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Sample records for aluminum-molten salt contactor

  1. Membrane contactor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently dev

  2. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental

  3. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental

  4. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Optimized Solvent in the 2-cm Centrifugal Contactor Apparatus Using Dissolved Salt Cake from Tank 37H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norato, M.A.

    2003-01-06

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flow sheet with optimized solvent. This represents the third such process demonstration using actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW). The present test differed from previous studies in the use of radioactive waste derived from Tank 37H dissolved salt cake, as opposed to supernate solutions used in previous demonstrations.

  5. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  6. Contactor/filter improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  7. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotating biological contactors employ aerobic fixed-film treatment to degrade either organic and/or nitrogenous (ammonia-nitrogen) constituents present in aqueous waste streams. ixed-film systems provide a surface to which the biomass can adhere. Treatment is achieved as the wast...

  9. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the following programs is reported: (1) continuous fluorinator development: autoresistance heating test AHT-4; (2) development of the metal transfer process; (3) salt-metal contactor development: experiments with a mechanically agitated, nondispersing contactor using water and mercury and in the salt-bismuth flowthrough facility; and (4) fuel reconstitution development: installation of equipment for a fuel reconstitution engineering experiment

  10. Characteristics of centrifugal rapid contactor, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic solvent yields the degradation product as a result of irradiation, in the extraction process of spent fuel reprocessing. The development of a centrifugal rapid contactor is required for the reduction of the solvent degradation by shortening the contact time. The effects of fine solid particles were investigated with a SGN-Robatel LX-208N contactor, following the uranium extraction and re-extraction performance tests. It was found as the experimental result that the considerable quantity of solids accumulated in the rotor of the centrifugal contactor. As for this experimental apparatus, the flow diagram for the centrifugal rapid contactor and auxiliary apparatuses is shown, which are the same system used for the uranium extraction and re-extraction tests. The schematic diagram, the typical stage construction and fluid transfer path of the LX-208 contactor are illustrated. The main specifications of the LX-208 contactor are as follows: the internal diameter of a rotating bowl 200 mm, the material SUS 316, the number of stages 8, and the total hold-up volume of the contactor 1.8 l. Most tests were carried out with aqueous feed only, because white Alundum is easily deposited in the rotor, and the particle concentration in effluent stream becomes undetectable when organic and aqueous feeds are supplied simultaneously. As the experimental results, the correlation of Alundum concentration in effluent and running time, the effect of rotor speed on effluent stream concentration, the particle size distribution curves for No. 6000 and No. 8000 white Alundum, the effect of flow rate on effluent stream concentration and the effect of flow rate on particle size distribution for both No. 6000 and No. 8000 white Alundum are presented. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. A vibration model for centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R.A.; Wasserman, M.O.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, we created the Excel worksheet ``Beam`` for analyzing vibrations in centrifugal contactors. With this worksheet, a user can calculate the first natural frequency of the motor/rotor system for a centrifugal contactor. We determined a typical value for the bearing stiffness (k{sub B}) of a motor after measuring the k{sub B} value for three different motors. The k{sub B} value is an important parameter in this model, but it is not normally available for motors. The assumptions that we made in creating the Beam worksheet were verified by comparing the calculated results with those from a VAX computer program, BEAM IV. The Beam worksheet was applied to several contactor designs for which we have experimental data and found to work well.

  12. Study on reliability technology of contactor relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-jin; ZHAO Jing-ying; WANG Hai-tao; YANG Chen-guang; SUN Shun-li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the reliability of contactor relay is studied. There are three main parts about reliability test and analysis. First, in order to analyze reliability level of contact relay, the failure ratio ranks are established as index base on the product level. Second, the reliability test method is put forward. The sample plan of reliability compliance test is gained from reliability sample theory. The failure criterion is ensured according to the failure modes of contactor relay. Third, after reliability test experiment, the analysis of failure physics is made and the failure reason is found.

  13. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  14. Micro contactor based on isotachophoretic sample transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goet, Gabriele; Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen

    2009-12-21

    It is demonstrated how isotachophoresis (ITP) in a microfluidic device may be utilized to bring two small sample volumes into contact in a well-controlled manner. The ITP contactor serves a similar purpose as micromixers that are designed to mix two species rapidly in a microfluidic channel. In contrast to many micromixers, the ITP contactor does not require complex channel architectures and allows a sample processing in the spirit of "digital microfluidics", i.e. the samples always remain in a compact volume. It is shown that the ITP zone transport through microchannels proceeds in a reproducible and predictable manner, and that the sample trajectories follow simple relationships obtained from Ohm's law. Firstly, the micro contactor can be used to synchronize two ITP zones having reached a channel at different points in time. Secondly, fulfilling its actual purpose it is capable of bringing two samples in molecular contact via an interpenetration of ITP zones. It is demonstrated that the contacting time is proportional to the ITP zone extension. This opens up the possibility of using that type of device as a special type of micromixer with "mixing times" significantly below one second and an option to regulate the duration of contact through specific parameters such as the sample volume. Finally, it is shown how the micro contactor can be utilized to conduct a hybridization reaction between two ITP zones containing complementary DNA strands.

  15. Thermal Simulation of AC Electromagnetic Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIUChun-ping; CHENDe-gui; ZHANGJing-shu; LIXing-wen

    2005-01-01

    Transient magnetic circuit method is adopted to calculate the power loss in winding and shading coil. Based on the analysis of heat transfer process in AC contactor, a thermal model is proposed and the temperature field distribution is simulated with 3-D FEM of ANSYS.Comparison of simulation results with measurements shows that the proposed method is effective.

  16. Characterization of fouling of membrane contactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciurkot, Kaludia; Zarebska, Agata; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2013-01-01

    In this study liquid-liquid membrane contactors have been tested for ammonia removal from model manure solution and undigested pig manure. The aim of this work is to compare the efficiency of ammonia removal by different hydrophobic membranes including the material’s influence on mass transfer...

  17. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Petersen, James N.; Davison, Brian H.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, as larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor.

  18. Recent advances in centrifugal contactors design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in thedesign of the Argonne centrifugal contactor for solvent extaction are being realized as these contactors are built, tested, and used to implement the TRUEX process for the cleanup of nuclear waste liquids. These advances include (1) using off-the-shelf, face-mounted motors, (2) modifying the contractor so that relatively volatile solvents can be used, (3) adding a high-level liquid detector that can be used to alert the plant operator of process upsets, (4) providing secondary feed ports, (5) optimizing support frame design, (6) maintaining a linear design with external interstage lines so the stages can be allocated as needed for extraction, scrub, strip, and solvent cleanup operations, and (7) developing features that facilitate contractor operation in remote facilities. 11 refs., 8 figs

  19. Rotating biological contactors: the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, Manuel A. [Ryerson Polytechnical Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Smith, Tom [CMS Rotordisk Inc., Concord, ON (Canada); Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    In fifteen years, Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) have become one of the most attractive technologies for secondary wastewater treatment. The present work is a review of the evolution of RBC technology in the last twenty years. In addition, the status of the technology in Canada is described, emphasizing industrial facilities and landfill leachate treatment. An enumeration of the most relevant development areas is included. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Denitrification in anoxic rotating biological contactors

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, P; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency, as well as easy scalability. It is well known that the performance of this type of reactors is controlled by a high number of design parameters. In thi...

  1. Desorption of trihalomethanes in gas liquid contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updated studies show that gastric cancer is related with the existence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water. The trihalomethanes are sub products from the degradation of humic acids and your reaction with chlorine and bromine used like decontaminates. The desorption process is used to eliminate the THMs with air in contact with the water. The experimental design was used in three contactors. The contactors selected were: the bubbling's column, the packed column and the shaken tank without screen. There were selected three variable: initial concentration of THMs, the residence time and the turbulence degree (measured with the Reynolds number). The concentrations were made with a gas chromatograph. The objective of this project is to do a comparison with the gas liquid contactors more used in the industrial level to determinate which ones are the best in the desorption process. The conclusion of the experimental design is that the tank is the equipment with the best capacity to eliminate THMs. Too it includes other techniques to eliminate THMs of the water and your treatment

  2. Hollow fiber membrane contactor as a gas–liquid model contactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Microporous hollow fiber gas–liquid membrane contactors have a fixed and well-defined gas–liquid interfacial area. The liquid flow through the hollow fiber is laminar, thus the liquid side hydrodynamics are well known. This allows the accurate calculation of the fiber side physical mass transfer coe

  3. Hollow fiber membrane contactor as a gas-liquid model contactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V. Y.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Microporous hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactors have a fixed and well-defined gas-liquid interfacial area. The liquid flow through the hollow fiber is laminar, thus the liquid side hydrodynamics are well known. This allows the accurate calculation of the fiber side physical mass transfer coe

  4. Low cost membrane contactors based on hollow fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudensky Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane contactors are used to solve different chemical engineering tasks (e.g. water saturation with gases. Such elements are traditionally used for bubble less oxidation of blood. However, their industrial applications are rather limited by their high investment costs. This is probably the main reason why membrane contactors are not used so widely, e.g. classical absorbers, etc. If potted bundles of hollow fibres are available, then it is a relatively simple task to design an ad hoc membrane contactor. However, it must be emphasised that to achieve the highest mass transfer efficiency requires a rather time-consuming tuning of each ad hoc designed contactor. To check the differences by water evaporation were aligned two modes, the water inside the hollow fibre membrane and fan air outside, next with the water outsides and flowing pressure air inside the membrane.

  5. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  6. Performance comparison of suspended bed and batch contactor chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-García, I; Rayner, I; Levison, P R; Dickson, N; Purdom, G

    2001-01-26

    In some applications, the purification and recovery of biomolecules is performed via a cascade of batch adsorption and desorption stages using agitated contactors and related filtration devices. Suspended bed chromatography is a recent process-scale innovation that is applicable to these separations. This hybrid technique exploits the benefits of combining batch adsorption in an agitated contactor with elution in an enclosed column system. To some extent, the process is similar to batch contactor chromatography but can be fully contained and significantly quicker. The process has two steps; first the fluid containing the sample is mixed with the adsorbent in a stirred tank. Second, the slurry suspension is transferred directly into a specialized column, such as an IsoPak column. The media with the adsorbed product is formed as a packed bed, whilst the suspension liquid is passed out of the column. The product is then eluted from the packed bed utilizing standard column-chromatography techniques. The performance of the suspended bed and the agitated contactor operations are demonstrated both by full-scale experimental results and process simulations. The purification of ovalbumin from a hen-egg white feedstock by anion-exchange chromatography was used as a case study in order to prove the concept. With the availability of both pump-packed systems and shear-resistant media, suspended bed chromatography is a better alternative for a range of applications than the traditional batch separations using agitated contactors. PMID:11218119

  7. Development of novel contactor for nuclear solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For current designs of radiochemical plants, solvent-extraction contactors with no periodic maintenance like pulse column are the first choice. In addition, as costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand for operation at extreme phase ratios. Recently a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on rotated helical tubes and does not involve any mechanical moving part. Mass-transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP solvent at A/O of 0.25-200 (in extraction) and A/O of 0.25-10 (in back-extraction mode). The developed contactor exhibited nearly 100% efficiency for all the cases. (authors)

  8. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…

  9. STRINGFELLOW LEACHATE TREATMENT WITH RBC (ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted with a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of leachate from the Stringfellow hazardous waste site in Riverside County, California. The leachate was transported from California to Cincinnati, where a pilot sized RBC was installed at the U.S. EPA...

