole dentition of dogs. It should be performed prior to the institution of any treatment

  11. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  12. Changes in the fractal dimension, feret diameter, and lacunarity of mandibular alveolar bone during initial healing of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Erinç; Baksı, B Güniz; Sogur, Elif

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the combination of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity, and Feret diameter (FeD) to quantitatively characterize structural changes of mandibular alveolar bone around dental implants during initial healing. Three standard-sized regions of interest (ROIs) (mesial and distal crest and apical area) around implants and three ROIs of the same size in the alveolar bone on the contralateral side were analyzed on digital panoramic images. FD was calculated using the box-counting method, and lacunarity was calculated using the FracLac plugin of Image J software. FeD was measured in the same ROIs. Comparisons of the groups were done with the Dunnett test. Forty-two implants in the posterior mandibles of 21 patients were used for FD measurements. A total of 189 ROIs was segmented into binary images. Mean FD values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 1.26, 1.36, and 1.4, respectively. The mean FD of alveolar bone around premolars/molars was 1.39 for all ROIs. The mean FeD for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants was 7.63, 7.86, and 8.02, respectively, whereas it ranged between 7.88 and 8.13 for premolar teeth. Mean lacunarity values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.48, respectively. Lacunarity values for ROIs around premolars ranged between 0.45 and 0.50. No significant differences were observed in FD, FeD, or lacunarity measurements between ROIs around implants and around teeth. The satisfactory healing of bone following implant placement may be monitored by calculating FD, lacunarity, and FeD using digital panoramic images. Although preliminary, these values may alert the practitioner to any implants with loss of stability.

  13. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of transcortical screws on alveolar (bone) ridge preservation following extraction. DESIGN: Four adult beagle dogs had mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. After 6 weeks, using a split-mouth design, two transcortical screws were inserted unilateral...

  14. beta-TCP Versus Autologous Bone for Repair of Alveolar Clefts in a Goat Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A. de; Meijer, G.J.; Dormaar, T.; Janssen, N.; Bilt, A. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Bruijn, J. de; Rijn, L. van; Koole, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study in goats was to test the hypothesis that a novel synthetic bone substitute beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) can work as well as autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest for grafting and repair of alveolar clefts. Design : Ten adult Dutch milk goats ( Capra

  15. Diet-induced obesity, gut microbiota and bone, including alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaimworawuthikul, Sathima; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for several pathologies, including jaw bone resorption. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathological conditions resulting from obesity include chronic systemic inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have indicated the importance of the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, only a few studies have established a relationship between obesity, gut microbiota and status of the jaw bone. This review aims to summarize current findings relating to these issues, focusing on the role of obesity and gut microbiota on jaw bone health, including possible mechanisms which can explain this link. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of a Novel PLGA/CaP Scaffold in the Healing of Tooth Extraction Sockets to Alveolar Bone Preservation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Vanessa Cristina; Ferreira-Junior, Osny; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Guan, Limin; Davies, John Edward

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that 40% to 60% of initial alveolar bone volume will be lost up to 6 months after tooth extraction. OsteoScaf(TM) (TRT, Toronto, ON, Canada) (poly (DL-lactide-co-glycololide/calcium phosphate [PLGA/CaP] scaffold) is a novel bone substitute material and represents a promising alternative for maintaining alveolar bone integrity in this clinical scenario. Here it was hypothesized that OsteoScaf would reduce alveolar bone lost after tooth extraction in patient, acting as a clot-retention device. A total of 10 patients (32 sockets) were included in the study, of which 16 sockets were grafted with OsteoScaf and 16 were used as control (coagulum alone). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed both immediately following extraction and also at 120 days postoperatively, at which time biopsy samples were also harvested for histological analyses. Quantitative analysis of CBCT showed less bone resorption in the OsteoScaf groups, being 10.5% to 14.4% less bone lost in the center of the socket, 15.4% in the buccal region, and 12.6% in the palatal. Qualitative histological analysis showed new bone tissue in direct apposition to the scaffold - demonstrating its osteoconductive nature. OsteoScaf diminished the expected bone lost during the postextraction remodeling of the alveolar bone ridge at 120 days postextraction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate, compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7 defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5 defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6 defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01 and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06 of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30 and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88 of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  18. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dejan; Jokanović, Vukoman; Petrović, Bojan; Perić, Tamara; Vukomanović, Biserka

    2014-05-01

    Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material's particles took place after 25 weeks. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects.

  19. Assessment of vascularity in irradiated and nonirradiated maxillary and mandibular minipig alveolar bone using laser doppler flowmetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Laurin, T.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this animal study was to confirm that laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a reproducible method for the assessment of maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone vascularity and that there is less vascularity in irradiated mandibular and maxillary bone compared to nonirradiated bone.

  20. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  1. Prevention of inflammation-mediated bone loss in murine and canine periodontal disease via recruitment of regulatory lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Andrew J; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Vieira, Andreia E; Garlet, Gustavo P; Sfeir, Charles; Little, Steven R

    2013-11-12

    The hallmark of periodontal disease is the progressive destruction of gingival soft tissue and alveolar bone, which is initiated by inflammation in response to an invasive and persistent bacterial insult. In recent years, it has become apparent that this tissue destruction is associated with a decrease in local regulatory processes, including a decrease of forkhead box P3-expressing regulatory lymphocytes. Accordingly, we developed a controlled release system capable of generating a steady release of a known chemoattractant for regulatory lymphocytes, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22), composed of a degradable polymer with a proven track record of clinical translation, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid. We have previously shown that this sustained presentation of CCL22 from a point source effectively recruits regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the site of injection. Following administration of the Treg-recruiting formulation to the gingivae in murine experimental periodontitis, we observed increases in hallmark Treg-associated anti-inflammatory molecules, a decrease of proinflammatory cytokines, and a marked reduction in alveolar bone resorption. Furthermore, application of the Treg-recruiting formulation (fabricated with human CCL22) in ligature-induced periodontitis in beagle dogs leads to reduced clinical measures of inflammation and less alveolar bone loss under severe inflammatory conditions in the presence of a diverse periodontopathogen milieu.

  2. High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Joon Bong; Heo, Jung Sun; Choi, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm(2)) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Treatment of a patient with considerably thin alveolar bone and severe open bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiya, Zhuo; Zhou, Hu; Qing, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 25-year-old woman with a severe open bite. This patient presented a grade Ⅲ open bite, considerably thin alveolar bone, and evident labial buccal and lingual root form. The open bite was corrected by fixed orthodontic treatment and masticatory exercises. However, the increased pressure in the labial muscle caused by lip muscle exercise suppressed the canines, which resulted in the protrusion of the apices of canine roots out of the alveolar bone. Afterward, HX brackets, instead of self-locking, were used and bonded reversely in the occlusal-gingival direction on the upper canines. The lip muscle exercises were decreased. After adjustment, the roots penetrated back into the cancellous bone, the severe open bite was corrected, and a normal overbite and overjet were achieved. ClassⅠcanine and molar relationships were established. The masticatory function and profile were both considerably improved. This case report showed that a severe nonskeletal open bite can be corrected using orthodontic treatments combined with masticatory exercises.

  4. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

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    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  5. Human Studies of Vertical and Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Comparing Different Types of Bone Graft Materials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Suraj; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). Currently, autogenous bone is labeled as the "gold standard" because of faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. No systematic review has currently determined whether there is a difference in implant success between various bone augmentation materials. The purpose of this article was to systematically review comparative human studies of vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation comparing different types of bone graft materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). A MEDLINE search was conducted under the 3 search concepts of bone augmentation, dental implants, and alveolar ridge augmentation. Studies pertaining to socket grafts or sinus lifts were excluded. Case reports, small case series, and review papers were excluded. A bias assessment tool was applied to the final articles. Overall, 219 articles resulted from the initial search, and 9 articles were included for final analysis. There were no discernible differences in implant success between bone augmentation materials. Generally, patients preferred nonautogenous bone sources as there were fewer hospital days, less pain, and better recovery time. Two articles had industrial support; however, conclusions of whether that support influenced the outcomes could not be determined. Future comparative studies should compare nonautogenous bone sources and have longer follow-up times.

  6. Partially Biodegradable Distraction Implant to Replace Conventional Implants in Alveolar Bone of Insufficient Height: A Preliminary Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Shao, Bo; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chen; Cao, Qiang; Kong, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Dental implants have been widely used in the last few decades. However, patients with insufficient bone height need reconstructive surgeries before implant insertion. The distraction implant (DI) has been invented to simplify the treatment procedure, but the shortcomings of DIs have limited their clinical use. We incorporated biodegradable polyester into a novel DI called the partially biodegradable distraction implant (PBDI). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological, histological, and biomechanical properties of the PBDI in animal models. PBDIs were manufactured and inserted into the atrophied mandibles of nine dogs. Box-shaped alveolar bones were segmented and distracted. The dogs were randomly divided into three groups that were sacrificed 1, 2, and 3 months after the implant insertion. Actual augmentation height (AAH) of the bone segments was measured to evaluate the effect of distraction. X-ray examination and micro-CT reconstruction and analysis were used to evaluate the regenerated bone in the distraction gap and bone around the functional element. Histological sections were used to evaluate the osseointegration and absorption of the PBDI. Fatigue tests were used to evaluate the biomechanical properties of the PBDI. Little change was found in AAH among the three groups. X-ray examination and micro-CT reconstruction showed good growth of regenerated bone in the distraction gap. Alveolar bone volume around the functional element increased steadily. No obvious bone absorption occurred in the alveolar crest around PBDI. Three months after distraction, the functional element achieved osseointegration, and the support element began to be absorbed. All PBDIs survived the fatigue test. The PBDI is a novel and reliable dental implant. It becomes a conventional implant after the absorption of the support element and the removal of the distraction screw. It is a promising replacement for conventional implants in patients with insufficient alveolar bone

  7. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  8. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite with Granular Form or Porous Scaffold in Canine Alveolar Sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, SEOK JIN; KIM, SE EUN; HAN, TAE SUNG; SON, JUN SIK; KANG, SEONG SOO; CHOI, SEOK HWA

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess bone regeneration using hydroxyapatite (HA). The primary focus was comparison of bone regeneration between granular HA (gHA) forms and porous HA (pHA) scaffold. The extracted canine alveolar sockets were divided with three groups: control, gHA and pHA. Osteogenic effect in the gHA and pHA groups showed bone-specific surface and bone mineral density to be significantly higher than that of the control group (psocket healing. For new bone formation during 8 weeks' post-implantation, HA with porous scaffold was superior to the granular form of HA. PMID:28438860

  9. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

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    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  10. Volumetric Analysis of Alveolar Bone Defect Using Three-Dimensional-Printed Models Versus Computer-Aided Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengzhou; Li, Binghang; Yin, Ningbei; Cao, Yilin; Wang, Yongqian

    2017-03-01

    Knowing the volume of a graft is essential in repairing alveolar bone defects. This study investigates the 2 advanced preoperative volume measurement methods: three-dimensional (3D) printing and computer-aided engineering (CAE). Ten unilateral alveolar cleft patients were enrolled in this study. Their computed tomographic data were sent to 3D printing and CAE software. A simulated graft was used on the 3D-printed model, and the graft volume was measured by water displacement. The volume calculated by CAE software used mirror-reverses technique. The authors compared the actual volumes of the simulated grafts with the CAE software-derived volumes. The average volume of the simulated bone grafts by 3D-printed models was 1.52 mL, higher than the mean volume of 1.47 calculated by CAE software. The difference between the 2 volumes was from -0.18 to 0.42 mL. The paired Student t test showed no statistically significant difference between the volumes derived from the 2 methods. This study demonstrated that the mirror-reversed technique by CAE software is as accurate as the simulated operation on 3D-printed models in unilateral alveolar cleft patients. These findings further validate the use of 3D printing and CAE technique in alveolar defect repairing.

  11. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

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    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  12. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Aldir Cordeiro; CAPISTRANO, Anderson; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; CARDOSO, Maurício de Almeida; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; CAPELOZZA, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Material and Methods Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences in root length and buccal and palatal bone levels of canines and adjacent teeth among groups. Conclusions Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis. PMID:28198979

  13. Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

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    Ricardo Nogueira Fracon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2 and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether paracetamol, ketorolac and etoricoxib can hinder alveolar bone formation, taking the filling of rat extraction socket with newly formed bone as experimental model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The degree of new bone formation inside the alveolar socket was estimated two weeks after tooth extraction by a differential point-counting method, using an optical microscopy with a digital camera for image capture and histometry software. Differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA after confirming a normal distribution of sample data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Histometric results confirmed that none of the tested drugs had a detrimental effect in the volume fraction of bone trabeculae formed inside the alveolar socket.

  14. Severe Bone Loss induced by Orthodontic Elastic Separator: A Rare Case Report

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    A E Vishwanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A displaced orthodontic elastic separator was proposed as being the source of a gingival abscess that progressed to severe bone loss and exfoliation in a healthy adolescent patient with sound periodontal status prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment. After 1 year of undergoing orthodontic treatment, the patient presented with dull pain and mobility in the left upper permanent molar for which there was no apparent etiology. On clinical examination, the patient had gingival inflammation, associated with a deep pocket and severe mobility (grade III in relation to the same teeth. Radiographic examination of an orthopantomogram and intraoral periapical radiography (IOPAR revealed a chronic periodontal abscess with severe necrosis of the periodontal ligament and severe alveolar bone loss. A radiopaque mass on the distal surface below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ was also observed. The patient was referred to the department of periodontics for assessment and appropriate treatment. On curettage, it was found that there was orthodontic elastic separator which was displaced subgingivally.

  15. The Impact of Alveolar Bone Grafting on Cleft Lip and Palate: A literature review

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    Toby J. Gillgras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting between the ages of nine years to eleven years is a routine procedure for children with a cleft involving the alveolus. It is believed to encourage dental development and subsequent treatment within the region of the cleft and to improve nasolabial aesthetics. The aims of this article are to review the literature as to its impact on dental development and subsequent treatment, nasolabial aesthetics and the nasal airway. Methods: An electronic search was conducted using Medline and Embase, with no restriction as to date of publication, study design or language. Results: The results suggest that secondary alveolar bone grafting when carried out at the appropriate time has significant benefits and for subsequent dental treatment, often allows space closure of adjacent teeth and eliminating the need for a prosthesis. Although it has an effect of nasolabial aesthetics it is equivocal as to whether this improves nasolabial aesthetics or merely improves the likelihood of aesthetic improvement of subsequent nasal surgery. Nasal obstruction is a significant issue in patients with cleft lip and palate with smaller nasal volume and mean cross-sectional area. It would appear that there is a reduction in the growth of the airway after an age that approximates to the timing for secondary alveolar grafting, although there are no studies that can refute or confirm its actual impact. Conclusions: Alveolar bone grafting between the ages of 9 – 11 years appears to produce clear benefits in terms of dental development and subsequent dental treatment. Its impact on nasolabial aesthetics appear equivocal as although there are changes in some landmarks post-surgery it is unclear as to whether these changes produce a benefit in terms of aesthetics for the patient.

  16. Iliac Crest Donor Site for Children With Cleft Lip and Palate Undergoing Alveolar Bone Grafting: A Long-term Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jonathan; Sanders, Megan; Loo, Stanley; Moaveni, Zac; Bartlett, Glenn; Keall, Heather; Pinkerton, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The authors aimed to accurately assess the donor site morbidity from iliac crest bone grafts for secondary bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate alveolar defects. Fifty patients between 3 months and 10 years following alveolar bone grafting for cleft lip and palate were entered into the study. Two-thirds of patients had no significant concerns about the donor site. The remaining third had some concerns about the appearance of their hips and less than 10% of patients expressing strong agreement with statements about concerns with shape, appearance, and self-consciousness about the iliac crest donor site. Examination findings showed the average length of scar being 5.4 cm and a third of patients having some minor palpable boney irregularities of the iliac crest. The authors found that the alveolar crest donor site is well tolerated by patients long term but has a measurable morbidity long term.

  17. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  18. Evaluation of the treatment modalities for neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve following retromolar bone harvesting for bone augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Shinnosuke; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Shiiba, Shunji; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Hirayama, Bunichi; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment modalities for neurosensory disturbances (NSDs) of the inferior alveolar nerve occurring after retromolar bone harvesting for bone augmentation procedures before implant placement. One hundred four patients, of which 49 and 55 exhibited vertical or horizontal alveolar ridge defects in the mandible and maxilla, respectively, were enrolled. Nineteen patients underwent block bone grafting, 38 underwent guided bone generation or autogenous bone grafting combined with titanium mesh reconstruction, and 47 underwent sinus floor augmentation. Using a visual analog scale, we examined subjective symptoms and discomfort related to sensory alteration within the area of the NSDs in these patients. NSDs were clinically investigated using a two-point discrimination test with blunt-tipped calipers. In addition, neurometry was used for evaluation of trigeminal nerve injury. We tested three treatment modalities for NSDs: follow-up observation (no treatment), medication, and stellate ganglion block (SGB). A week after surgery, 26 patients (25.0%) experienced NSDs. Five patients received no treatment, 10 patients received medication, and 11 patients received SGB. Three months after surgery, patients in the medication and SGB group achieved complete recovery. Current perception threshold values recovered to near-baseline values at 3 months: recovery was much earlier in this group than in the other two groups. SGB can accelerate recovery from NSDs. Our results justify SGB as a reasonable treatment modality for NSDs occurring after the harvesting of retromolar bone grafts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of chronic alcoholism and oestrogen deficiency on the variation of stoichiometry of hydroxyapatite within alveolar bone crest of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Adriana M P S; Deco, Camila P; Lodi, Karina B; Marchini, Leonardo; Santo, Ana M E; Rocha, Rosilene F

    2012-10-01

    Previous findings suggest that chronic alcoholism and oestrogenic deficiency may affect bones in general (including alveolar bone) and increase individuals' susceptibility to the development of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess possible alterations in the chemical composition of alveolar bone in rats subjected to chronic alcoholism, oestrogen deficiency or both. Fifty-four rats were initially divided into two groups: ovariectomized (Ovx), and Sham operated (Sham). A month after surgery, the groups were sub-divided and received the following dietary intervention for eight weeks: 20% alcohol, isocaloric diet and ad libitum diet. Samples of the mandible, in the alveolar bone crest region, were analyzed to verify possible changes in the stoichiometric composition of bone hydroxyapatite, by measuring the relationship between the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (Ca/P ratios), using micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ad libitum groups presented the highest average values of Ca/P ratios, while the groups with dietary restrictions presented the smallest average values. The Ovx ad libitum group presented the highest values of Ca/P ratios (2.03 ± 0.04). However, these values were not considered statistically different (p>0.05) from the Sham ad libitum group (2.01 ± 0.01). The Ovx alcohol group presented lower values for Ca/P ratios (1.92 ± 0.06), being the only group statistically different (palcohol consumption at 20% significantly changed the stoichiometry composition of hydroxyapatite in the alveolar bone crest, leading to a reduction in Ca/P ratios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Marco; Parrilli, Annapaola; Fini, Milena; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Muttini, Aurelio; Checchi, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit.

  1. Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denia Morales Navarro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación, indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática.The alveolar osteogenic distraction, as a biological process of alveolar bone neoformation, motivates us to make the bibliographic review whose objective was to emphasize in analysis the following variables: historical backgrounds in Cuba, distraction classification, distraction phases (latency, distraction and consolidation, indications, contraindications, advantages

  2. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations

  3. Alveolar wound healing after implantation with a pool of commercially available bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Romeu Felipe Elias; Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lamano-Carvalho, Teresa Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of a commercially available pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to stimulate osteogenesis in the rat alveolar healing was investigated by histometric analysis. Male rats were anesthetized and had their upper incisor extracted. A pool of purified bovine BMPs adsorbed to microgranular resorbable hydroxyapatite was agglutinated with bovine collagen and saline before implantation into the alveolar socket. The implanted and control rats (n=30 per group) were sacrificed 1 to 9 weeks postoperatively, the hemi-maxillae were decalcified, processed for paraffin embedding and semi-serial longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume fraction of alveolar healing components was estimated by a differential point-counting method in histologic images. The results showed that in both, control and implanted rats, the alveolar healing followed the histologic pattern usually described in the literature. Quantitative data confirmed that the BMPs mixture did not stimulate new bone formation in the alveolar socket of implanted rats. These results suggest that the pool of BMPs adsorbed to hydroxyapatite and agglutinated with bovine collagen did not warrant incorporation of the osteoinductive proteins to a slow-absorption system that would allow a BMPs release rate compatible to that of new bone formation, and thus more adequate to osteoinduction.

  4. Redefining "Critical" Bone Loss in Shoulder Instability: Functional Outcomes Worsen With "Subcritical" Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, James S; Cook, Jay B; Song, Daniel J; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2015-07-01

    Glenoid bone loss is a common finding in association with anterior shoulder instability. This loss has been identified as a predictor of failure after operative stabilization procedures. Historically, 20% to 25% has been accepted as the "critical" cutoff where glenoid bone loss should be addressed in a primary procedure. Few data are available, however, on lesser, "subcritical" amounts of bone loss (below the 20%-25% range) on functional outcomes and failure rates after primary arthroscopic stabilization for shoulder instability. To evaluate the effect of glenoid bone loss, especially in subcritical bone loss (below the 20%-25% range), on outcomes assessments and redislocation rates after an isolated arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior shoulder instability. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Subjects were 72 consecutive anterior instability patients (73 shoulders) who underwent isolated anterior arthroscopic labral repair at a single military institution by 1 of 3 sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons. Data were collected on demographics, the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability (WOSI) score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score, and failure rates. Failure was defined as recurrent dislocation. Glenoid bone loss was calculated via a standardized technique on preoperative imaging. The average bone loss across the group was calculated, and patients were divided into quartiles based on the percentage of glenoid bone loss. Outcomes were analyzed for the entire cohort, between the quartiles, and within each quartile. Outcomes were then further stratified between those sustaining a recurrence versus those who remained stable. The mean age at surgery was 26.3 years (range, 20-42 years), and the mean follow-up was 48.3 months (range, 23-58 months). The cohort was divided into quartiles based on bone loss. Quartile 1 (n = 18) had a mean bone loss of 2.8% (range, 0%-7.1%), quartile 2 (n = 19) had 10.4% (range, 7.3%-13.5%), quartile 3 (n

  5. Evaluation of bone loss due to primary occlusal trauma in two experimental models of occlusal overload

    OpenAIRE

    LOPES, Ana Cristina Távora de Albuquerque; TÉO, Mirela Anne Quartaroli; CORRÊA, Mônica Grazieli; ISHIKIRIAMA, Bella Luna Colombini; CAMPOS, Mirella Lindoso Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Primary occlusal trauma (OT) is an injury of the periodontium with normal height as a result of occlusal forces which exceed their adaptive capacity. Objective To evaluate, histometrically, the alveolar bone loss in the furcation region of rats experimentally submitted to 2 models of occlusal overload. Material and method 45 animals randomly divided into 3 groups: Occlusal Interference (OI, n = 15) - fixing an orthodontic wire segment on the occlusal surface of the fi...

  6. Alveolar bone healing process in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A radiographic densitometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Natalia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Garcia, Lourdes Maria Gonzáles; Micaroni, Samuel; Carvalho, Antonio Augusto Ferreira de; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Okamoto, Roberta; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Antoniali, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. If undiagnosed or untreated, this pathology represents a systemic risk factor and offers unfavorable conditions for dental treatments, especially those requiring bone healing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate, by analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), that the alveolar bone healing process is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar rats and SHRs were submitted to extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after surgery. Right maxillae were collected, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. BMD was expressed as minimum (min), middle (med) and maximum (max) in the medium (MT) and apical (AT) thirds of the dental alveolus. The results were compared across days and groups. Wistar showed difference in med and max BMD in the MT between 7 and 28 and also between 14 and 28 days. The AT exhibited significant difference in med and min BMD between 7 and 28 days, as well as difference in min BMD between 28 and 42 days. SHRs showed lower med BMD in the MT at 28 days when compared to 21 and 42 days. Differences were observed across groups in med and min BMD at day 28 in the MT and AT; and in max BMD at 14, 21 and 42 days in the MT. These results suggest that the alveolar bone healing process is delayed in SHRs comparing with Wistar rats.

  7. Effect of laser phototherapy on human alveolar bone repair: micro tomographic and histomorphometrical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Marcia M. A.; Marques, Márcia M.; Cortes, Arthur R. G.; Horliana, Anna C. R. T.; Moreira, Maria S.; Lascala, Cesar A.

    2015-06-01

    The immediate dental implant placement in the molars region is critical, because of the high amount of bone loss and the discrepancy between the alveolar crest thickness and the dental implant platform. Laser phototherapy (LPT) improves bone repair thus could accelerate the implant placement. Twenty patients were selected for the study. Ten patients were submitted to LPT with GaAlAs diode laser (808nm) during molar extraction, immediately after, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 7 days. The irradiations were applied in contact and punctual mode (100mW, 0.04cm2, 0.75J/cm2, 30s per point, 3J per point). The control group (n=10) received the same treatment; however with the power of the laser off. Forty days later samples of the tissue formed inside the sockets were obtained for further microtomography (microCTs) and histomorphometry analyses. Data were compared by the Student t test, whereas those from the different microCT parameters were compared by the Pearson correlation test (pPearson correlation test it was possible to infer that the lased group presented a more homogeneous trabecular configuration, which would allow earlier dental implant placement.

  8. Further evidence of periodontal bone pathology in a juvenile specimen of Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The dentition and alveolar bone of a maxilla of a juvenile Australopithecus africanus have been examined using a high energy X-ray computed tomography scanner. Results indicate the presence of previously undetected severe alveolar bone loss...

  9. Identification of genes differentially regulated in rat alveolar bone wound healing by subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, T; Myokai, F; Shiomi, N; Yamashiro, K; Yamamoto, T; Murayama, Y; Arai, H; Nishimura, F; Takashiba, S

    2004-07-01

    Periodontal healing requires the participation of regulatory molecules, cells, and scaffold or matrix. Here, we hypothesized that a certain set of genes is expressed in alveolar bone wound healing. Reciprocal subtraction gave 400 clones from the injured alveolar bone of Wistar rats. Identification of 34 genes and analysis of their expression in injured tissue revealed several clusters of unique gene regulation patterns, including the up-regulation at 1 wk of cytochrome c oxidase regulating electron transfer and energy metabolism, presumably occurring at the site of inflammation; up-regulation at 2.5 wks of pro-alpha-2 type I collagen involving the formation of a connective tissue structure; and up-regulation at 1 and 2 wks and down-regulation at 2.5 and 4 wks of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase l3 involving cell cycle, DNA repair, and stress response. The differential expression of genes may be associated with the processes of inflammation, wound contraction, and formation of a connective tissue structure.

  10. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs

  11. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  12. Assisted eruption of impacted teeth into an alveolar bone graft in a patient with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peamkaroonrath, Chonthicha; Manosudprasit, Montien; Godfrey, Keith

    2008-11-01

    To assist the eruption of impacted upper teeth into an alveolar bone graft in a patient with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. An 8-year-old Thai boy with left unilateral complete cleft lip and palate had the chief complaint of anterior crossbite. He presented with a mild skeletal 3, dental Class III subdivision malocclusion, anterior crossbite, left unilateral posterior crossbite, moderate crowding in the upper arch with impaction of upper the left lateral incisor (tooth 22) and canine (tooth 23). In the first phase of treatment the posterior crossbite was corrected with a removable appliance with a 3-way screw. In the second phase the impacted teeth were surgically exposed, moved into the alveolar bone graft and the teeth aligned with fixed appliances. The upper left lateral incisor was extracted because of its questionable longevity. The orthodontic treatment resulted in normal overjet, overbite and an acceptable facial profile. A prosthesis replaced tooth 22. Forced eruption of impacted teeth can be carried out successfully in the cleft patients after an appropriate treatment plan has been formulated and following preparation of alveolar bone graft in the cleft site.

  13. Alveolar Bone Morphology Following Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics: A Clinical and Radiographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackartchi, Tali; Barkana, Idit; Klinger, Avigdor

    The aim of this study was to analyze alveolar bone morphology following periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. Treated patients were called for a full periodontal examination and a cone beam computed tomography scan. Mean treatment time was 6.08 months. Mean probing pocket depth was 2.7 mm. No gingival recessions were noted. In the maxilla, buccal plate thickness was 0.48 to 2.14 mm. In the mandible, bone thickness was 0.2 to 1.82 mm. Root fenestrations and dehiscences were present in up to 40% of the anterior teeth. Although clinical outcomes were favorable, due to the presence of multiple posttreatment bone fenestrations and dehiscences, a revision of the treatment protocol might be considered.

  14. Comparison of the changes of alveolar bone thickness in maxillary incisor area in extraction and non-extraction cases: computerized tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barroso Picanço

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare, through computed tomography, alveolar bone thickness changes at the maxillary incisors area during orthodontic treatment with and without tooth extraction. METHODS: Twelve patients were evaluated. They were divided into 2 groups: G1 - 6 patients treated with extraction of right and left maxillary first premolars, with mean initial age of 15.83 years and mean treatment length of 2.53 years; G2 - 6 patients treated without extraction, with mean initial age of 18.26 years and mean treatment length of 2.39 years. Computed tomographies, lateral cephalograms and periapical radiographs were used at the beginning of the treatment (T1 and 18 months after the treatment had started (T2. Extraction space closure occurred in the extraction cases. Intragroup and intergroup comparisons were performed by dependent and independent t test, respectively. RESULTS: In G1, the central incisor was retracted and uprighted, while in G2 this tooth showed vestibularization. Additionally, G1 presented a higher increase of labial alveolar bone thickness at the cervical third in comparison with G2. The incidence of root resorption did not present significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: There were no changes in alveolar bone thickness when extraction and nonextraction cases were compared, except for the labial alveolar bone thickness at the cervical third of maxillary incisors.