  10. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  11. Fluidic Analysis in an Annular Centrifugal Contactor for Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annular centrifugal contactor (ACC) is a promising device for fuel reprocessing process, because it offers several advantages—a smaller size, a smaller holdup volume, and a higher separation performance—over conventional contactors such as a mixer-settler and a pulse column. Fluid dynamics and dispersion in an ACC, which has a combined mixer/centrifuge structure, are closely related to its separation performance and capacity, and this information is useful in improving equipment design. In this paper, experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were conducted to analyze fluidic and dispersion behavior in ACCs. Multiphase mixing (water/TBP-dodecane/air) in the annular zone was observed by Particle Imaging Velocimetry, and the change in the fluidic and dispersion behavior was ascertained under several operational conditions. The results of the CFD studies, which considered multiphase turbulent flow in the annular and rotor interior zones, were in a good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  12. Electrolytically aided denitrification on a rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz, Joanna; Filipkowska, Urszula; Dziadkiewicz, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted at a bench scale on a rotating biological contactor under both conventional conditions (without the flow of electric current) and with the passage of an electric current having the following densities: 0.2 A m(-2), 0.8 A m(-)2 and 1.5 A m(-2). Stainless-steel discs covered with an immobilized biofilm served as a cathode, whereas an electrode made of stainless steel immersed in the wastewater of the flow tank of the contactor served as an anode. Experiments were carried out on municipal wastewater containing nitrogen in the organic and ammonium forms. The highest efficiency of nitrogen removal was observed with the passage of electric current at the density of 0.2 A m(-2). The efficiency of the denitrification process was over 64% and the nitrification efficiency was 93.4%.

  13. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Su; Guangshan Zhang; Peng Wang; Shixiong Li; Ryan M. Ravenelle; JOHN C. CRITTENDEN

    2015-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%....

  14. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  15. Centrifugal contactor operations for UREX process flowsheet. An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The uranium extraction (UREX) process separates uranium, technetium, and a fraction of the iodine from the other components of the irradiated fuel in nitric acid solution. In May 2012, the time, material, and footprint requirements for treatment of 260 L batches of a solution containing 130 g-U/L were evaluated for two commercial annular centrifugal contactors from CINC Industries. These calculated values were based on the expected volume and concentration of fuel arising from treatment of a single target solution vessel (TSV). The general conclusions of that report were that a CINC V-2 contactor would occupy a footprint of 3.2 m 2 (0.25 m x 15 m) if each stage required twice the nominal footprint of an individual stage, and approximately 1,131 minutes or nearly 19 hours is required to process all of the feed solution. A CINC V-5 would require approximately 9.9 m 2 (0.4 m x 25 m) of floor space but would require only 182 minutes or ~ 3 hours to process the spent target solution. Subsequent comparison with the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in October 2013 suggested that a more compact arrangement is feasible, and the linear dimension for the CINC V-5 may be reduced to about 8 m; a comparable reduction for the CINC V-2 yields a length of 5 m. That report also described an intermediate-scale (10 cm) contactor design developed by Argonne in the early 1980s that would better align with the SHINE operations as they stood in May 2012. In this report, we revisit the previous evaluation of contactor operations after discussions with CINC Industries and analysis of the SHINE process flow diagrams for the cleanup of the TSV, which were not available at the time of the first assessment.

  16. A Computer Model for Teaching the Dynamic Behavior of AC Contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J.-R. R.; Espinosa, A. G.; Romeral, L.

    2010-01-01

    Ac-powered contactors are extensively used in industry in applications such as automatic electrical devices, motor starters, and heaters. In this work, a practical session that allows students to model and simulate the dynamic behavior of ac-powered electromechanical contactors is presented. Simulation is carried out using a rigorous parametric…

  17. CO2 absorption at elevated pressures using a hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Feron, P.H.M.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, hollow fiber membrane gas–liquid contactor-based processes have gained an increasing attention. Compared to conventional processes, these processes have numerous advantages. The membrane contactors provide a very high interfacial area per unit volume, independent regulation of gas and liqu

  18. Effect of Organic Loading on Rotating Biological Contactor Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossay K. Al-Ahmady

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic loading (weight per unit time per volume is useful for the design of rotating biological contactors (RBC and for comparison with the other processes such as activated sludge or oxidation ponds. The present study puts emphasis on the significance of this control or design parameter because it allows direct comparison of the RBC system's performance when operated under various circumstances and with different kinds of wastewater. The results of the paper proved that, the COD removal in rotating biological contactor systems is a function of the organic loading rate. However, each of the wastewater concentration and flow rate are also influence on the system efficiency but theirs impact can be combined by the effect of organic loading. The majority of COD removal (40-85 % of the total removal depending on the organic loading applied occurs in the first stages of the system. There is a strong correlation between the organic loading and the concentration of the suspended solids in the rotating biological contactor basin. At higher loadings higher concentrations noted. At a loading of about, (24 g/m2.d suspended solids were 225, 125, 35, and 25 mg/L in the first, second, third and, the fourth stage respectively. To achieve an effluent quality of (BOD < 25 mg/L, COD < 60 mg/L, the system must be operated on organic loadings of about (22 gBOD/m2.d and 65 gCOD/m2.d respectively. For nitrification process, the system must be designed to operate at organic loading of about (10 g/m2.d or less and, the reactor or basin volume should be designed to achieve a hydraulic loading of about (40 L/m2.d or less.

  19. Rotating biological contactors for wastewater treatment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Hassard, Francis; Biddle, Jeremy R.; Cartmell, Elise; Jefferson, Bruce; Tyrrel, Sean F.; Stephenson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) for wastewater treatment began in the 1970s. Removal of organic matter has been targeted within organic loading rates of up to 120 g m−2 d−1 with an optimum at around 15 g m−2 d−1 for combined BOD and ammonia removal. Full nitrification is achievable under appropriate process conditions with oxidation rates of up to 6 g m−2 d−1 reported for municipal wastewater. The RBC process has been adapted for denitrification with reported removal rates of up to 14 g...

  20. Performance characteristics of cross-flow membrane contactors for liquid desiccant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different types of flat plate membrane contactors developed to eliminate carryover in liquid desiccant systems. • Two-dimensional steady-state model developed to predict performance of contactors. • The simulated results are found to be in good agreement with experimental findings. • Performance of the contactors depends significantly on the membrane characteristics. • Parametric analysis carried out to select best operating ranges of design parameters. - Abstract: Membrane based indirect contact liquid desiccant dehumidification technology subsides the serious concern of liquid desiccant droplet carryover observed in conventional direct contact liquid desiccant systems. In the membrane contactor the air and liquid desiccant streams flow in alternate channels in cross-flow arrangement, separated by micro-porous semi-permeable hydrophobic membranes. Only water vapor can pass through the membranes but liquid desiccant cannot permeate. A two-dimensional steady-state mathematical model for semipermeable membrane based indirect contactors as dehumidifiers for liquid desiccant dehumidification applications has been developed. The model can predict the air and desiccant parameters inside the dehumidifier and the outlet parameters for a given input parameters. Five different membrane contactors have been fabricated and series of experiments have been conducted to validate the mathematical model. Aqueous solution of lithium chloride has been used as desiccant. The maximum deviations between experimental and predicted values are within ±10% for outlet specific humidity and outlet enthalpy of air, ±15% deviation in dehumidification effectiveness and ±20% deviation in enthalpy effectiveness. The distributions of major parameters viz. temperature, humidity, concentration, etc., within the contactor have been presented. Parametric analysis has been carried out to study the effects of membrane characteristics, contactor design, fluid flow rates, ambient

  1. Liquid–Liquid Mixing Studies in Annular Centrifugal Contactors Comparing Stationary Mixing Vane Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-11-10

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of annular centrifugal contactors showing the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported with selected measurements in a lab-scale 5 cm contactor and 12.5 cm engineering-scale unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixingzone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugal contactors.

  2. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. PMID:27322565

  3. A new method for liposome preparation using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we present a novel, scalable liposomal preparation technique suitable for the entrapment of pharmaceutical agents into liposomes. This new method is based on the ethanol-injection technique and uses a membrane contactor module, specifically designed for colloidal system preparation. In order to investigate the process, the influence of key parameters on liposome characteristics was studied. It has been established that vesicle-size distribution decreased with a decrease of the organic-phase pressure, an increase of the aqueous-phase flow rate, and a decrease of the phospholipid concentration. Additionally, special attention was paid on reproducibility and long-term stability of lipid vesicles, confirming the robustness of the membrane contactor-based technique. On the other hand, drug-loaded liposomes were prepared and filled with two hydrophobic drug models. High entrapment-efficiency values were successfully achieved for indomethacin (63%) and beclomethasone dipropionate (98%). Transmission electron microscopy images revealed nanometric quasispherical-shaped multilamellar vesicles (size ranging from 50 to 160 nm).

  4. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions.

  5. Identification And Characterization Of The Solids Found In Extraction Contactor SEP-401 In June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-10

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) recently conducted an outage that included maintenance on the centrifugal contactors. Operations personnel observed solids or deposits in two contactors and attempted to collect samples for analyses by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The residues found in Extraction Contactor SEP-401 are a mixture of amorphous silica, aluminosilicate, titanium, and debris from low alloy steel. The solids contain low concentrations of plutonium and strontium. These isotopes are associated with the titanium that came from the monosodium titanate (MST) added in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) most likely as leached Ti from the MST that precipitated subsequently in MCU. An attempt was also made to obtain samples from the contents of Wash Contactor SEP-702. However, sampling provide ineffective.

  6. Tests of a Higgins contactor for the engineering-scale resin loading of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The loading of uranium on weak-acid ion exchange resin is a basic step in the production of fuel particles for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In the work reported here, an engineering-scale continuous resin loader (2-in.-ID Higgins contactor) was tested with existing engineering-scale process equipment. The Higgins contactor was first successfully used to convert Na+-form resin to the H+-form; then it was evaluated as a uranium loader. Results show that the 2-in.-ID Higgins contactor can easily load 25 kg of uranium per day, indicating that a 4-in.-ID contactor could load 100 kg/day. Process control was achieved by monitoring and controlling the density, pH, and inventory volume of the uranium feed solution. This control scheme is amenable to remote operation

  7. Simulation Study of AC Contactor Dynamic Contacts Contact Pressure Based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yungao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-body dynamics simulation model of CJ20-25 AC contactor was established with Pro/E(Pro/Engineerin this paper. A coupling simulation with machine, electric, magnetic on the contactor has been achieved in this model. Dynamic parameters which were called use the secondary development technology of ADAMS. The dynamic contact pressure signal of an AC contactor was obtained with ADAMS’s own simultaneous solution such as electromagnetic suction, kinematics and dynamics equations. The simulation results and actual measurement of contactor contact pressure signals are very similar. However, the complexity of the measured contacts vibration is greater than the simulation results because the actual working condition is more complex. This result provides a theoretical foundation to the dynamic contacts contact pressure test.

  8. OZONE CONTACTOR FLOW VISUALIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING 3-DIMENSIONAL LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrodynamics of ozone contactors have a crucial impact on efficient inactivation of pathogens such as Cryptosporidium as well as control of disinfection byproducts such as bromate. Improper mixing behaviors including short-circuiting, internal recirculation and presence...

  9. Applying Closing Phase-Angle Control Technique in Bounce Reduction of AC Permanent Magnet Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Tsung Chi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new low-cost electronic control circuit actuator is proposed for minimizing the bouncing times of an AC permanent magnet (PM contactor after two contacts closing. The proposed new actuator overcomes the bouncing problem of an uncontrollable restrictions imposed by previously conventional AC electromagnetic (EM contactor based on the minimization of kinetic energy prior to two contacts impact. By choosing the closing phase angle of coil voltage on purpose, the bouncing problems of the movable contact during the closing process are then overcome. The using life of contacts is then prolonged and their operating reliability is improved as well. In order to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method here, several simulation and experimental procedures were performed on a prototype of AC PM contactor in the laboratory. Testing results actually showed that bouncing problem of contactor's contacts during the closing process was to be controlled by using the proposed technology.

  10. REVIEW OF CURRENT RBC (ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR) PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid emergence of rotating biological contactor (RBC) technology as an alternative secondary wastewater treatment process has increased the need to review their performance history to provide information to the design engineer. This study, to review and compare current desig...

  11. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating biological contactors (RBC are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW. The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%. Microscopic observations illustrated that there were various active microorganisms displayed in the biofilms and their distribution changed from stage to stage. Compared with activated sludge, the biofilms in this study have higher content of dry matter and are easier to dehydrate and settle. Compared with current commercial incineration processes or advanced oxidation processes, RBC can greatly reduce the treatment cost. This research shows RBC is effective for such an inherently biorecalcitrant wastewater even at low ambient temperature.

  12. DENITRIFICATION PROCESS ENHANCING IN FOUR-STAGES ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mielcarek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of an organic substrate consumption in the denitrification process involving a biofilm in four-stages laboratory scale rotating biological contactor (RBC. The discs submergence was 40% of their diameter. Acetic acid, used as external carbon source, was fed to the fourth stage of RBC. Consumption of substrate was observed for 2 and 24 hours. For a shorter period there was the removal of 37.9 ± 1.8 mg N·m-2, while using 499,9 ± 33.2 mg O2·m-2 of organic compounds. The prolongation of the experiment duration guaranteed higher efficiency of denitrification. The ratio of organic substrate used to the amount of nitrogen removed was 13: 1 and 21: 1 for 2 and 24 hours respectively.

  13. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  14. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard; Zhou, S James; Ding, Yong; Bikson, Ben

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes progress made during Phase I and Phase II of the project: "Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process," under contract DE-FE-0000646. The objective of this project is to develop a practical and cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} separation and capture for pre-combustion coal-based gasification plants using a membrane contactor/solvent absorption process. The goals of this technology development project are to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants with less than 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Unlike conventional gas separation membranes, the membrane contactor is a novel gas separation process based on the gas/liquid membrane concept. The membrane contactor is an advanced mass transfer device that operates with liquid on one side of the membrane and gas on the other. The membrane contactor can operate with pressures that are almost the same on both sides of the membrane, whereas the gas separation membranes use the differential pressure across the membrane as driving force for separation. The driving force for separation for the membrane contactor process is the chemical potential difference of CO{sub 2} in the gas phase and in the absorption liquid. This process is thus easily tailored to suit the needs for pre-combustion separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and PoroGen Corporation (PGC) have developed a novel hollow fiber membrane technology that is based on chemically and thermally resistant commercial engineered polymer poly(ether ether ketone) or PEEK. The PEEK membrane material used in the membrane contactor during this technology development program is a high temperature engineered plastic that is virtually non-destructible under the operating conditions encountered in typical gas absorption applications. It can withstand contact with most of the common treating

  15. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W.; Lin, Yupo J.; Hestekin' Jamie A.; Henry, Michael P.; Pujado, Peter; Oroskar, Anil; Kulprathipanja, Santi; Randhava, Sarabjit

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  16. Evaluating hydraulic and disinfection efficiencies of a full-scale ozone contactor using a RANS-based modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martínez, Andrés E; Zhang, Qiong; Lei, Hongxia

    2014-04-01

    The capability of predicting hydraulic and disinfection efficiencies of ozone disinfection contactors is essential for evaluating existing contactors and improving future designs. Previous attempts based on ideal and non-ideal models for the hydraulics and simplified mechanisms for chemical reaction modeling have resulted in low accuracy and are restricted to contactors with simple geometries. This manuscript develops a modeling framework for the ozonation process by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a kinetics-based reaction modeling for the first time. This computational framework has been applied to the full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department. Flow fields, residence time distribution, ozone concentration distribution, and concentration-contact time (CT) distribution within the contactor have been predicted via the computational framework. The predictions of ozone and bromate concentrations at sample points agree well with physical experimental data measured in the contactor. The predicted CT values at the contactor outlet demonstrate that the disinfection performance of the ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department is sufficient to meet regulation requirements. The impact of seasonal flow rate change on disinfection performance is found to be significant and deserves attention during the management and operation of a water treatment plant.

  17. Mass Transfer And Hydraulic Testing Of The V-05 And V-10 Contactors With The Next Generation Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Peters, T. B.; Poirier, M. R.; Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-07-31

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facilities, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing differs from prior testing by utilizing a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the full (0.05 M) concentration of the MaxCalix as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. Stage efficiency and mass distribution ratios were determined by measuring Cs concentration in the aqueous and organic phases during single contactor testing. The nominal cesium distribution ratio, D(Cs) measured for extraction ranged from 37-60. The data showed greater than 96% stage efficiency for extraction. No significant differences were noted for operations at 4, 8 or 12 gpm aqueous salt simulant feed flow rates. The first scrub test (contact with weak caustic solution) yielded average scrub D(Cs) values of 3.3 to 5.2 and the second scrub test produced an average value of 1.8 to 2.3. For stripping behavior, the “first stage” D Cs) values ranged from 0.04 to 0.08. The efficiency of the low flow (0.27 gpm aqueous) was calculated to be 82.7%. The Spreadsheet

  18. Mass Transfer And Hydraulic Testing Of The V-05 And V-10 Contactors With The Next Generation Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facilities, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing differs from prior testing by utilizing a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the full (0.05 M) concentration of the MaxCalix as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7 dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. Stage efficiency and mass distribution ratios were determined by measuring Cs concentration in the aqueous and organic phases during single contactor testing. The nominal cesium distribution ratio, D(Cs) measured for extraction ranged from 37-60. The data showed greater than 96% stage efficiency for extraction. No significant differences were noted for operations at 4, 8 or 12 gpm aqueous salt simulant feed flow rates. The first scrub test (contact with weak caustic solution) yielded average scrub D(Cs) values of 3.3 to 5.2 and the second scrub test produced an average value of 1.8 to 2.3. For stripping behavior, the ''first stage'' D Cs) values ranged from 0.04 to 0.08. The efficiency of the low flow (0.27 gpm aqueous) was calculated to be 82.7%. The Spreadsheet

  19. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Jack Law; Terry Todd

    2007-09-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) are being evaluated for process-scale solvent extraction operations in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) separations goals. Process-scale annular centrifugal contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Hydraulic performance issues related to flow instability and classical flooding are likely unimportant, especially for units with high throughputs. However, annular mixing increases rapidly with increasing rotor diameter while maintaining a fixed g force at the rotor wall. In addition, for engineering/process-scale contactors, elevated rotor speeds and/or throughput rates, can lead to organic phase foaming at the rotor discharge collector area. Foam buildup in the upper rotor head area can aspirate additional vapor from the contactor housing resulting in a complete loss of separation equilibrium. Variable speed drives are thus desirable to optimize and balance the operating parameters to help ensure acceptable performance. Proper venting of larger contactors is required to balance pressures across individual stages and prevent vapor lock due to foam aspiration.

  20. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  1. Effect of Sedimentation on Treated Greywater Through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Pathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the effect of sedimentation on effluent of a pilot scale Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC. The treated greywater was given three hours sedimentation period and samples were analyzed to observe the effect of sedimentations under variousflow rates. Greywater was separated from the black water and collected in the collection tank and then it was pumped to an overhead tank. This tank supplied a regulated continuous flow of greywater into the RBC chamber at the required flow rate ranging between 0.28 to 1.89 l/min. A pilot scale RBC simulator was developed and placed outside a hall of residence at National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, Sindh University, Jamshoro. The simulator was operated at the rotational speed of discs of 1.7 rpm. The disks were uneven and textured so as to encourage growth of bacteria on them. These discs were immersed about 40 percent in the greywater.The simulator produced effluent of significant quality and was found efficient in removal of BOD5, COD and TSS as 85%, 68% and 95% respectively.

  2. A turbulent bed contactor: energetic efficiency for particle collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gimenes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle collection experiments were conducted in a fluidizing irrigated bed to evaluate the performance of mobile packings: 38 x 50 mm plain oblate spheroids 38 mm ID plain spheres and alternative perforated spheres with a 38 mm ID and 10% and 25% free areas were used as fluidizing media in a 0.264 m diameter and 1.20 m high turbulent bed contactor (TBC. Particle collection experiments were carried out above the minimum fluidization velocity, using as particulate test powder polysized alumina (size 1.5 to 5.5 mm. Experimental results demonstrated that the perforated spheres performed better in collecting particles than the other packings tested. The efficiency of particle collection was analysed based on energy consumption in the TBC, using the energetic efficiency concept. It was verified that not much more energy was consumed per unit of gas flow in fluidized beds of perforated packings than in those of conventional plain sphere packings, since the perforated spheres were more energetically efficient for particle collection than plain spheres and oblate spheroid packings.

  3. Modified rotating biological contactor for removal of dichloromethane vapours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R; Philip, Ligy; Swaminathan, T

    2015-01-01

    Bioreactors are used for the treatment of waste gas and odour that has gained much acceptance in the recent years to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The different types of bioreactors (biofilter, biotrickling filter and bioscrubber) have been used for waste gas treatment. Each of these reactors has some advantages and some limitations. Though biodegradation is the main process for the removal of the pollutants, the mechanisms of removal and the microbial communities may differ among these bioreactors. Consequently, their performance or removal efficiency may also be different. Clogging of reactor and pressure drop are the main problems. In this study attempts are made to use the principle of rotating biological contactor (RBC) used for wastewater treatment for the removal of VOC. To overcome the above problem the RBC is modified which is suitable for the treatment of VOC (dichloromethane, DCM). DCM is harmful to human health and hazardous to the atmospheric environment. Modified RBC had no clogging problems and no pressure drop. So, it can handle the pollutant load for a longer period of time. A maximum elimination capacity of 25.7 g/m3 h has been achieved in this study for the DCM inlet load of 58 g/m3 h. The average biofilm thickness is 1 mm. The transient behaviour of the modified RBC treating DCM was investigated. The modified RBC is able to handle shutdown, restart and shock loading operations.

  4. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  5. Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Ralph A.; Frank, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

  6. Application of PTFE membrane for ammonia removal in a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y T; Hwang, Y H; Shin, H S

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of a membrane contactor system for ammonia removal was studied. The mass transfer coefficient was used to quantitatively compare the effect of various operation conditions on ammonia removal efficiency. Effective removal of ammonia was possible with a Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane contactor system at all tested conditions. Among the various operation parameters, contact time and solution pH showed significant effect on the ammonia removal mechanism. The overall ammonia removal rate was not affected by influent suspended solution concentration unlike other pressure driven membrane filtration processes. Also the osmotic distillation phenomena which deteriorate the mass transfer efficiency can be minimized by preheating of influent wastewater. A membrane contactor system can be a possible alternative to treat high strength nitrogen wastewater by optimizing operation conditions such as stripping solution flow rate, influent wastewater temperature, and influent pH.

  7. Modeling and Hardware-in-the-loop Simulations of Contactor Dynamics : Mechanics, Electromagnetics and Software

    OpenAIRE

    Tjerngren, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis’s subject is to model an ABB contactor’s dynamics and to develop a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The hardware-in-the-loop method utilizes computer models that are simulated in a real-time simulator. The real-time simulator is connected to hardware components. A contactor is an electrically controlled mechanical switching device and it is used in circuits where large currents can occur. In this thesis, the contactor is divided into three separate subsystems an...

  8. FOULING CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE CONTACTORS USED FOR THE RECOVERY AND CONCENTRATION OF AMMONIA FROM UNDIGESTED PIG SLURRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2012-01-01

    The main obstacle impeding implementation of membrane contactors for the recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure is the phenomena of membrane fouling. Fouling is defined as the accumulation of suspended or dissolved substances on the membrane surface and/or within its pores. Due...... a week of running the contactor without cleaning. This indicates that fouling could be a severe problem. The intensity of fouling can be reduced by feed pretreatment and by optimizing the operating conditions of the membrane contactor. This will also facilitate removal of ammonia....

  9. 新型交流接触器的应用%Application of New Type of AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬英; 李克芹

    2009-01-01

    简要介绍了TJ40(CJ45)系列新型交流接触器,详细阐述了两种派生产品的用途、结构、特点和应用,即机械联锁可逆交流接触器和切换电容器交流接触器.%The TJ40(CJ45)series new of AC contactors were introduced briefly.The use,structure,trait and application of the two derived contactor products,viz.mechanical interlock reversible AC contactor and smtching capacitor AC eontactor,were expounded.

  10. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst concentr

  11. Treatment of anaerobically pre-treated domestic sewage by a rotating biological contactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik, A.; Klapwijk, A.; el-Gohary, F.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for the post-treatment of the effluent of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was the subject of this study. Different hydraulic and organic loading rates have been investigated. The removal efficiencies of CODtotal, CODsuspended, CODco

  12. Surface-Roughness-Based Virtual Textiles: Evaluation Using a Multi-Contactor Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Matthew; Summers, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Virtual textiles, generated in response to exploratory movements, are presented to the fingertip via a 24-contactor vibrotactile array. Software models are based on surface-roughness profiles from real textiles. Results suggest that distinguishable "textile-like" surfaces are produced, but these lack the necessary accuracy for reliable matching to real textiles.