  15. Special distraction osteogenesis before bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects to correct maxillary deformities in patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates: distraction osteogenesis performed separately for each bone segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Morishita, Tadashi; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-07-01

    Patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates have premaxillary protrusion and characteristic jaw deformities involving three-dimensional malposition of the premaxilla and bilateral maxillary bone segments. This study examined patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who had deviation and hypoplasia of the premaxillas and bilateral maxillary segments. Before bone grafting, the patients were treated with special distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo-type external device. This report describes this novel treatment method which produced good results. The subjects were five patients with severe jaw deformities due to bilateral cleft lip and palate. They were treated with maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy and subsequent distraction performed separately for each bone segment using a halo device. In three of five patients, premaxillary osteotomy was not performed, and osteotomy and distraction were performed only for the right and left lateral segments with severe hypoplasia. All patients achieved distraction close to the desired amount. The widths of the alveolar clefts were narrowed, and satisfactory occlusion and maxillary arch form were achieved. After the surgery, three of five patients underwent bone grafting for bilateral alveolar cleft defects and the bone graft survival was satisfactory. This method had many benefits, including narrowing of alveolar clefts, improvement of maxillary hypoplasia, and achievement of a good maxillary arch form. In addition, subsequent bone grafting for alveolar cleft defects was beneficial, dental prostheses were unnecessary, and frequency of surgery and surgical invasiveness were reduced. This method is a good surgical procedure that should be considered for patients with bilateral cleft lips and palates who have premaxillary protrusion and hypoplasia of the right and left lateral segments. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Contemporary Approaches in the Repair of Alveolar Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. The repair of the alveolar clefts is an important part of the treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment concepts of alveolar bone grafting are still controversial. The corresponding controversial issues are; timing of alveolar bone grafting, graft materials, and timing of the orthodontic expansion. In the present article, aforementioned controversial issues and contemporary treatment modalities of the maxillary alveolar clefts were reviewed in the light of current literature. In conclusion, the most suitable time for alveolar bone grafting is mixed dentition period. Grafting procedure may be performed in the early or late phases of this period depending on some clinical features. Adjunct orthodontic expansion procedures should be performed before and/or after grafting depending on the patient's current features. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 563-574

  17. [The effect of pre-surgical orthodontics on secondary alveolar bone grafting in the patients with complete cleft lip and palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi-lin; Fu, Min-kui; Ma, Lian

    2004-05-01

    To examine the effect of pre-surgical orthodontics on the outcome of the secondary alveolar bone grafting in the patients with complete cleft lip and palate. Sixteen complete cleft lip and palate patients (9 males and 7 females) with collapsed upper arch or severe mal-positioned upper incisors were selected. The cleft was not easily grafted because of the poor access. The total cleft sites were 22 (10 patients with UCLP and 6 patients with BCLP). The age range of the patients was from 8 to 22 years. Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was mainly to expand the collapsed upper arch and correct the mal-positioned upper incisors. After the secondary alveolar bone grafting, the patients were followed up and anterior occlusal radiograph/intraoral panograph were taken regularly. The observation period was from 6 months to 4 years. Bergland criteria were used to evaluate the interdental septal height. Upper arch expansion and the correction of the mal-positioned upper incisors done by the orthodontic treatment made the bone grafting procedure easier. The clinically successful rate reached 86%. The severe upper arch collapse and mal-positioned upper incisors in the patients with complete cleft lip and palate should be corrected orthodontically before the secondary alveolar bone grafting.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffold Implantation Combined with β-TCP Powder for Alveolar Bone Augmentation in a Beagle Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su A. Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined using computed tomography for designing a customized 3D PCL scaffold block to fit the defect site. After fabricating 3D PCL scaffolds using rapid prototyping, the scaffolds were implanted into the alveolar bone defects along with β-tricalcium phosphate powder. In vivo analysis showed that the PCL blocks maintained the physical space and bone conductivity around the defects. In addition, no inflammatory infiltrates were observed around the scaffolds. However, new bone formation occurred adjacent to the scaffolds, rather than directly in contact with them. More new bone was observed around PCL blocks with 400/1200 lattices than around blocks with 400/400 lattices, but the difference was not significant. These results indicated the potential of 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds to promote alveolar bone regeneration for defect healing in dentistry.

  19. Comparison between autogenous iliac bone and freeze-dried bone allograft for repair of alveolar clefts in the presence of plasma rich in growth factors: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Abbasi, Amir J; Mohebbi, Simin Z; Moharrami, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of alveolar cleft repair using iliac bone and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) in the presence of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Patients with unilateral alveolar cleft (n = 32) were randomly allocated to either the iliac plus PRGF group or the FDBA plus PRGF group. CBCT images were obtained before and 6 months after the surgery to assess the regenerated bone volume. Paired t-tests and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied to analyze the data using SPSS 16.0 software. The patients' mean age was 15 ± 5.7 years (range = 8-27). In the iliac plus PRGF group, the mean volume of cleft before the surgery and the mean regenerated bone volume 6 months after were 1.67 ± 0.66 and 1.14 ± 0.47 cm 3 , respectively. The corresponding values were 1.5 ± 0.54 and 0.72 ± 0.23 cm 3 in the FDBA plus PRGF group. The remaining bone to cleft volume ratio was not associated with grafting time (secondary or tertiary) and the original cleft volume. Iliac bone reinforced with PRGF was more successful than FDBA plus PRGF in repairing alveolar cleft (p = 0.007). Due to the poor performance of the allograft, autografts should still be preferred in spite of possible donor site morbidity. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acceleration of Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Using a Low Dose of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Loaded on a Resorbable Bioactive Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Rania A; Mahmoud, Naguiba; Soliman, Samia; Nouh, Samir R; Cunningham, Larry; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a porous silica-calcium phosphate composite (SCPC50) loaded with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on alveolar ridge augmentation in saddle-type defects. Micro-granules of SCPC50 resorbable bioactive ceramic were coated with rhBMP-2 10 mg and then implanted into a saddle-type defect (12 × 7 mm) in a dog mandible and covered with a collagen membrane. Control groups included defects grafted with SCPC50 granules without rhBMP-2 and un-grafted defects. Bone healing was evaluated at 8 and 16 weeks using histologic and histomorphometric techniques. The increase in bone height and total defect fill were assessed for each specimen using the ImageJ 1.46 program. The release kinetics of rhBMP-2 was determined in vitro. The height of the bone in the grafted defects and the total defect fill were statistically analyzed. SCPC50 enhanced alveolar ridge augmentation as indicated by the increased vertical bone height, bone surface area, and bone volume after 16 weeks. SCPC50-rhBMP-2 provided a sustained release profile of a low effective dose (BMP-2 4.6 ± 1.34 pg/mL per hour) during the 1- to 21-day period. The slow rate of release of rhBMP-2 from SCPC50 accelerated synchronized complete bone regeneration and graft material resorption in 8 weeks. Successful rapid reconstruction of the alveolar ridge by SCPC50 and SCPC50-rhBMP-2 occurred without any adverse excessive bone formation, inflammation, or fluid-filled voids. Results of this study suggest that SCPC50 is an effective graft material to preserve the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. Coating SCPC50-rhBMP-2 further accelerated bone regeneration and a considerable increase in vertical bone height. These findings make SCPC50 the primary choice as a carrier for rhBMP-2. SCPC50-rhBMP-2 can serve as an alternative to autologous bone grafting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction in an experimental periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihua [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Chengzhang, E-mail: l56cz@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cai, Cia [Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Zhejiang University, 395 Yan An Road, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Xiang, Junbo [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cao, Zhengguo, E-mail: jery7677@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: CypA is able to regulate inflammatory responses and MMPs production via interaction with its cell surface receptor, EMMPRIN. This study aimed to address the possible association of CypA with pathological inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues, and whether CypA-EMMPRIN interaction exists in periodontitis. Materials and methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligation according to our previous method. Histological and radiographic examinations were performed. Western blot was used to detect CypA and EMMPRIN expressions in gingival tissues. Immunohistochemistry was applied for CypA, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, as well as cell markers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophil. CypA expression, alveolar bone loss, and inflammatory infiltrations were quantified followed by correlation analyses. Results: Western blot revealed that CypA and EMMRPIN expressions were dramatically elevated in inflamed gingival tissues (ligature group) as compared to healthy gingival tissues (control group). The enhanced CypA and EMMPRIN expressions were highly consistent in cell localization on seriate sections. They were permanently co-localized in infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as osteoclasts and osteoblasts in interradicular bone, but rarely expressed by infiltrating neutrophils. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions were also sharply increased in inflamed gingiva. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mainly over-expressed by macrophages, while MMP-1 was over-produced by fibroblasts and infiltrating cells. The number of CypA-positive cells was strongly correlated with the ACJ-AC distance (r = 0.839, p = 0.000), the number of macrophages (r = 0.972, p = 0.000), and the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.951, p = 0.000). Conclusion: CypA is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction of periodontitis. CypA-EMMPRIN interaction may exist in these pathological processes.

  2. Evolución en el tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García-Roco Pérez

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la evolución del tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar se realiza una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de 25 referencias, se destacan las vestibuloplastias, injertos óseos, biomateriales, implantes endóseos, regeneración ósea guiada y la distracción ósea, que corrigen o compensan la atrofia alveolar con sus indicaciones, ventajas y desventajas.An updated literature review of 25 references was made to describe the development in the treatment of dental alveolar atrophy. Some procedures that correct or compensate alveolar atrophies such as vestibuloplasty, bone grafting, biomaterials, endo-bone implants, guided bone regeneration and bone distraction. Their indications, advantages and disadvantages are set forth.

  3. The diagnostic value of the alveolar lamina dura in generalised bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlencordt, J.; Kruse, H.P.; Franke, J.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in the alveolar lamina dura in 134 patients have been analysed. They included 32 cases with urolithiasis in whom generalised bone disease had been excluded, 37 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism, 31 cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism and 34 cases with primary osteoporosis. The state of the lamina dura was related to biochemical, radiological and histological findings in the various groups. The value of the lamina dura in the diagnosis of generalised skeletal abnormalities has been defined. (orig.) [de

  4. [Alveolar bone thickness and root length changes in the treatment of skeletal Class III patients facilitated by improved corticotomy: a cone-beam CT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiuhui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Li, Cuiying; Xu, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the alveolar bone thickness and root length changes of anterior teeth with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans were taken for 12 skeletal Class III patients who accepted the improved corticotomy (IC) procedures during pre-surgical orthodontics. The CBCT data in T1 (the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled) and T2 (extraction space closure) were superimposed and the alveolar bone thickness at root apex level and root length measurements were done. From T1 to T2, the buccal alveolar bone thickness for the upper lateral incisors increased from (1.89±0.83) to (2.47±1.02) mm (P<0.05), and for central incisors and for canines from (2.32±0.71) to (2.68±1.48) mm and from (2.28±1.08) to (2.41±1.40) mm, respectively. According to Sharpe Grading System, the root resorption grade for 69 teeth of 72 was located in Grade 1, two teeth in Grade 2, one tooth in Grade 3. The improved corticotomy had the potential to increase the buccal alveolar bone thickness and the root resorption in most teeth was in Grade 1 according to Sharpe grading system.

  5. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  6. The use of different methods of augmentation horizontally and vertically on the atrophy of the alveolar bone of the upper and alveolar part of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Георгиевич Гулюк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main problem, which is increasingly faced professionals in planning restoration of the integrity of the dentition with the help of dental implants is not enough bone in the area of the supposed implantation. Given the availability of a variety of techniques osteoplasty alveolar defects and a variety of osteoplastic materials, unambiguous solution to the problem does not exist. Planning method and the osteoplasty graft depends on the exact determination of the degree of bone atrophy, nature and extent of the defect.This article on clinical examples demonstrates methods of volume restoration bones of the upper and lower jaws using grafts of different origin.Materials and Methods. In our study we use bone block, taken from the chin of the mandible and the greater wing of the ilium. Also we use bone substitutes, the membranes, the clips (the cortical screw, powder Bio Oss®. For the isolation of the area augmentation applies collagen membrane Bio Gide® (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland. All surgeries were performed a standard set of surgical instruments and apparatus piezo surgery.Findings and discussion. Through the use of block the autogenous graft and auxiliary materials was successful augmentation of the alveolar bone of the upper and lower jaws with a strong vertical and horizontal atrophy. It was possible to achieve the goals set in the planning phase of treatment. The increase in the cost of therapy is justified for preserving intact adjacent teeth, optimal recovery of the dentition and high functionality and aesthetics prosthetic. It is achieved one of the main goals of dental rehabilitation - improving the quality of life of patients

  7. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn; Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27±103.72/117.73±92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29±86.70/388.31±109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98±98.11/366.71±154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57±98.12/383.47±135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02±116.07/384.16±146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  8. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  9. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Oishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis in the mandibular first molar (M1 region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  10. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81±1.41 mm, 6.46±1.33 mm, and 7.91±1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42±2.20 mm, 6.23±2.29 mm, and 7.89±2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  11. Polyhedral microcrystals encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Mizoguchi, Megumi; Kotani, Eiji; Oda, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Segami, Natsuki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-08-01

    Atelocollagen sponges incorporating polyhedra encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were implanted into lateral bone defects in the mandible. Half of the bone defects on the left side were treated with atelocollagen sponges containing 1.8 × 10(7) BMP-2 polyhedra, and half were treated with sponges containing 3.6 × 10(6) BMP-2 polyhedra. As controls, we treated the right-side bone defects in each animal with an atelocollagen sponge containing 5 µg of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or 1.8 × 10(7) empty polyhedral. After a healing period of six months, whole mandibles were removed for micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological analyses. Micro-CT images showed that more bone had formed at all experimental sites than at control sites. However, the density of the new bone was not significantly higher at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing BMP-2 polyhedra than at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 or empty polyhedra. Histological examination confirmed that the BMP-2 polyhedra almost entirely replaced the atelocollagen sponges and connected the original bone with the regenerated bone. These results show that the BMP-2 delivery system facilitates the regeneration of new bone in the mandibular alveolar bone ridge and has an advance in the technology of bone regeneration for implant site development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  13. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H 2 O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H 2 O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H 2 O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  14. Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R H LeBlanc

    Full Text Available Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone

  15. Evaluation of unilateral cleft lip and palate using anthropometry measurements post-alveolar bone grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorangkir, H. J.; Hak, M. S.; Tofani, I.

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) requires multiple steps and coordination of multidisciplinary sciences to produce optimal results. Alveolar bone-grafting (ABG) is an important procedure in the treatment of such patients because it influences the eruption of teeth and stabilizes the maxilla. To evaluate the effect and suitability of alveolar bone grafting procedure at Cleft Center Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital on nasal deformity from anthropometry with photogrammetry and aesthetic proportional in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with UCLP. Patients with UCLP were evaluated post-ABG using anthropometry and photogrammetry to investigate the results anteriorly, laterally, and basally. Anthropometric measurements taken photogrammetrically used 14 points and 11 distance items. Evaluations were made of upper lip length, upper lip projection, and nostril sill elevation for both the cleft and non-cleft sides of patients’ faces. A t-test showed that the values for upper lip length and projection were significantly increased, and a correction test using a Fisher exam gave a value of 1. The ABG treatment protocol for patients with UCLP at the Cleft Lip and Palate Unit at Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital is suitable to be performed; it aesthetically satisfies patients and their families.

  16. Single-staged vs. two-staged implant placement using bone ring technique in vertically deficient alveolar ridges - Part 1: histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ken; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Sawada, Kosaku; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Mottini, Matthias; Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous implant placement with bone grafting shortens the overall treatment period, but might lead to the peri-implant bone loss or even implant failure. The aim of this study was to compare the single-staged to two-staged implant placement using the bone ring technique. Four standardized alveolar bone defects were made in the mandibles of nine dogs. Dental implants (Straumann BL ® , Basel, Switzerland) were inserted simultaneously with bone ring technique in test group and after 6 months of healing period in control group. Animals of both groups were euthanized at 3 and 6 months of osseointegration period. The harvested samples were analyzed by means of histology and micro-CT. The amount of residual bone decreased while the amount of new bone increased up to 9 months of healing period. All morphometric parameters remained stable between 3 and 6 months of osseointegration period within groups. Per a given time point, median area of residual bone graft was higher in test group and area of new bone in control group. The volume of bone ring was greater in test than in control group, reaching the significance at 6 months of osseointegration period (P = 0.002). In the present type of bone defect, single-staged implant placement may be potentially useful to shorten an overall treatment period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Novel Procedure for the Immediate Reconstruction of Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets for Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimetti, Mario; Manavella, Valeria; Cricenti, Luca; Romano, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Background. Several clinical techniques and a variety of biomaterials have been introduced over the years in an effort to overcome bone remodeling and resorption after tooth extraction. However, the predictability of these procedures in sockets with severely resorbed buccal/lingual plate due to periodontal disease is still unknown. Case Description. A patient with advanced periodontitis underwent extraction of upper right lateral and central incisors. The central incisor exhibited complete buccal bone plate loss and a 9 mm vertical bone deficiency on its palatal side. The alveolar sockets were filled with collagen sponge and covered with a nonresorbable high-density PTFE membrane. Primary closure was not attained and any rigid scaffold material was not used. Histologic analysis provided evidence of new bone formation. At 12 months a cone-beam computed tomographic scan revealed enough bone volume to insert two conventional dental implants in conjunction with minor horizontal bone augmentation procedures. Clinical Implications. This case report would seem to support the potential of the proposed reconstructive approach in changing the morphology of severely resorbed alveolar sockets, minimizing the need for advanced bone regeneration procedures during implant placement.

  18. A Novel Procedure for the Immediate Reconstruction of Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets for Advanced Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Aimetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several clinical techniques and a variety of biomaterials have been introduced over the years in an effort to overcome bone remodeling and resorption after tooth extraction. However, the predictability of these procedures in sockets with severely resorbed buccal/lingual plate due to periodontal disease is still unknown. Case Description. A patient with advanced periodontitis underwent extraction of upper right lateral and central incisors. The central incisor exhibited complete buccal bone plate loss and a 9 mm vertical bone deficiency on its palatal side. The alveolar sockets were filled with collagen sponge and covered with a nonresorbable high-density PTFE membrane. Primary closure was not attained and any rigid scaffold material was not used. Histologic analysis provided evidence of new bone formation. At 12 months a cone-beam computed tomographic scan revealed enough bone volume to insert two conventional dental implants in conjunction with minor horizontal bone augmentation procedures. Clinical Implications. This case report would seem to support the potential of the proposed reconstructive approach in changing the morphology of severely resorbed alveolar sockets, minimizing the need for advanced bone regeneration procedures during implant placement.

  19. Perawatan Ortodonti pada Kasus Mutilasi dengan Resorpsi Tulang Alveolar dan Resesi Gingiva (Laporan Kasus

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    Retno Widayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mutilated case in adults, generally malocclusion is often accompanied by less support of periodontal tissues, such as alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession. The treatment of orthodontic is to arrange the teeth into good position and good occlusion, but is widely known to increase the alveolar bone resorption. In handling such case, orthodontist needs to look at factors which do not increase existing alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession. In this case report, it will be reported orthodontic treatment on mutilated case which are accompanied by alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession on a patient of 45 years and 4 months of age.

  20. Bone changes in ridge split with immediate implant placement: A systematic review

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    Mohamed M. Dohiem

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Alveolar ridge splitting might be considered a predictable approach that demonstrates a high implant survival rate, adequate horizontal bone gain and minimal postoperative complications. Weak evidence showed the effect of flap design and immediate implantation on marginal bone loss and survival rate.

  1. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  2. Evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafting outcomes performed after canine eruption in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Diego Coelho; Janson, Guilherme; Bastos, Juliana Cunha; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Bastos, José Carlos; de Cássia Moura Carvalho Lauris, Rita; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the results of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), operated after permanent canine eruption (CE). Seventy-four periapical radiographs from patients with complete UCLP (mean age 14 years) submitted to SABG were retrospectively analyzed for the amount of bone in the cleft site through the Bergland and Chelsea scales. Of the cases, 47.3 % was classified as Bergland type I and Chelsea type A, 35.2 % as type II/C, 6.7 % as type III/D, and 10.8 % as type IV/failure. When the canine was moved into the grafted area, the success rate (type I/A) was 56.8 %; for cases in which the space was maintained for an implant or prosthetic finishing, the index was 45.8 %; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Even in advanced ages, after permanent canine eruption, SABG can be considered a highly successful procedure. This research shows good results of secondary alveolar bone grafting performed in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, even when it was performed after eruption of the permanent canine in the cleft area.

  3. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author's knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD.

  4. Post-extraction application of beta-tricalcium phosphate in alveolar socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Corcuera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of beta-tricalcium phosphate to facilitate bone formation in the socket and prevent post-extraction alveolar resorption. Materials and methods After premolar extraction in 16 patients, the sockets were filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. Six months later, during the implant placement surgery, a trephine was used to harvest the bone samples which were processed for histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Data were gathered on patient, clinical, histological and histomorphometric variables at the extraction and implant placement sessions, using data collection forms and pathological reports. Results Clinical outcomes were satisfactory, the biomaterial was radio-opaque on X-ray. Histological study showed: partial filling with alveolar bone of appropriate maturation and mineralization for the healing time, osteoblastic activity and bone lacunae containing osteocytes. The biomaterial was not completely resorbed at six months. Conclusion Beta-tricalcium phosphate is a material capable of achieving preservation of the alveolar bone when it is positioned in the immediate post-extraction socket followed by suture; it also helps the formation of new bone in the socket. Further studies are needed comparing this technique with other available biomaterials, with growth factors and with sites where no alveolar preservation techniques are performed.

  5. [Cleft lip, alveolar and palate sequelae. Proposal of new alveolar score by the Alveolar Cleft Score (ACS) classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molé, C; Simon, E

    2015-06-01

    The management of cleft lip, alveolar and palate sequelae remains problematic today. To optimize it, we tried to establish a new clinical index for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Seven tissue indicators, that we consider to be important in the management of alveolar sequelae, are listed by assigning them individual scores. The final score, obtained by adding together the individual scores, can take a low, high or maximum value. We propose a new classification (ACS: Alveolar Cleft Score) that guides the therapeutic team to a prognosis approach, in terms of the recommended surgical and prosthetic reconstruction, the type of medical care required, and the preventive and supportive therapy to establish. Current studies are often only based on a standard radiological evaluation of the alveolar bone height at the cleft site. However, the gingival, the osseous and the cellular areas bordering the alveolar cleft sequelae induce many clinical parameters, which should be reflected in the morphological diagnosis, to better direct the surgical indications and the future prosthetic requirements, and to best maintain successful long term aesthetic and functional results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Marginal bone loss around non-submerged implants is associated with salivary microbiome during bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Ting-Xi; Guo, Yu-Chen; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Lei, Yi-Ling; Xu, Xin; Mo, An-Chun; Wang, Yong-Yue; Yuan, Quan

    2017-06-01

    Marginal bone loss during bone healing exists around non-submerged dental implants. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between different degrees of marginal bone loss during bone healing and the salivary microbiome. One hundred patients were recruited, and marginal bone loss around their implants was measured using cone beam computed tomography during a 3-month healing period. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of marginal bone loss. Saliva samples were collected from all subjected and were analysed using 16S MiSeq sequencing. Although the overall structure of the microbial community was not dramatically altered, the relative abundance of several taxonomic groups noticeably changed. The abundance of species in the phyla Spirochaeta and Synergistetes increased significantly as the bone loss became more severe. Species within the genus Treponema also exhibited increased abundance, whereas Veillonella, Haemophilus and Leptotrichia exhibited reduced abundances, in groups with more bone loss. Porphyromonasgingivalis, Treponemadenticola and Streptococcus intermedius were significantly more abundant in the moderate group and/or severe group. The severity of marginal bone loss around the non-submerged implant was associated with dissimilar taxonomic compositions. An increased severity of marginal bone loss was related to increased proportions of periodontal pathogenic species. These data suggest a potential role of microbes in the progression of marginal bone loss during bone healing.

  7. Effect of antiresorptive drugs in the alveolar bone healing. A histometric and immunohistochemical study in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Momesso, Gustavo Antonio Correa; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; de Oliveira Puttini, Igor; Okamoto, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the alendronate and raloxifene influence in the alveolar healing process of osteoporotic rats. Sixty-four female rats were divided in four groups: sham rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats and no medical treatment (OVX NT), ovariectomized rats and submitted to alendronate treatment (OVX ALE), and ovariectomized and submitted to raloxifene treatment (OVX RAL). The histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The quantitative data were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). In the longest period, SHAM and OVX RAL groups showed the better bone formation responses (P alveolar healing process in osteoporotic rats, but not enough to achieve the histometrical and protein expression values that were observed in the SHAM group. Alendronate is largely used as a potent antiresorptive agent. Otherwise, considering the undesirable effects in relation to the alveolar healing, other antiosteoporosis medications should be studied. Raloxifene seems to be a good candidate once its action mechanism involves the activation of osteoblasts.

  8. [Morphological analysis of alveolar bone of anterior mandible in high-angle skeletal class II and class III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Jiang, J H

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the difference of features of alveolar bone support under lower anterior teeth between high-angle adults with skeletal class II malocclusions and high-angle adults presenting skeletal class III malocclusions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients who had taken the images of CBCT were selected from the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between October 2015 and August 2017. The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adult cases without orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: skeletal class II and skeletal class III. vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and the width of alveolar bone were measured respectively at the 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level and at the apical level. After that, independent samples t-tests were conducted for statistical comparisons. The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in the patients of skeletal class III than those of skeletal class II, especially in terms of the apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides and the ABA at 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III than those of skeletal class II, especially regarding the apical level on the labial and lingual side and at the level of 4 mm, 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III adult patients with high-angle when compared with the sample of high-angle skeletal class II adult cases. We recommend orthodontists to be more cautious in treatment of high-angle skeletal class III patients, especially pay attention to control the torque of lower anterior teeth during forward and backward movement, in case that the apical root might be absorbed or fenestration happen in the area of lower anterior teeth.

  9. Bone Cells Dynamics during Peri-Implantitis: a Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fernandes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present manuscript aims a detailed characterization of the bone cells dynamics during physiological bone remodelling and, subsequently, to address the cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the immune-inflammatory-induced uncoupled bone remodelling observed in peri-implantitis. Results: An intimate relationship between the immune system and bone is acknowledged to be determinant for bone tissue remodelling and integrity. Due to the close interaction of immune and bone cells, the two systems share a number of surface receptors, cytokines, signalling pathways and transcription factors that are involved in mutual regulatory mechanisms. This physiological equilibrium is disturbed in pathological conditions, as verified in peri-implantitis establishment and development. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune response, challenged by the local bacterial infection, induces the synthesis of high levels of a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that disturb the normal functioning of the bone cells, by uncoupling bone resorption and formation, ending up with a net alveolar bone loss and subsequent implant failure. Most data points to an immune-inflammatory induced osteoclast differentiation and function, as the major underlying mechanism to the uncoupled bone resorption to bone formation. Further, the disturbed functioning of osteoblasts, reflected by the possible expression of a fibro-osteoblastic phenotype, may also play a role. Conclusions: Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of peri-implantitis. A great deal of data is still needed on the cellular and humoral crosstalk in the context of an integrated view of the osteoimmunologic interplay occurring in the peri-implantitis environment subjacent to the bone loss outcome.

  10. Managing peri-implant bone loss: current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljateeli, Manar; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-05-01

    With the improved macro- and micro-designs, dental implants enjoy a high survival rate. However, peri-implant bone loss has recently emerged to be the focus of implant therapy. As such, researchers and clinicians are in need of finding predictable techniques to treat peri-implant bone loss and stop its progression. Literature search on the currently available treatment modalities was performed and a brief description of each modality was provided. Numerous techniques have been proposed and none has been shown to be superior and effective in managing peri-implant bone loss. This may be because of the complex of etiological factors acting on the implant-supported prosthesis hence the treatment approach has to be individually tailored. Due to the lack of high-level clinical evidence on the management of peri-implant bone loss, the authors, through a literature review, attempt to suggest a decision tree or guideline, based on sound periodontal surgical principles, to aid clinicians in managing peri-implantitis associated bone loss. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Localized Alveolar Ridge and Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mick P; Vaughn, Olushola L Akinshemoyin; Anderson, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a viable alternative to bone graft in spinal fusion and maxillary sinus lift. The research questions for meta-analysis were: Is rhBMP-2 an effective bone graft substitute in localized alveolar ridge augmentation and maxillary sinus floor augmentation? What are the potential adverse events? A search of MEDLINE from January 1980 to January 2014 using PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and EMBASE was performed. Searches were performed from Medical Subject Headings. The quality of each study included was graded by Review Manager software. The primary outcome variable was bone formation measured as change in bone height on computed tomogram. A systematic review of adverse events also was performed. A random-effects model was chosen. Continuous variables were calculated using the standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing improvement from baseline of the experimental group with that of the control group. Change in bone height was calculated using logarithmic odds ratio. Test of significance used the Z statistic with a P value of .05. Ten studies met the criteria for systematic review; 8 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Five studies assessed localized alveolar ridge augmentation and resulted in an overall standardized mean difference of 0.56 (CI, 0.20-0.92) in favor of BMP; this result was statistically important. Three studies assessed maxillary sinus floor augmentation and resulted in an overall standardized mean difference of -0.50 (CI, -0.93 to -0.09), which was meaningfully different in favor of the control group. Adverse events were inconsistently reported, ranging from no complications to widespread adverse events. For localized alveolar ridge augmentation, this meta-analysis showed that rhBMP-2 substantially increases bone height. However, rhBMP-2 does not perform as

  12. Alveolar bone regeneration pattern following surgical and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty six interproximal sites, with periodontal pockets deeper than 5mm and showing loss of bone on standard dental periapical radiographs, were treated by subgingival instrumentation and open periodontal flap debridement in 12 patients properly motivated and given thorough oral hygiene instructions.