  13. Validation of a simple method for predicting the disinfection performance in a flow-through contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Valentin; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    Despite its shortcomings, the T10 method introduced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989 is currently the method most frequently used in North America to calculate disinfection performance. Other methods (e.g., the Integrated Disinfection Design Framework, IDDF) have been advanced as replacements, and more recently, the USEPA suggested the Extended T10 and Extended CSTR (Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor) methods to improve the inactivation calculations within ozone contactors. To develop a method that fully considers the hydraulic behavior of the contactor, two models (Plug Flow with Dispersion and N-CSTR) were successfully fitted with five tracer tests results derived from four Water Treatment Plants and a pilot-scale contactor. A new method based on the N-CSTR model was defined as the Partially Segregated (Pseg) method. The predictions from all the methods mentioned were compared under conditions of poor and good hydraulic performance, low and high disinfectant decay, and different levels of inactivation. These methods were also compared with experimental results from a chlorine pilot-scale contactor used for Escherichia coli inactivation. The T10 and Extended T10 methods led to large over- and under-estimations. The Segregated Flow Analysis (used in the IDDF) also considerably overestimated the inactivation under high disinfectant decay. Only the Extended CSTR and Pseg methods produced realistic and conservative predictions in all cases. Finally, a simple implementation procedure of the Pseg method was suggested for calculation of disinfection performance.

  14. Novel highly integrated biodiesel production technology in a centrifugal contactor separator device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G. N.; Schuur, B.; van Zwol, F.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    The base catalyzed production of biodiesel (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) with integrated reaction and phase separation was studied. The effect of catalyst loading (sodium methoxide), temperature, rotational frequency and flow rates of th

  15. Using 3D LIF to Investigate and Improve Performance of a Multichamber Ozone Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF) was applied to visualize and quantitatively analyze hydrodynamics and mixing in a multi-chamber ozone contactor, the most widely used design for water disinfection. The results suggested that the mixing was characterized by ext...

  16. Modelling of cross-flow membrane contactors : Physical mass transfer processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V. Y.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, hollow fiber membrane contactors used for gas-liquid contacting were designed in a shell and tube configuration with shell-side fluid flowing parallel to the fiber-side fluid, either in co-current or counter-current pattern. The primary limitations of these so-called 'parallel flow' c

  17. Membrane–solvent selection for CO2 removal using membrane gas–liquid contactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Geuzebroek, F.H.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Membrane gas–liquid contactors can provide very high interfacial area per unit volume, independent regulation of gas and liquid flows and are insensitive to module orientation, which make them very attractive in comparison with conventional equipments for offshore application. However, the membrane

  18. Axial liquid mixing in a gas-liquid Multi-Stage Agitated Contactor (MAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M; Bouma, M.J; VanderWerf, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Data on interstage liquid mixing are reported for a gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC). A dynamic method using heat as a tracer was applied for water, n-octane and monoethylene glycol as liquids both with and without the presence of a dispersed gas phase (air). In all cases, the axial m

  19. Extraction of uranium from in-situ leach solutions using the NIMCIX ion exchange contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NIMCIX ion exchange column is a multi-stage fluidized bed contactor to permit a counter-current flow of solution and resin in order to maximize extraction efficiency. Batch or continuous elution methods with fully automated or manual control systems may be selected for different process solution conditions. 8 refs

  20. Biofilm growth of Chlorella sorokiniana in a rotating biological contactor based photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, W.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Cuaresma, M.; Libor, Z.; Bhaiji, T.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, m

  1. Amine-based solvents regeneration in gas-liquid membrane contactor based on asymmetric PVTMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, A.V.; Tsarkov, S.E.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Volkov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric flat-sheet membranes made of poly(vinyltrimethylsilane) (PVTMS) were studied for the regeneration of amine-based absorption solvents in a membrane gas-liquid contactor at 100°C. It was shown that PVTMS membrane possesses good mechanical and chemical stability in contact with 4 M monoethan

  2. Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas L. oil and ethanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; Kalpoe, Vijay; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik H.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from Jatropha curcas L. oil was studied in a batch reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium ethoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like rotational speed, temperature, catalyst concentratio

  3. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized Goldilocks contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range 9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here, though

  4. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here

  5. Mass Transfer And Hydraulic Testing Of The V-05 And V-10 Contactors With The Next Generation Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Peters, T. B.; Poirier, M. R.; Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-07-31

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facilities, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing differs from prior testing by utilizing a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the full (0.05 M) concentration of the MaxCalix as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. Stage efficiency and mass distribution ratios were determined by measuring Cs concentration in the aqueous and organic phases during single contactor testing. The nominal cesium distribution ratio, D(Cs) measured for extraction ranged from 37-60. The data showed greater than 96% stage efficiency for extraction. No significant differences were noted for operations at 4, 8 or 12 gpm aqueous salt simulant feed flow rates. The first scrub test (contact with weak caustic solution) yielded average scrub D(Cs) values of 3.3 to 5.2 and the second scrub test produced an average value of 1.8 to 2.3. For stripping behavior, the “first stage” D Cs) values ranged from 0.04 to 0.08. The efficiency of the low flow (0.27 gpm aqueous) was calculated to be 82.7%. The Spreadsheet

  6. Simulation studies of ammonia removal from water in a membrane contactor under liquid-liquid extraction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandowara, Amish; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2011-01-01

    Simulation studies were carried out, in an unsteady state, for the removal of ammonia from water via a membrane contactor. The contactor had an aqueous solution of NH(3) in the lumen and sulphuric acid in the shell side. The model equations were developed considering radial and axial diffusion and convection in the lumen. The partial differential equations were converted by the finite difference technique into a series of stiff ordinary differential equations w.r.t. time and solved using MATLAB. Excellent agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data (from the literature) for a contactor of 75 fibres. Excellent agreement was also observed between the simulation results and laboratory-generated data from a contactor containing 10,200 fibres. Our model is more suitable than the plug-flow model for designing the operation of the membrane contactor. The plug-flow model over-predicts the fractional removal of ammonia and was observed to be limited when designing longer contactors.

  7. Simulation studies of ammonia removal from water in a membrane contactor under liquid-liquid extraction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandowara, Amish; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2011-01-01

    Simulation studies were carried out, in an unsteady state, for the removal of ammonia from water via a membrane contactor. The contactor had an aqueous solution of NH(3) in the lumen and sulphuric acid in the shell side. The model equations were developed considering radial and axial diffusion and convection in the lumen. The partial differential equations were converted by the finite difference technique into a series of stiff ordinary differential equations w.r.t. time and solved using MATLAB. Excellent agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data (from the literature) for a contactor of 75 fibres. Excellent agreement was also observed between the simulation results and laboratory-generated data from a contactor containing 10,200 fibres. Our model is more suitable than the plug-flow model for designing the operation of the membrane contactor. The plug-flow model over-predicts the fractional removal of ammonia and was observed to be limited when designing longer contactors. PMID:20843596

  8. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup

  9. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, K.E. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup.

  10. EFFECT OF ORGANIC LOADING RATES FOR TREATING GREY WATER IN ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syed Enayathali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory model of two-stage Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC which was used in the present study is a modified one, with a rovision to vary the speed of rotating blades. Grey wastewater was used to study the performance of the modified rotating biological contactor. The reactor had four rotating blades in each stage, having the size of 300 mm x100 mm x 10 mm, attached perpendicular to the shaft. The experiment was conducted for different influent COD loads and different speeds of rotating blades. Among the different speedsof rotational blades in treating grey water, the rotational speed of 3 rpm was found to yield better percent removal of COD at 95.07% as maximum, where as against the rotational speeds of 4.5 and 6 rpm, the treatment efficiency is 95.04% and 94.96% respectively

  11. An air-liquid contactor for large-scale capture of CO2 from air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Keith, David W

    2012-09-13

    We present a conceptually simple method for optimizing the design of a gas-liquid contactor for capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air, or 'air capture'. We apply the method to a slab geometry contactor that uses components, design and fabrication methods derived from cooling towers. We use mass transfer data appropriate for capture using a strong NaOH solution, combined with engineering and cost data derived from engineering studies performed by Carbon Engineering Ltd, and find that the total costs for air contacting alone-no regeneration-can be of the order of $60 per tonne CO(2). We analyse the reasons why our cost estimate diverges from that of other recent reports and conclude that the divergence arises from fundamental design choices rather than from differences in costing methodology. Finally, we review the technology risks and conclude that they can be readily addressed by prototype testing.

  12. Effects of solvent-extraction contactor selection on flowsheet and facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion is developed that the selection of a solvent extraction contactor is part of a more general development of principles and philosophy guiding the overall plant design. Specifically, the requirements and constraints placed on the plant by the solvent extraction system must be consistent with those imposed by the other operations, which generally are more expensive and more complicated. Were a conservative philosophy employed throughout the plant, the choice of pulsed columns seem correct. Were the plant intended to employ modern techniques and state-of-the-art technology, particularly in remote maintenance and process control, the selection of centrifugal contactors seems appropriate. The process improvements attainable from employing more stages in a more tightly controlled solvent extraction system seem marginal at present when applied to conventional flowsheets, although the cost-benefit may be attractive in a modern plant. The potential for improvement through major flowsheet modification can not presently be assessed quantitatively

  13. Method of reliability tolerance design based on EDA technology and its application on DC hybrid contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-juan; SHA You-tao; ZHANG Hui; ZHAI Guo-fu

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance design, including tolerance analysis and distribution, is an important part of the electronic system's reliability design. The traditional design needs to construct mathematic model of material circuit, which involves large amount of workload and lacks of practicability. This paper discusses the basic theory of electronic system's reliability tolerance design and presents a new design method based on EDA (Electronic Design Automatic) software. This method has been validated through the application research on reliability tolerance design of the DC hybrid contactor's control circuit.

  14. Liposome and niosome preparation using a membrane contactor for scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Thuy; Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem

    2012-06-01

    The scaling-up ability of liposome and niosome production, from laboratory scale using a syringe-pump device to a pilot scale using the membrane contactor module, was investigated. For this aim, an ethanol injection-based method was applied for liposome and niosome preparation. The syringe-pump device was used for laboratory scale batches production (30 ml for liposomes, 20 ml for niosomes) then a pilot scale (750 ml for liposomes, 1000 ml for niosomes) were obtained using the SPG membrane contactor. Resulted nanovesicles were characterized in terms of mean vesicles size, polydispersity index (PdI) and zeta potential. The drug encapsulation efficiency (E.E.%) was evaluated using two drug-models: caffeine and spironolactone, a hydrophilic and a lipophilic molecule, respectively. As results, nanovectors mean size using the syringe-pump device was comprised between 82 nm and 95 nm for liposomes and between 83 nm and 127 nm for niosomes. The optimal E.E. of caffeine within niosomes, was found around 9.7% whereas the spironolactone E.E. reached 95.6% which may be attributed to its lipophilic properties. For liposomes these values were about 9.7% and 86.4%, respectively. It can be clearly seen that the spironolactone E.E. was slightly higher within niosomes than liposomes. Optimized formulations, which offered smaller size and higher E.E., were selected for pilot scale production using the SPG membrane. It has been found that vesicles characteristics (size and E.E.%) were reproducible using the membrane contactor module. Thus, the current study demonstrated the usefulness of the membrane contactor as a device for scaling-up both liposome and niosome preparations with small mean sizes.

  15. Mechanical evolution of the rotating biological contactor into the 21st century.

    OpenAIRE

    Mba, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the evolution of the mechanical design of rotating biological contactors (RBCs) within the UK. The findings documented have been taken from the biggest mechanical survey on RBCs ever undertaken worldwide and focuses on 300 operational units. The paper looks at the main components of the RBC and discusses the evolution of each member. Mechanical deficiencies associated with each design are briefly presented, giving an insight into reasons for i...

  16. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli, N.M. Srivatsa

    2016-04-26

    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  17. Extraction and quantification of SO2 content in wines using a hollow fiber contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Andrea; Romero, Julio; Silva, Wladimir; Morales, Elizabeth; Torres, Alejandra; Aguirre, María J

    2014-10-01

    Sulfites [Formula: see text] or sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a preservative widely used in fruits and fruit-derived products. This study aims to propose a membrane contactor process for the selective removal and recovery of SO2 from wines in order to obtain its reliable quantification. Currently, the aspiration and Ripper methods offer a difficult quantification of the sulfite content in red wines because they involve evaporation steps of diluted compounds and a colorimetric assay, respectively. Therefore, an inexpensive and accurate methodology is not currently available for continuous monitoring of SO2 in the liquids food industry. Red wine initially acidified at pH Contactor, which separates the acidified red wine in the shell side and a diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide solution as receiving solution into the lumenside in countercurrent. Sulfite and bisulfite in the acidified red wine become molecular SO2, which is evaporated through the membrane pores filled with gas. Thus, SO2 is trapped in a colorless solution and the membrane contactor controls its transfer, decreasing experimental error induced in classical methods. Experimental results using model solutions with known concentration values of [Formula: see text] show an average extraction percentage of 98.91 after 4 min. On the other hand, two types of Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines were analyzed with the same system to quantify the content of free and total sulfites. Results show a good agreement between these methods and the proposed technique, which shows a lower experimental variability.

  18. THC1系列交流接触器%THC1 Series AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏芳娟; 曾萍; 陈红; 陈晓军

    2009-01-01

    介绍了THC1系列交流接触器.从技术参数、结构特点、创新点及材料方面介绍了该接触器的主要特征.新产品采用热塑件以利环保,采用塑料卡扣拼装和端子罩盖便于装配,将原有限的空间分割出若十小室,互不干扰,保证了工作时期的可靠绝缘及安全.%The THC1 AC contactor was introduced.The main traits of this contactor,such as technology,structure point,innovation points and material,were introduced.Thermal plastic was adopted to protect environ-ment.Plastic block buckle and terminal cover were adopted to assemble conveniently.Primary finite space was di-vided into several small cells so that they didn't interfere each other,with ensuring reliable insulation and safety when contactor works.

  19. Recovery of ascorbic oxidoreductase from crude extract with an aqueous two-phase system in a perforated rotating disc contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Figueiredo Porto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A continuous perforated rotating disc contactor was used to extract the enzyme ascorbic oxidoreductase (E.C.1.10.3.3 from crude extract of Curcubita maxima with an aqueous two-phase system of poly (ethylene glycol and phosphate salts. The effect of dispersed phase velocity on either protein mass transfer coefficients or separation efficiency at 1, 2 and 3 mL/min was studied. An increase of the mass transfer coefficients was observed with the dispersed phase velocity, while the separation efficiency showed a small decrease with the increase of this parameter. The experimental results obtained during continuous extraction showed that the ascorbic oxidoreductase activity was partitioned preferentially into the salt-rich phase in all conditions studied. The best recovery of enzyme activity was 236%, with a purification factor of 34 in flow rates of 1 mL/min for dispersed phase.Uma coluna de discos perfurados rotativos foi utilizada na extração da enzima ascorbato oxidorredutase (E.C.1.10.3.3, obtida do extrato bruto de Curcubita maxima, através da utilização do sistema bifásico aquoso Polietilenoglicol-sais de fosfato. Os efeitos da velocidade da fase dispersa nos coeficientes de transferência de massa e na eficiência de separação para valores de 1, 2 e 3 mL/min foram estudados. Observou-se um aumento da transferência de massa com a velocidade da fase dispersa, enquanto que a eficiência de separação demonstrou uma ligeira redução com o aumento deste parâmetro. Os resultados experimentais obtidos durante a extração contínua demonstraram que a atividade da ascorbato oxidorredutase se concentrou preferencialmente na fase rica em sal para todas as condições estudadas. A maior recuperação da atividade enzimática foi de 236%, com um fator de purificação de 34 para o valor de 1 mL/min para a fase dispersa.

  20. PUMA - a new mathematical model for the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in mixer-settler extraction, partitioning, and stripping contactors using the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical basis for a computer code PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) is described. The code simulates steady-state concentration profiles of solvent extraction contactors used in the Purex process, directly without first generating the transient behavior. The computational times are reduced, with no loss of accuracy, by about tenfold over those required by codes that generate the steady-state profiles via transient state conditions. Previously developed codes that simulate the steady-state conditions directly are not applicable to partitioning contactors, whereas PUMA is applicable to all contactors in the Purex process. Since most difficulties are encountered with partitioning contactors when simulating steady-state profiles via transient state conditions, it is with these contactors that the greatest saving in computer times is achieved

  1. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  2. Regeneration of Alkanolamine Solutions in Membrane Contactor Based on Novel Polynorbornene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutova A.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a novel highly permeable glassy polymer, addition poly[bis(trimethylsilyltricyclononene] (PBTMST, was proposed for its use in a gas-liquid membrane contactor for the regeneration of CO2 absorption liquids (desorption of CO2. This membrane material possesses a good chemical stability and high barrier properties for a number of alkanolmines (30 wt% solutions of MEA, DEA, MDEA, AMP, DEAE or AEAE under typical regeneration conditions (T = 100°C. Studies on gas transport properties of PBTMST (100°C and 1-40 bar show that permeability coefficients of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide initially tend to decrease, and then level off after first 6-8 hours of operation. This behavior can be explained by partial relaxation of the free-volume structure of PBTMST, no chemical degradation of polymer material at high temperature was confirmed by IR analysis. At the same time, this membrane material preserves high gas permeability coefficients which are higher than those of conventional materials used in the membrane contactors. Gas-liquid membrane contactor based on dense PBTMST membrane shows a good, stable performance; particularly, CO2 loading in diethanolamine solution (30 wt% can be reduced for 0.05-0.34 mole/mole by single pass through the membrane desorber at 100°C and elevated pressure. It seems that desorption rate here is mainly controlled by liquid phase because decreasing of membrane thickness by 50% (from 31 to 21 μm leads to improvement of DEA regeneration only by 1.5-8.5%.

  3. Denitrification in an anoxic rotating biological contactor under two carbon/nitrogen ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the performance of an anoxic bench-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC), in terms of the denitrification process, applied to treat synthetic wastewater under two carbon/nitrogen (C/N) molar ratios (1.5 and 3). The average removal efficiency in terms of nitrogen-nitrate was of about 90.4% at a C/N=1.5 lowering to 73.7% at a C/N=3. Considering carbon-acetate removal an overall efficiency of 82.0% and 63.6% was attained at a C/N rati...

  4. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  5. Counteracting ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion by removal with a hollow fiber membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterböck, B; Ortner, M; Haider, R; Fuchs, W

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of membrane contactors for continuous ammonia (NH₃-N) removal in an anaerobic digestion process and to counteract ammonia inhibition. Two laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed slaughterhouse wastes with ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations ranging from 6 to 7.4 g/L. One reactor was used as reference reactor without any ammonia removal. In the second reactor, a hollow fiber membrane contactor module was used for continuous ammonia removal. The hollow fiber membranes were directly submerged into the digestate of the anaerobic reactor. Sulfuric acid was circulated in the lumen as an adsorbent solution. Using this set up, the NH₄⁺-N concentration in the membrane reactor was significantly reduced. Moreover the extraction of ammonia lowered the pH by 0.2 units. In combination that led to a lowering of the free NH₃-N concentration by about 70%. Ammonia inhibition in the reference reactor was observed when the concentration exceeded 6 g/L NH₄⁺-N or 1-1.2 g/L NH₃-N. In contrast, in the membrane reactor the volatile fatty acid concentration, an indicator for process stability, was much lower and a higher gas yield and better degradation was observed. The chosen approach offers an appealing technology to remove ammonia directly from media having high concentrations of solids and it can help to improve process efficiency in anaerobic digestion of ammonia rich substrates.

  6. Emergency membrane contactor based absorption system for ammonia leaks in water treatment plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jiahui; FANG Xuliang; HE Yiliang; JIN Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the suspected health risks of trihalomethanes (THMs), more and more water treatment plants have replaced traditionalchlorine disinfection process with chloramines but often without the proper absorption system installed in the case of ammonia leaksin the storage room. A pilot plant membrane absorption system was developed and installed in a water treatment plant for this purpose.Experimentally determined contact angle, surface tension, and corrosion tests indicated that the sulfuric acid was the proper choice as the absorbent for leaking ammonia using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. Effects of several operating conditionson the mass transfer coefficient, ammonia absorption, and removal efficiency were examined, including the liquid concentration,liquid velocity, and feed gas concentration. Under the operation conditions investigated, the gas absorption efficiency over 99.9%was achieved. This indicated that the designed pilot plant membrane absorption system was effective to absorb the leaking ammonia in the model storage room. The removal rate of the ammonia in the model storage room was also experimentally and theoretically foundto be primarily determined by the ammonia suction flow rate from the ammonia storage room to the membrane contactor. The ammoniaremoval rate of 99.9% was expected to be achieved within 1.3 h at the ammonia gas flow rate of 500 m3/h. The success of the pilot plantmembrane absorption system developed in this study illustrated the potential of this technology for ammonia leaks in water treatmentplant, also paved the way towards a larger scale application.

  7. A study of the operational effectiveness of a disk-rotor contactor in a deasphalting installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvetkov, B.A.; Anisimkov, Yu.P.; Boreysha, T.Yu.; Bronfin, I.B.; Chernyshov, S.D.; Golygin, M.I.; Mikita, V.P.; Shkolnikov, V.M.; Veselovskaya, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Results are cited of many years of operation and study of an industrial rotary disk contactor (RDK) in the process of deasphalting of Western Siberian oils. The evaluation of the operational effectiveness of the rotary disk contactor was conducted from the output of the deparaffinated oil with a viscosity index (IV) of 90. The asphalt processed had a conditional viscosity at 80 degrees C of 22 to 28 seconds, a boil away at 500 degrees C of 15 to 20 percent, a potential content of oils with a viscosity index of 90 of 30 percent. The operational effectiveness of the apparatus was studied with the following parameters: diameter of the rotary disks of 1.8 and 1.5 meters; rotor rotation speed of 0.8; 16 and 24 revolutions per minute; a raw material productivity of 22 to 34 cubic meters per hour; a top temperature of 80 to 85 degrees C; a temperature gradient of 25 to 27 degrees and a propane to raw material ratio of 3.3 to 4.5 total.

  8. Determination of economically justified parameters of synchronous disconnection at low-voltage circuit switching via a synchronous vacuum contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Verkhola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of a single switching procedure cost upon the contact opening delay time and delay-time spread is derived for a low-voltage synchronous vacuum contactor. For different cost levels, boundaries of permissible values of delay-time and delay-time spread are specified.

  9. Talking about the Maintenance of AC Contactor%浅谈交流接触器的维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如军

    2011-01-01

    AC eleOromagnetic contactor as an automatic switch in the control of electrical equipment companies have been widely used. But for various reasons often lead to the emergence of various AC contactor failure or damage. Therefore, there must be targeted to take various measures to do a goodjob AC contactor failure prevention, maintenance and processing, to protect AC contactor to work.%交流接触器作为一种电磁式自动开关在企业电气设备的控制中得到了广泛的应用。但由于各种原因经常导致交流接触器出现各种故障甚至损坏。因此,必须有针对性地采取各种措施,认真做好交流接触器故障的预防、维护和处理工作,保障交流接触器正常工作。

  10. INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN A PILOT-SCALE OZONE BUBBLE-DIFFUSER CONTACTOR - II: MODEL VALIDATION AND APPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ADR model developed in Part I of this study was successfully validated with experimenta data obtained for the inactivation of C. parvum and C. muris oocysts with a pilot-scale ozone-bubble diffuser contactor operated with treated Ohio River water. Kinetic parameters, required...