  13. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II. Intra- and inter-examinar variation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.

  14. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a potent immunoregulator of the periodontal host defense system and alveolar bone homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Bethany A.; Novince, Chad M.; Kirkwood, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a perio-pathogenic bacteria that has long been associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The mechanisms of its pathogenicity have been studied in humans and pre-clinical experimental models. Although different serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans have differential virulence factor expression, A. actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), leukotoxin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been most extensively studied in the context of modulating the host immune response. Following colonization and attachment in the oral cavity, A. actinomycetemcomitans employs CDT, leukotoxin, and LPS to evade host innate defense mechanisms and drive a pathophysiologic inflammatory response. This supra-physiologic immune response state perturbs normal periodontal tissue remodeling/turnover and ultimately has catabolic effects on periodontal tissue homeostasis. In this review, we have divided the host response into two systems: non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic. Non-hematopoietic barriers include epithelium and fibroblasts that initiate the innate immune host response. The hematopoietic system contains lymphoid and myeloid-derived cell lineages that are responsible for expanding the immune response and driving the pathophysiologic inflammatory state in the local periodontal microenvironment. Effector systems and signaling transduction pathways activated and utilized in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans will be discussed to further delineate immune cell mechanisms during A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Finally, we will discuss the osteo-immunomodulatory effects induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans and dissect the catabolic disruption of balanced osteoclast-osteoblast mediated bone remodeling, which subsequently leads to net alveolar bone loss. PMID:26197893

  15. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  16. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  17. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Foresta, Enrico; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Falchi, Marco; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Paolo; Forcione, Mario; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  18. In vivo comparison of Kodak E-speed film and direct digital imaging system for assessment of interproximal bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellekatte C Neetha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography as compared to a conventional radiographic film for the assessment of interproximal bone loss with intrasurgical measurements as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients, with untreated moderate-to-advanced periodontal disease, were included in the study. The presurgical radiographs were made using a Kodak E-speed film and a Dexis digital sensor simultaneously, for sites with interproximal bone loss. At the time of surgery, the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the bone defect (CEJ-BD was measured for 331 interproximal defects. The radiographs were randomized and then linear measurements were taken for the same sites in both conventional and digital radiographs. Stastistical Analysis: Comparison between the conventional, digital, and intrasurgical measurements was done statistically using the Student′s t-test. The agreement and correlation among the methods was assessed using the weighted Kappa measure of agreement and Pearson′s correlation, respectively. Results: The results showed that the conventional (5.15 ± 2.19 mm and digital analyzing techniques (5.13 ± 2.19 mm underestimated the interproximal bone loss, as compared to the intrasurgical measurements (6.07 ± 2.05 mm (p < 0.001. The difference between conventional and digital radiographic methods was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.92. Conclusion: Under normal clinical use, the alveolar bone levels revealed on intraoral direct digital radiographs and Kodak E speed film were almost same. Therefore, the digital radiographic system can be routinely used in clinical practice as an alternative to conventional film.

  19. Accuracy of both virtual and printed 3-dimensional models for volumetric measurement of alveolar clefts before grafting with alveolar bone compared with a validated algorithm: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaven, C P; McIntyre, G T; Mossey, P A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software. For inter-observer reliability, a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reproducibility of identification of the cranial and caudal limits of the clefts among three observers. We used a Friedman test to assess the significance of differences among the methods, and probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Inter-observer reliability was almost perfect (ICC=0.987). There were no significant differences among the three methods. Virtual and printed 3-dimensional models were as precise as the validated computer algorithm in the calculation of volumes of the alveolar cleft before bone grafting, but virtual 3-dimensional models were the most accurate with the smallest 95% CI and, subject to further investigation, could be a useful adjunct in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A histological and micro-CT investigation in to the effect of NGF and EGF on the periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal healing of replanted molars in a rat model - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, Francesco; Ang, Estabelle S M; Lareu, Ricky R; Murray, Kevin; Goonewardene, Mithran

    2014-01-06

    This study aims to investigate, utilising micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology, whether the topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can enhance periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal tissue regeneration while minimising the risk of pulpal necrosis, root resorption and ankylosis of replanted molars in a rat model. Twelve four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, collagen, EGF and NGF. The maxillary right first molar was elevated and replanted with or without a collagen membrane impregnated with either the growth factors EGF or NGF, or a saline solution. Four weeks after replantation, the animals were sacrificed and the posterior maxilla was assessed using histological and micro-CT analysis. The maxillary left first molar served as the control for the corresponding right first molar. Micro-CT analysis revealed a tendency for all replanted molars to have reduced root length, root volume, alveolar bone height and inter-radicular alveolar bone volume. It appears that the use of the collagen membrane had a negative effect while no positive effect was noted with the incorporation of EGF or NGF. Histologically, the incorporation of the collagen membrane was found to negatively affect pulpal, root, periodontal and alveolar bone healing with pulpal inflammation and hard tissue formation, extensive root resorption and alveolar bone fragmentation. The incorporation of EGF and NGF did not improve root, periodontal or alveolar bone healing. However, EGF was found to improve pulp vascularisation while NGF-improved pulpal architecture and cell organisation, although not to the level of the control group. Results indicate a possible benefit on pulpal vascularisation and pulpal cell organisation following the incorporation of EGF and NGF, respectively, into the alveolar socket of replanted molars in the rat model. No potential benefit of EGF and NGF was detected in periodontal or root

  1. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  2. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  3. Orthodontic Treatment Combined with Orthognathic Surgery and Simultaneous Alveolar Bone Graft of a Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisek, Poonsak; Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Jinaporntham, Suthin; Wiwatworakul, Opas

    2015-08-01

    This article aimed to present a case of 22 year-old Thai female with cleft lip and palate who had malocclusion developed from dental problems, skeletal disharmony and unrepaired alveolar cleft. The treatment was orthodontic combined with one-stage surgical correction which corrected skeletal discrepancy and alveolar cleft in single operation. After treatment, the patient had improved in facial esthetics, attaining good occlusal function and continuous maxillary dental arch. This procedure can reduce morbidity, preclude a second hospitalization and the cost of two-stage surgical correction. However this is only an alternative treatment for adult cleft patients who need late alveolar bone graft and orthognathic surgery.

  4. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814

  5. Autogenous Partial Bone Chip Grafting on the Exposed Inferior Alveolar Nerve After Cystic Enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi Hyun; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Kim, Soung Min; Lee, Suk Keun

    2018-03-01

    This prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of the new approach of partial autogenous bone chip grafts for the treatment of mandibular cystic lesions related to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). A total of 38 patients treated for mandibular cysts or benign tumors were included in this prospective study and subsequently divided into 3 groups depending on the bone grafting method used: cystic enucleation without a bone graft (group 1), partial bone chip graft covering the exposed IAN (group 2), and autogenous bone graft covering the entire defect (group 3). We evaluated the symptoms, clinical signs, and radiographic changes using dental panorama preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographic densities were compared using Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation with SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Radiopacities were the most increased at 1 year postoperative in group 3; groups 2 and 3 did not show statistically significant differences, whereas groups 1 and 3 were statistically significant. In terms of radiographic bone healing with clinical regeneration of the exposed IAN, healing occurred in all patients, although the best healing was achieved in group 2.This autogenous partial bone chip grafting procedure to cover the exposed IAN is suggested as a new surgical protocol for the treatment of cystic lesions associated with the IAN.

  6. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  7. DC-STAMP Is an Osteoclast Fusogen Engaged in Periodontal Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrasameewong, W; Kajiya, M; Movila, A; Rittling, S; Ishii, T; Suzuki, M; Matsuda, S; Mazda, Y; Torruella, M R; Azuma, M M; Egashira, K; Freire, M O; Sasaki, H; Wang, C Y; Han, X; Taubman, M A; Kawai, T

    2017-06-01

    Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) plays a key role in the induction of osteoclast (OC) cell fusion, as well as DC-mediated immune regulation. While DC-STAMP gene expression is upregulated in the gingival tissue with periodontitis, its pathophysiological roles in periodontitis remain unclear. To evaluate the effects of DC-STAMP in periodontitis, anti-DC-STAMP-monoclonal antibody (mAb) was tested in a mouse model of ligature-induced periodontitis ( n = 6-7/group) where Pasteurella pneumotropica ( Pp)-reactive immune response activated T cells to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which, in turn, promotes the periodontal bone loss via upregulation of osteoclastogenesis. DC-STAMP was expressed on the cell surface of mature multinuclear OCs, as well as immature mononuclear OCs, in primary cultures of RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb suppressed the emergence of large, but not small, multinuclear OCs, suggesting that DC-STAMP is engaged in the late stage of cell fusion. Anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also inhibited pit formation caused by RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. Attachment of ligature to a second maxillary molar induced DC-STAMP messenger RNA and protein, along with elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) OCs and alveolar bone loss. As we expected, systemic administration of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb downregulated the ligature-induced alveolar bone loss. Importantly, local injection of anti-DC-STAMP-mAb also suppressed alveolar bone loss and reduced the total number of multinucleated TRAP+ cells in mice that received ligature attachment. Attachment of ligature induced significantly elevated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and RANKL in the gingival tissue compared with the control site without ligature ( P < 0.05), which was unaffected by local injection with either anti-DC-STAMP-mAb or control-mAb. Neither in vivo anti- Pp IgG antibody nor in vitro anti- Pp T

  8. [Exploration for micro-osteotomy assisted orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guo-fang; Fang, Bing; Sun, Liang-yan; Wu, Yong; Jiang, Ling-yong; Zhu, Min

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the changes of periodontal conditions after micro-osteotomy assisted lower incisor decompensation for skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region. The sample consisted of 22 cases diagnosed as skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region, selected from consecutive patients of Department of Oral & Cranio-maxillofacial Science of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital during 2009-2012. The samples were divided into 2 groups; G1 comprised 10 patients who accepted micro-osteotomy assisted lower incisor decompensation; G2 comprised 12 patients who chose traditional pre-surgical decomposition. The changes of periodontal conditions of both groups were evaluated with the help of cone-beam CT(CBCT). Data was processed using SAS8.02 software package. For subjects in G1, during the micro-osteotomy assisted pre-surgical orthodontics, no significant difference was found in the amount of root resorption of lower incisors.But labial and lingual vertical alveolar bone loss were 2.60 mm and 2.22 mm; alveolar bone thickness increased by 3.05 mm on the labial side and decreased by 0.88 mm on the lingual side (Ppre-surgical orthodontics was much safer than traditional orthodontics for skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region.

  9. Histomorphometric evaluation of the effect of systemic and topical ozone on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci, F; Gunaydin, Y; Sencimen, M; Bassorgun, I; Ozler, M; Oter, S; Gulses, A; Gunal, A; Sezgin, S; Bayar, G R; Dogan, N; Gider, I K

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic and topical ozone applications on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction. One hundred and twelve male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of 14 rats each; seven groups were experimental (A-G) and one formed the control group (K). The experimental groups were further divided into two sub-groups, with seven rats in each - sacrificed on days 14 and 28 (subgroups 1 and 2). The maxillary right central incisors were extracted under general anaesthesia following the administration of local anaesthesia. After sacrifice, semi-serial histological sections were prepared, and mineralized and trabecular bone and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces were measured. Measurements of the trabecular bone showed statistically higher values in the groups treated with systemic ozone (D(2): 50.01 ± 2.12; E(2): 49.03 ± 3.03; F(2): 48.76 ± 2.61; G(2): 50.24 ± 3.37) than in the groups that underwent topical ozone administration (A(2): 46.01 ± 3.07; B(2): 46.79 ± 3.09; C(2): 47.07 ± 2.12; P = 0.030 (G(2)-A(2), G(2)-B(2), G(2)-C(2))). Within the limitations of the current study, it may be concluded that postoperative long-term systemic ozone application can accelerate alveolar bone healing following extraction. However, additional studies are required to clarify the effects of the different ozone applications on new bone formation. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating Oral Microbiome Profiles in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate for Prognosis of Alveolar Bone Grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, we sought to investigate the oral microbiota structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP and explore the pre-operative oral bacterial composition related to the prognosis of alveolar bone grafting. In total, 28 patients (19 boys, 9 girls with CLP who were scheduled to undergo alveolar bone grafting for the first time were recruited. According to the clinical examination of operative sites at the third month after the operation, the individuals were divided into a non-inflammation group (n = 15 and an inflammation group (n = 13. In all, 56 unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after the operation. The v3-v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Based on the beta diversity of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the inflammation and non-inflammation samples, the microbial variation in the oral cavity differed significantly between the two groups before and after the operation (P < 0.05. Analysis of the relative abundances of pre-operative OTUs revealed 26 OTUs with a relative abundance higher than 0.01%, reflecting a significant difference of the relative abundance between groups (P < 0.05. According to a principal component analysis of the pre-operative samples, the inflammation-related OTUs included Tannerella sp., Porphyromonas sp., Gemella sp., Moraxella sp., Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella intermedia, most of which were enriched in the inflammation group and showed a significant positive correlation. A cross-validated random forest model based on the 26 different OTUs before the operation was able to fit the post-operative status of grafted sites and yielded a good classification result. The sensitivity and specificity of this classified model were 76.9% and 86.7%, respectively. These findings show that the oral microbiota profile before alveolar bone grafting may be related to the risk of post-operative inflammation at grafted

  11. BoneCeramic graft regenerates alveolar defects but slows orthodontic tooth movement with less root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Nan; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song; Liu, Yunfeng; Wei, Xiaoxia

    2016-04-01

    BoneCeramic (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland) can regenerate bone in alveolar defects after tooth extraction, but it is unknown whether it is feasible to move a tooth through BoneCeramic grafting sites. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-dimensional real-time root resorption and bone responses in grafted sites during orthodontic tooth movement. Sixty 5-week-old rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive BoneCeramic, natural bovine cancellous bone particles (Bio-Oss; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland), or no graft, after the extraction of the maxillary left first molar. After 4 weeks, the maxillary left second molar was moved into the extraction site for 28 days. Dynamic bone microstructures and root resorption were evaluated using in-vivo microcomputed tomography. Stress distribution and corresponding tissue responses were examined by the finite element method and histology. Mixed model analysis of variance was performed to compare the differences among time points with Bonferroni post-hoc tests at the significance level of P root resorption volumes and craters, and the highest bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and mean trabecular thickness, followed by the Bio-Oss and the control groups. The highest stress accumulated in the cervical region of the mesial roots. BoneCeramic has better osteoconductive potential and induces less root resorption compared with Bio-Oss grafting and naturally recovered extraction sites. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A histomorphometric study of the effect of doxycycline and erythromycin on bone formation in dental alveolar socket of rat

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    Mohammad Shahabooei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DOX and erythromycin (EM used for the treatment of peri-implant osteolysis due to their anti-osteoclastogenesis can interfere with the osseous wound healing process in rat alveolar socket. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats had their first maxillary right molar extracted and were divided into three groups. DOX and EM at the doses of 5 mg/kg/day orally (p.o. and 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p. were administered respectively to two separate groups for 7 days after operation. In the control group the animals received normal saline (5 ml/kg. Five rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-extraction in each study group. A histomorphometric analysis was used to evaluate new bone formation inside the alveolar socket. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results: The findings showed that the percentage of new bone formation (NBF enhanced significantly on days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference in the NBF between DOX and EM groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both DOX and EM enhanced new bone formation without any advances in favor of each drug.

  13. Segmental maxillary distraction with a novel device for closure of a wide alveolar cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousdras, Vasilios A; Liyanage, Chandra; Mars, Michael; Ayliffe, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of a wide alveolar cleft with initial application of segmental distraction osteogenesis is reported, in order to minimise cleft size prior to secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lesser maxillary segment was mobilised with osteotomy at Le Fort I level and, a novel distractor, facilitated horizontal movement of the dental/alveolar segment along the curvature of the maxillary dental arch. Following a latency period of 4 days distraction was applied for 7 days at a rate of 0.5 mm twice daily. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and clinical assessment revealed new bone and soft tissue formation 8 weeks after completion of the distraction phase. Overall the maxillary segment did move minimising the width of the cleft, which allowed successful closure with a secondary alveolar bone graft.

  14. Reconstruction of supracrestal alveolar bone lost as a result of severe chronic periodontitis. Five-year outcome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschy, Peter; Laky, Markus

    2006-10-01

    This patient presented with generalized severe chronic periodontitis. Conventional periodontal therapy would have left her compromised esthetically and anatomically, with growing interdental "black triangles." This prompted the authors to try to reconstruct the maxillary alveolar bone that had been lost in the previous three decades because of untreated periodontitis. To maintain the level and quality of the gingival margin, open flap surgery was performed in the maxilla soon after scaling and root planing. To gain access to the roots and bone surfaces, a flap was raised by intrasulcular incisions and the modified and simplified papilla preservation technique. After debridement, the root surfaces were conditioned and enamel matrix proteins were applied. Bovine bone mineral was placed in the infrabony defects and supracrestally (buccally, lingually, and interdentally) to help regenerate the lost alveolar bone. In addition, the defects around the maxillary anterior teeth were covered with a membrane. To prevent shrinkage of the gingiva, suspensory sutures were placed on the right central incisor and both left incisors so that the anterior flap would be positioned approximately 3 mm coronally. After surgery, the patient was advised to apply 1% chlorhexidine gel twice a day and to avoid brushing the surgical site for 4 weeks. Professional maintenance care was administered twice a week for 2 months and the patient was instructed to maintain a liquid diet for 4 weeks. The treatment outcome was evaluated clinically and radiographically at regular intervals for 5 years postsurgically. Periodontal conditions were stable and fulfilled the patient's desire to eliminate the pockets without compromising esthetics, particularly in the maxillary anterior.

  15. First-in-human study and clinical case reports of the alveolar bone regeneration with the secretome from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu

    2016-01-15

    Secreted growth factors and cytokines in the conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) have several effects on cell behavior. Our previous studies revealed that MSC-CM enhances bone regeneration by increasing cell mobilization, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. This clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and use of MSC-CM for alveolar bone regeneration in eight patients who were diagnosed as needing bone augmentation prior to dental implant placement. The protocol of this clinical study was approved by the ethics committee of Nagoya University Hospital. MSC-CM was prepared from conditioned medium from commercially available human bone marrow-derived MSCs. Patients were treated with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or an atelocollagen sponge soaked with MSC-CM. Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed during the follow-up period. Histological assessments were also performed in some cases. Clinical and histological data from patients who underwent the SFE procedure without MSC-CM were also used retrospectively as reference controls. MSC-CM contained several cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and hepatocyte growth factor in relatively low amounts. No systemic or local complications were reported throughout the study. Radiographic evaluation revealed early bone formation in all cases. Histological evaluation also supported the radiographic findings. Furthermore, infiltration of inflammatory cells was scarce throughout the specimens. MSC-CM was used safely and with less inflammatory signs and appears to have great osteogenic potential for regenerative medicine of bone. This is the first in-human clinical study of alveolar bone regeneration using MSC-CM.

  16. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  17. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.

  18. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  19. Relationships between bitewing and periapical radiographs in assessing crestal alveolar bone level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Park, Tae Won

    1985-01-01

    Bitewing and periapical radiographic techniques are used in clinical and epidermiological studies to assess crest alveolar bone levels. The purpose of the present study investigated relationships between these techniques by assessing alveolar crest location at the same site. Bitewing and periapical radiographs were available from posterior quadrants of 120 subjects. The distance from cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest (CEJ-CR) was measured for each proximal surface from the distal of the cuspid to the distal of the second molar. Data were arranged according to the proximal surface examined, and bitewing and periapical measurements were compared using paired t tests. 1. In maxilla, a significant t ratio with a P value of 0.05 or less was reached for 78% and in mandible reached for 39% .2. Person correlations were calculated 32 surfaces (89%) had values below 0.70 and so, data obtained by these techniques can not be used interchangeably on an individual or group basis. 3. In situations where the periapical measure was greater than the bitewing, it ranged up to 20.7% greater with a mean 9.8%. Where the bitewing was greater than periapical, it ranged up to 51.9% greater, with a mean 18.2%. 4. The percentage difference was greater in maxillary posterior areas than in mandibular molar, premolar areas. A lower prevalence of significant differences was attributed to relatively more simple root and favorable radiographic conditions in mandibular molar and premolar areas.5. The anatomical limitations imposed on periapical radiographic technique, most often result in somewhat foreshortened radiographic images. This situation would tend to be accentated by the anatomical restrictions of the hard palate. 6. Consequently, since the significant differences frequently exist between measurements obtained from bitewing and periapical techniques, it is important to define which technique is used.

  20. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

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    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  1. Oral Rehabilitation of Adult Edentulous Siblings Severely Lacking Alveolar Bone Due to Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Report of 2 Clinical Cases and a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Chenping; Squarize, Cristiane H; Zou, Duohong

    2015-09-01

    The oral conditions of adult edentulous patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) often lead to decreased physical and psychological health, and the negative effects can become as extreme as social and psychological isolation. However, restoring oral function of adult edentulous patients with ED using zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) remains challenging for dentists because of the severe atrophy of these patients' alveolar ridges. This report describes 2 cases of adult edentulous siblings with ED; they exhibited severe alveolar bone atrophy and were treated with ZIs and CIs as bases to augment the bone in their anterior jaws. For these patients, bone augmentation was completed with an autogenous fibular graft. Although there was mild evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, the bone augmentation procedures were successful in the 2 patients. Effective osseointegration of the implants was obtained. After placement, the functional and esthetic results of the oral rehabilitation were acceptable. More importantly, restoration of the patients' oral function enhanced their self-confidence and self-esteem. Therefore, restoring oral function in adult patients with ED and edentulous jaws using ZIs and CIs as the bases for bone augmentation is an effective approach. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a potent immunoregulator of the periodontal host defense system and alveolar bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, B A; Novince, C M; Kirkwood, K L

    2016-06-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a perio-pathogenic bacteria that has long been associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The mechanisms of its pathogenicity have been studied in humans and preclinical experimental models. Although different serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans have differential virulence factor expression, A. actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), leukotoxin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been most extensively studied in the context of modulating the host immune response. Following colonization and attachment in the oral cavity, A. actinomycetemcomitans employs CDT, leukotoxin, and LPS to evade host innate defense mechanisms and drive a pathophysiologic inflammatory response. This supra-physiologic immune response state perturbs normal periodontal tissue remodeling/turnover and ultimately has catabolic effects on periodontal tissue homeostasis. In this review, we have divided the host response into two systems: non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic. Non-hematopoietic barriers include epithelium and fibroblasts that initiate the innate immune host response. The hematopoietic system contains lymphoid and myeloid-derived cell lineages that are responsible for expanding the immune response and driving the pathophysiologic inflammatory state in the local periodontal microenvironment. Effector systems and signaling transduction pathways activated and utilized in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans will be discussed to further delineate immune cell mechanisms during A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Finally, we will discuss the osteo-immunomodulatory effects induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans and dissect the catabolic disruption of balanced osteoclast-osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling, which subsequently leads to net alveolar bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus augmentation using rhBMP-2: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rubens Moreno de; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio; Pereira, Luís Antônio Violin Dias; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate clinical and safety data for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier when used for alveolar ridge/maxillary sinus augmentation in humans. Clinical studies/case series published 1980 through June 2012 using rhBMP-2/ACS were searched. Studies meeting the following criteria were considered eligible for inclusion: >10 subjects at baseline and maxillary sinus or alveolar ridge augmentation not concomitant with implant placement. Seven of 69 publications were eligible for review. rhBMP-2/ACS yielded clinically meaningful bone formation for maxillary sinus augmentation that would allow placement of regular dental implants without consistent differences between rhBMP-2 concentrations. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis showed that sinus augmentation following autogenous bone graft was significantly greater (mean bone height: 1.6 mm, 95% CI: 0.5-2.7 mm) than for rhBMP-2/ACS (rhBMP-2 at 1.5 mg/mL). In extraction sockets, rhBMP-2/ACS maintained alveolar ridge height while enhancing alveolar ridge width. Safety reports did not represent concerns for the proposed indications. rhBMP-2/ACS appears a promising alternative to autogenous bone grafts for alveolar ridge/maxillary sinus augmentation; dose and carrier optimization may expand its efficacy, use, and clinical application. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acemannan sponges stimulate alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration in a canine class II furcation defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarawaratit, P; Sangvanich, P; Banlunara, W; Soontornvipart, K; Thunyakitpisal, P

    2014-04-01

    Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease, found worldwide, causing the destruction of the periodontium. The periodontium is a complex structure composed of both soft and hard tissues, thus an agent applied to regenerate the periodontium must be able to stimulate periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone regeneration. Recent studies demonstrated that acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, stimulated both soft and hard tissue healing. This study investigated effect of acemannan as a bioactive molecule and scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Primary human periodontal ligament cells were treated with acemannan in vitro. New DNA synthesis, expression of growth/differentiation factor 5 and runt-related transcription factor 2, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation were determined using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, biochemical assay and alizarin red staining, respectively. In our in vivo study, premolar class II furcation defects were made in four mongrel dogs. Acemannan sponges were applied into the defects. Untreated defects were used as a negative control group. The amount of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation were evaluated 30 and 60 d after the operation. Acemannan significantly increased periodontal ligament cell proliferation, upregulation of growth/differentiation factor 5, runt-related transcription factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition as compared with the untreated control group in vitro. Moreover, acemannan significantly accelerated new alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation in class II furcation defects. Our data suggest that acemannan could be a candidate

  5. Age-associated bone loss and intraskeletal variability in the Imperial Romans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Helen; Stout, Sam Darrel

    2011-01-01

    An Imperial Roman sample from the Isola Sacra necropolis (100-300 A.D.) offered an opportunity to histologically examine bone loss and intraskeletal variability in an urban archaeological population. Rib and femur samples were analyzed for static indices of bone remodeling and measures of bone mass. The Imperial Romans experienced normal age-associated bone loss via increased intracortical porosity and endosteal expansion, with females exhibiting greater bone loss and bone turnover rates than in males. Life events such as menopause and lactation coupled with cultural attitudes and practices regarding gender and food may have led to increased bone loss in females. Remodeling dynamics differ between the rib and femur and the higher remodeling rates in the rib may be attributed to different effective age of the adult compacta or loading environment. This study demonstrates that combining multiple methodologies to examine bone loss is necessary to shed light on the biocultural factors that influence bone mass and bone loss.