  11. FLOW REGIMES, GAS HOLD-UP AND AXIAL GAS MIXING IN THE GAS-LIQUID MULTISTAGE AGITATED CONTACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREMAN, BB; BEENACKERS, AACM; BOUMA, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data are reported on Row regimes, gas hold-up and axial gas mixing of a gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC), consisting of nine compartments [height, H, over diameter, D = 1; D = 0.09 m) separated by horizontal baffles with an opening of 0.04 m and with one centrally positio

  12. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: ► Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. ► Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. ► Al2O3 and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. ► High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  13. Current-voltage characteristics of a cathodic plasma contactor with discharge chamber for application in electrodynamic tether propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kan; Martinez, Rafael A.; Williams, John D.

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the net electron-emission current as a function of bias voltage of a plasma source that is being used as the cathodic element in a bare electrodynamic tether system. An analysis is made that enables an understanding of the basic issues determining the current-voltage (C-V) behaviour. This is important for the efficiency of the electrodynamic tether and for low impedance performance without relying on the properties of space plasma for varying orbital altitudes, inclinations, day-night cycles or the position of the plasma contactor relative to the wake of the spacecraft. The cathodic plasma contactor considered has a cylindrical discharge chamber (10 cm in diameter and ˜11 cm in length) and is driven by a hollow cathode. Experiments and a 1D spherical model are both used to study the contactor's C-V curves. The experiments demonstrate how the cathodic contactor would emit electrons into space for anode voltages in the range of 25-40 V, discharge currents in the range of 1-2.5 A, and low xenon gas flows of 2-4 sccm. Plasma properties are measured and compared with (3 A) and without net electron emission. A study of the dependence of relevant parameters found that the C-V behaviour strongly depends on electron temperature, initial ion energy and ion emission current at the contactor exit. However, it depended only weakly on ambient plasma density. The error in the developed model compared with the experimental C-V curves is within 5% at low electron-emission currents (0-2 A). The external ionization processes and high ion production rate caused by the discharge chamber, which dominate the C-V behaviour at electron-emission currents over 2 A, are further highlighted and discussed.

  14. Design and evaluation of hydraulic baffled-channel PAC contactor for taste and odor removal from drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Bae, Byung-Uk

    2007-05-01

    Based on the concept of hydraulic flocculator, a baffled-channel powdered activated carbon (PAC) contactor, placed before the rapid-mixing basin, was designed and evaluated for removal of taste and odor (T&O) in drinking water. PAC adsorption kinetic tests for raw water samples were conducted for selection of design parameters related to contact time and degree of mixing. Within the tested range of velocity gradient (G) from 18 to 83s(-1), mixing had a relatively minor effect on the adsorption kinetics of the PAC. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the pilot-scale horizontally and vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor were investigated by tracer tests. It was found that the plug flow fractions of vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor (vBPC) were higher than those of the horizontally baffled-channel PAC contactor (hBPC) for the same bend width or bend height. However, the hBPC seems to be more appropriate than the vBPC in terms of construction and maintenance. The geosmin and MIB removal rate increased with the number of baffles, PAC dose and contact time increased regardless of bend width in the pilot-scale hBPC. The pair of full-scale hBPCs at Pohang water treatment plant, having a design capacity of 6.5x10(4)m(3)/d with 20min of hydraulic retention time with a safety factor of 2, was designed based on lab- and pilot-scale experimental results. Under a velocity gradient of 20s(-1), the number of baffles to be installed was calculated to be 20 with a space of about 2m between each baffle, resulting in a hydraulic head loss through the contactor of about 0.056m. The successful application of hBPC for T&O removal from drinking water supplies should provide momentum for developing more effective treatment methods.

  15. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter sp. RKY5 in a Rotary Biofilm Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jun; Kim, Jin-Nam; Wee, Young-Jung; Park, Don-Hee; Ryu, Hwa-Won

    A rotary biofilm contactor (RBC) inoculated with Gluconacetobacter sp. RKY5 was used as a bioreactor for improved bacterial cellulose production. The optimal number of disk for bacterial cellulose production was found to be eight, at which bacterial cellulose and cell concentrations were 5.52 and 4.98 g/L. When the aeration rate was maintained at 1.25 vvm, bacterial cellulose and cell concentrations were maximized (5.67 and 5.25 g/L, respectively). The optimal rotation speed of impeller in RBC was 15 rpm. When the culture pH in RBC was not controlled during fermentation, the maximal amount of bacterial cellulose (5.53 g/L) and cells (4.91 g/L) was obtained. Under the optimized culture conditions, bacterial cellulose and cell concentrations in RBC reached to 6.17 and 5.58 g/L, respectively.

  16. Bioaugmentation for treating transient 4-fluorocinnamic acid shock loads in a rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Catarina L; Duque, Anouk F; Afonso, Carlos M M; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-09-01

    A rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used to treat shock loadings of 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA). Intermittent 4-FCA shocks of 35 mg L(-1) were applied (ca. 3 months) with only limited mineralization occurring and accumulation of 4-fluorobenzoate (4-FBA) as an intermediate. After bioaugmentation with a degrading bacterium the RBC was able to deal with 4-FCA intermittent loading of 80 mg L(-1) however, a gradual decline in RBC performance occurred, leading to 4-FBA accumulation. The degrading strain was recovered from the biofilm during 2 months but intermittent feeding may have led to diminishing strain numbers. Distinct bacterial communities in the 1st and the 5th and 10th stages of the RBC were revealed by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Several isolates retrieved from the RBC transformed 4-FCA into 4-FBA but only two strains mineralized the compound. Bioaugmentation allowed removal of the fluorinated compound however intermittent feeding may have compromised the bioreactor efficiency.

  17. Recovery of volatile fatty acids via membrane contactor using flat membranes: experimental and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugtas, Adile Evren

    2014-07-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) separation from synthetic VFA solutions and leachate was investigated via the use of a membrane contactor. NaOH was used as a stripping solution to provide constant concentration gradient of VFAs in both sides of a membrane. Mass flux (12.23 g/m(2)h) and selectivity (1.599) observed for acetic acid were significantly higher than those reported in the literature and were observed at feed pH of 3.0, flow rate of 31.5 ± 0.9 mL/min, and stripping solution concentration of 1.0 N. This study revealed that the flow rate, stripping solution strength, and feed pH affect the mass transfer of VFAs through the PTFE membrane. Acetic and propionic acid separation performances observed in the present study provided a cost effective and environmental alternative due to elimination of the use of extractants.

  18. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of CO2 Removal in a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhien Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study shows a comprehensive 2D numerical model for removal of CO2 in a polypropylene (PP hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Monoethanolamine (MEA solution was used as the liquid absorbent in a nonwetting mode. The simulation results represented that higher liquid velocity and concentration and lower gas velocity and concentration led to higher percent of CO2 removal. The most proper parameters for CO2 removal were less than 1 mol m−3 gas concentration and 0.2 m s−1 gas flow rate, and for MEA the values were above 8 mol m−3 concentration and approximately 1 m s−1 liquid velocity. Furthermore, the model was validated with the experiment results. Therefore, the modeling results provided references to the selection of absorbents and operation parameters in the experimental study and pilot-scale applications.

  19. The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Ceněk; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kateřina; Pavko, Aleksander

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters.

  20. Centrifugal contactor modified for end stage operation in a multistage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubin, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    A cascade formed of a plurality of centrifugal contactors useful for countercurrent solvent extraction processes such as utilizable for the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels is modified to permit operation in the event one or both end stages of the cascade become inoperative. Weir assemblies are connected to each of the two end stages by suitable conduits for separating liquids discharged from an inoperative end stage based upon the weight of the liquid phases uses in the solvent extraction process. The weir assembly at one end stage is constructed to separate and discharge the heaviest liquid phase while the weir assembly at the other end stage is constructed to separate and discharge the lightest liquid phase. These weir assemblies function to keep the liquid discharge from an inoperative end stages on the same weight phase a would occur from an operating end stage.

  1. Open absorption system for cooling and air conditioning using membrane contactors. 2006 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Petit, M. [M. Conde Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weber, R. [Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Abteilung Bautechnologien, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    This illustrated annual report for 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work being done on the development of an open absorption system for cooling and air-conditioning. The report reviews the construction of a first prototype and the manufacture of its components. The conceptual design of this new type of air handling unit (AHU), operating with a liquid desiccant, is discussed. The AHU is to be autonomous and the system will not require additional mechanical refrigeration. It is to be thermally driven at temperatures below 80 {sup o}C. Waste heat sources, solar collectors, district heating plants and co-generation systems are targeted as providers of thermal energy at this temperature level. Work carried out is reported on, including that on two-stream membrane contactors.

  2. Stability study and lyophilization of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules prepared by membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-12-15

    In this research, we studied the accelerated stability of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Vitamin E-loaded NCs were optimized firstly at the laboratory scale and then scaled up using the membrane contactor technique. The optimum conditions of the membrane contactor preparation (pilot scale) produced vitamin E-loaded NCs with an average size of 253 nm, polydispersity index 0.19 and a zeta potential -16 mV. The average size, polydispersity index and zeta potential values were 185 nm, 0.12 and -15 mV, respectively for the NCs prepared at laboratory scale. No significant changes were noticed in these values after 3 and 6 months of storage at high temperature (40±2 °C) and relative humidity (75±5%) in spite of vitamin E sensitivity to light, heat and oxygen. The entrapment efficiency of NCs prepared at pilot scale was 97% at the beginning of the stability study, and became (95%, 59%) after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. These values at lab-scale were (98%, 96%, and 89%) at time zero and after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. This confirms the ability of vitamin E encapsulation to preserve its stability, which is one major goal of our work. Lyophilization of the optimized formula at lab-scale was also performed. Four types of cryoprotectants were tested (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), sucrose, mannitol, and glucose). Freeze-dried NCs prepared with sucrose were found acceptable. The other lyophilized NCs obtained at different conditions presented large aggregates.

  3. The effect of surfactants on the ozonation of o-cresol in aqueous solutions in a rotating packed contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Young; Ji, Yan-Shiun; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chou, Yiang-Chen; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Steady-state dissolved ozone concentrations were maintained relatively constant for experiments on ozone dissolution conducted in the presence of various amounts of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX-100), an anionic surfactant and a nonionic surfactant, respectively. Ozonation in a rotating packed contactor has been shown to be feasible for achieving nearly complete decomposition of o-cresol within about 10 minutes of reaction time for most experiments conducted. The temporal decomposition behaviour of o-cresol in aqueous solution by ozonation was described by a two-step pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Even though the presence of SDS and TX-100 slightly affected the decomposition rate constant of o-cresol by ozonation in the rotating packed contactor, the mineralization of total organic carbon was apparently reduced with the addition of SDS and TX-100.

  4. Quantifying the loss of methane through secondary gas mass transport (or 'slip') from a micro-porous membrane contactor applied to biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Andrew; Jefferson, Bruce; McAdam, Ewan J

    2013-07-01

    Secondary gas transport during the separation of a binary gas with a micro-porous hollow fibre membrane contactor (HMFC) has been studied for biogas upgrading. In this application, the loss or 'slip' of the secondary gas (methane) during separation is a known concern, specifically since methane possesses the intrinsic calorific value. Deionised (DI) water was initially used as the physical solvent. Under these conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) absorption were dependent upon liquid velocity (V(L)). Whilst the highest CO2 flux was recorded at high V(L), selectivity towards CO2 declined due to low residence times and a diminished gas-side partial pressure, and resulted in slip of approximately 5.2% of the inlet methane. Sodium hydroxide was subsequently used as a comparative chemical absorption solvent. Under these conditions, CO2 mass transfer increased by increasing gas velocity (VG) which is attributed to the excess of reactive hydroxide ions present in the solvent, and the fast conversion of dissolved CO2 to carbonate species reinitiating the concentration gradient at the gas-liquid interface. At high gas velocities, CH4 slip was reduced to 0.1% under chemical conditions. Methane slip is therefore dependent upon whether the process is gas phase or liquid phase controlled, since methane mass transport can be adequately described by Henry's law within both physical and chemical solvents. The addition of an electrolyte was found to further retard CH4 absorption via the salting out effect. However, their applicability to physical solvents is limited since electrolytic concentration similarly impinges upon the solvents' capacity for CO2. This study illustrates the significance of secondary gas mass transport, and furthermore demonstrates that gas-phase controlled systems are recommended where greater selectivity is required.