  6. Rb1 loss modifies but does not initiate alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a myogenic childhood sarcoma frequently associated with a translocation-mediated fusion gene, Pax3:Foxo1a. Methods We investigated the complementary role of Rb1 loss in aRMS tumor initiation and progression using conditional mouse models. Results Rb1 loss was not a necessary and sufficient mutational event for rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, nor a strong cooperative initiating mutation. Instead, Rb1 loss was a modifier of progression and increased anaplasia and pleomorphism. Whereas Pax3:Foxo1a expression was unaltered, biomarkers of aRMS versus embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma were both increased, questioning whether these diagnostic markers are reliable in the context of Rb1 loss. Genome-wide gene expression in Pax3:Foxo1a,Rb1 tumors more closely approximated aRMS than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Intrinsic loss of pRb function in aRMS was evidenced by insensitivity to a Cdk4/6 inhibitor regardless of whether Rb1 was intact or null. This loss of function could be attributed to low baseline Rb1, pRb and phospho-pRb expression in aRMS tumors for which the Rb1 locus was intact. Pax3:Foxo1a RNA interference did not increase pRb or improve Cdk inhibitor sensitivity. Human aRMS shared the feature of low and/or heterogeneous tumor cell pRb expression. Conclusions Rb1 loss from an already low pRb baseline is a significant disease modifier, raising the possibility that some cases of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma may in fact be Pax3:Foxo1a-expressing aRMS with Rb1 or pRb loss of function. PMID:24274149

  7. Alveolar graft in the cleft lip and palate patient: Review of 104 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella-Camps, María L.; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting is a vital part of the rehabilitation of cleft patients. The factors that have been most frequently associated with the success of the graft are the age at grafting and the pre-grafting orthodontic treatment. Objectives: 1) Describe the cases of alveolar bone grafts performed at the Maxilofacial Unit of Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (HSJD); and 2) Analyze the success/failure of alveolar grafts and related variables. Material and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study using a sample of 104 patients who underwent a secondary alveolar graft at the Craniofacial Unit of HSJD between 1998 and 2012. The graft was done by the same surgeon in all patients using bone from the iliac crest. Results: 70% of the patients underwent the procedure before the age of 15 (median 14.45 years); 70% of the graft patients underwent pre-graft maxillary expansion. A total of 100 cases were recorded as successful (median age of 14.58 years, 68 underwent pre-graft expansion) and only 4 were recorded as failures (median age of 17.62 years, 3 underwent pre-graft expansion). We did not find statistically significant differences in age at the time of grafting or pre-surgical expansion when comparing the success and failure groups. We found the success rate of the graft to be 96.2%. Conclusions: The number of failures was too small to establish a statistically significant conclusion in our sample regarding the age at grafting and pre-grafting expansion. The use of alveolar bone grafting from the iliac crest has a very high success rate with a very low incidence of complications. Existing controversies regarding secondary bone grafting and the wide range of success rates found in the literature suggest that it is necessary to establish a specific treatment protocol that ensures the success of this procedure. Key words:Alveolar graft, cleft lip and palate, alveolar cleft, alveolar defect. PMID:24880440

  8. Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M.; Zhang, Yue; Donahue, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone’s capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown. We employed a mouse model of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation simulating treatment of hematologic cancers, hypothesizing that compression loading would attenuate bone loss. Furthermore, we hypothesized that loading would upregulate donor cell presence in loaded tibias due to increased engraftment and proliferation. We lethally irradiated 16 female C57Bl/6J mice at age 16 wks with 10.75 Gy, then IV-injected 20 million GFP(+) total bone marrow cells. That same day, we initiated 3 wks compression loading (1200 cycles 5x/wk, 10 N) in the right tibia of 10 of these mice while 6 mice were irradiated, non-mechanically-loaded controls. As anticipated, before-and-after microCT scans demonstrated loss of trabecular bone (-48.2% Tb.BV/TV) and cortical thickness (-8.3%) at 3 wks following irradiation. However, loaded bones lost 31% less Tb.BV/TV and 8% less cortical thickness (both pbones also had significant increases in trabecular thickness and tissue mineral densities from baseline. Mechanical loading did not affect donor cell engraftment. Importantly, these results demonstrate that both cortical and trabecular bone exposed to high-dose therapeutic radiation remain capable of an anabolic response to mechanical loading. These findings inform our management of bone health in cases of radiation exposure. PMID:27936104

  9. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Turnover in Elderly with Bone Loss - Original Investigation

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    Nurdan Peker

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss is common in the elderly. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, which regulates serum calcium levels,calcitonin and vitamin D metabolites have various effects on skeletal system. The aim of this study was to assess secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH and bone turnover in elderly with bone loss. Fifty-five patients (9 men,46 women older than 65 years with bone loss were included in the study. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiomety (DXA at L1-4 vertebrae and proximal femur regions. Patients with T scores <-1.5 at one of the measurement sites were included in the study. Study subjects were assessed in terms of fracture history, sunbathing and walking activity. Routine biochemical tests, serum osteocalcin (OC and C-telopeptide type 1 collagen (CTX and lateral thoracal and lumbar vertebrae radyographic evaluation was performed. Our results showed that 70.9% of the patients had HPTH. Total femur BMD values and femur neck T scores were significantly lower in HPTH group than PTH normal one (p=0.05, p=0.03. Serum OC and CTX levels were higher in both groups. There was a negative correlation with femur neck BMD and CTX (r=0,321. There was no correlation between serum PTH levels and lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur BMD values. Serum PTH and alkaline phosphatase levels showed a significant positive correlation. In conclusion secondary HPTH and increased bone turnover is common elderly with bone loss. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is important the older people. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006; 12: 70-3

  10. The influence of Aloe vera and xenograft XCB toward of bone morpho protein 2 BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast of alveolar bone induced into tooth extraction sockets Cavia cobaya

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    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth extraction can cause inflammation leading to alveolar ridge resorption. In addition, prominent ridge has crucial role for making denture su-ccessfully. Thus, socket preservation is needed to prevent greater alveolar ridge resorption. An innovative material, a combination of Aloe vera and xe-nograft (XCB, is then considered as a biogenic stimulator that can reduce inflammation, as a result, the growth of alveolar bone is expected to be impro-ved. This research is aimed to prove whether the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can stimulate BMP2 and increase osteoblasts. Forty-eight Cavia co-baya animals were divided into eight groups each of which consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya animals were then extracted and filled with PEG as Group Control, XCB as Group XCB, Aloe vera as Group Aloe vera, and a combination of Aloe vera +XCB as Group Aloe vera +XCB. Next, the first four groups were sacrificed seven days after extraction, and the second four groups were sacrificed 30 days after extrac-tion. And then, immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to examine BMP2 expression and osteoblasts. Based on the re-sult known that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblasts. It can be concluded that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast cel . It can be used as an alternative material to increase the growth of alveolar bone after extraction.

  11. Histomorphometric analysis of rat alveolar wound healing with hydroxyapatite alone or associated to BMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão Alexandre C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several materials and techniques have been proposed to improve alveolar wound healing and decrease loss of bone height and thickness that normally follow dental extraction. The objective of this research was the histologic analysis of bone morphogenetic proteins implanted into dental alveoli of rats after extraction. A total of 45 adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 15 animals each: control (no treatment, implanted with pure hydroxyapatite (HA, 3 mg and implanted with hydroxyapatite plus bone morphogenetic proteins (HA/BMPs, 3 mg. Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 42 days after extraction for the histometric analyses of the osteoconductive potential of hydroxyapatite associated or not with BMPs. After dissection, fixation, decalcification and serial microtomy of 6-mm thick sections, the samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. Both HA and HA/BMPs caused a delay in wound healing compared to control animals, evaluated by the percentage of bone tissue in the alveoli. The treatment with HA/BMPs had the greatest delay at 21 days, even though it produced values similar to the control group at 42 days. The materials did not improve alveolar repair in the normal period of wound healing and the association of HA/BMPs did not have osteoconductive properties with granulated hydroxyapatite as the vehicle.

  12. Bone augmentation of the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina in MOOKP--will it delay laminar resorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Shanmugasundaram, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to describe a new technique and analyse the early outcomes of augmenting the canine tooth using a mandibular bone graft in an attempt to delay or retard the process of laminar resorption following the modified osteo odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. This was a retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent the bone augmentation procedure between December 2012 and February 2014 were retrospectively analysed. The procedure, performed by the oromaxillofacial surgeon, involved securing a mandibular bone graft beneath the periosteum on the labial aspect of the canine tooth chosen to be harvested for the MOOKP procedure. This procedure was performed simultaneously with the Stage 1 A of the MOOKP. Three months later, the tooth was harvested and fashioned into the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina similar to the method described in the Rome-Vienna Protocol. The bone augmentation procedure was performed in 11 eyes (five SJS/ six chemical injuries). The mean follow-up after Stage 2 of MOOKP procedure in these eyes was 7.45 months (2 to 20 months). Complications noted were peripheral laminar exposure (three eyes-SJS) and bone graft exposure and necrosis in the mouth (nine-SJS). No evidence of clinical laminar resorption was noted in any of the eyes. Laminar resorption in MOOKP can lead to vision and globe threatening complications due to the consequent cylinder instability and chances of extrusion. Augmenting the bone on the labial aspect of the canine tooth might have a role to play in delaying or preventing laminar resorption.

  13. Bioactive silica nanoparticles reverse age-associated bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, M Neale; Ha, Shin-Woo; Vikulina, Tatyana; Roser-Page, Susanne; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Beck, George R

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that in vitro, engineered 50nm spherical silica nanoparticles promote the differentiation and activity of bone building osteoblasts but suppress bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Furthermore, these nanoparticles promote bone accretion in young mice in vivo. We have now investigated the capacity of these nanoparticles to reverse bone loss in aged mice, a model of human senile osteoporosis. Aged mice received nanoparticles weekly and bone mineral density (BMD), bone structure, and bone turnover were quantified. Our data revealed a significant increase in BMD, bone volume, and biochemical markers of bone formation. Biochemical and histological examinations failed to identify any abnormalities caused by nanoparticle administration. Our studies demonstrate that silica nanoparticles effectively blunt and reverse age-associated bone loss in mice by a mechanism involving promotion of bone formation. The data suggest that osteogenic silica nanoparticles may be a safe and effective therapeutic for counteracting age-associated bone loss. Osteoporosis poses a significant problem in the society. Based on their previous in-vitro findings, the authors' group investigated the effects of spherical silica nanoparticles in reversing bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis. The results showed that intra-peritoneal injections of silica nanoparticles could increase bone mineral density, with little observed toxic side effects. This novel method may prove important in future therapy for combating osteoporosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Alveolar bone thickness and lower incisor position in skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Ozer, Torun; Uysal, Tancan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate lower incisor position and bony support between patients with Class II average- and high-angle malocclusions and compare with the patients presenting Class I malocclusions. CBCT records of 79 patients were divided into 2 groups according to sagittal jaw relationships: Class I and II. Each group was further divided into average- and high-angle subgroups. Six angular and 6 linear measurements were performed. Independent samples t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn post-hoc tests were performed for statistical comparisons. Labial alveolar bone thickness was significantly higher in Class I group compared to Class II group (p = 0.003). Lingual alveolar bone angle (p = 0.004), lower incisor protrusion (p = 0.007) and proclination (p = 0.046) were greatest in Class II average-angle patients. Spongious bone was thinner (p = 0.016) and root apex was closer to the labial cortex in high-angle subgroups when compared to the Class II average-angle subgroup (p = 0.004). Mandibular anterior bony support and lower incisor position were different between average- and high-angle Class II patients. Clinicians should be aware that the range of lower incisor movement in high-angle Class II patients is limited compared to average- angle Class II patients.

  15. Difference in the Surgical Outcome of Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with and without Pre-Alveolar Bone Graft Orthodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Shin; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Pai, Betty Chien-Jung; Chen, I.-Ju; Liao, Yu-Fang; Liou, Eric Jen-Wein; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Noordhoff, M. Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Presurgical orthodontic treatment before secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) is widely performed for cleft lip/palate patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has been published comparing SABG outcomes in patients with, and without, presurgical orthodontic treatment. This randomized, prospective, single-blinded trial was conducted between January 2012 and April 2015 to compare ABG volumes 6 months postoperatively between patients with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and randomized and 22 patients completed follow-up. Patients who had presurgical orthodontics before SABG had significantly improved inclination (p < 0.001) and rotation (p < 0.001) of the central incisor adjacent to the defect, significantly improved ABG fill volume (0.81 ± 0.26 cm3 at 6 months compared to 0.59 ± 0.22 cm3 p < 0.05) and less residual alveolar bone defect (0.31 ± 0.08 cm3 at 6 months compared to s 0.55 ± 0.14 cm3 p < 0.001) compared to patients who did not have presurgical orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment combined with SABG results in superior bone volume when compared with conventional SABG alone.

  16. Bone regeneration: in vitro evaluation of the behaviour of osteoblast-like MG63 cells placed in contact with polylactic-co-glycolic acid, deproteinized bovine bone and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, S; Mastrangelo, F; Reale Marroccia, D; Cappello, V; Ciampoli, C; Carlino, V; Tanteri, L; Costanzo, M; Sinatra, F; Tetè, S

    2008-01-01

    Insufficient bone density of the alveolar crests, caused by loss of the dental elements, sometimes impedes the primary stability of an integrated bone implant. The techniques of bone regeneration allow to obtain a sufficient quantity of alveolar bone to permit the implant rehabilitation of the edentulous crests. Today several grafting materials are available and they have different characteristics, according to their structure, which influence the different behaviour of the grafting materials to the bone and the implant surface. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between a human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line and three different biomaterials: polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA), deproteinized bovine bone and demineralised freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). From this study a different behaviour emerges of the osteoblast-like MG63 cells in relation to the sublayer on which these cells were placed in culture. The results of the study, in fact, demonstrate that the most osteoconductive material of the three analysed is the DFDBA, followed by DPBB. On the contrary, the PLGA, because of its roughness, does not seem to represent a valid support for cell growth, and does not encourage any morphologic modification in tumor cells. Furthermore, deproteinized bovine bone shows a differentiating effect which could lead to hypothesise an osteoconductive capacity of this biomaterial. Further studies should be carried out with the aim of explaining the results obtained.

  17. Glucocorticoid: A potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Wenbin; Xue, Yanru; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Jingbao; Shang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to conditions of microgravity, including actual spaceflight and simulated microgravity, results in numerous negative alterations to bone structure and mechanical properties. Although there are abundant researches on bone loss in microgravity, the explicit mechanism is not completely understood. At present, it is widely accepted that the absence of mechanical stimulus plays a predominant role in bone homeostasis disorders in conditions of weightlessness. However, aside from mechanical unloading, nonmechanical factors such as various hormones, cytokines, dietary nutrition, etc. are important as well in microgravity induced bone loss. The stress-induced increase in endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) levels is inevitable in microgravity environments. Moreover, it is well known that GCs have a detrimental effect to bone health at excess concentrations. Therefore, GC plays a potential role in microgravity-induced bone loss. This review summarizeds several studies and their prospective solutions to this hypothesis.

  18. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  19. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  20. New treatment of periodontal diseases by using NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides via prevention of bone resorption and promotion of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Morita, Shosuke; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Futoshi; Shimosato, Takashi; Minobe, Noriko; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. Thus, the blockade of the NF-kappaB pathway might be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating bone metabolic diseases. Periodontitis is subgingival inflammation caused by bacterial infection; this disease also is thought to be a chronic focal point responsible for systemic diseases. In this study, NF-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were topically applied for experimental periodontitis in a debris-accumulation model and wound healing in a bone-defect model of beagle dogs to investigate the effect of decoy ODN on bone metabolism. Application of NF-kappaB decoy ODN significantly reduced interleukin-6 activity in crevicular fluid and improved alveolar bone loss in the analysis of dental radiographs and DEXA. Direct measurement of exposed root that lost alveolar bone support revealed that NF-kappaB decoy treatment dramatically protected bone from loss. In a bone-defect model, NF-kappaB decoy ODN promoted the healing process as compared with control scrambled decoy in micro-CT analysis. Overall, inhibition of NF-kappaB by decoy strategy prevented the progression of bone loss in periodontitis and promoted the wound healing in bone defects through the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Targeting of NF-kappaB might be a potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  1. Orthodontic treatment of severe anterior open bite and alveolar bone defect complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feiou; Sun, Hao; Yao, Linjie; Chen, Qiushuo; Ni, Zhenyu

    2014-11-21

    Incisor trauma is common in children, and can cause severe complications during adolescent growth and development. This report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old patient with severe anterior open bite due to ankylosis of the maxillary left incisor after dental trauma as an 8-year-old. No examination or active treatment was undertaken until he was 16 years old. Clinical examination revealed that the maxillary left incisor was severely intruded accompanied by a vertical alveolar bone defect. Orthodontic treatment combined with surgical luxation took 3 years and 7 months. During treatment, the intruded incisor was moved to the occlusal level and the alveolar bone defect was restored, achieving normal occlusion. After two years of retention, the maxillary left incisor was retained in a stable normal position with a slightly reduced overbite. This case demonstrates that surgical luxation with orthodontic traction can be an effective approach, especially when the ankylosed tooth has a single root. Long-term monitoring of orthodontic stability and the maintenance of periodontal health are crucial in the post-treatment period.

  2. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  3. Bilocular Stafne Bone Defect above And Below the Inferior Alveolar Canal Assessed by Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone defect is a bone depression containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue on the lingual surface of the mandible. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. Stafne bone defect appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, it is rarely seen as a multilocular radiolucency. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency above the inferior alveolar canal in a male patient

  4. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which 45 Ca release from 45 Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with 45 Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke

  5. Kinetics of gene expression of alkaline phosphatase during healing of alveolar bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Willian Caetano; Fabris, André Luís da Silva; Hassumi, Jaqueline Suemi; Gonçalves, Alaíde; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Okamoto, Roberta

    2016-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies and molecular biology have enabled us to identify numerous proteins that are involved in the metabolism of bone, and their encoding genes. Among these is alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that is responsible for the initiation of mineralisation of the extracellular matrix during alveolar bone repair. To evaluate the gene expression of ALP during this process, we studied nine healthy adult male rats, which had their maxillary central incisors extracted from the right side and were randomly divided into three groups. During three experimental periods, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days, the alveoli were curetted, the rats killed, and samples analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The RNAm that encodes the gene for the synthesis of ALP was expressed during the three periods analysed, but its concentration was significantly increased at 14 and 28 days compared with at 7 days. There was no significant difference between 14 and 28 days (p=0.0005). We conclude that genes related to ALP are expressed throughout the healing process and more intensively during the later periods (14 and 28 days), which coincides with the increased formation of mineralised bone. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Room temperature housing results in premature cancellous bone loss in growing female mice: implications for the mouse as a preclinical model for age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, U T; Philbrick, K A; Wong, C P; Gordon, J L; Kahler-Quesada, A M; Olson, D A; Branscum, A J; Sargent, J L; DeMambro, V E; Rosen, C J; Turner, R T

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature housing (22 °C) results in premature cancellous bone loss in female mice. The bone loss was prevented by housing mice at thermoneutral temperature (32 °C). Thermogenesis differs markedly between mice and humans and mild cold stress induced by standard room temperature housing may introduce an unrecognized confounding variable into preclinical studies. Female mice are often used as preclinical models for osteoporosis but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss during growth. Mice are routinely housed at room temperature (18-23 °C), a strategy that exaggerates physiological differences in thermoregulation between mice (obligatory daily heterotherms) and humans (homeotherms). The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether housing female mice at thermoneutral (temperature range where the basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss) alters bone growth, turnover and microarchitecture. Growing (4-week-old) female C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice were housed at either 22 or 32 °C for up to 18 weeks. C57BL/6J mice housed at 22 °C experienced a 62 % cancellous bone loss from the distal femur metaphysis during the interval from 8 to 18 weeks of age and lesser bone loss from the distal femur epiphysis, whereas cancellous and cortical bone mass in 32 °C-housed mice were unchanged or increased. The impact of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone was not limited to C57BL/6J mice as C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a similar skeletal response. The beneficial effects of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone were associated with decreased Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue, increased bone marrow adiposity, higher rates of bone formation, higher expression levels of osteogenic genes and locally decreased bone resorption. Housing female mice at 22 °C resulted in premature cancellous bone loss. Failure to account for species differences in thermoregulation may seriously confound interpretation of studies

  7. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs): potential targets against bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Wong, Jiemin; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Bone loss and the resulting skeletal fragility is induced by several pathological or natural conditions, the most prominent of which being aging as well as the decreased levels of circulating estrogens in post-menopause females. To date, most treatments against bone loss aim at preventing excess bone resorption. We here summarize data indicating that the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α and γ prevent bone formation. Inhibiting these receptors may thus constitute an anabolic approach by increasing bone formation.

  8. Accuracy and reliability of different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices for structural analysis of alveolar bone in comparison with multislice CT and micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Jeroen; Nicolielo, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro; Huang, Yan; Coudyzer, Walter; Salmon, Benjamin; Lambrichts, Ivo; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be used for clinically reliable alveolar bone quality assessment in comparison to its clinical alternatives, multislice computed tomography and the gold standard (micro-CT). Six dentate mandibular bone samples were scanned with seven CBCT devices (ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170, Carestream 9300, Scanora 3D, I-CAT Next generation), one micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174) and one MSCT machine (Somatom Definition Flash) using two protocols (standard and high-resolution). MSCT and CBCT images were automatically spatially aligned on the micro-CT scan of the corresponding sample. A volume of interest was manually delineated on the micro-CT image and overlaid on the other scanning devices. Alveolar bone structures were automatically extracted using the adaptive thresholding algorithm. Based on the resulting binary images, an automatic 3D morphometric quantification was performed in a CT-Analyser (Bruker, Kontich, Belgium). The reliability and measurement errors were calculated for each modality compared to the gold standard micro-CT. Both MSCT and CBCT were associated with a clinically and statistically (P max, bone surface density -0.47 mm-1 min to 0.16 mm-1 max and trabecular thickness 0.15 mm min to 0.31 mm max) were significantly (P max and fractal dimension 0.08 min to 0.17 max) in all scanners compared to micro-CT. However, the structural pattern of the alveolar bone remained similar compared to that of the micro-CT for the ProMax 3D Max, NewTom GiANO, Cranex 3D, 3D Accuitomo 170 and Carestream 9300. On the other hand, the Scanora 3D, i-CAT Next Generation, standard and high-resolution MSCT displayed an overrated bone quantity and aberrant structural pattern compared to other scanning devices. The calculation of morphometric indices had an overall high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.62 min to 0.99 max), except

  9. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Hienz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways.

  10. Biological Effects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement Into the Grafted Alveolar Cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Li, Renmei; Chen, Zhengxi; Huang, Yuanliang; Chen, Zhenqi

    2018-03-01

    Functional stimulus during orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted bone can lead to better alveolar bone grafting outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the biological effects of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar cleft area with histologic staining, fluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An animal model of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar cleft area was established in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into the experimental group and the control group. Four checkpoints were observed: before orthodontic stimuli, day 1 after orthodontic stimuli, day 3 after orthodontic stimuli, and day 5 after orthodontic stimuli. The cleft bone formation conditions, including the collagen fibers and the activities of the osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were evaluated by histologic staining. The expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 was detected by real-time PCR in both groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the remodeling process of iliac autografts was completed when the orthodontic stress was applied, whereas the bone tissues first showed osteoclastogenesis and then osteogenesis. On the basis of TRAP staining, the osteoclasts increased to the maximal amount on day 3 and decreased thereafter. Evidence from tetracycline fluorescence staining indicated that no obvious changes in osteoblast activity were detected at the early stage; however, it gradually increased, especially in the region close to the root surface. According to real-time PCR, the expression of TRAP increased in both the early and middle stages, that of receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand increased in the early stage, and that of Runt-related transcription factor 2 increased in the late stage. Moreover, the results showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups

  11. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  12. Simultaneous maxillary distraction osteogenesis using a twin-track distraction device combined with alveolar bone grafting in cleft patients: preliminary report of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Watanabe, Masayo; Buranastidporn, Boonsiva; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Ohyama, Kimie; Ishii, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous use of cleft reduction and maxillary advancement by distraction osteogenesis has not been applied routinely because of the difficulty in three-dimensional control and stabilization of the transported segments. This report describes a new approach of simultaneous bilateral alveolar cleft reduction and maxillary advancement by distraction osteogenesis combined with autogenous bone grafting. A custom-made Twin-Track device was used to allow bilateral alveolar cleft closure combined with simultaneous maxillary advancement, using distraction osteogenesis and a rigid external distraction system in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient. After a maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, autogenous iliac bone graft was placed in the cleft spaces before suturing. A latency period of six days was observed before activation. The rate of activation was one mm/d for the maxillary advancement and 0.5 mm/d for the segmental transport. Accordingly, the concave facial appearance was improved with acceptable occlusion, and complete bilateral cleft closure was attained. No adjustments were necessary to the vector of the transported segments during the activation and no complications were observed. The proposed Twin-Track device, based on the concept of track-guided bone transport, permitted three-dimensional control over the distraction processes allowing simultaneous cleft closure, maxillary distraction, and autogenous bone grafting. The combined simultaneous approach is extremely advantageous in correcting severe deformities, reducing the number of surgical interventions and, consequently, the total treatment time.

  13. Minority and Public Insurance Status: Is There a Delay to Alveolar Bone Grafting Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Basta, Marten N; Fischer, John P; Lowe, Kristen M; Mayro, Rosario; Jackson, Oksana

    2017-01-01

      This study sought to determine the timing of alveolar bone grafting (ABG) surgery among children with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) with regard to race and insurance status.   A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients receiving ABG surgery was conducted. A multivariate regression model was constructed using predetermined clinical and demographic variables.   A large, urban cleft referral center.   Nonsyndromic patients with CL±P were eligible for study inclusion.   ABG surgery using autogenous bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest.   The primary outcome of interest was age at ABG surgery.   A total of 233 patients underwent ABG surgery at 8.1 ± 2.3 years of age. African American and Hispanic patients received delayed ABG surgery compared with Caucasian patients by approximately 1 year (P .05).   The timing of ABG surgery varied by race but not by insurance status. Greater resources may be needed to ensure timely delivery of cleft care to African American and Hispanic children.

  14. Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Takemasa

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric

  15. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  16. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    . In a number of in vitro culture systems, Dlk1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis indirectly through osteoblast-dependent increased production of proinflammatory bone-resorbing cytokines (eg, Il7, Tnfa, and Ccl3). We found that ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss was associated with increased production of Dlk1...... in the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss....

  17. Effects of piezosurgery in accelerating the movement of orthodontic alveolar bone tooth of rats and the expression mechanism of BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinyou; He, Hong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of piezosurgery in accelerating the movement of orthodontic alveolar bone tooth of rats and the expression mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Adult male Wistar rats (n=30), with an age range of 14-15 weeks, and an average weight of 250±16 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into the control and observation groups. The rats in the control group were injected with 25-dihydroxyvitamin (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) into their dental ligament. The rats in the observation group were placed with an orthodontic device between the first molar and central incisor in the maxillary. On the first day after animal treatment, piezosurgery stimulation was performed on the first molar in maxillary. The changes of the movement distance of the first molar and gum surface temperature on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 were then compared. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of BMP-2 of periodontal tissue in the tension side of the first molar. Tooth movement distance in the observation group on days 5, 7 and 14 was significantly longer than that in the control group (ppiezosurgery may significantly accelerate the movement of orthodontic alveolar bone tooth of rats and be associated with an increasing BMP-2 expression.

  18. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  19. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  20. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  1. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  2. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  3. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  4. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres enhance osteogenic potential of gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate cryogel composite for alveolar ridge augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chieh Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Sufficient bony support is essential to ensure the success of dental implant osseointegration. However, the reconstruction of vertical ridge deficiencies is still a major challenge for dental implants. This study introduced a novel treatment strategy by infusing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 within a gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (gelatin/HA/β-TCP cryogel composite to facilitate supra-alveolar ridge augmentation. Methods: The gelatin scaffold was crosslinked using cryogel technique, and HA/β-TCP particles were mechanically entrapped to form the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite. Co-axial electrohydrodynamic atomization technology was used to fabricate PLGA microspheres encapsulating BMP-2. The composites of gelatin/HA/β-TCP alone, with infusion of BMP-2 solution (BMPi or microspheres (BMPm, were fixed on rat mandibles using a titanium mini-implant for 4 weeks, and the therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, bone fluorochrome, and histology. Results: The gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite was homogenously porous, and BMP-2 was sustained release from the microspheres without initial burst release. Ridge augmentation was noted in all specimens treated with the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite, and greater bone deposition ratio were noted in Groups BMPi and BMPm. Compared with Group BMPi, specimens in Group BMPm showed significantly greater early osteogenesis and evident osseointegration in the supra-alveolar level. Conclusion: BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres effectively promoted osteogenic potential of the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite and facilitated supra-alveolar ridge augmentation in vivo. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, dental implant, tissue engineering, tissue scaffolds

  6. The combined use of rhBMP-2/ACS, autogenous bone graft, a bovine bone mineral biomaterial, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration at nonsubmerged implant placement for supracrestal bone augmentation. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, Anthony G; Best, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents the clinical application and outcomes of the use of a combined approach to treat a patient with a severe alveolar defect. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier, along with autogenous bone graft, bovine bone mineral, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration, were used simultaneous with nonsubmerged implant placement. At 1 year postsurgery, healthy peri-implant soft tissues and radiographically stable peri-implant crestal bone levels were observed along with locally increased radiographic bone density. In addition, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan demonstrated apparent supracrestal peri-implant bone augmentation with the appearance of normal alveolar ridge contours, including the facial bone wall.

  7. Alveolar bone changes after rapid maxillary expansion with tooth-born appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Antonino; Barbato, Ersilia; Cosentino, Leandro; Ferraro, Claudia Maria; Leonardi, Rosalia

    2017-08-10

    During rapid maxillary expansion (RME), heavy forces are transmitted to the maxilla by the anchored teeth causing buccal inclination and buccal bone loss of posterior teeth. To systematically review the literature in order to investigate whether RME causes periodontal sequelae, assessed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Fifteen electronic databases and reference lists of studies were searched up to March 2017. To be included in the systematic review, articles must be human studies on growing subjects, with transversal maxillary deficiency treated with RME and with assessment of buccal bone loss by CBCT images. Only randomized and non-randomized trials were included. Two authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Study characteristics (study design, sample size, age, sex, skeletal maturity, type of appliance, daily activation, evaluated linear measurements, observation period, CBCT settings), and study outcomes (loss of buccal bone thickness and marginal bone) were reported according to the PRISMA statement. On the basis of the applied inclusion criteria, only six articles, three randomized clinical trials and three controlled clinical trials were included. An individual analysis of the selected articles was undertaken. The risks of bias of the six trials were scored as medium to low. The results of the present systematic review are based on a limited number of studies and only one study included a control group. In all considered studies, significant loss of buccal bone thickness and marginal bone level were observed in anchored teeth, following RME. Further prospective studies correlating the radiological data of bone loss to the periodontal soft tissues reaction after RME are required. A preliminary evaluation of the patient-related risk factors for RR may be advisable when considering to administering RME. This systematic review was registered in the National Institute of Health Research database with an

  8. Distributional variations in trabecular architecture of the mandibular bone: an in vivo micro-CT analysis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshuang Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of trabecular thickness and trabecular separation on modulating the trabecular architecture of the mandibular bone in ovariectomized rats.Fourteen 12-week-old adult female Wistar rats were divided into an ovariectomy group (OVX and a sham-ovariectomy group (sham. Five months after the surgery, the mandibles from 14 rats (seven OVX and seven sham were analyzed by micro-CT. Images of inter-radicular alveolar bone of the mandibular first molars underwent three-dimensional reconstruction and were analyzed.Compared to the sham group, trabecular thickness in OVX alveolar bone decreased by 27% (P = 0.012, but trabecular separation in OVX alveolar bone increased by 59% (P = 0.005. A thickness and separation map showed that trabeculae of less than 100 μm increased by 46%, whereas trabeculae of more than 200 μm decreased by more than 40% in the OVX group compared to those in the sham group. Furthermore, the OVX separation of those trabecular of more than 200 μm was 65% higher compared to the sham group. Bone mineral density (P = 0.028 and bone volume fraction (p = 0.001 were also significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the sham group.Ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mandibular bone may be related to the distributional variations in trabecular thickness and separation which profoundly impact the modulation of the trabecular architecture.