  5. Low-ammonia niche of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in rotating biological contactors of a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sauder, L.A.; Peterse, F.; Schouten, S; Neufeld, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    The first step of nitrification is catalysed by both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), but physicochemical controls on the relative abundance and function of these two groups are not yet fully understood, especially in freshwater environments. This study investigated ammonia-oxidizing populations in nitrifying rotating biological contactors (RBCs) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Individual RBC stages are arranged in series, with nitrification at each stage creat...

  6. Effect of polymer concentration on the structure and performance of PEI hollow fiber membrane contactor for CO2 stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, R; Ismail, A F

    2013-04-15

    A series of polyetherimide (PEI) hollow fiber membranes with various polymer concentrations (13-16 wt.%) for CO2 stripping process in membrane contactor application was fabricated via wet phase inversion method. The PEI membranes were characterized in terms of liquid entry pressure, contact angle, gas permeation and morphology analysis. CO2 stripping performance was investigated via membrane contactor system in a stainless steel module with aqueous diethanolamine as liquid absorbent. The hollow fiber membranes showed decreasing patterns in gas permeation, contact angle, mean pore size and effective surface porosity with increasing polymer concentration. On the contrary, wetting pressure of PEI membranes has enhanced significantly with polymer concentration. Various polymer concentrations have different effects on the CO2 stripping flux in which membrane with 14 wt.% polymer concentration showed the highest stripping flux of 2.7 × 10(-2)mol/m(2)s. From the performance comparison with other commercial membrane, it is anticipated that the PEI membrane has a good prospect in CO2 stripping via membrane contactor.

  7. Gauge design for electrical contactor parts%电工触头零件的检具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵延岭

    2015-01-01

    概述了电工触头检具的概念、种类、使用要求、设计原则和结构.介绍了检具材料选择、认证验收标准和维护等.分析了检具功能部件设计及原则 ,通过 TeSys接触器触头检具设计 ,举例说明了如何设计检测直观准确、高效可靠的电工触头检具 ,利用设定的检具系统重复性和再现性数据统计表格来快速判断检具是否合格.结果表明 ,在电工触头批量生产中使用检具测量是一种准确、快捷和高效的方法.%In this paper the conceptions ,types ,requirements ,design principles and structure of electrical contactor gauge were introduced ;material selection ,acceptance criteria and maintenance were illustrated ;the design principles of gauge features was analyzed .Taking TeSys contactor gauge design as an example ,it was explained how to design intuitive ;accu-rate ,efficient and reliable electrical contact gauge .The results showed that the use of the gauge measurements in electrical contactor production is an accurate ,fast and efficient way .

  8. Determination and correlation of mass transfer coefficients in a stirred cell. [Molten Salt Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, J.; Bloxom, S.R.; Keeler, J.B.; Roth, S.R.

    1975-12-17

    In the proposed Molten Salt Breeder Reactor flowsheet, a fraction of the rare earth fission products is removed from the fuel salt in mass transfer cells. To obtain design parameters for this extraction, the effect of cell size, blade diameter, phase volume, and agitation rate on the mass transfer for a high density ratio system (mercury/water) in nondispersing square cross section contactors was determined. Aqueous side mass transfer coefficients were measured by polarography over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlations for the experimental mass transfer coefficients as functions of the operating parameters are presented. Several techniques for measuring mercury-side mass transfer coefficients were evaluated and a new one is recommended. (auth)

  9. Life Testing of the Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor for the ProSEDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. A hollow cathode plasma contactor emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit with the ambient plasma. The current flowing through the tether generates thrust based on the Lorentz Force Law. The thrust will be generated opposite to the velocity vector, slowing down the spacecraft and causing it to de-orbit in approximately 14 days compared to the normal 6 months. A 10-km non-conductive tether is between the conductive tether and an endmass containing several scientific instruments. The ProSEDS mission lifetime was set at I day because most of the primary objectives can be met in that time. The extended ProSEDS mission will be for as many days as possible, until the Delta 11 second stage burns up or the tether is severed by a micrometeoroid or space debris particle. The Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) unit has been designed for a 12-day mission. Because of the science requirements to measure the background ambient plasma, the HCPC must operate on a duty cycle. Later in the ProSEDS mission, the HCPC is operated in a manner to allow charging of the secondary battery. Due to the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, a development unit of the HCPC was built for thorough testing. This developmental unit was tested for a simulated ProSEDS mission, with measurements of the ability to start and stop during the duty cycle. These tests also provided valuable data for the ProSEDS software requirements. Qualification tests of the HCPC flight hardware are also discussed.

  10. Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested

  11. Towards an optimized flow-sheet for a SANEX demonstration process using centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Christiansen, B.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology; Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Valrho (CEA), DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2009-07-01

    The design of an efficient process flow-sheet requires accurate extraction data for the experimental set-up used. Often this data is provided as equilibrium data. Due to the small hold-up volume compared to the flow rate in centrifugal contactors the time for extraction is often too short to reach equilibrium D-ratios. In this work single stage kinetics experiments have been carried out to investigate the D-ratio dependence of the flow rate and to compare this with equilibrium batch experiments for a SANEX system based on CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP. The first centrifuge experiment was run with spiked solutions while in the second a genuine actinide/lanthanide fraction from a TODGA process was used. Three different flow rates were tested with each set-up. The results show that even with low flow rates, only around 9% of the equilibrium D-ratio (Am) was reached for the extraction in the spiked test and around 16% in the hot test (the difference is due to the size of the centrifuges). In the hot test the lanthanide scrubbing was inefficient whereas in the stripping both the actinides and the lanthanides showed good results. Based on these results improvements of the suggested flow-sheet is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of biofilm of a rotating biological contactor treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Mittal, A K

    2012-01-01

    A four-stage rotating biological contactor (RBC) was designed and operated to treat synthetic wastewater containing 1,000 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 112 mg/l NH(4)(+)-N. A mixed culture bacterial biofilm was developed consisting of a heterotrophic bacterium Paracoccus pantotrophus, nitrifiers and other heterotrophs. Applying the peculiar characteristics of P. pantotrophus of simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification, high simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen could be achieved in the fully aerobic RBC. The microbial community structure of the RBC biofilm was categorized based on the nitrate reduction, biochemical reactions, gram staining and morphology. The presence of P. pantotrophus within the RBC biofilm was confirmed with an array of biochemical tests. Isolates from the four stages of RBC were grouped into complete denitrifiers, incomplete denitrifiers and non-denitrifiers. This categorization showed a higher relative abundance of P. pantotrophus in the first stage as compared with subsequent stages, in which other nitrifiers and heterotrophs were significantly present. High total nitrogen removal of upto 68% was in conformity with observations made using microbial categorization and biochemical tests. The high relative abundance of P. pantotrophus in the biofilm revealed that it could successfully compete with other heterotrophs and autotrophic nitrifiers in mixed bacterial biomass. PMID:22699350

  13. Surface Charging Controlling of the Chinese Space Station with Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Xianrong; Qin, Xiaogang; Yang, Shengsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Chengxuan; Chen, Yifeng; Shi, Liang; Tang, Daotan; Xie, Kan

    2016-07-01

    A highly charged manned spacecraft threatens the life of an astronaut and extravehicular activity, which can be effectively reduced by controlling the spacecraft surface charging. In this article, the controlling of surface charging on Chinese Space Station (CSS) is investigated, and a method to reduce the negative potential to the CSS is the emission electron with a hollow cathode plasma contactor. The analysis is obtained that the high voltage (HV) solar array of the CSS collecting electron current can reach 4.5 A, which can be eliminated by emitting an adequate electron current on the CSS. The theoretical analysis and experimental results are addressed, when the minimum xenon flow rate of the hollow cathode is 4.0 sccm, the emission electron current can neutralize the collected electron current, which ensures that the potential of the CSS can be controlled in a range of less than 21 V, satisfied with safety voltage. The results can provide a significant reference value to define a flow rate to the potential controlling programme for CSS.

  14. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  15. A portable membrane contactor sampler for analysis of noble gases in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Han, Liang-Feng; Jaklitsch, Manfred; Aggarwal, Pradeep K

    2013-01-01

    To enable a wider use of dissolved noble gas concentrations and isotope ratios in groundwater studies, we have developed an efficient and portable sampling device using a commercially available membrane contactor. The device separates dissolved gases from a stream of water and collects them in a small copper tube (6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length with two pinch-off clamps) for noble gas analysis by mass spectrometry. We have examined the performance of the sampler using a tank of homogeneous water prepared in the laboratory and by field testing. We find that our sampling device can extract heavier noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) more efficiently than the lighter ones (He and Ne). An extraction time of about 60 min at a flow rate of 3 L/min is sufficient for all noble gases extracted in the sampler to attain equilibrium with the dissolved phase. The extracted gas sample did not indicate fractionation of helium ((3) He/(4) He) isotopes or other noble gas isotopes. Field performance of the sampling device was tested using a groundwater well in Vienna and results were in excellent agreement with those obtained from the conventional copper tube sampling method.

  16. Macroscale and microscale analysis of Anammox in anaerobic rotating biological contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Lv; Lei Wang; Xudong Wang; Yongzhe Yang; Zhiying Wang; Jie Li

    2011-01-01

    Inoculated with conventional anaerobic activated sludge,the Anammox process was successfully developed in an anaerobic rotating biological contactor (AnRBC) fed with a low ratio of C/N synthetic wastewater.Operated in a single point feed mode,the AnRBC removed 92.1% (n =126) of the influent N at the highest surface load of 12 g/(m2.day).The biomass increased by 25% and 17.1 g/(m2.day) of maximum N removal surface load was achieved by elevating flow rate with another feed point.Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the Anammox genus Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis dominated the community.Both Anammox and denitrifying activity were detected in biofilm by the application of microelectrodes.In the outer layer of the biofilm (0-2500 μm),nitrite and ammonium consumed simultaneously in a ratio of 1.12/1,revealing the occurrence of Anammox.In the inner layer (> 2500 μm),a decrease of nitrate was caused by denitrification in the absence of nitrite and ammonium.

  17. Bacterial community dynamics in a rotating biological contactor treating 2-fluorophenol-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Anouk F; Bessa, Vânia S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-01-01

    One of the main factors affecting the performance of rotating biological contactors (RBC) is the biofilm characteristics. Therefore, a deep understanding of the microbial population dynamics and structure of the biofilm is mandatory if optimization of organic matter and nutrients removal is targeted. This study focused on the effects of organic shock loads of 2-fluorophenol (2-FP) on the microbial diversity present in an RBC biofilm. The RBC was seeded with activated sludge from a conventional wastewater treatment plant and was operated during 496 days. During the first 126 days, the RBC was subjected to intermittent 2-FP shocks of 25 mg l(-1) and no degradation occurred. Therefore, the reactor was subsequently augmented with a 2-FP-degrading strain (FP1). Afterwards, the RBC had a stable performance when subjected to 2-FP shocks up to 50 mg l(-1) and to a starvation period, as indicated by removal of the compound. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed large shifts in microbial communities present in the first and fifth stages, although no clear relation between the sample collection time and spatial factor was found. Phylogenetic affiliation of some predominant members was assessed by direct sequencing of correspondent DGGE bands. Affiliations to α-, β- and δ-Proteobacteria were found. Several bacterial strains isolated from the reactor showed capacity for 2-FP degradation. Strain FP1 was successfully recovered from the biofilm by plating and by DGGE, reinforcing that bioaugmentation was successfully achieved.

  18. Degradation of phenolics, nitrogen-heterocyclics and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in a rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, Hansa; Mukherji, Suparna

    2012-05-01

    The degradation of phenolics, heterocyclics and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a synthetic biomass gasifier wastewater with average COD of 1388 mg/L was studied in a three stage rotating biological contactor (RBC) using the pyrene degrader, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and activated sludge consortia (1:3 v/v). As the organic loading rate (OLR) was varied from 3.3 to 14 g/m(2)/d, the COD removal ranged from 63.3% to 92.6%. Complete removal of all the constituents was observed at the lowest OLR of 3.3g/m(2)/d. At 24h hydraulic retention time (HRT) and OLR of 6.6g/m(2)/d complete removal of pyridine, quinoline and benzene and 85-96% removal of phenol, naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene was observed. E. aurantiacum was found to be the dominant bacteria in the biofilm. Clark's model provided good fits to data for all the three stages of the RBC.