  9. Evaluation of the Correlation of (He Distance Between the Alveolar Crest and Cementoenamel Junction Inpreiapical. Bitewing and Panoramic Radiographs with its Actual Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yazdani

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In spite of the limitations of Radiography, diagnosing of periodontal diseases without having accurate radiographs is inadequate because it provides a visible image of the supporting bone to the clinician and works as a fixed measure of the supporting bone during the study.Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the precision of preiapical, bitewings and panoramicradiographs in determining the distance between the alveolar crest (AC and cementoenamel junction (CEJ of teeth. Materials and Methods: Statistically this is a survey study in which 120 interproximal surfaces of teeth were measured during surgery by periodontal probing and recorded as the actual measurement. Then 40 sites underwent bitewing, 40 sites preapical and 40 others panoramic radiography and the distance of CEJ up to the alveolar crest of bone was measured on them by periodontal probe and recorded. Then each group was analyzed separately and the Pearson's correlation coefficient was examined for the data.Results: The results of this study showed that when the thickness of the remaining bone in a millimeter limit is important for (he surgeon, the bitewing radiography has a prime importance, but when bone loss ismoderate, the panoramic radiography showing %89 of the cases close to the actual measure, can be acceptable. On the other hand, in anterior sites for determining the bone alteration, preiapical radiography with a 0.93 correlation coefficient is superior to the panoramic radiography with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and we suggest it for examining the changes of bone in these sites. Conclusion: whenever the bone alteration is moderate or severe, it seems that, bitewing radiography is of particular importance, but when the bone loss is little, panoramic radiography can be used and there is no needto put the patient on unnecessary radiation.

  10. Aumento del reborde alveolar residual mediante técnica de rollo Increase of residual alveolar ridge using roll technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Simancas Pallares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida dentaria, asociada a factores sistémicos, patológicos y traumáticos, promueve el proceso de reabsorción ósea de los rebordes residuales y genera problemas funcionales, como la falta de estabilidad y retención de las prótesis dentarias removibles, y disturbios estéticos y psicológicos. Estos defectos varían en dependencia de la cantidad de pérdida ósea y de tejidos blandos que hayan alcanzado. En la actualidad son descritas diversas técnicas que permiten corregir estos defectos. Una de ellas es la técnica del rollo, la cual demuestra muy buenos resultados al aumentar el tamaño del reborde alveolar y disminuir los defectos estéticos que causa sobre todo en el sector anterior. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir el caso clínico de un paciente con pérdida ósea en el sector anterior, tipo III según Seibert, rehabilitado con prótesis parcial fija y sometido a un procedimiento quirúrgico con la técnica del rollo. Se alcanzaron los objetivos planteados y proporciona una mejoría estética así como una mejora en su calidad de vida. Se demostró que con esta técnica se obtienen resultados predecibles que devuelven la estética en zonas de alta exigencia por parte de los pacientes.Tooth loss associated with systemic factors, pathological and traumatic conditions, promotes the bone resorption of residual ridges, this, creates functional problems such as lack of stability and retention of removable dentures as well as aesthetic and psychological disturbances. These defects vary depending on the amount of bone loss and soft tissue they reach. At present there are described various techniques that can correct these defects. One of these is the roll technique which shows very good results by increasing the size of the alveolar ridge and decrease aesthetic defects in the anterior area of the maxilla. The aim of this article is to describe a case of a patient with Seibert bone loss type III, rehabilitated with

  11. Interactive effects of periodontitis and orthodontic tooth movement on dental root resorption, tooth movement velocity and alveolar bone loss in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Fanghänel, Jochen; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Michael; Roldán, J Camilo; Proff, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Many adult orthodontic patients suffer from chronic periodontitis with recurrent episodes of active periodontal inflammation. As their number is steadily increasing, orthodontists are more and more frequently challenged by respective treatment considerations. However, little is currently known regarding interactive effects on undesired dental root resorption (DRR), tooth movement velocity, periodontal bone loss and the underlying cellular and tissue reactions. A total of 63 male Fischer344 rats were used in three consecutive experiments employing 21 animals each (A/B/C), randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups (n=7, 1/2/3), respectively: (A) CBCT; (B) histology/serology; (C) RT-qPCR-(1) control; (2) orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) of the first/second upper left molars (NiTi coil spring, 0.25N); (3) OTM with experimentally induced periodontitis (cervical silk ligature). After 14days of OTM, we quantified blood leukocyte level, DRR, osteoclast activity and relative gene expression of inflammatory and osteoclast marker genes within the dental-periodontal tissue as well as tooth movement velocity and periodontal bone loss after 14 and 28 days. The experimentally induced periodontal bone loss was significantly increased by concurrent orthodontic force application. Periodontal inflammation during OTM on the other hand significantly augmented the extent of DRR, relative expression of inflammatory/osteoclast marker genes, blood leukocyte level and periodontal osteoclast activity. In addition, contrary to previous studies, we observed a significant increase in tooth movement velocity. Although accelerated tooth movement would be favourable for orthodontic treatment, our results suggest that orthodontic interventions should only be performed after successful systematic periodontal therapy and paused in case of recurrent active inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional observations of the incisive canal and the surrounding bone using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaumi, Rieko; Kawai, Taisuke; Sato, Iwao; Yoshida, Shunji; Yosue, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The shape of the anterior region of the maxilla is critical when planning implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to assess the typical morphology of the incisive canal and surrounding bone. In total, 70 maxillae of Japanese dry skulls were used after being divided into dentate and edentulous groups. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxilla were acquired by using standardized methods. Using the anterior nasal spine as a reference point, the change in position was measured and analyzed statistically. Also, three-dimensional (3-D) images of the incisive canal were classified into five subsets: cylinder, groove, penetration, bifurcation at the superior portion, and bifurcation at the inferior portion. The quantity of alveolar bone in the incisor region was greatly reduced from the alveolar ridge and labial surface. Moreover, the vertical position of the incisive foramen was significantly (P<0.05) superior in the edentulous groups. Regarding the classification of maxillae by the 3-D shape of the incisive canal, many canals were cylindrical. Horizontal bone reduction from the labial side and vertical bone reduction from the alveolar crest were conspicuous; thus, the angle of the anterior alveolar bone changed after the loss of teeth. The incisive canal diameter in the edentulous group was larger than in the dentate group. The nondestructive assessment of the incisive canals and surrounding bone with CBCT showed two typical shapes for the presence or absence of the incisors. These findings indicate the importance of image diagnosis before esthetic restoration. (author)

  13. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  14. Metaphyseal bone loss demonstrated with routine planar radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintzer, C.M.; Robertson, D.D.; Weissman, B.; Ewald, F.; Spector, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on an vitro study performed to examine the ability of current-day radiography for detecting metaphyseal bone loss. A block was cut from the anterior aspect of a cadaveric distal femur, sequential sections (approximately 4% of the BMC of the block) were cut from the block, and a fat-equivalent material was substituted in to the void. Following removal of each bone section, the femur was placed in a water bath, a lateral radiography was taken, and the ash content of the section was determined. Five readers each evaluated over 100 combinations of two radiographs side by side, noting whether there was no difference or whether one femur's region of interest was denser. The readings were compared with bone mineral differences as determined by ashing. All readers identified losses of 25% or more, and 5%-10% losses were seen by four of five readers half of the time

  15. Intracanal temperature changes during bone preparations close to and penetrating the inferior alveolar canal: Drills versus piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, József; Vajta, László; Lempel, Edina; Tóth, Ákos; Jeges, Sára; Olasz, Lajos

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate temperature increases in the inferior alveolar canal (IAC), when different bone preparation methods approximate and penetrate the IAC. In pig mandible, buccal bone removals were performed until the neurovascular bundle became visible. Temperatures were registered with thermocouple probes and with infrared thermometer. Preparations were performed with diamond drills (DD), tungsten carbide drills (TCD), piezoelectric diamond sphere (PT_D) and saw (PT_S) tips, and a combined preparation method was also performed whereby the superficial three-fourths of the bone was removed with TCD and the deepest one-fourth of the bone with PT_D (TCD + PT_D_7 °C) or PT_S (TCD + PT_S_7 °C), using cooled irrigation (7 °C). Preparations using room temperature irrigation caused significantly less heat on the bone surface than in the IAC. Piezosurgery in the IAC produced significantly higher temperatures (>13 °C) than the drills (piezosurgery is comparable to that of the drills; however, it produces the highest, potentially nerve-harming temperatures. To eliminate the heat consequences during piezosurgery in the IAC, the use of cooled irrigation at 7 °C and predrilling is recommended. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marginal Bone Loss after Ten Years in an Adult Danish Population: A Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Golnosh; Vaeth, Michael; Wenzel, Ann; Isidor, Flemming

    To evaluate marginal bone loss over a 10-year period in individuals and in tooth groups in relation to age and level of marginal bone. In 1997, 616 randomly selected individuals (mean age: 42 years, range: 21-63 years) underwent a full-mouth radiographic survey. In 2008, the survey was repeated in 362 of the same individuals (182 women and 180 men). The marginal bone level of each tooth was measured in mm from the cementoenamel junction to the marginal bone. These measurements were used to calculate marginal bone loss during the 10-year period for individuals and tooth groups in relation to age and to baseline marginal bone level, calculated as the average between measurements in 1997 and 2008 to circumvent regression towards the mean. The average annual marginal bone loss was 0.09 mm (SD ± 0.04 mm) during the 10-year study period. The association between marginal bone loss and baseline marginal bone level was more pronounced in the youngest age group, compared to the other age groups. Molars displayed the most severe bone loss during the study period. Marginal bone loss over a 10-year period is associated with age and baseline marginal bone level. Younger individuals with a reduced marginal bone level were at higher risk for further bone loss. Molars lose marginal bone more rapidly than other tooth groups.

  17. Healing of periodontal defects and calcitonin gene related peptide expression following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Li, Shu

    2014-06-01

    The roles of nerve and neuropeptides in the process of bone formation and remolding have been studied previously. However, the effects of nervous system and neuropeptide on periodontal alveolar bone formation remained unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of innervation on regeneration of alveolar bone and expression levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in periodontal tissues of rats, so as to have a better understanding of the effect of nerve and its related neuropeptide on periodontal tissue regeneration. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve and a surgery to produce bilateral periodontal defect, then the alveolar tissue was obtained from animals of each group at week 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate the ability to restore and repair periodontal tissues at 4, 6 and 8 after surgery. Then new bone formation area and mineralized area were quantified using imagepro-plus6.0 software after pictures were taken under the microscope and SPSS17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the expression of CGRP at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve surgery and were then sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 after the operation. The change of CGRP expression in periodontal tissue was detected using immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the volume of new bone formation was not significantly difference between the experimental and control groups, but the mineralized new bone area between the two groups was statistically significant. The level of CGRP expression was lower than normal at week 1, and then it began to rise in the next stage. The plateau, at higher than normal level, was reached at 6 weeks post-surgery. Results of transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve demonstrated the expression of CGRP

  18. RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in arthritic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Bezerra

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Tissue proteinases released by synovia, chondrocytes and pannus can cause cartilage destruction and cytokine-activated osteoclasts have been implicated in bone erosions. Rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues produce a variety of cytokines and growth factors that induce monocyte differentiation to osteoclasts and their proliferation, activation and longer survival in tissues. More recently, a major role in bone erosion has been attributed to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL released by activated lymphocytes and osteoblasts. In fact, osteoclasts are markedly activated after RANKL binding to the cognate RANK expressed on the surface of these cells. RANKL expression can be upregulated by bone-resorbing factors such as glucocorticoids, vitamin D3, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Supporting this idea, inhibition of RANKL by osteoprotegerin, a natural soluble RANKL receptor, prevents bone loss in experimental models. Tumor growth factor-ß released from bone during active bone resorption has been suggested as one feedback mechanism for upregulating osteoprotegerin and estrogen can increase its production on osteoblasts. Modulation of these systems provides the opportunity to inhibit bone loss and deformity in chronic arthritis.

  19. Localized ridge defect augmentation using human pericardium membrane and demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Arun Kumar; Ravindran, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    Patient wanted to restore her lost teeth with implants in the lower left first molar and second premolar region. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) revealed inadequate bone width and height around future implant sites. The extraction socket of second premolar area revealed inadequate socket healing with sparse bone fill after 4 months of extraction. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using a collagen physical resorbable barrier made of human pericardium (HP) to augment localized alveolar ridge defects for the subsequent placement of dental implants. Ridge augmentation was done in the compromised area using Puros® demineralized bone matrix (DBM) Putty with chips and an HP allograft membrane. Horizontal (width) and vertical hard tissue measurements with CBCT were recorded on the day of ridge augmentation surgery, 4 month and 7 months follow-up. Intra oral periapical taken 1 year after implant installation showed minimal crestal bone loss. Bone volume achieved through guided bone regeneration was a gain of 4.8 mm horizontally (width) and 6.8 mm vertically in the deficient ridge within a period of 7 months following the procedure. The results suggested that HP Allograft membrane may be a suitable component for augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects in conjunction with DBM with bone chips.

  20. Bone loss in long-term suppressive therapy with thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firooznia, H.; Blum, M.; Golimbu, C.; Rafii, M.

    1987-01-01

    The trabecular bone density of the spine was measured with CT in 31 women, aged 39-79 years, who had received an average of 13.5 years of thyroid suppressive therapy. The spinal trabecular bone density values in 24 (77%), 18 (58%), and 13 subjects (42%) were respectively below the mean for healthy age-matched controls, the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women, and the fifth percentile for age-matched controls. Cortical and trabecular bone loss occurs in hyperthyroidism. Although the intent is not to cause hyperthyroidism in subjects on suppressive therapy, supraphysical doses of thyroid hormone are usually necessary for suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone. In this study, bone loss was noted in these subjects. Because most of these patients are middle-aged or postmenopausal women, who are at risk for osteoporosis, it is important to be aware of the risk of additional bone loss induced by thyroid suppressive therapy in them

  1. Protective effect of ellagic acid on healing alveolar bone after tooth extraction in rat--a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Al Batran, Rami; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2014-09-01

    This study has attempted to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats (200-250g) were selected and were anaesthetised for the extraction of upper left incisor. Then, the rats were divided into two groups, comprising 12 rats each; the first group has been considered as a control group and was given only normal saline, whereas, the second group (treated group) was intragastrically administrated with EA daily once, for 28 days. Then three rats from each group had been selected on 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days to dissect their maxilla tissue either for histological observation and homogenisation purposes. The tissues fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5μm thickness were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for the histological study. Similar sections were taken for immunohistochemical analysis to assess osteocalcin (OSC) and osteopontin (OPN). Furthermore, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in homogenated gingival maxilla tissue of rat by commercial kit. Based on the histological analysis we have identified that, EA treatment has induced earlier trabecular bone deposition in the treated group, resulting in more organised bone matrix on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after tooth extraction, as against the control group. In comparison to control group, the positive labelling of OSC and OPN of the treated group have been highly expressed in the alveolar socket on 14th, and 21st days, which has indicated a the possibility of formation of new bone trabeculae at the beginning of the mineralisation process, after tooth extraction. In the EA treatment group, lipid per-oxidation (MDA) was significantly decreased (Phealing process in teeth socket of rats. Furthermore, the EA treated group showed a stronger positive immunolabelling for OSC and OPN, when compared with the control group. Copyright © 2014

  2. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  3. Comparative Study of Accuracy in E Speed Intra Oral Films, PSP Intra Oral Digital System and Panoramic Digital Systems (PSP&CCD for Identifying the Extent of Alveolar Bone Loss in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moradi Haghgoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diagnosis of periodontal osseous lesions is very important in deter-mining prognosis, treatment plan and maintenance in the long term. This diagnosis can be achieved by using radiography. The aim of this study is to compare accuracy of E speed films, bitewing PSP, panoramic PSP and CCD for identifying the extent of destruction of al-veolar bone in chronic periodontitis. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 272 interproximal surfaces were evaluated by 4 radiographic techniques after clinical examination by a periodontist and indication of flap surgery. The distance between CEJ and the alveolar crest was measured by Williams probe during the surgery and before osseous recontouring. These measures were considered as gold standard. This distance was measured using all 4 radiography techniques by 2 radi-ologists at standard conditions after calibration. Results: There was no significant difference between the 4 techniques. The mean distances from CEJ to alveolar crest in all techniques had no significant difference with gold standard, the least difference was in digital BW PSP and the greatest difference was in panoramic PSP. The non-measurable surfaces by E speed BW and panoramic PSP were the fewest and the most, respectively. Conclusion: Better relative accuracy with regard to variation range, mean difference of meas-ures based on gold standard and number of shown surfaces was observed in digital and conventional BW compared to digital panoramic images. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:41-48

  4. Periodontal Therapy in Dogs Using Bone Augmentation Products Marketed for Veterinary Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Molly

    Periodontal disease is extremely common in companion animal practice. Patients presenting for a routine oral examination and prophylaxis may be found to have extensive periodontal disease and attachment loss. Vertical bone loss is a known sequela to periodontal disease and commonly involves the distal root of the mandibular first molar. This case report outlines two dogs presenting for oral examination and prophylaxis with general anesthesia. Both patients did not have any clinical symptoms of periodontal disease other than halitosis. Both patients were diagnosed with three-walled vertical bone loss defects of one or both mandibular first molars utilizing dental radiography as well as periodontal probing, measuring, and direct visual inspection. These defects were consistent with periodontal disease index stage 4 (>50% attachment loss). The lesions were treated with appropriate root planing and debridement. Bone augmentation products readily available and marketed for veterinary use were then utilized to fill the defects to promote both the re-establishment of normal alveolar bone height and periodontal ligament reattachment to the treated surface. Follow-up assessment and owner dedication is critical to treatment outcome. Both patients' 6 mo follow-up examinations radiographically indicated bone repair and replacement with visible periodontal ligament space.

  5. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  6. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response...

  7. Comparison of Bone Resorption Rates after Intraoral Block Bone and Guided Bone Regeneration Augmentation for the Reconstruction of Horizontally Deficient Maxillary Alveolar Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alper Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Bone atrophy after tooth loss may leave insufficient bone for implant placement. We compared volumetric changes after autogenous ramus block bone grafting (RBG or guided bone regeneration (GBR in horizontally deficient maxilla before implant placement. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, volumetric changes at RBG or GBR graft sites were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. The primary outcome variable was the volumetric resorption rate. Secondary outcomes were bone gain, graft success, and implant insertion torque. Results. Twenty-four patients (28 grafted sites were included (GBR, 15; RBG, 13. One patient (RBG suffered mucosal dehiscence at the recipient site 6 weeks after surgery, which healed spontaneously. Mean volume reduction in the GBR and RBG groups was 12.48 ± 2.67% and 7.20 ± 1.40%, respectively. GBR resulted in significantly more bone resorption than RBG (P0.05. Conclusions. Both RBG and GBR hard-tissue augmentation techniques provide adequate bone graft volume and stability for implant insertion. However, GBR causes greater resorption at maxillary augmented sites than RBG, which clinicians should consider during treatment planning.

  8. Soft tissue healing in alveolar socket preservation technique: histologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gaia; Rasperini, Giulio; Obot, Gregory; Farronato, Davide; Dellavia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    After tooth extraction, 14 alveolar sockets were grafted with porous bovine bone mineral particles and covered with non-cross-linked collagen membrane (test group), and 14 alveolar sockets were left uncovered. At 5 and 12 weeks, microvascular density (MVD), collagen content, and amount of lymphocytes (Lym) T and B were analyzed in soft tissue. At 5 weeks, MVD was significantly lower and Lym T was significantly higher in tests than in controls (P healing process of the soft tissue.

  9. Structural joint damage and hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Midtbøll Ørnbjerg

    2018-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pain, swelling and progressive destruction of the joints leading to loss of function and invalidity. The bone destruction in RA is characterised by two distinct features: structural joint damage and hand bone loss, and their prevention is an important treatment goal. Inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-inhibitors) have markedly improved the treatment options in RA patients who fail treatment with conventional synthetic Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatic Drugs (sDMARDS), but their effectiveness with regards to structural joint damage and hand bone loss, predictors thereof and the association with disease activity during treatment have mainly been investigated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with limited generalizability due to strict in- and exclusion criteria.
 The main aim of the PhD thesis was to assess and predict structural joint damage and hand bone loss in patients with early and established RA treated with sDMARDs and TNF-inhibitors. This was investigated in two cohorts: A) The "DANBIO X-ray study": an observational, nationwide, longitudinal cohort study of established RA patients treated in clinical practice who initiated TNF-inhibitor treatment after failure of sDMARDs and B) The "OPERA study": a randomized controlled trial of sDMARD-naïve patients with early RA treated with methotrexate (MTX) and intraarticular glucocorticoid injections in combination with adalimumab or placebo-adalimumab. Structural joint damage progression was assessed with the Sharp/van der Heijde radiographic method and hand bone loss was assessed with Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry. 
From the studies presented in the PhD thesis the following was concluded:
 Structural joint damage progression and hand bone loss were significantly lower during two years of TNF-inhibitor treatment compared to the previous two years of sDMARD-treatment in the DANBIO X-ray Study. The majority of patients had

  10. Mandibular bone necrosis after use of paraformaldehyde-containing paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-hwan Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraformaldehyde has been used in the past as a pulpotomy agent. However, it has a severe cytotoxic effect and may cause alveolar bone necrosis. Depulpin, a devitalizing agent containing 49% paraformaldehyde, is no longer used frequently due to its severe side effects. In the two cases described in the present study, Depulpin was used as a devitalizing agent during root canal treatment. It caused a gradual loss of sensibility in adjacent teeth, gingival necrosis, and osteomyelitis. This case report demonstrates the serious side effects of using a paraformaldehyde-containing paste as a devitalizing agent for pulp, particularly mandibular bone necrosis.

  11. Vitamin C reverses hypogonadal bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, ...

  12. Clinical effect of etidronate on alveolar pyorrhoea associated with chronic marginal periodontitis: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Y; Miki, T; Nishizawa, Y; Morii, H

    2001-01-01

    Etidronate 200 mg daily was administered to four female patients with periodontitis and resultant alveolar pyorrhoea for periods of 2 weeks, followed by off-periods of 10 weeks or more, for 2-3 years. The macroscopic appearance of gingival mobility of the teeth, depth of periodontal pockets, and X-ray findings of alveolar bones improved markedly during this time. The effects were first observed after 6-12 months of treatment. These findings indicate that bisphosphonates may be effective in the treatment of periodontitis and resultant alveolar pyorrhoea. The effect may be mediated by the inhibitory action on bone resorption and the anti-inflammatory action of etidronate. Concomitant conventional dental management is also required.

  13. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ... Keywords: Mineral elements, Alkaline phosphatase, Isoflavones, Bone loss, Notch pathway. This is an Open .... incubated for 3 h in 5% non-fat-milk blocking solution at ..... protect against osteopenia in ovariectomised rats.

  14. Segmental Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis With a Hybrid-Type Distractor in the Management of Wide Alveolar Cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfei; Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2018-01-01

    To investigate segmental maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) with hybrid-type distractor in the management of wide alveolar cleft. Six patients underwent segmental DO with a hybrid-type distractor. After the success of DO and 3-month consolidation period, removal of the distractor was accompanied by alveolar bone graft with iliac bone. Panoramic radiograph and computed tomography scanning were taken preoperatively (T0) and the day after distractor removal (T1). The crest distance between the long axis of cleft nearby teeth was measured. All patients completed the DO period, and the succeeding alveolar bone graft healing was uneventful. The mean cleft distance decrease was 12.05 mm (range: 10.1-13.5 mm). As for the mobility degree record of abutment tooth in the transport segment recorded, 6 patients were grading I° at T0, while 5 patients were grading I° and 1 patient was grading II° at T1. Segmental maxillary DO with the hybrid-type distractor is successful to reduce the cleft width in these cases, and it is promising in the treatment of wide dental alveolar cleft, especially for the adult patient.

  15. Kit W-sh Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Poolthong, Suchit; Baron, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is essential for normal bone growth and development. Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Kit ligand/c-Kit signaling plays an important role in regulating bone homeostasis. Mice with c-Kit mutations are osteopenic. The present study aimed to investigate whether impairment of or reduction in c-Kit signaling affects bone turnover during calcium deprivation. Three-week-old male WBB6F1/J-Kit W /Kit W-v /J (W/W v ) mice with c-Kit point mutation, Kit W-sh /HNihrJaeBsmJ (W sh /W sh ) mice with an inversion mutation in the regulatory elements upstream of the c-Kit promoter region, and their wild-type controls (WT) were fed either a normal (0.6% calcium) or a low calcium diet (0.02% calcium) for 3 weeks. μCT analysis indicated that both mutants fed normal calcium diet had significantly decreased cortical thickness and cancellous bone volume compared to WT. The low calcium diet resulted in a comparable reduction in cortical bone volume and cortical thickness in the W/W v and W sh /W sh mice, and their corresponding controls. As expected, the low calcium diet induced cancellous bone loss in the W/W v mice. In contrast, W sh /W sh cancellous bone did not respond to this diet. This c-Kit mutation prevented cancellous bone loss by antagonizing the low calcium diet-induced increase in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in the W sh /W sh mice. Gene expression profiling showed that calcium deficiency increased Osx, Ocn, Alp, type I collagen, c-Fms, M-CSF, and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in controls; however, the W sh mutation suppressed these effects. Our findings indicate that although calcium restriction increased bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, the decreased c-Kit expression levels in the W sh /W sh mice prevented the low calcium diet-induced increase in cancellous bone turnover and bone loss but not the cortical bone loss.

  16. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  17. Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco" possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily; ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily. Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

  18. Clinical and Histomorphometric Assessment of Lateral Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Using a Corticocancellous Freeze-Dried Allograft Bone Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Roya Shariatmadar; Sayar, Ferena; Rakhshan, Vahid; Iranpour, Babak; Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Toumaj, Ahmad; Akhoondi, Nasrin

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal ridge augmentation with allografts has attracted notable attention because of its proper success rate and the lack of disadvantages of autografts. Corticocancellous block allografts have not been adequately studied in humans. Therefore, this study clinically and histomorphometrically evaluated the increase in ridge width after horizontal ridge augmentation using corticocancellous block allografts as well as implant success after 12 to 18 months after implantation. In 10 patients receiving implants (3 women, 7 men; mean age = 45 years), defective maxillary alveolar ridges were horizontally augmented using freeze-dried bone allograft blocks. Ridge widths were measured before augmentation, immediately after augmentation, and ∼6 months later in the reentry surgery for implantation. This was done at points 2 mm (A) and 5 mm (B) apically to the crest. Biopsy cores were acquired from the implantation site. Implant success was assessed 15.1 ± 2.7 months after implantation (range = 12-18 months). Data were analyzed using Friedman and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). At point A, ridge widths were 2.77 ± 0.37, 8.02 ± 0.87, and 6.40 ± 0.66 mm, respectively, before surgery, immediately after surgery, and before implantation. At point B, ridge widths were 3.40 ± 0.39, 9.35 ± 1.16, and 7.40 ± 1.10 mm, respectively, before surgery, immediately after surgery, and before implantation. The Friedman test showed significant increases in ridge widths, both at point A and point B (both P = .0000). Postaugmentation resorption was about 1.5-2 mm and was statistically significant at points A and B (P < .05, Dunn). The percentage of newly formed bone, residual graft material, and soft tissue were 33.0% ± 11.35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.88%-41.12%), 37.50% ± 19.04% (95% CI = 23.88%-51.12%), and 29.5%, respectively. The inflammation was limited to grades 1 or zero. Twelve to 18 months after implantation, no implants caused pain or showed exudates or pockets. Radiographic

  19. Java project on periodontal disease. Periodontal condition in relation to vitamin C, systemic conditions and tooth loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of the PhD research described in this thesis was to investigate, in an Indonesian population deprived from regular dental care, associations between the periodontal condition assessed by alveolar and periapical bone loss with the plasma levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, HbA1c and CRP,

  20. Cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhini-Dos-Santos, Nathalia; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Kozma, Rodrigo Heras; Faria, Carolina Arruda de; Stessuk, Talita; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2013-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by destruction of alveolar walls with loss of gas exchange surface and consequent progressive dyspnea. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in an animal model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. Emphysema was induced in C57Bl/J6 female mice by intranasal instillation of elastase. After 21 days, the mice received bone marrow mononuclear cells from EGFP male mice with C57Bl/J6 background. The groups were assessed by comparison and statistically significant differences (p pulmonary emphysema.

  1. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  2. Safe Harvesting of Outer Table Parietal Bone Grafts Using an Oscillating Saw and a Bone Scraper : A Refinement of Technique for Harvesting Cortical and "Cancellous"-Like Calvarial Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen; Putters, Thomas F.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    Calvarial bone is a readily available source of bone for preimplantation augmentation procedures of the alveolar process. However, the calvaria consist mostly of cortical bone, and cancellous bone of the diploic space is scarce. A bone scraper (Safescraper Twist; META, Reggio Emilia, Italy) was used

  3. Minimum Abutment Height to Eliminate Bone Loss: Influence of Implant Neck Design and Platform Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinato, Sergio; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Bernardello, Fabio; Zaffe, Davide

    This retrospective study quantitatively analyzed the minimum prosthetic abutment height to eliminate bone loss after 4.7-mm-diameter implant placement in maxillary bone and how grafting techniques can affect the marginal bone loss in implants placed in maxillary areas. Two different implant types with a similar neck design were singularly placed in two groups of patients: the test group, with platform-switched implants, and the control group, with conventional (non-platform-switched) implants. Patients requiring bone augmentation underwent unilateral sinus augmentation using a transcrestal technique with mineralized xenograft. Radiographs were taken immediately after implant placement, after delivery of the prosthetic restoration, and after 12 months of loading. The average mesial and distal marginal bone loss of the control group (25 patients) was significantly more than twice that of the test group (26 patients), while their average abutment height was similar. Linear regression analysis highlighted a statistically significant inverse relationship between marginal bone loss and abutment height in both groups; however, the intercept of the regression line, both mesially and distally, was 50% lower for the test group than for the control group. The marginal bone loss was annulled with an abutment height of 2.5 mm for the test group and 3.0 mm for the control group. No statistically significant differences were found regarding marginal bone loss of implants placed in native maxillary bone compared with those placed in the grafted areas. The results suggest that the shorter the abutment height, the greater the marginal bone loss in cement-retained prostheses. Abutment height showed a greater influence in platform-switched than in non-platform-switched implants on the limitation of marginal bone loss.

  4. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by combined hydroxylapatite and osteoinductive material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    , lyophilized dentin or bone and implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles in rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed that HA was surrounded by fibrous connective tissue containing foreign body giant cells and it had neither...... an osteoinductive nor an osteoconductive effect. The newly formed bone induced from the implanted allogenic, demineralized, lyophilized dentin or bone was never found in close contact with the HA and did not incorporate the implant....

  5. Reverse total shoulder glenoid baseplate stability with superior glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise J; Duquin, Thomas R; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2017-10-01

    Superior wear of the glenoid bone is common in patients with rotator cuff arthropathy. This can become a treatment challenge for patients who require shoulder arthroplasty. In reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), glenoid bone loss may affect the stability of baseplate fixation. The primary purpose of this biomechanical laboratory study was to assess the initial fixation stability of RSA glenosphere baseplates in the presence of variable amounts of superior glenoid bone loss. High-density solid rigid polyurethane foam (30 pounds/cubic foot) was machined to model the glenoid with variable superior defects that provided different levels of support (100%, 90%, 75%, and 50%) for the glenosphere baseplate. The samples were cyclically loaded (0-750 N at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles) at a 60° glenohumeral angle. The micromotion and migration of the baseplate were calculated from displacement data captured during the loading tests with an array of 3 linear variable differential transformers mounted around the baseplate. Micromotion was significantly greater in samples with 50% defects compared with those with smaller defects. Migration was significantly greater after testing for all defect sizes. Initial fixation of RSA glenosphere baseplates was significantly reduced in models with 50% bone loss on the superior edge compared with models with less bone loss in this high-density bone foam model. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge biocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R d’Aquino

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used a biocomplex constructed from dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs and a collagen sponge scaffold for oro-maxillo-facial (OMF bone tissue repair in patients requiring extraction of their third molars. The experiments were carried out according to our Internal Ethical Committee Guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from the patients. The patients presented with bilateral bone reabsorption of the alveolar ridge distal to the second molar secondary to impaction of the third molar on the cortical alveolar lamina, producing a defect without walls, of at least 1.5 cm in height. This clinical condition does not permit spontaneous bone repair after extraction of the third molar, and eventually leads to loss also of the adjacent second molar. Maxillary third molars were extracted first for DPC isolation and expansion. The cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge scaffold and the obtained biocomplex was used to fill in the injury site left by extraction of the mandibular third molars. Three months after autologous DPC grafting, alveolar bone of patients had optimal vertical repair and complete restoration of periodontal tissue back to the second molars, as assessed by clinical probing and X-rays. Histological observations clearly demonstrated the complete regeneration of bone at the injury site. Optimal bone regeneration was evident one year after grafting. This clinical study demonstrates that a DPC/collagen sponge biocomplex can completely restore human mandible bone defects and indicates that this cell population could be used for the repair and/or regeneration of tissues and organs.

  7. Association Between Dietary Fiber Intake and Bone Loss in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Felson, David T; Kiel, Douglas P; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-02-01

    Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L 2 to L 4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m 2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m 2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (β) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (β = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (β = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Inhibition of bone resorption in vitro and prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo by flurbiprofen nitroxybutylester (HCT1026).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; van 't Hof, R J; Armour, K E; Torbergsen, A C; Del Soldato, P; Ralston, S H

    2001-09-01

    Inhibitors of prostaglandin production, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and pharmacologic nitric oxide (NO) donors, such as organic nitrates, have been suggested to protect against bone loss in both humans and experimental animals. Recently, a new class of nitrosylated NSAID (known as NO-NSAIDs) has been developed, which combines the properties of a NO donor with those of a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. This study investigated the effects of one of these compounds, flurbiprofen nitroxybutylester (HCT1026), on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo. The effects of HCT1026 on osteoclast formation and resorption were determined in vitro using cocultures of primary mouse osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effect of HCT1026 in vivo was assessed using a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. HCT1026 was significantly more efficacious than the parent compound, flurbiprofen, at inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro, and these effects could not be reproduced by combinations of flurbiprofen with a variety of NO donors. Studies in vivo showed that HCT1026 protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption, whereas flurbiprofen at similar concentrations was ineffective. These data indicate that HCT1026 is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in vitro and protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo by a novel mechanism that appears to be distinct from its NO donor properties and from its inhibitory effects on COX activity. We conclude that HCT1026 may be of clinical value in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, which are characterized by joint inflammation as well as periarticular and systemic bone loss.

  9. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...... in the control group (ptotal and arm-leg BMC loss was 4 times greater in the control group compared to the liraglutide group (estimated difference 27g (95% CI 5-48), p=0.01), although the 12% weight loss was maintained in both groups...

  10. Anti-osteoporotic activity of harpagide by regulation of bone formation in osteoblast cell culture and ovariectomy-induced bone loss mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwa-Jin; Kyung Kim, Won; Joo Park, Hyen; Cho, Lan; Kim, Me-Riong; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ho Lee, Jin; Ha, In-Hyuk; Kook Lee, Sang

    2016-02-17

    Harpagide, an iridoid glucoside, is a constituent of the root of Harpagophytum procumbens var. sublobatum (Engl.) Stapf, Devil's claw which has been used in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic potential of harpagide and its underlying mechanism of action in in vitro cell culture and in vivo bone loss animal models. Harpagide was obtained from the alkalic hydrolysis of harpagoside, a major constituent of H. procumbens var. sublobatum Analysis of biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone resorption in osteoclast cells derived from mouse bone marrow cells was performed to evaluate the mechanism of action. The protective activity of harpagide against bone loss was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Harpagide improved bone properties by stimulating the process of differentiation and maturation of osteoblast cells and suppressing the process of RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclast cells. In OVX-induced bone loss mouse model, oral administration of harpagide significantly improved recovery of bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number in the femur. Harpagide also prevented increase of trabecular separation and structure model index induced by OVX. Harpagide effectively inhibited the serum levels of biochemical markers of bone loss, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that harpagide has a potential for prevention of bone loss in OVX mice by regulating the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the suppression of osteoclast formation. Therefore, these findings suggest that harpagide might serve as a bioactive compound derived from H. procumbens var. sublobatum for improvement of age-dependent bone destruction disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  12. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  13. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  14. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  15. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  16. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  17. The Use of Structural Allograft in Primary and Revision Knee Arthroplasty with Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A. Kuchinad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss around the knee in the setting of total knee arthroplasty remains a difficult and challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. There are a number of options for dealing with smaller and contained bone loss; however, massive segmental bone loss has fewer options. Small, contained defects can be treated with cement, morselized autograft/allograft or metal augments. Segmental bone loss cannot be dealt with through simple addition of cement, morselized autograft/allograft, or metal augments. For younger or higher demand patients, the use of allograft is a good option as it provides a durable construct with high rates of union while restoring bone stock for future revisions. Older patients, or those who are low demand, may be better candidates for a tumour prosthesis, which provides immediate ability to weight bear and mobilize.

  18. Skeletal Class III malocclusion with thin symphyseal bone: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikida, Eriko; Tanikawa, Chihiro

    2012-11-01

    To describe the management of a severe skeletal Class III patient with thin symphyseal bone and alveolar bone covering the mandibular incisors. A 24 year-old female presented with a skeletal Class III malocclusion characterised by thin alveolar bone in a mildly crowded, mandibular incisor region. Computerised tomography (CT) assisted in the determination of possible tooth movement within the anterior mandibular alveolar bone. The finalised treatment plan aimed to align the maxillary and mandibular dental arches following the extraction of the maxillary right first premolar and the mandibular right permanent lateral incisor. The surgical repositioning of the maxilla and mandible with a LeFort I osteotomy and a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) would follow. After treatment, an acceptable facial profile and a solid intercuspation of the teeth were obtained. Significant root resorption was not observed. The occlusion remained stable with normal overjet and overbite after two years of retention. CT examination provided an assessment of the three-dimensional morphological characteristics of anterior alveolar bone which enabled an evaluation of possible tooth movement.

  19. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD loss in endocrinopathies [Graves′ disease (GD, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH, hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO, andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126 were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (79.59% compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001. The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (59.26% compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67% and HypoH (54.55% compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting.

  20. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  1. Use of bone compressors and atraumatic bone elevators in crestal sinus lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Alberti, L; Tamborrino, F; Di Vera, A; Lo Muzio, L; Rossetto, A; D'Agostino, A; De Santis, D; Bertossi, D

    2013-06-11

    Atrophy of the alveolar processes of the jaws, as a result of edentulism, often cannot allow a prosthetic rehabilitation, also if it only consists of a total removable prosthesis - for the inadequate base support - and also if it is backed by implants, because the small residual thickness bone compromises the primary implant stability, a fundamental requirement for a correct osseointegration. In addition to atrophy itself, the presence of noble structures (maxillary sinus, inferior alveolar nerve) make an implant-prosthetic rehabilitation contraindicated. To obviate this problem, there are many techniques to increase bone. The technique of the maxillary sinus elevation allows the increasing of the residual bone up to reach the minimum thickness in order to insert an implant. With this work we want to analyze the properties of the Bone Compression Kit (MIS, Israel) that make this surgical procedure safe, simple to perform, and predictable.

  2. Bone replacement following dental trauma prior to implant surgery - present status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallman, Mats; Mordenfeld, Arne; Strandkvist, Tomas

    Dento-alveolar trauma often leads to a need for reconstruction of the alveolar crest before an implant can be placed. Although autogenous bone grafts is considered the 'gold standard', this may be associated with patient morbidity and graft resorption. Consequently, the use of bone substitutes has

  3. Application of modern computer-aided technologies in the production of individual bone graft: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An autologous bone (bone derived from the patient himself is considered to be a “golden standard” in the treatment of bone defects and partial atrophic alveolar ridge. However, large defects and bone losses are difficult to restore in this manner, because extraction of large amounts of autologous tissue can cause donor-site problems. Alternatively, data from computed tomographic (CT scan can be used to shape a precise 3D homologous bone block using a computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM system. Case report. A 63-year old male patient referred to the Clinic of Dentistry of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, because of teeth loss in the right lateral region of the lower jaw. Clinical examination revealed a pronounced resorption of the residual ridge of the lower jaw in the aforementioned region, both horizontal and vertical. After clinical examination, the patient was referred for 3D cone beam (CBCT scan that enables visualization of bony structures and accurate measurement of dimensions of the residual alveolar ridge. Considering the large extent of bone resorption, the required ridge augmentation was more than 3 mm in height and 2 mm in width along the length of some 2 cm, thus the use of granular material was excluded. After consulting prosthodontists and engineers from the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad we decided to fabricate an individual (custom bovine-derived bone graft designed according to the obtained 3D CBCT scan. Conclusion. Application of 3D CBCT images, computer-aided systems and software in manufacturing custom bone grafts represents the most recent method of guided bone regeneration. This method substantially reduces time of recovery and carries minimum risk of postoperative complications, yet the results fully satisfy the requirements of both the patient and the therapist.

  4. Contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Diko, Sindi; Baehr, Leslie M; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C; Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-10-01

    Development of osteoarthritis commonly involves degeneration of epiphyseal trabecular bone. In previous studies, we observed 30-44% loss of epiphyseal trabecular bone (BV/TV) from the distal femur within 1 week following non-invasive knee injury in mice. Mechanical unloading (disuse) may contribute to this bone loss; however, it is unclear to what extent the injured limb is unloaded following injury, and whether disuse can fully account for the observed magnitude of bone loss. In this study, we investigated the contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone changes observed following non-invasive knee injury in mice (female C57BL/6N). We investigated changes in gait during treadmill walking, and changes in voluntary activity level using Open Field analysis at 4, 14, 28, and 42 days post-injury. We also quantified epiphyseal trabecular bone using μCT and weighed lower-limb muscles to quantify atrophy following knee injury in both ground control and hindlimb unloaded (HLU) mice. Gait analysis revealed a slightly altered stride pattern in the injured limb, with a decreased stance phase and increased swing phase. However, Open Field analysis revealed no differences in voluntary movement between injured and sham mice at any time point. Both knee injury and HLU resulted in comparable magnitudes of trabecular bone loss; however, HLU resulted in considerably more muscle loss than knee injury, suggesting another mechanism contributing to bone loss following injury. Altogether, these data suggest that mechanical unloading likely contributes to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury, but the magnitude of this bone loss cannot be fully explained by disuse. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1680-1687, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Changes in Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets After Ridge Augmentation with Bovine-Derived Xenograft and Resorbable Barrier: A Preliminary Study on CBCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavella, Valeria; Romano, Federica; Corano, Lisa; Bignardi, Cristina; Aimetti, Mario

    The primary aim of the study was to describe a novel technique to evaluate volumetric hard tissue dimensional changes after ridge augmentation procedures. The secondary aim was to apply this newly developed measuring method to compromised alveolar sockets grafted with a slowly resorbing biomaterial covered with a collagen membrane. Eleven patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age 52.7 ± 8.3 years) requiring extraction of one hopeless tooth for severe periodontitis in the maxillary anterior area were consecutively treated with a ridge augmentation procedure. All experimental sockets showed advanced buccal bone plate deficiency and were grafted with deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen covered with a collagen membrane. Sockets healed by secondary intention. Three-dimensional volumetric alveolar bone changes were calculated by superimposing cone beam computed tomography scans obtained before and 12 months after the augmentation procedure. After 12 months, the alveolar mineralized tissue filled 91.20% ± 7.96% of the maximum volume for regeneration. The augmentation procedure appeared not only to compensate for bone remodeling in most alveolar regions but also to repair a significant portion of the buccal wall. The most significant ridge width changes occurred 1 mm apical to the bone crest (2.33 ± 1.46 mm, P socket volume. A ridge preservation technique performed with collagenated bovine bone and a collagen membrane was able to improve ridge shape and dimensions in compromised alveolar sockets.

  6. Hard and Soft Tissue Management of a Localized Alveolar Ridge Atrophy with Autogenous Sources and Biomaterials: A Challenging Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in the premaxillary area, the stability of hard and soft tissues plays a pivotal role in the success of the rehabilitation from both a functional and aesthetic aspect. The present case report describes the clinical management of a localized alveolar ridge atrophy in the area of the upper right canine associated with a thin gingival biotype with a lack of keratinized tissue. An autogenous bone block harvested from the chin associated with heterologous bone particles was used to replace the missing bone, allowing for a prosthetic driven implant placement. Soft tissues deficiency was corrected by means of a combined epithelialized and subepithelial connective tissue graft. The 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated symmetric gingival levels of the upper canines, with physiological peri-implant probing depths and bone loss. Thus, the use of autogenous tissues combined with biomaterials might be considered a reliable technique in case of highly aesthetic demanding cases.

  7. Contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Diko, Sindi; Baehr, Leslie M.; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C.; Christiansen, Blaine A.

    2016-01-01

    Development of osteoarthritis commonly involves degeneration of epiphyseal trabecular bone. In previous studies, we observed 30–44% loss of epiphyseal trabecular bone (BV/TV) from the distal femur within one week following non-invasive knee injury in mice. Mechanical unloading (disuse) may contribute to this bone loss, however it is unclear to what extent the injured limb is unloaded following injury, and whether disuse can fully account for the observed magnitude of bone loss. In this study,...

  8. Long-term effects of vertical bone augmentation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Anton Jochum Keestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction, periodontitis, or trauma can cause a reduction on the alveolar ridge. This could result in an insufficient alveolar bone width and height. Different techniques of vertical bone augmentation are described in literature. However, nowadays there is not enough evidence against lateral augmentation procedures to verify if these techniques are stable over a long period of time. Objective This review analyses the different techniques that are used to vertically augment the bone and evaluate if these techniques are stable over a long period of time. Material and Methods The MEDLINE-PubMed database was searched from its earliest records until December 22, 2014. The following search term was used: Alveolar Ridge augmentation [MESH]. Several journals were hand searched and some authors were contacted for additional information. The primary outcome measure that was analyzed was marginal bone level change around dental implants in the augmented sites, and the secondary outcomes were survival and success rates of dental implants placed in the augmented sites. Results The search yielded 203 abstracts. Ultimately, 90 articles were selected, describing 51 studies meeting the eligibility criteria. The marginal bone level change for the inlay technique and vertical guided bone regeneration are in agreement with the success criteria. Alveolar distraction showed more marginal bone level change after the first year of loading, and for the inlay technique very few studies were available. Conclusions Based on the available data in the current existing studies with a follow-up period of at least 4 to 5 years, one can summarize that there seems to be a trend that the onlay technique, alveolar distraction, and vertical guided bone regeneration are stable for at least 4 to 5 years.

  9. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  10. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women: a need for therapeutic intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, P; Gnant, M; Body, J J; Bundred, N J; Brufsky, A; Coleman, R E; Guise, T A; Lipton, A; Aapro, M S

    2012-10-01

    Current clinical treatment guidelines recommend cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or both (with targeted therapy if indicated) for premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer, depending on the biologic characteristics of the primary tumor. Some of these therapies can induce premature menopause or are specifically designed to suppress ovarian function and reduce circulating estrogen levels. In addition to bone loss associated with low estrogen levels, cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a direct negative effect on bone metabolism. As a result, cancer treatment-induced bone loss poses a significant threat to bone health in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Clinical trials of antiresorptive therapies, such as bisphosphonates, have demonstrated the ability to slow or prevent bone loss in this setting. Current fracture risk assessment tools are based on data from healthy postmenopausal women and do not adequately address the risks associated with breast cancer therapy, especially in younger premenopausal women. We therefore recommend that all premenopausal women with breast cancer be informed about the potential risk of bone loss prior to beginning anticancer therapy. Women who experience amenorrhea should have bone mineral density assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and receive regular follow-up to monitor bone health. Regular exercise and daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended. Women with a Z-score <-2.0 or Z-score ≤-1.0 and/or a 5-10% annual decrease in bone mineral density should be considered for bisphosphonate therapy in addition to calcium and vitamin D supplements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regenerative Needs Following Alveolar Ridge Preservation Procedures in Compromised and Noncompromised Extraction Sockets: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzis, Theofilos; Lipton, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessity for additional regenerative procedures following healing of compromised and noncompromised extraction sockets with alveolar ridge preservation procedures through the use of virtual implant imaging software. The cohort was comprised of 87 consecutive patients subjected to a single maxillary tooth extraction with an alveolar ridge preservation procedure for subsequent implant placement. Patients were divided into two main groups based on the integrity of the buccal bone plate following teeth extraction. Patients in the compromised socket (CS) group (n = 52) had partial or complete buccal bone plate loss, and patients in the noncompromised socket (NCS) group (n = 35) exhibited no bone loss of their socket walls following tooth extraction. Following 4 to 6 months of healing, all patients had a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study. Root-formed implants were placed virtually in an ideal prosthetic position. The number of implants per group and location (anterior, premolar, molar) exhibiting exposed buccal implant surface was calculated. In the CS group, 5 out of 19 anterior implants (26.3%), 4 out of 14 premolar implants (28.5%), and 7 out of 19 molar implants (36.8%) had exposed buccal surfaces. In the NCS group, 4 out of 9 anterior implants (44.4%), 2 out of 9 premolar implants (22.2%), and 4 out of 17 molar implants (23.5%) had exposed buccal surfaces. There were no statistically significant differences for intragroup and intergroup comparisons (χ² test, P > .05). This study failed to find statistically significant differences in the frequency of implants with exposed buccal surfaces placed virtually, following treatment of compromised and noncompromised sockets. A high proportion (22% to 44%) of sites had implants that potentially needed additional regenerative procedures.

  12. A soluble activin type IIA receptor mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength and cancellous bone mass in a mouse model of disuse osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodberg, Andreas; Eijken, Marco; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Okkels, Mette Wendelboe; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Brüel, Annemarie

    2018-05-01

    Disuse causes a rapid and substantial bone loss distinct in its pathophysiology from the bone loss associated with cancers, age, and menopause. While inhibitors of the activin-receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have been shown to prevent ovariectomy- and cancer-induced bone loss, their application in a model of disuse osteopenia remains to be tested. Here, we show that a soluble activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA-mFc) increases diaphyseal bone strength and cancellous bone mass, and mitigates the loss of femoral neck bone strength in the Botulinum Toxin A (BTX)-model of disuse osteopenia in female C57BL/6J mice. We show that ActRIIA-mFc treatment preferentially stimulates a dual-effect (anabolic-antiresorptive) on the periosteal envelope of diaphyseal bone, demonstrating in detail the effects of ActRIIA-mFc on cortical bone. These observations constitute a previously undescribed feature of IASPs that mediates at least part of their ability to mitigate detrimental effects of unloading on bone tissue. The study findings support the application of IASPs as a strategy to combat bone loss during disuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary phosphorus exacerbates bone loss induced by cadmium in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalian, Neema; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Soung, Do Y; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-12-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss can be exacerbated by environmental contaminants, including the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). We hypothesized that incorporating phosphorus (P) into the diet would lead to the chelation of Cd into P, preventing its absorption and subsequent bone loss. To test this hypothesis, we used ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis to examine the deleterious effects of Cd on bone with and without added P. Fifty 3-month-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five treatment groups (n = 10 per group) for 3 months as follows: (1) control; (2) 50 ppm Cd; (3) 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P; (4) 200 ppm Cd; and (5) 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P. Cd plus P caused a significant loss of whole body (P = 0.0001 and P properties, 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused an increase in trabecular separation, whereas 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused a decrease in bone volume-to-total volume ratio, a decrease in trabecular number, and an increase in trabecular separation and structural model index. Our findings indicate that Cd exposure, along with high intake of P, may be a public health hazard with respect to bone health.

  14. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The current state of bone loss research: data from spaceflight and microgravity simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Mamta Patel; Risin, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Bone loss is a well documented phenomenon occurring in humans both in short- and in long-term spaceflights. This phenomenon can be also reproduced on the ground in human and animals and also modeled in cell-based analogs. Since space flights are infrequent and expensive to study the biomedical effects of microgravity on the human body, much of the known pathology of bone loss comes from experimental studies. The most commonly used in vitro simulators of microgravity are clinostats while in vivo simulators include the bed rest studies in humans and hindlimb unloading experiments in animals. Despite the numerous reports that have documented bone loss in wide ranges in multiple crew members, the pathology remains a key concern and development of effective countermeasures is still a major task. Thus far, the offered modalities have not shown much success in preventing or alleviating bone loss in astronauts and cosmonauts. The objective of this review is to capture the most recent research on bone loss from spaceflights, bed rest and hindlimb unloading, and in vitro studies utilizing cellular models in clinostats. Additionally, this review offers projections on where the research has to focus to ensure the most rapid development of effective countermeasures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spaceflight-induced vertebral bone loss in ovariectomized rats is associated with increased bone marrow adiposity and no change in bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica A; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2016-01-01

    There is often a reciprocal relationship between bone marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts, suggesting that marrow adipose tissue (MAT) antagonizes osteoblast differentiation. MAT is increased in rodents during spaceflight but a causal relationship between MAT and bone loss remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight on bone mass, bone resorption, bone formation, and MAT in lumbar vertebrae of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Twelve-week-old OVX Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to a ground control or flight group. Following flight, histological sections of the second lumbar vertebrae (n=11/group) were stained using a technique that allowed simultaneous quantification of cells and preflight fluorochrome label. Compared with ground controls, rats flown in space had 32% lower cancellous bone area and 306% higher MAT. The increased adiposity was due to an increase in adipocyte number (224%) and size (26%). Mineral apposition rate and osteoblast turnover were unchanged during spaceflight. In contrast, resorption of a preflight fluorochrome and osteoclast-lined bone perimeter were increased (16% and 229%, respectively). The present findings indicate that cancellous bone loss in rat lumbar vertebrae during spaceflight is accompanied by increased bone resorption and MAT but no change in bone formation. These findings do not support the hypothesis that increased MAT during spaceflight reduces osteoblast activity or lifespan. However, in the context of ovarian hormone deficiency, bone formation during spaceflight was insufficient to balance increased resorption, indicating defective coupling. The results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that during spaceflight mesenchymal stem cells are diverted to adipocytes at the expense of forming osteoblasts. PMID:28725730

  17. Clinical use of the resorbable bioscaffold poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) in post-extraction socket for maintaining the alveolar height: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Nadeemul; Saifi, Aamir Malick; Giraddi, Girish B

    2016-01-01

    A common sequel of tooth extraction is alveolar bone resorption. It makes the placement of dental implants difficult and creates an esthetic problem for the fabrication of conventional prostheses. Therefore, alveolar bone following tooth extraction should be preserved. The present prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the resorbable bioscaffold poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) in maintaining the alveolar height in post-extraction socket. 20 patients were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly divided into two groups: cases and control comprising of 10 patients each. Atraumatic tooth extraction was done in all patients. PLGA bioscaffold was placed in cases and socket was closed with 3-0 vicryl. In control group, socket was directly closed with 3-0 vicryl. The patients were kept on follow-up and complications such as dry socket, pain, and swelling were recorded. IOPA were taken at 1st, 4th, 12th, and 24th week to record changes in the height of alveolar bone. The radiographic measurements were compared and the differences were statistically analyzed. Reduction in alveolar bone height after placement of PLGA bioscaffold was significantly less in cases as compared to controls at 4th, 12th, and 24th week following extraction. No complications were observed throughout the follow-up period. PLGA scaffold significantly reduces bone resorption. Application is very simple and can be easily performed in a dental setup. However, PLGA scaffold adds significantly to the cost of treatment.

  18. Horizontal alveolar ridge expansion followed by immediate placement of implants and rehabilitation with zirconia prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Miranda Deliberador

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been a growing number of procedures involving dental implants. Most cases, though, are characterized by bone atrophy, especially horizontal atrophy. This clinical case aims to report a technique for the expansion of the horizontal alveolar ridge. A longitudinal fracture was created in the alveolar ridge to expand the bone, followed by immediate insertion of dental implants along with a particulate allogeneic bone graft. Eight implants were placed in the maxilla, and after 12 months, a surgical reopening was performed, along with rehabilitation with a protocol-type prosthesis, for which a zirconia infrastructure was made. The patient was observed during a 10-month follow-up period in which an effective osseointegration of all implants was achieved as a result of such a technique. The split-crest technique followed by the immediate placement of implants and a particulate allogeneic bone graft proved to be effective, with a predictable osseointegration.

  19. Comparing the effects of chlorhexidine and persica on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Shahrabi, Shokufeh; Navabazam, Alireza

    2012-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is broadly prescribed by clinicians for treating extraction socket wounds; however, studies have reported adverse effects for chlorhexidine. Persica, a herbal antibacterial agent, could be an alternative for chlorhexidine. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of persica and chlorhexidine on alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three study groups: 0.2% chlorhexidine, 10% persica and controls (tap water). The rats were mouth-rinsed for 14 days. On day 8, the mandibular right first molars of all the rats were extracted. On day 21, the rats were euthanized and histological slides of their extraction sockets were prepared. The amount of new bone formation and the number of inflammatory cells in the extraction socket for each rat were recorded. Data were analysed using linear regression and Mann-Whitney tests. There was no significant difference between the control group and the intervention groups in terms of new bone formation and inflammatory cell count. The mean new bone formation was significantly higher in the persica group than in the chlorhexidine group. There was a significant association between new bone formation and inflammatory cell count in the entire sample. In conclusion, there were no significant differences between rinsing with tap water and rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine and 10% persica in enhancing extraction socket wound healing in rats. Extraction socket wound healing in rats was better enhanced with 10% persica than 0.2% chlorhexidine.

  20. Human alveolar bone cell proliferation, expression of osteoblastic phenotype, and matrix mineralization on porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Crippa, Grasiele Edilaine; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Taba, Mario; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Beloti, Marcio Mateus

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the influence of the porous titanium (Ti) structure on the osteogenic cell behaviour. Porous Ti discs were fabricated by the powder metallurgy process with the pore size typically between 50 and 400 microm and a porosity of 60%. Osteogenic cells obtained from human alveolar bone were cultured until subconfluence and subcultured on dense Ti (control) and porous Ti for periods of up to 17 days. Cultures grown on porous Ti exhibited increased cell proliferation and total protein content, and lower levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than on dense Ti. In general, gene expression of osteoblastic markers-runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-7, and osteocalcin was lower at day 7 and higher at day 17 in cultures grown on porous Ti compared with dense Ti, a finding consistent with the enhanced growth rate for such cultures. The amount of mineralized matrix was greater on porous Ti compared with the dense one. These results indicate that the porous Ti is an appropriate substrate for osteogenic cell adhesion, proliferation, and production of a mineralized matrix. Because of the three-dimensional environment it provides, porous Ti should be considered an advantageous substrate for promoting desirable implant surface-bone interactions.

  1. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p < 0.05; Two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni) with no mineralized nodule formation. Under in-vitro conditions, Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  3. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  4. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia.

  5. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Todd

    Full Text Available Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an

  6. Reasons for mini-implants failure: choosing installation site should be valued!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mini-implant loss is often associated with physical and mechanical aspects that result from choosing an inappropriate placement site. It is worth highlighting that: a Interdental alveolar bone crests are flexible and deformable. For this reason, they may not offer the ideal absolute anchorage. The more cervical the structures, the more delicate they are, thus offering less physical support for mini-implant placement; b Alveolar bone crests of triangular shape are more deformable, whereas those of rectangular shape are more flexible; c The bases of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and the mandible are not flexible, for this reason, they are more likely to receive mini-implants; d The more cervical a mini-implant is placed, the higher the risk of loss; the more apical a mini-implant is placed, the better its prognosis will be; e 3D evaluations play a major role in planning the use of mini-implants. Based on the aforementioned considerations, the hypotheses about mini-implant loss are as follows: 1 Deflection of maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes when mini-implants are more cervically placed; 2 Mini-implants placed too near the periodontal ligament, with normal intra-alveolar tooth movement; 3 Low bone density, low thickness and low alveolar bone volume; 4 Low alveolar cortical bone thickness; 5 Excessive pressure inducing trabecular bone microfracture; 6 Sites of higher anatomical weakness in the mandible and the maxilla; 7 Thicker gingival tissue not considered when choosing the mini-implant.

  7. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  8. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated

  9. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  10. Morphology of bone defects in patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cone beam x-ray CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyo, Iyu; Kubota, Masato; Sato, Yuki; Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro

    2006-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment planning of the cleft lip and palate vary according to the morphology of the alveolar bone and palatal bone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the three-dimensional anatomy of the alveolar and palatal bone in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Thirty-three nonsyndromic consecutive patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were treated by the cleft palate team at Showa University. Each patient had lip and palate surgeries at Showa University. Cone beam CT radiographs (CB MercuRay, Hitachi) were taken prior to secondary bone grafting, and were classified according to the method of Kita et al. 1997. Cone beam CT radiographs showed multiple types of alveolar and palatal bone morphology, and focused on special types described in the method of Kita et al. It was most frequently found that bone defects in the alveolar crest showed similar patterns in both buccal and palatal aspect, and the buccal bone defect in the nasal floor was larger than the palatal bone defect in the nasal floor. In 80% of the patients, the palatal bone defect showed similar patterns in both anterior and posterior aspects, and the anterior palatal bone defect was smaller than the posterior palatal bone defect. In addition, inadequate bone bridges were frequently found at the cleft site. It is suggested that patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate have various types of alveolar and palatal bone morphology, and are required to take three-dimensional radiographic X-rays prior to any orthodontic treatment. (author)

  11. Influence of olive oil on alveolar bone response during orthodontic retention period: rabbit model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdany, Afrah K; Al-Khatib, Ali R; Al-Sadi, Hafidh I

    2017-08-01

    This study attempted to evaluate clinically and histologically the effects of olive oil (Ol) consumption on orthodontic relapse after the retention period. Thirty apparently healthy female albino rabbits, weight more than 1000 g each was used in this study. The animals were grouped randomly into six groups of five animals each: two control and four experimental groups. In control groups, the relapse was estimated either at zero day, or at the end of the fourth week after orthodontic retention period. In the experimental groups, the animals' groups received Ol, 7.7, or 15.4 ml/kg b.w. per day during the orthodontic retention period. The relapse was estimated either at zero day, or at the end of the fourth week after orthodontic retention period for each concentration. Modified fixed orthodontic appliances were attached to the rabbits' lower central incisors. Each rabbit received orthodontic intervention for one week, followed by six weeks retention period. At the end of the experiments, the clinical and histological investigations were conducted. Data analyses were performed at the level of p orthodontic retention period, especially at 15.4 ml/kg b.w. per day concentration, clinically reduced orthodontic relapse on rabbit model. Histologically, Ol increased osteoblasts and osteocytes counts and the relative amount of bone mineralization of connective tissue layer forming alveolar bone (AB) at the end of four weeks after the orthodontic retention period.

  12. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  13. Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Three-Dimensional Printed Hydroxyapatite Devices: A Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellini, Joseph P; Norton, Michael R; Luan, Kevin WanXin; Kim, David Minjoon; Wada, Kei; Sarmiento, Hector L

    2018-02-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of precise three-dimensional hydroxyapatite printed micro- and macrochannel devices for alveolar ridge augmentation in a canine model. All grafts induced minimal inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. Examination of undecalcified sections revealed that both types of grafts demonstrated bone ingrowth. The majority of the bone growth into the block graft was into the channels, though a portion grew directly into the construct in the form of small bony spicules. In conclusion, bone ingrowth was readily demonstrated in the middle of the implanted printed devices.

  14. Impact of Weight Loss With Intragastric Balloon on Bone Density and Microstructure in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Eduardo; Madeira, Miguel; Guedes, Erika Paniago; Mafort, Thiago Thomaz; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Lima, Inayá Correa Barbosa; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2018-03-21

    The historical concept that obesity protects against bone fractures has been questioned. Weight loss appears to reduce bone mineral density (BMD); however, the results in young adults are inconsistent, and data on the effects of weight loss on bone microstructure are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of weight loss using an intragastric balloon (IGB) on bone density and microstructure. Forty obese patients with metabolic syndrome (mean age 35.1 ± 7.3 yr) used an IGB continuously for 6 mo. Laboratory tests, areal BMD, and body composition measurements via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and volumetric BMD and bone microstructure measurements via high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were conducted before IGB placement and after IGB removal. The mean weight loss was 11.5%. After 6 mo, there were significant increases in vitamin D and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen levels. After IGB use, areal BMD increased in the spine but decreased in the total femur and the 33% radius. Cortical BMD increased in the distal radius but tended to decrease in the distal tibia. The observed trabecular bone loss in the distal tibia contributed to the decline in the total volumetric BMD at this site. There was a negative correlation between the changes in leptin levels and the measures of trabecular quality in the tibia on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Weight loss may negatively impact bone microstructure in young patients, especially for weight-bearing bones, in which obesity has a more prominent effect. Copyright © 2018 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins e Souza, Patricia; Brandao, Bruno Lobo; Motta, Geraldo; Monteiro, Martim; Brown, Eduardo; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  16. Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability: the quantification of glenoid bone loss using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins e Souza, Patricia [Fleury Medicina e Saude and Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brandao, Bruno Lobo; Motta, Geraldo; Monteiro, Martim [Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brown, Eduardo [Grupo Fleury Medicina Diagnostica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the severity of glenoid bone loss in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation by comparing the results with arthroscopic measurements. Institutional review board approval and written consent from all patients were obtained. Thirty-six consecutive patients (29 men, seven women; mean age, 34.5 [range, 18-55] years) with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation (≥3 dislocations; mean, 37.9; range, 3-200) and suspected glenoid bone loss underwent shoulder MRI before arthroscopy (mean interval, 28.5 [range, 9-73] days). Assessments of glenoid bone loss by MRI (using the best-fit circle area method) and arthroscopy were compared. Inter- and intrareader reproducibility of MRI-derived measurements was evaluated using arthroscopy as a comparative standard. Glenoid bone loss was evident on MRI and during arthroscopy in all patients. Inter- and intrareader correlations of MRI-derived measurements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.80-0.82; r = 0.81-0.86). The first and second observers' measurements showed strong (r = 0.76) and moderate (r = 0.69) interreader correlation, respectively, with arthroscopic measurements. Conventional MRI can be used to measure glenoid bone loss, particularly when employed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. (orig.)

  17. Simultaneous Sinus Lifting and Alveolar Distraction of a Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla for Oral Rehabilitation with Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Paeng, Jun-Young; Sukegawa, Shintaro; Furuki, Yoshihiko; Ohwada, Hiroyuki; Nariai, Yoshiki; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Hideaki; Sekine, Joji

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants) were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n = 4). A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80) after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation. PMID:22792105

  18. Simultaneous Sinus Lifting and Alveolar Distraction of a Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla for Oral Rehabilitation with Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kanno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n=4. A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80 after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation.

  19. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  20. The relationship between blood lead levels and periodontal bone loss in the United States, 1988-1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, Bruce A; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Brody, Debra J

    2002-01-01

    An association between bone disease and bone lead has been reported. Studies have suggested that lead stored in bone may adversely affect bone mineral metabolism and blood lead (PbB) levels. However, the relationship between PbB levels and bone loss attributed to periodontal disease has never been reported. In this study we examined the relationship between clinical parameters that characterize bone loss due to periodontal disease and PbB levels in the U.S. population. We used data from the T...

  1. Dental Implant Surrounding Marginal Bone Level Evaluation: Platform Switching versus Platform Matching—One-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and feasibility of platform switching have been discussed in several studies, reporting lesser crestal bone loss in platform-switched implants than in platform-matched implants. Objective. The aim of the present study was to observe the changes in vertical and horizontal marginal bone levels in platform-switched and platform-matched dental implants. Materials and Methods. 51 patients received 60 dental implants in the present study over a 1-year period. Measurement was performed between the implant shoulder and the most apical and horizontal marginal defect by periapical radiographs to examine the changes of peri-implant alveolar bone before and 12 months after prosthodontic restoration delivery. Results. These marginal bone measurements showed a bone gain of 0.23±0.58 mm in the vertical gap and 0.22±0.53 mm in the horizontal gap of platform matching, while in platform switching a bone gain of 0.93±1 mm (P<0.05 in the vertical gap and 0.50±0.56 mm in the horizontal gap was found. The average vertical gap reduction from the baseline until 12 months was 0.92±1.11 mm in platform switching and 0.29±0.85 mm in platform matching (P<0.05. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present study, platform switching seemed to be more effective for a better peri-implant alveolar bone vertical and horizontal gap reduction at 1 year.

  2. Repression of osteoblast maturation by ERRα accounts for bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Gallet

    Full Text Available ERRα is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, the complete inactivation of which confers resistance to bone loss induced by ageing and estrogen withdrawal to female mice in correlation with increased bone formation in vivo. Furthermore ERRα negatively regulates the commitment of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage ex vivo as well as later steps of osteoblast maturation. We searched to determine whether the activities of ERRα on osteoblast maturation are responsible for one or both types of in vivo induced bone loss. To this end we have generated conditional knock out mice in which the receptor is normally present during early osteoblast differentiation but inactivated upon osteoblast maturation. Bone ageing in these animals was similar to that observed for control animals. In contrast conditional ERRαKO mice were completely resistant to bone loss induced by ovariectomy. We conclude that the late (maturation, but not early (commitment, negative effects of ERRα on the osteoblast lineage contribute to the reduced bone mineral density observed upon estrogen deficiency.

  3. Repression of osteoblast maturation by ERRα accounts for bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Marlène; Saïdi, Soraya; Haÿ, Eric; Photsavang, Johann; Marty, Caroline; Sailland, Juliette; Carnesecchi, Julie; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Forcet, Christelle; Birling, Marie-Christine; Sorg, Tania; Chassande, Olivier; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    ERRα is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, the complete inactivation of which confers resistance to bone loss induced by ageing and estrogen withdrawal to female mice in correlation with increased bone formation in vivo. Furthermore ERRα negatively regulates the commitment of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage ex vivo as well as later steps of osteoblast maturation. We searched to determine whether the activities of ERRα on osteoblast maturation are responsible for one or both types of in vivo induced bone loss. To this end we have generated conditional knock out mice in which the receptor is normally present during early osteoblast differentiation but inactivated upon osteoblast maturation. Bone ageing in these animals was similar to that observed for control animals. In contrast conditional ERRαKO mice were completely resistant to bone loss induced by ovariectomy. We conclude that the late (maturation), but not early (commitment), negative effects of ERRα on the osteoblast lineage contribute to the reduced bone mineral density observed upon estrogen deficiency.

  4. Bone Loss in Space: Shuttle/MIR Experience and Bed Rest Countermeasure Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A.; Feiveson, A.; Oganov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral during space flight was documented in the 1970's Skylab missions. The USSR space program made similar observations in the 1980's. The Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow and NASA JSC in 1989 began to collect pre- and post-flight bone mineral density (BMD) using Hologic QDR 1000 DEXA scanners transferred from JSC to Moscow and Star City. DEXA whole body, hip, and lumbar spine scans were performed prior to and during the first week after return from 4- to 6-month missions (plus one 8-month mission and one 14- month mission) on the Mir space station. These data documented the extent and regional nature of bone loss during long duration space flight. Of the 18 cosmonauts participating in this study between 1990 and 1995, seven flew two missions. BMD scans prior to the second flight compared to the first mission preflight scans indicated that recovery was possibly delayed or incomplete. Because of these findings, NASA and IBMP initiated the study "Bone Mineral Loss and Recovery After Shuttle/Mir Flights" in 1995 to evaluate bone recovery during a 3-year post-flight period. All of the 14 participants thus far evaluated lost bone in at least one region of the spine and lower extremities during flight. Of the 14, only one to date has exhibited full return to baseline BNM values in all regions. The current study will continue until the last participant has reached full bone recovery in all regions, has reached a plateau, or until three years after the flight (2001 for the last mission of the program). Bone mineral density losses in space and difficulty in returning to baseline indicate a need for countermeasure development. In late 1996 NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine were approved to conduct two countermeasure studies during 17 weeks of bed rest. In 1997 the studies were begun in the bed rest facility established by NASA, Baylor College of Medicine, and The Methodist Hospital in Houston. To date, three bed rest controls, five resistive

  5. The Role of Mechanical Stimulation in Recovery of Bone Loss-High versus Low Magnitude and Frequency of Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Mamta Patel; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-04-02

    Musculoskeletal pathologies associated with decreased bone mass, including osteoporosis and disuse-induced bone loss, affect millions of Americans annually. Microgravity-induced bone loss presents a similar concern for astronauts during space missions. Many pharmaceutical treatments have slowed osteoporosis, and recent data shows promise for countermeasures for bone loss observed in astronauts. Additionally, high magnitude and low frequency impact such as running has been recognized to increase bone and muscle mass under normal but not microgravity conditions. However, a low magnitude and high frequency (LMHF) mechanical load experienced in activities such as postural control, has also been shown to be anabolic to bone. While several clinical trials have demonstrated that LMHF mechanical loading normalizes bone loss in vivo, the target tissues and cells of the mechanical load and underlying mechanisms mediating the responses are unknown. In this review, we provide an overview of bone adaptation under a variety of loading profiles and the potential for a low magnitude loading as a way to counteract bone loss as experienced by astronauts.

  6. Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

    2014-05-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells.

  7. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Sánchez Infante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La proteinosis alveolar pulmonar es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, caracterizada por alteración en el metabolismo del surfactante, lo que determina su acumulación anormal en el espacio alveolar. Es una enfermedad extremadamente rara. Se han reportado solamente 500 casos en la literatura. Se describió por primera vez en 1958. Se presenta un caso de proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en un lactante de 2 meses, con desnutrición proteico energética, que ingresa por dificultad respiratoria e hipoxemia, y, con imágenes radiológicas de tipo retículo-nodulillar, en vidrio deslustrado, en el cual se plantea inicialmente el diagnóstico de bronconeumonía. Ante la evolución desfavorable y no respuesta al tratamiento, se realizó un estudio para descartar enfermedades pulmonares crónicas. El paciente fallece y se confirma el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica. Se realiza una revisión del tema.The pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by surfactant metabolism alteration determining its abnormal accumulation in the alveolar space. It is a disease very rare and in literature only 500 cases have been reported; it was described for the first time in 1958. This is a case presentation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in an infant aged 2 months with energetic protein malnutrition admitted due to respiratory difficulty and hypoxemia and with radiologic images of the reticulonodulillary, in frosting glass, where initially is made the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. In the face of unfavorable evolution and no response to treatment, a study was conducted to rule out chronic pulmonary diseases. Patient died confirming the diagnosis according to the pathologic anatomy. A review on subject is carried out.

  8. Alveolar ridge preservation using autogenous tooth graft versus beta-tricalcium phosphate alloplast: A randomized, controlled, prospective, clinical pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Pradeep Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A randomized, prospective clinical, radiographical, and histological study was conducted to evaluate healing after alveolar ridge preservation technique using two different graft materials, namely, a novel autogenous graft material i. e., autogenous tooth graft (ATG and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP alloplast. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients undergoing extraction of at least three teeth were selected. Atraumatic extractions were performed. Of the three extraction sockets, one was grafted with ATG, other with β-TCP, and the third was left ungrafted. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken immediately after grafting and 4 months postoperatively to check the changes in alveolar crest height and width at all the sites. Three patients in whom implant placement was done after complete healing; bone samples were harvested using a 3 mm diameter trephine during osteotomy preparation from both the ridge preserved sites and studied histologically. Results: There was a statistically significant difference when the changes in width and height of alveolar crest were compared within all the three groups (P < 0.05. Among three sites, ATG-grafted sites showed the most superior results with a minimal reduction in alveolar crest height and width. Histological analysis also showed the same trend with more new bone formation at ATG-grafted sites as compared to β-TCP-grafted sites. Conclusion: Postextraction, ridge preservation leads to more predictable maintenance of alveolar ridge height and width. ATG as compared to β-TCP provided superior results. Based on this, we conclude that ATG material can serve as a better alternative to conventional bone graft materials.

  9. Bone-anchored hearing devices in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss: a patient-carer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Rupan; Doshi, Jayesh; Child, Anne; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Reid, Andrew; McDermott, Ann-Louise

    2013-09-01

    We sought to determine the outcome of implantation of a bone-anchored hearing device in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss. A retrospective case note analysis was used in a tertiary referral pediatric hospital to study 17 consecutive cases of pediatric patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss who were fitted with a bone-anchored hearing device between 2005 and 2010. The average age of the patients at the time of bone-anchored hearing device fitting was 10 years 6 months (range, 6 years 3 months to 16 years). Qualitative subjective outcome measures demonstrated benefit. The vast majority of patients reported improved social and physical functioning and improved quality of life. All 17 patients are currently using their bone-anchored hearing device on a daily basis after a follow-up of 6 months. This study has shown improved quality of life in children with unilateral hearing loss after implantation of their bone-anchored hearing device. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement in health status reported by children and/or carers. Bone-anchored hearing devices have an important role in the management of children with symptomatic unilateral hearing loss. Perhaps earlier consideration of a bone-anchored hearing device would be appropriate in selected cases.

  10. The Role of Peripheral Nerve Function in Age-Related Bone Loss and Changes in Bone Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    E Production of Osteoblasts, and Attenuates the Inflammatory Bone Loss Induced by Lipopolysaccharide. ISRN Pharmacol, 2012. 2012: p. 439860. 17...Kobayashi M, Watanabe K, Yokoyama S, et al. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 Ligand, Suppresses Bone Resorption by Inhibit- ing the Prostaglandin E Production of...example, mechanoreceptors in the skin respond to bending and stretching and can provide information about touch. Pacini’s corpuscle consists of onion like

  11. An Unusual Bone Loss Around Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Rokn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPre-implant disease is an inflammatory process, which can affect the surrounding tissues of a functional Osseointegrated implant that is usually as a result of a disequilibrium between the micro-flora and the body defense system.This case reports a 57 years old male with unusual bone loss around dental implants.This was an unusual case of peri-implantitis which occurred only in the implants on one side of the mouth although they all were unloaded implants.

  12. Bisphosphonate effects in rat unloaded hindlimb bone loss model: three-dimensional microcomputed tomographic, histomorphometric, and densitometric analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barou, O; Lafage-Proust, M H; Martel, C; Thomas, T; Tirode, F; Laroche, N; Barbier, A; Alexandre, C; Vico, L

    1999-10-01

    The effects of antiresorptive drugs on bone loss remain unclear. Using three-dimensional microtomography, dual X-ray/densitometry, and histomorphometry, we evaluated tiludronate effects in the bone loss model of immobilization in tail-suspended rats after 7, 13, and 23 days. Seventy-eight 12-week-old Wistar male rats were assigned to 13 groups: 1 baseline group, and for each time point, 1 control group treated with vehicle and three tail-suspended groups treated with either tiludronate (0.5 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle, administered s. c. every other day, during the last week before sacrifice. In primary spongiosa (ISP), immobilization-induced bone loss plateaued after day 7 and was prevented by tiludronate. In secondary spongiosa (IISP), bone loss appeared at day 13 with a decrease in trabecular thickness and trabecular number (Tb.N) as assessed by three-dimensional microtomography. Osteoclastic parameters did not differ in tail-suspended rats versus control rats, whereas bone formation showed a biphasic pattern: after a marked decrease at day 7, osteoblastic activity and recruitment normalized at days 13 and 23, respectively. At day 23, the 80% decrease in bone mass was fully prevented by high-dose tiludronate with an increase in Tb.N without preventing trabecular thinning. In summary, at day 7, tiludronate prevented bone loss in ISP. After day 13, tiludronate prevented bone loss in ISP and IISP despite a further decrease in bone formation. Thus, the preventive effects of tiludronate in this model may be related to the alteration in bone modeling with an increase in Tb.N in ISP and subsequently in IISP.

  13. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  14. Hard and soft tissue changes following alveolar ridge preservation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, Neil; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Donos, Nikolaos; Mardas, Nikos

    2017-08-01

    Two focused questions were addressed within this systematic review. Q1) What is the effect of alveolar ridge preservation on linear and volumetric alveolar site dimensions, keratinised measurements, histological characteristics and patient-based outcomes when compared to unassisted socket healing. Q2) What is the size effect of these outcomes in three different types of intervention (guided bone regeneration, socket grafting and socket seal). An electronic search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register LILACS, Web of Science) and hand-search was conducted up to June 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT); with unassisted socket healing as controls: were eligible in the analysis for Q1. RCTs, CCTs and large prospective case series with or without an unassisted socket healing as control group were eligible in the analysis for Q2. Nine papers (8 RCTs and 1 CCTs) were included in the analysis for Q1 and 37 papers (29 RCTs, 7 CCTs and 1 case series) for Q2. The risk for bias was unclear or high in most of the studies. Q1: the standardised mean difference (SMD) in vertical mid-buccal bone height between ARP and a non-treated site was 0.739 mm (95% CI: 0.332 to 1.147). The SMD when proximal vertical bone height and horizontal bone width was compared was 0.796mm (95% CI: -1.228 to 0.364) and 1.198 mm (95% CI: -0.0374 to 2.433). Examination of ARP sites revealed significant variation in vital and trabecular bone percentages and keratinised tissue width and thickness. Adverse events were routinely reported, with three papers reporting a high level of complications in the test and control groups and two papers reporting greater risks associated with ARP. No studies reported on variables associated with the patient experience in either the test or the control group. Q2: A pooled effect reduction (PER) in mid-buccal alveolar ridge height of -0.467 mm (95% CI: -0.866 to -0.069) was recorded for GBR procedures and -0.157 mm (95% CI

  15. A statistical method (cross-validation) for bone loss region detection after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Wenjun; Li, Caixia; Chu, Philip W.; Kornak, John; Lang, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience bone loss after the long spaceflight missions. Identifying specific regions that undergo the greatest losses (e.g. the proximal femur) could reveal information about the processes of bone loss in disuse and disease. Methods for detecting such regions, however, remains an open problem. This paper focuses on statistical methods to detect such regions. We perform statistical parametric mapping to get t-maps of changes in images, and propose a new cross-validation method to select an optimum suprathreshold for forming clusters of pixels. Once these candidate clusters are formed, we use permutation testing of longitudinal labels to derive significant changes. PMID:20632144

  16. Unprotected autogenous bone block grafts in anterior maxilla: Resorption rates and clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanić Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The use of autogenous bone grafts for augmentation of the resorbed alveolar ridge is still considered the gold standard in implant dentistry. The aim of this study was to analyze the resorption rate of autogenous bone block grafts from the retromolar region placed in the frontal segment of the upper jaw unprotected by barrier membranes, to assess the stability of implants placed into the grafted bone, as well as to monitor its changes during the healing period. Methods. The study included 18 patients with a total of 20 grafted sites. The residual alveolar ridge was measured before and after the augmentation and prior to implant placement. All implants were restored with provisional crowns within 48 hours after the placement. Implant stability was assessed using resonance frequency analysis. Results. The average period from ridge augmentation to reentry was 5.4 months (range 4–6 months. At reentry the healed alveolar ridge had a mean width of 6.1 ± 1.27 mm. The mean calculated width gain was 3.04 ± 1.22 mm. The overall surface resorption of block grafts was 0.68 ± 0.69 mm (18.85%. At the time of implant placement the mean value of implant stability quotient (ISQ was 71.25 ± 5.77. The lowest ISQ values were noted after three weeks of healing, followed by a gradual increase until week 12. After 12 weeks implants showed significantly higher ISQ values compared to primary stability (p < 0.05 Wilcoxon signed ranks test. During the 3-years followup period no cases of implant loss were recorded. Conclusion. Despite a significant resorption of bone grafts, it was possible to place implants in all the cases and to use the immediate loading protocol without affecting implant survival rate. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no.175021

  17. Evolutionary medicine and bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases--A theory of inflammation-related osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio; Pacifici, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bone loss is typical in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, pemphigus vulgaris, and others. It is also typical in transplantation-related inflammation and during the process of aging. While we recognized that bone loss is tightly linked to immune system activation or inflamm-aging in the form of acute, chronic active, or chronic smoldering inflammation, bone loss is typically discussed to be an "accident of inflammation." Extensive literature search in PubMed central. Using elements of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation of homeostasis and immune function, we work out that bone waste is an adaptive, evolutionarily positively selected program that is absolutely necessary during acute inflammation. However, when acute inflammation enters a chronic state due to the inability to terminate inflammation (e.g., in autoimmunity or in continuous immunity against microbes), the acute program of bone loss is a misguided adaptive program. The article highlights the complexity of interwoven pathways of osteopenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  19. [Bone graft reconstruction for posterior mandibular segment using the formwork technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, D; Roig, R; Chossegros, C

    2014-04-01

    Pre-implant bone graft in posterior mandibular segments is difficult because of masticatory and lingual mechanical constraints, because of the limited bone vascularization, and because of the difficulty to cover it with the mucosa. The formwork technique is especially well adapted to this topography. The recipient site is abraded with a drill. Grooves are created to receive and stabilize the grafts. The bone grafts were harvested from the ramus. The thinned cortices are assembled in a formwork and synthesized by mini-plates. The gaps are filled by bone powder collected during bone harvesting. The bone volume reconstructed with the formwork technique allows anchoring implants more than 8mm long. The proximity of the inferior alveolar nerve does not contra indicate this technique. The formwork size and its positioning on the alveolar crest can be adapted to prosthetic requirements by using osteosynthesis plates. The lateral implant walls are supported by the formwork cortices; the implant apex is anchored on the native alveolar crest. The primary stability of implants is high, and the torque is important. The ramus harvesting decreases operative risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone-borne palatal distraction to correct the constricted cleft maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Raj M; Jarrahy, Reza; Sisodia, Manisha; Jourabchi, Natanel; Wasson, Kristy L; Bradley, James P

    2009-05-01

    Transverse maxillary hypoplasia, with or without cleft deformity, is typically treated with orthodontic expansion. However, the management of those patients who present later in life with severe uncorrected deformities or who have failed prior orthodontic care remains controversial. Tooth-borne palatal expanders have limitations in this subset of patients with scarred, constricted cleft palate. In this study, we assess the efficacy and safety of using a bone-borne palatal distraction device as an alternative treatment for this difficult subset of patients. Older children with a constricted maxilla who previously had unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate repairs and failed orthodontic expansion were included in the study (n = 15). Patients underwent Le Fort I corticotomy with placement of the bone-borne distraction device, expansion at a rate of 0.5 mm/d, and subsequent alveolar bone grafting. Preoperative and follow-up maxillary impressions were compared with assessed improvements in intermolar distance, intercanine distance, alveolar cleft width, and total palatal area. In addition, a small group of noncleft patients with constricted maxillas was treated with bone-borne palatal distraction without a corticotomy (n = 4). The mean amount of distraction in all patients was 14.1 mm, with a follow-up period of 19 months (range, 8-30 months). The average increase in intermolar distance was 8.4 mm, intercanine distance increased by an average of 9.5 mm, and palate surface areas were increased by a mean of 28.9 mm2. Relapse was between 4% and 7%, and all patients underwent subsequent alveolar bone grafting. In addition, the noncleft patients successfully underwent bone-borne palatal distraction without a corticotomy, with a 4% to 5% relapse. Rapid palatal expansion using a bone-borne distraction device in cleft patients with transverse maxillary hypoplasia who have failed nonsurgical orthodontic expansion provides adequate expansion necessary for alveolar bone

  1. An experimental study on the readability of digital images in the furcal bone defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung Wuk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of digital radiographic images in the detection of bone loss at the bifurcation area of the mandibular first molar with traditional film-based periapical radiographs. One dried human mandible with minimal periodontal bone loss around the first molar was selected and an artificial alveolar bone defect at the bifurcation area was serially prepared over 18 steps. Images were taken using a direct CCD-based system and with F-speed periapical films. The images were evaluated by seven interpreters (3 radiologists, 3 periodontologists, and 1 general dentist) using a 5-point confidence rating scale. The readability of both periapical radiographs and digital image increased as the size of the artificial lesion and exposure time increased (p<0.05). Periapical radiographs offered greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images, and the coefficient of variation of mean score between periapical radiographs and digital images showed a significant difference. The experimental results indicate that a significant difference in the coefficient of variation of mean score exists between periapical radiographs and digital images, and that traditional film-based periapical images offer greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images can presently offer.

  2. An experimental study on the readability of digital images in the furcal bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyung Wuk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of digital radiographic images in the detection of bone loss at the bifurcation area of the mandibular first molar with traditional film-based periapical radiographs. One dried human mandible with minimal periodontal bone loss around the first molar was selected and an artificial alveolar bone defect at the bifurcation area was serially prepared over 18 steps. Images were taken using a direct CCD-based system and with F-speed periapical films. The images were evaluated by seven interpreters (3 radiologists, 3 periodontologists, and 1 general dentist) using a 5-point confidence rating scale. The readability of both periapical radiographs and digital image increased as the size of the artificial lesion and exposure time increased (p<0.05). Periapical radiographs offered greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images, and the coefficient of variation of mean score between periapical radiographs and digital images showed a significant difference. The experimental results indicate that a significant difference in the coefficient of variation of mean score exists between periapical radiographs and digital images, and that traditional film-based periapical images offer greater readability of smaller bone defects than digital images can presently offer.

  3. The effects of simulated bone loss on the implant-abutment assembly and likelihood of fracture: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Behzad; Suleiman, Mahmood; Palmer, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    The crestal bone level around a dental implant may influence its strength characteristics by offering protection against mechanical failures. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of simulated bone loss on modes, loads, and cycles to failure in an in vitro model. Different amounts of bone loss were simulated: 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm from the implant head. Forty narrow-diameter (3.0-mm) implant-abutment assemblies were tested using compressive bending and cyclic fatigue testing. Weibull and accelerated life testing analysis were used to assess reliability and functional life. Statistical analyses were performed using the Fisher-Exact test and the Spearman ranked correlation. Compressive bending tests showed that the level of bone loss influenced the load-bearing capacity of implant-abutment assemblies. Fatigue testing showed that the modes, loads, and cycles to failure had a statistically significant relationship with the level of bone loss. All 16 samples with bone loss of 3.0 mm or more experienced horizontal implant body fractures. In contrast, 14 of 16 samples with 0 and 1.5 mm of bone loss showed abutment and screw fractures. Weibull and accelerated life testing analysis indicated a two-group distribution: the 0- and 1.5-mm bone loss samples had better functional life and reliability than the 3.0- and 4.5-mm samples. Progressive bone loss had a significant effect on modes, loads, and cycles to failure. In addition, bone loss influenced the functional life and reliability of the implant-abutment assemblies. Maintaining crestal bone levels is important in ensuring biomechanical sustainability and predictable long-term function of dental implant assemblies.

  4. Clinical and Radio densitometric Evaluation of the Influence of Vitamin (C and E) and Soyabean in the Periodontal Health of Postmenopausal Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a multifactorial infectious disease and a number of microbial, systemic, genetic and environmental risk factors have been reported to influence its expression. Numerous risk factors as plaque biofilm, systemic conditions as diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, stress, genetics and smoking may interact to render subjects at increased risk of periodontal disease (Kianane et al., 1999). In Periodontitis, there is an increased turnover of alveolar bone although there may be a dominance of bone resorption over bone formation, leading to alveolar bone loss and loss of attachment (Lee et al., 1999). Chronic Periodontitis has been defined as an infectious disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting structures of the teeth, progressive attachment loss and bone loss. It is the most prevalent form of periodontitis. Although it is most frequently observed in adults it can occur in children and adolescents in response to chronic plaque and calculus accumulation (Fleming, 1999). Payne et al., 1997 Studied the association between the estrogen status of postmenopausal women and alveolar bone density. The results indicated that the estrogen-sufficient women displayed a mean net gain in alveolar bone density and higher frequency of sites demonstrating a gain in alveolar density, the estrogen-deficient women displayed a men net loss in alveolar bone density and a higher frequency of sites demonstrating loss in alveolar bone density. The periodontal diseases are associated with an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants because of increase in free radical production and defect in the total antioxidant activity (Diab-Ladki et al, 2003). Antioxidants are defined as those substances which when present at low concentrations compared to those of an oxidizable substrate will significantly delay or prevent oxidation of that substrate (Waddington , 2000). Vitamin C plays an important role in the maintenance of collagen which

  5. Clinical and Radio densitometric Evaluation of the Influence of Vitamin (C and E) and Soyabean in the Periodontal Health of Postmenopausal Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, D. M. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-01

    Periodontal disease is a multifactorial infectious disease and a number of microbial, systemic, genetic and environmental risk factors have been reported to influence its expression. Numerous risk factors as plaque biofilm, systemic conditions as diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, stress, genetics and smoking may interact to render subjects at increased risk of periodontal disease (Kianane et al., 1999). In Periodontitis, there is an increased turnover of alveolar bone although there may be a dominance of bone resorption over bone formation, leading to alveolar bone loss and loss of attachment (Lee et al., 1999). Chronic Periodontitis has been defined as an infectious disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting structures of the teeth, progressive attachment loss and bone loss. It is the most prevalent form of periodontitis. Although it is most frequently observed in adults it can occur in children and adolescents in response to chronic plaque and calculus accumulation (Fleming, 1999). Payne et al., 1997 Studied the association between the estrogen status of postmenopausal women and alveolar bone density. The results indicated that the estrogen-sufficient women displayed a mean net gain in alveolar bone density and higher frequency of sites demonstrating a gain in alveolar density, the estrogen-deficient women displayed a men net loss in alveolar bone density and a higher frequency of sites demonstrating loss in alveolar bone density. The periodontal diseases are associated with an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants because of increase in free radical production and defect in the total antioxidant activity (Diab-Ladki et al, 2003). Antioxidants are defined as those substances which when present at low concentrations compared to those of an oxidizable substrate will significantly delay or prevent oxidation of that substrate (Waddington , 2000). Vitamin C plays an important role in the maintenance of collagen which

  6. Tissue engineering strategies for alveolar cleft reconstruction: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, N.G.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Koole, R.A.; Rosenberg, A.J.; Meijer, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To date, a great number of tissue engineering strategies have been suggested for alveolar cleft reconstruction; however, autologous bone grafting seems to remain the golden standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to evaluate the

  7. Regeneration of bone and periodontal ligament induced by recombinant amelogenin after periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, Amir; Taylor, Angela L; Haegewald, Stefan; Leiser, Yoav; Shay, Boaz; Rosenfeld, Eli; Gruenbaum-Cohen, Yael; Dafni, Leah; Zimmermann, Bernd; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Gibson, Carolyn W; Fisher, Larry W; Young, Marian F; Blumenfeld, Anat; Bernimoulin, Jean P; Deutsch, Dan

    2009-06-01

    Regeneration of mineralized tissues affected by chronic diseases comprises a major scientific and clinical challenge. Periodontitis, one such prevalent disease, involves destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, alveolar bone, periodontal-ligament and cementum, often leading to tooth loss. In 1997, it became clear that, in addition to their function in enamel formation, the hydrophobic ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) play a role in the regeneration of these periodontal tissues. The epithelial EMPs are a heterogeneous mixture of polypeptides encoded by several genes. It was not clear, however, which of these many EMPs induces the regeneration and what mechanisms are involved. Here we show that a single recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+)), induced in vivo regeneration of all tooth-supporting tissues after creation of experimental periodontitis in a dog model. To further understand the regeneration process, amelogenin expression was detected in normal and regenerating cells of the alveolar bone (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts), periodontal ligament, cementum and in bone marrow stromal cells. Amelogenin expression was highest in areas of high bone turnover and activity. Further studies showed that during the first 2 weeks after application, rHAM(+) induced, directly or indirectly, significant recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, which later differentiated to form the regenerated periodontal tissues. The ability of a single protein to bring about regeneration of all periodontal tissues, in the correct spatio-temporal order, through recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, could pave the way for development of new therapeutic devices for treatment of periodontal, bone and ligament diseases based on rHAM(+).

  8. Randomised controlled clinical trial of augmentation of the alveolar ridge using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with hydroxyapatite and bovine-derived xenografts: comparison of changes in volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J W; Khureltogtokh, S; Choi, H M; Lee, A R; Park, Y B; Kim, H J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomised controlled clinical trial was to assess the early efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 with hydroxyapatite granules (BMP-2/hydroxyapatite) on augmentation of the alveolar ridge, by comparing changes in volume with those associated with the use of an inorganic bovine-derived xenograft (BDX). We studied 20 patients who were divided into two groups using a table of random numbers, and BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were applied accordingly. Computed tomographic (CT) images and panoramic radiographs were obtained immediately after operation and four months later. CT images were reconstructed in three dimensions to measure volumetric changes, and linear measurements were made on panoramic images. The mean (SD) absorption rates for BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were 13.2 (8.8)% and 13.8 (20.5)%, respectively. While the mean value did not differ significantly between the two materials, the SD was higher in the BDX group than in the BMP-2/hydroxyapatite group. No clinically important complications occurred in either group. We conclude that both BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were effective in augmenting the alveolar ridge, but BMP-2/hydroxyapatite seemed to be more useful in complicated bone defects. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of novel bioactive rapidly resorbable bone substitute materials and their influence on osteoblastic cell differentiation in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jonscher, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Among the various techniques to reconstruct or enlarge a deficient alveolar ridge, the concept of guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a predictable and well-documented surgical approach. At present, autogenous bone grafts are preferably combined with barrier membranes. Using synthetic biodegradable bone substitute materials, however, is advantageous, since it avoids second-site surgery for autograft harvesting. A bone substitute for alveolar ridge augmentation must be rapidly resorbable...

  10. Comparison of bone density in amenorrheic women due to athletics, weight loss, and premature menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K P; Ravnikar, V A; Tulchinsky, D; Schiff, I

    1985-07-01

    Studied was the peripheral bone density of 39 women (ages 18 to 43) with the diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea in an effort to define the population of amenorrheic women at risk for osteoporosis. Eight women had exercise-induced amenorrhea (athletes), 20 women had amenorrhea associated with weight loss, and 11 women had premature menopause. These diagnoses were made on the basis of history, physical examination, and luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin levels, and failure to have withdrawal bleeding after the administration of progestin. Twenty-five nonathletic, normally menstruating women served as control subjects. The peripheral bone density of the amenorrheic athletes (0.738 g/cm2 +/- 0.047) was not significantly different from that of the controls (0.726 g/cm2 +/- 0.044). The average bone density of the group with weight loss-associated amenorrhea (0.672 g/cm2 +/- 0.066) was significantly less than controls (P less than .005) as was that of the women with premature menopause (0.616 g/cm2 +/- 0.048, P less than .001). There was a significant correlation between months of amenorrhea and decrease in bone density (r = 0.506, P less than .001). From this study it was concluded that women with exercise-associated amenorrhea are not at significant risk for cortical bone loss as measured by direct photon absorptiometry. Women with weight loss-associated amenorrhea and women with premature menopause are at significant risk for bone loss when compared with normal controls.

  11. Release of titanium ions from an implant surface and their effect on cytokine production related to alveolar bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachi, Takanori; Shuto, Takahiro; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Matono, Yoshinari; Makihira, Seicho

    2015-01-01

    Although interest in peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis has recently been increasing, the mechanisms driving these diseases remain unknown. Here, the effects of titanium ions on the inflammation and bone resorption around an implant were investigated. First, the accumulated amount of Ti ions released into gingival and bone tissues from an implant exposed to sodium fluoride solution was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Next, the cellular responses in gingival and bone tissues to Ti ions and/or Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) were assessed using a rat model. More Ti ions were detected in the gingival tissues around an implant after treatment with sodium fluoride (pH 4.2) than in its absence, which suggests that the fluoride corroded the implant surface under salivary buffering capacity. The injection of Ti ions (9 ppm) significantly increased the mRNA expression and protein accumulation of chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2, as well as the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to osteoprotegerin, in rat gingival tissues exposed to P. gingivalis-LPS in a synergistic manner. In addition, the enhanced localization of toll-like receptor 4, which is an LPS receptor, was observed in gingival epithelium loaded with Ti ions (9 ppm). These data suggest that Ti ions may be partly responsible for the infiltration of monocytes and osteoclast differentiation by increasing the sensitivity of gingival epithelial cells to microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, Ti ions may be involved in the deteriorating effects of peri-implant mucositis, which can develop into peri-implantitis accompanied by alveolar bone resorption

  12. Marginal bone loss and dental implant failure may be increased in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-03-01

    An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to February 2015. References of included studies were also searched. No language restrictions were applied. Study selection: Prospective, retrospective and randomised clinical trials that compared marginal bone loss and failure rates between smokers and non-smokers. Implant failure was considered as total loss of the implant. Studies with patients who had periodontal disease prior to treatment or who had metabolic diseases were excluded. Two reviewers were involved in the research and screening process and disagreements were resolved by discussion. The quality of the studies was analysed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomised clinical trials. Data extracted from the studies included, when available: follow up period, number of subjects, smoking status, number of implants placed, implant system, implant length and diameter, healing period, antibiotics and mouth-rinse use, marginal bone loss, failure rate and drop-outs. For binary outcomes (implant failure) the estimate of the intervention effect was expressed in the form of an odds ratio (OR) with the confidence interval (CI) of 95%. For continuous outcomes (marginal bone loss) the average and standard deviation (SD) were used to calculate the standardised mean difference with a 95% CI. Meta-analysis was performed for studies with similar outcomes, I(2) a statistical test was used to express the heterogeneity among the studies. Publication bias was explored as well. A total of 15 observational studies were included in the review. The number of participants ranged from 60 to 1727 and the average age was 52.5 years. The follow-up period ranged from eight to 240 months. The total number of implants placed was 5840 in smokers and 14,683 in non-smokers. The Branemak system, (Noble Biocare AB, Goteborg, Sweden), was the most commonly used implant system. There was a statistically significant

  13. The orally available Btk inhibitor ibrutinib (PCI-32765) protects against osteoclast-mediated bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masahiro; Chang, Betty Y; Buggy, Joseph J; Nagai, Yusuke; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Asahara, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Bone-resorbing osteoclasts play an essential role in normal bone homeostasis, as well as in various bone disorders such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Previously we showed that the Tec family of tyrosine kinases is essential for the differentiation of osteoclasts and the inhibition of Btk is a promising strategy for the prevention of the bone loss in osteoclast-associated bone disorders. Here we demonstrate that an orally available Btk inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption by inhibiting both osteoclast differentiation and function. Ibrutinib downregulated the expression of NFATc1, the key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis, and disrupted the formation of the actin ring in mature osteoclasts. In addition, genome-wide screening revealed that Btk regulates the expression of the genes involved in osteoclast differentiation and function in both an NFATc1-dependent and -independent manner. Finally, we showed that ibrutinib administration ameliorated the bone loss that developed in a RANKL-induced osteoporosis mouse model. Thus, this study suggests ibrutinib to be a promising therapeutic agent for osteoclast-associated bone diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin K’s role in age-related bone loss: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective role of vitamin K in age-related bone loss continues to be controversial. The results of observational analyses are inconsistent with respect to associations between vitamin K status and bone, which arguably may be related to the limitations of observational study designs and analyt...

  15. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  16. Safflower bud inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joo-Hee; Lim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Young-Kuk; Lee, An-Chul; Kim, Young-Min; Yang, Soo-Jin; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2017-10-15

    The powder and extract of safflower seeds are known to be effective in the prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized animals. However, the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms of safflower bud (SB), the germinated safflower, on bone destruction is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism of SB on osteoclastic differentiation and on bone loss in ovarietomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclastogenesis was determined by TRAP staining, F-actin ring formation, and bone resorption assay. NF-κB and MAPKs activation was analyzed by transfection assay and Western blot, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes. Histological changes, increases in TRAP-positive cells, and cathepsin K expression were examined in the metaphysis of OVX mice. Density of bone marrow was evaluated by µCT. SB inhibited the RANKL-induced differentiation of BMDMs into osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. F-actin ring formation and bone resorption were also reduced by SB in RANKL-treated BMDMs. In addition, SB decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes in BMDMs treated with RANKL. Feeding of SB-included diet prevented bone loss in OVX mice. The number of TRAP-positive cells and level of protein expression of cathepsin K was reduced and bone mineral density was increased in the metaphysis of mice fed SB compared with OVX mice. These findings suggest that SB can be a preventive and therapeutic candidate for destructive bone diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Correlation of interdental and interradicular bone loss in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between interdental and interradicular bone loss and clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred-twenty intraoral periapical radiographs of first molars were obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis ...

  18. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  19. Epidemiologic Analyses of Risk Factors for Bone Loss and Recovery Related to Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean; Amin, Shreyasee

    2010-01-01

    AIM 1: To investigate the risk of microgravity exposure on long-term changes in bone health and fracture risk. compare data from crew members ("observed") with what would be "expected" from Rochester Bone Health Study. AIM 2: To provide a summary of current evidence available on potential risk factors for bone loss, recovery & fracture following long-duration space flight. integrative review of all data pre, in-, and post-flight across disciplines (cardiovascular, nutrition, muscle, etc.) and their relation to bone loss and recovery

  20. Systemic Administration of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Does Not Halt Osteoporotic Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Huang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have innate ability to self-renew and immunosuppressive functions, and differentiate into various cell types. They have become a promising cell source for treating many diseases, particular for bone regeneration. Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder with elevated systemic inflammation which in turn triggers enhanced bone loss. We hypothesize that systemic infusion of MSCs may suppress the elevated inflammation in the osteoporotic subjects and slow down bone loss. The current project was to address the following two questions: (1 Will a single dose systemic administration of allogenic MSCs have any effect on osteoporotic bone loss? (2 Will multiple administration of allogenic MSCs from single or multiple donors have similar effect on osteoporotic bone loss? 18 ovariectomized (OVX rats were assigned into 3 groups: the PBS control group, MSCs group 1 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs at Day 10, 46, 91 from the same donor following OVX and MSCs group 2 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs from three different donors at Day 10, 46, 91. Examinations included Micro-CT, serum analysis, mechanical testing, immunofluorescence staining and bone histomorphometry analysis. Results showed that BV/TV at Day 90, 135, BMD of TV and trabecular number at Day 135 in the PBS group were significantly higher than those in the MSCs group 2, whereas trabecular spacing at Day 90, 135 was significantly smaller than that in MSCs group 2. Mechanical testing data didn't show significant difference among the three groups. In addition, the ELISA assay showed that level of Rantes in serum in MSCs group 2 was significantly higher than that of the PBS group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. Bone histomorphometry analysis showed that Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS in the PBS group were significant lower than those in MSCs group 2; Ob.S/BS and Ob.N/BS did not show significant difference among the three groups. The current study

  1. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    remission (0.0032 vs. 0.0058 g/cm(2)/year; p clinical practice, and only......BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking....... In this study, we aimed to: 1) establish reference values for normal hand bone mass (bone mineral density measured by digital x-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD)); and 2) examine whether HBL is normalised in rheumatoid arthritis patients during treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFI). METHODS...

  2. Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mikihito Kajiya; Gabriela Giro; Martin A. Taubman; Xiaozhe Han; Marcia P.A. Mayer; Toshihisa Kawai

    2010-01-01

    Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, ...

  4. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Boziki Xavier do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA as bone substitute materials. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group. After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results: The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05. We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039 in both groups. Conclusion: The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  5. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis applications in cleft lip and palate patients: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Mülayim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis technique has been successfully applied in the craniofacial area for long time, and it is being applied increasingly more in cleft lip and palate patients also. Especially in large cleft palate cases, bone grafting or surgical procedures such as distraction osteogenesis can be applied in order to ensure a smooth alveolar arc. In this literature review, alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis applications in patients with cleft lip and palate, indications of the technique, advantages and disadvantages, application methods and types of appliances used for this purpose have been evaluated. As conclusion, especially with the application of alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis, successful outcome can be achieved in cleft lip and palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, maxillary hypoplasia and maxillary crowding, and this technique may be an alternative to conventional osteotomies and extraoral distractions.

  6. In vivo evaluation of a simvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Xinxin; Niu, Mao; Zhang, Te; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Wangxi; Zhang, Qi; Lai, Chunhua; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Zhonglei

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar bone loss has long been a challenge in clinical dental implant therapy. Simvastatin (SV) has been demonstrated to exert excellent anabolic effects on bone. However, the successful use of SV to increase bone formation in vivo largely depends on the local concentration of SV at the site of action, and there have been continuing efforts to develop an appropriate delivery system. Specifically, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) systems have become a popular type of encapsulation carrier system. Therefore, SV-loaded NLCs (SNs) (179.4 nm in diameter) were fabricated in this study, and the osteogenic effect of the SNs was evaluated in a critical-sized rabbit calvarial defect. Our results revealed that the SNs significantly enhanced bone formation in vivo, as evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and a fluorescence analysis. Thus, this novel nanostructured carrier system could be a potential encapsulation carrier system for SV in bone regeneration applications. (paper)

  7. Effects of obesity and diabetes on rate of bone density loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, W D; Morin, S N; Majumdar, S R; Lix, L M

    2018-01-01

    In this large registry-based study, women with diabetes had marginally greater bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the femoral neck but not at other measurement sites, whereas obesity was not associated with greater BMD loss. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rapid BMD loss explains the increased fracture risk associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity observed in prior studies. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) which may be less protective against fracture than previously assumed. Inconsistent data suggest that rapid BMD loss may be a contributing factor. We examined the rate of BMD loss in women with diabetes and/or obesity in a population-based BMD registry for Manitoba, Canada. We identified 4960 women aged ≥ 40 years undergoing baseline and follow-up BMD assessments (mean interval 4.3 years) without confounding medication use or large weight fluctuation. We calculated annualized rate of BMD change for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in relation to diagnosed diabetes and body mass index (BMI) category. Baseline age-adjusted BMD was greater in women with diabetes and for increasing BMI category (all P obese women but BMI did not significantly affect hip BMD loss.

  8. Treatment of Radix Dipsaci extract prevents long bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in hindlimb unloading rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yinbo; Li, Chenrui; Pan, Yalei; Li, Yuhua; Kong, Xianghe; Wang, Shuo; Zhai, YuanKun; Wu, Xianglong; Fan, Wutu; Mei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Radix Dipsaci is a kidney tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use for treatment of bone fractures and joint diseases in China. Previous studies have shown that Radix Dipsaci extract (RDE) could prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats. This study investigates the effect of RDE against bone loss induced by simulated microgravity. A hindlimb unloading rat model was established to determine the effect of RDE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): control (CON), hindlimb unloading with vehicle (HLU), hindlimb unloading treated with alendronate (HLU-ALN, 2.0 mg/kg/d), and hindlimb unloading treated with RDE (HLU-RDE, 500 mg/kg/d). RDE or ALN was administrated orally for 4 weeks. Treatment with RDE had a positive effect on mechanical strength, BMD, BMC, bone turnover markers, and the changes in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion. MicroCT analysis showed that RDE significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, tissue mineral density, and tissue mineral content as well as improved the trabecular separation and structure model index. RDE was demonstrated to prevent the loss of bone mass induced by HLU treatment, which suggests the potential application of RDE in the treatment of microgravity-induced bone loss.

  9. Angiogenesis and bone regeneration of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline blocks coated with rhVEGF165 in critical-size alveolar bone defects in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du B

    2015-03-01

    that in the nHA/coral group (105±51.8 vessel/mm2 at the 3-week time point (P<0.05, but no significant difference was observed at the 8-week time point (341±86.1 and 269±50.7 vessel/mm2, respectively, P>0.05. The present study indicated that nHA/coral blocks might be optimal scaffolds for block grafting in critical-size mandibular defects and that additional VEGF coating via physical adsorption can promote angiogenesis in the early stage of bone healing, which suggests that prevascularized nHA/coral blocks have significant potential as a bioactive material for bone regeneration in large-scale alveolar defects. Keywords: angiogenesis, bone regeneration, tissue engineering, block grafting, nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline, critical size, bone defect 

  10. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  11. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  12. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynariae Rhizoma prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro

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    Shuang-hong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Drynariae Rhizoma is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss using an ovariectomized rat model and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results indicated that DRTF produced osteo-protective effects on the ovariectomized rats in terms of bone loss reduction, including decreased levels of bone turnover markers, enhanced biomechanical femur strength and trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration prevention. In vitro experiments revealed that the actions of DRTF on regulating osteoblastic activities were mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER dependent pathway. Our data also demonstrated that DRTF inhibited osteoclastogenesis via up-regulating osteoprotegrin (OPG, as well as down-regulating receptor activator of NF–κB ligand (RANKL expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that DRTF treatment effectively suppressed bone mass loss in an ovariectomized rat model, and in vitro evidence suggested that the effects were exerted through actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Ovariectomy, Drynariae Rhizoma

  13. Protective Effects of Vildagliptin against Pioglitazone-Induced Bone Loss in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young Sil; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Kwak, Kyung Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yu, Seung Hee; Lee, Sihoon; Kim, Yeun Sun; Park, Ie Byung; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Byung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) have several benefits in many systems in addition to glycemic control. In a previous study, we reported that exendin-4 might increase bone mineral density (BMD) by decreasing the expression of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes in a T2DM animal model. In this study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on TZD-induced bone loss in a T2DM animal model. We randomly divided 12-week-old male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats into four groups; control, vildagliptin, pioglitazone, and vildagliptin and pioglitazone combination. Animals in each group received the respective treatments for 5 weeks. We performed an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) before and after treatment. BMD and the trabecular micro-architecture were measured by DEXA and micro CT, respectively, at the end of the treatment. The circulating levels of active GLP-1, bone turnover markers, and sclerostin were assayed. Vildagliptin treatment significantly increased BMD and trabecular bone volume. The combination therapy restored BMD, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular bone thickness that were decreased by pioglitazone. The levels of the bone formation marker, osteocalcin, decreased and that of the bone resorption marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b increased in the pioglitazone group. These biomarkers were ameliorated and the pioglitazone-induced increase in sclerostin level was lowered to control values by the addition of vildagliptin. In conclusion, our results indicate that orally administered vildagliptin demonstrated a protective effect on pioglitazone-induced bone loss in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  14. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  15. Dietary flavonoid kaempferol inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss by promoting osteoblast survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Sulekha; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Ahmad, Naseer; Karvande, Anirudha; Kumar, Avinash; Banala, Venkatesh Teja; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan; Trivedi, Ritu

    2018-02-13

    Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to reverse osteopenic condition in ovariectomized rats. Because kaempferol is endowed with osteogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine whether it has a beneficial effect on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss. Adult female rats were divided into four groups as control (vehicle; distilled water), methylprednisolone (MP; 5 mg•kg•d, subcutaneously), MP + kaempferol (5 mg•kg•d, oral), and MP + human parathyroid 1-34 (30 µg/kg, 5 times/wk, subcutaneously) and treated for 4 wk. To study the antagonizing effect of kaempferol on GC-induced inhibition of fracture healing, drill-hole injury was performed on control and GC-treated rats. An oral dose of kaempferol was given for 14 d to observe the effect on callus formation at the site of injury. After treatment, bones were collected for further analysis. GC was associated with a decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone microarchitecture parameters. Consumption of kaempferol induced bone-sparing effects in GC-induced osteopenic condition. Additionally, improved callus formation at site of drill injury in femur diaphysis was observed with kaempferol consumption in animals on GC. Consistent with the in vivo data, kaempferol elicited a higher expression of osteogenic markers in vitro and antagonized the apoptotic effect of dexamethasone on calvarial osteoblasts. These results suggested that kaempferol reduced GC-induced bone loss and enhanced bone regeneration at fractured site, thus emphasizing the positive role of flavonoids on bone health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Chemically Modified Curcumin (CMC 2.24) Inhibits Nuclear Factor κB Activation and Inflammatory Bone Loss in Murine Models of LPS-Induced Experimental Periodontitis and Diabetes-Associated Natural Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elburki, Muna S; Rossa, Carlos; Guimarães-Stabili, Morgana R; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana A; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel chemically modified curcumin (CMC 2.24) on NF-κB and MAPK signaling and inflammatory cytokine production in two experimental models of periodontal disease in rats. Experimental model I: Periodontitis was induced by repeated injections of LPS into the gingiva (3×/week, 3 weeks); control rats received vehicle injections. CMC 2.24, or the vehicle, was administered by daily oral gavage for 4 weeks. Experimental model II: Diabetes was induced in adult male rats by streptozotocin injection; periodontal breakdown then results as a complication of uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Non-diabetic rats served as controls. CMC 2.24, or the vehicle, was administered by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks to the diabetics. Hemimaxillae and gingival tissues were harvested, and bone loss was assessed radiographically. Gingival tissues were pooled according to the experimental conditions and processed for the analysis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and bone-resorptive cytokines. Activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways was assessed by western blot. Both LPS and diabetes induced an inflammatory process in the gingival tissues associated with excessive alveolar bone resorption and increased activation of p65 (NF-κB) and p38 MAPK. In both models, the administration of CMC 2.24 produced a marked reduction of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in the gingival tissues, decreased bone loss, and decreased activation of p65 (NF-κB) and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of these cell signaling pathways by this novel tri-ketonic curcuminoid (natural curcumin is di-ketonic) may play a role in its therapeutic efficacy in locally and systemically associated periodontitis.

  17. Effect of Cistanches Herba Aqueous Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rat

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    Zaiguo Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of traditional Chinese medicine Cistanches Herba extract (CHE to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX rat, Cistanches Herba extract (CHE was administered intragastrically to the rats. Female rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg kg−1, i.p., and their ovaries were removed bilaterally. The rats in the sham-operated group were anesthetized, laparotomized, and sutured without removing their ovaries. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, the OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups and orally treated with H2O (OVX group or CHE (100 or 200 mg kg−1 daily for 3 months. The sham-operated group (n = 8 was orally treated with H2O. After 3 months, the total body bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, Bone biomechanical index, blood mineral levels and blood antioxidant enzymes activities were examined in sham-operated, ovariectomized and Cistanches Herba extract treated rats. Results showed that Cistanches Herba extract treatment significantly dose-dependently enhanced bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, maximum load, displacement at maximum load, stress at maximum load, load at auto break, displacement at auto break, and stress at auto break, and blood antioxidant enzymes activities, decreased blood Ca, Zn and Cu levels compared to the OVX group. This experiment demonstrates that the