  19. Vacuum interrupter, high reliability component of distribution switches, circuit breakers and contactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SLADE Paul G.; LI Wang-pei; MAYO Stephen; SMITH R.Kirkland; TAYLOR Erik D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of vacuum interrupters (VIs) as the current interruption component for switches, circuit breakers, reclosers and contactors operating at distribution voltages has escalated since their introduction in the mid-1950's. This electrical product has developed a dominating position for switching and protecting distribution circuits. VIs are even being introduced into switching products operating at transmission voltages. Among the reasons for the VI's popularity are its compactness, its range of application, its low cost, its superb electrical and mechanical life and its ease of application. Its major advantage is its well-established reliability. In this paper we show how this reliability has been achieved by design, by mechanical life testing and by electrical performance testing. We introduce the "sealed for life" concept for the VI's integrity. We discuss this in terms of what is meant by a practical leak rate for VIs with a life of over 30 years. We show that a simple high voltage withstand test is an easy and effective method for monitoring the long-term vacuum integrity. Finally we evaluate the need for routine inspection of this electrical product when it is used in adverse ambient environments.

  20. Energy-efficient treatment of organic wastewater streams using a rotatable bioelectrochemical contactor (RBEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2012-12-01

    A membraneless bioelectrochemical system - rotatable bio-electrochemical contactor (RBEC) consists of an array of rotatable electrode disks was developed to convert the chemical energy from wastewater organics (acetate) directly into electricity. Each rotatable electrode disk had an upper-air exposing and a lower-water submerging halves. Intermittent rotation (180°) enabled each halve to alternately serve as anode and cathode. Removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was increased by 15% (from 0.79 to 0.91 kg COD m(-3) d(-1)) by allowing electron flow from the lower to the upper disk halves. Coupling with a potentiostat could alleviate cathodic limitation and increased COD removal to 1.32 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) (HRT 5h). About 40% of the COD removed was via current, indicating that the biofilm could use the lower half disk as electron acceptor. The RBEC removed COD more energy-efficiently than conventional activated sludge processes as active aeration is not required (0.47 vs. 0.7-2.0 kW h kg COD(-1)).

  1. Rotating biological contactor reactor with biofilm promoting mats for treatment of benzene and xylene containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S

    2012-12-01

    A novel rotating biological contactor (RBC) bioreactor immobilized with microorganisms was designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC), such as benzene and xylene from emissions, and its performance was investigated. Gas-phase VOCs stripped by air injection were 98 % removed in the RBC when the superficial air flow rate was 375 ml/h (1,193 and 1,226 mg/l of benzene and xylene, respectively). The maximum removal rate was observed to be 1,007 and 1,872 mg/m(3)/day for benzene and xylene, respectively. The concentration profile of benzene and xylene along the RBC was dependent on the air flow rate and the degree of microbial adaptation. Air flow rate and residence time were found to be the most important operational parameters for the RBC reactor. By manipulating these operational parameters, the removal efficiency and capacity of the bioreactor could be enhanced. The kinetic constant K (s) demonstrated a linear relationship that indicated the maximum removal of benzene and xylene in RBC reactor. The phylogenic profile shows the presence of bacterium like Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., which belonged to the phylum Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria that were responsible for the 98 % organic removal in the RBC.

  2. Performance of an in-situ rotating biological contactor in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, P; Donoso-Bravo, A; Campos, J L; Ruiz-Filippi, G; Chamy, R

    2011-01-01

    The start-up and activation of a nitrifying rotating biological contactor (RBC) and its performance inside a culture tank of rainbow trout were studied. First, in a lab-scale operation, the system was fed with a synthetic medium containing a high ammonia concentration (567 mg NH(4)(+)-N L(-1)) and operated at a high hydraulic retention time (HRT) (6.5 days) to minimize the wash-out of the biomass and promote the biofilm formation. Then, both inlet ammonia concentration and HRT were decreased in order to obtain operational conditions similar to those of the culture tank. During this period, the RBC was able to treat an ammonia loading rate (ALR) of 0.64 g N-NH(4)(+) L(-1) d(-1) with a removal efficiency within 70-100%. Pilot-scale experiments were carried out in culture tanks of rainbow trout. The operation of a recirculating system with the RBC unit was compared with a recirculating system without biological treatment and with a flow-through system. The use of this in-situ nitrifying unit allowed working at a recirculation ratio of 90% without negative effects on either growth or the condition factor of fishes. Up to 70% of ammonia generated was removed and a removal rate of 1.41 g NH(4)(+)-N m(-2) d(-1) was reached. PMID:22156125

  3. Experimental design and statistical analysis in Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wan Nurul Aiffah; Zakaria, Siti Aisyah; Noor, Nor Fashihah Mohd; Ariffin, Wan Nor Munirah

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the liquid-liquid extraction in Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) Column that being used in industries. In this study, the performance of small diameter column RDC using the chemical system involving cumene/isobutryric asid/water are analyzed by the method of design of the experiments (DOE) and also Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). The DOE method are used to estimated the effect of four independent. Otherwise, by using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is to justify the relationship between the input variables and output variables and also to determine which variable are more influence for both output variable. The input variables for both method include rotor speed (Nr); ratio of flow (Fd); concentration of continuous inlet (Ccin); concentration of dispersed inlet (Cdin); interaction between Nr with Fd; interaction between Nr with Ccin; interaction Nr with Cdin. Meanwhile the output variables are concentration of continuous outlet (Ccout) and concentration of dispersed outlet (Cdout) on RDC column performance. By using this two method, we have two linear model represent two output of Ccout and Cdout for MLR. Lastly, the researcher want to determine which input variable that give more influence to output variable by using this two method. Based on the result, we obtained that rotor speed (Nr) more influence to dependent variable, Ccout and concentration of continuous inlet (Ccin) more influence to dependent variable, Cdout according the two method that was used.

  4. Innovative use of membrane contactor as condenser for heat recovery in carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuiping; Zhao, Shuaifei; Wardhaugh, Leigh; Feron, Paul H M

    2015-02-17

    The gas-liquid membrane contactor generally used as a nonselective gas absorption enhancement device is innovatively proposed as a condenser for heat recovery in liquid-absorbent-based carbon capture. The membrane condenser is used as a heat exchanger to recover the latent heat of the exiting vapor from the desorber, and it can help achieve significant energy savings when proper membranes with high heat-transfer coefficients are used. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of mass and heat transfer in the membrane condensation system shows that heat recovery increases dramatically as inlet gas temperature rises and outlet gas temperature falls. The optimal split mass flow rate is determined by the inlet gas temperature and the overall heat-transfer coefficient in the condensation system. The required membrane area is also strongly dependent on the overall heat-transfer coefficient, particularly at higher inlet gas temperatures. Mass transfer across the membrane has an insignificant effect on heat transfer and heat recovery, suggesting that membrane wetting may not be an issue when a membrane condenser is used for heat recovery. Our analysis provides important insights into the energy recovery performance of the membrane condensation system as well as selection of operational parameters, such as split mass flow rate and membrane area, thickness, and thermal conductivity.

  5. Dispersion-free solvent extraction of Cr(VI) from acidic solutions using hollow fiber contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Francisco J; Alonso, Manuel; Lopez, Félix A; Lopez-Delgado, Aurora; Padilla, Isabel

    2009-10-15

    The use of dispersión-free solvent extraction, through microporous hydrophobic membrane has been investigated. The hollow fiber contactor, with surface area of 1.4 m2 was used to extract Cr(VI) (0.005-0.12 g/L from aqueous sulphuric acidic media (pH 2.5-4.2 +/- 0.05). Several parameters such as extractant concentration, feed acidity and metal concentration in the initial aqueous solution were investigated. Results revealed that 15% v/v Cyanex 923 in Exxsol D-100 as organic phase and feed in the 2.5 pH range, gave optimum extraction (exceeding 95%) of Cr(VI) and it was possible to strip using 10 g/L hydrazine sulfate (also with recoveries exceeding 95%). In this step, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less hazardous Cr(III) state. Results also showed that under the various experimental conditions, chromium(VI) extraction was rate-controlled by the interfacial reaction on the membrane surface. Typical overall mass transfer coefficients values are 4.2 x 10(-5) and 3.6 x 10(-6) cm/s for extraction and stripping operations, respectively.

  6. Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Meikrantz; T. G. Garn; J. D. Law; N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

    2008-09-01

    TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested.

  7. 交流接触器的常见故障及处理方法%Common failures and processing method of AC contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕俊霞

    2012-01-01

      AC contactor is the most common application of a kind of electrical appliances in power system. The AC contactor common faults, the fault cause and the specific methods removing the faults are analyzed, including contactor inadequate suction, coil overheat or burn out, interphase short circuit and abnormal arcing etc..%  交流接触器是电力系统应用最普遍的一种电器。分析了交流接触器的常见故障、产生故障的原因及排除故障的具体方法,主要涉及接触器吸力不足、线圈过热或烧坏、相间短路、灭弧装置不正常灭弧等。

  8. Based on prole ac contactor automatic assembly system research%基于Pro/E的交流接触器自动装配系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军浩; 杨丽华; 厉鹏

    2014-01-01

    Parts for ac contactor with proltoolklt application interface is provided for the secondary development of pro/engineer, the realization of ac contactor automatic assembly parts.Through automatic assembly can improve the design efficiency. shorten product development cycle.%针对交流接触器常用零件,利用Pro/TOOLKIT应用程序接口对Pro/ENGINEER进行二次开发,实现交流接触器零部件的自动装配。通过自动装配可以提高设计效率,缩短产品开发周期。

  9. Research on Environmental Adaptation Experiments for Contactors%接触器高原环境适应性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the capability and reliability of contactors in specific high altitude environment, this paper assesses the environmental adaptation experiments for contactors.%为了增强接触器在高原环境条件下的适应性能,提高接触器在高原特殊环境条件下的可靠性水平,特此提出对接触器应通过的环境适应性试验提出了考核评价。

  10. Experimental Measurements of Drop Size Distributions in 30 mm Diameter Annular Centrifugal Contactor with 30% TBP-Nitric Acid Biphasic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For design and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems, it is essential to have an accurate estimation of hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of the employed contactor. In the present study, experimental evaluations consisted primarily of determining the maximum solution throughput that could be processed without cross-phase contamination at a given rotor speed, O/A flow ratio, and organic-aqueous solution pair in a 30 mm bowl diameter centrifugal contactor. In addition, analysis included experimental drop size determinations as well as holdup determination. The experimental drop size distributions are expected to be helpful for modeling work.

  11. Preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles by desolvation using a membrane contactor: a new tool for large scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, B; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2013-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are attractive drug delivery systems as they can be prepared under soft conditions and incorporate several kinds of molecules. The aim of this study was to upscale the desolvation process for preparing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. At a first step, the BSA nanoparticles were prepared at small scale using a syringe pump. BSA nanoparticles of 139 nm in size, with a polydispersity index of 0.046, were obtained at the optimal conditions: pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution (2 mL), and 1 mL min(-1) flow rate of ethanol addition (8 mL). The upscaling with a membrane contactor was achieved by permeating ethanol through the pores of a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG Technology Co., Japan) membrane and circulating the aqueous phase tangentially to the membrane surface. By increasing the pressure of the ethanol from 1 to 2.7 bars, a progressive decrease in nanoparticle size was obtained with a high nanoparticles yield (around 94-96%). In addition, the flow rate of the circulating phase did not affect the BSA nanoparticle characteristics. At the optimal conditions (pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution, pressure of ethanol 2.7 bars, flow rate of the circulating phase 30.7 mL s(-1)), the BSA nanoparticles showed similar characteristics to those obtained with the syringe pump. Large batches of BSA nanoparticles were prepared up to 10 g BSA. The BSA nanoparticles were stable at least during 2 months at 4 °C, and their characteristics were reproducible. It was then concluded that the membrane contactor technique could be a suitable method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles at large scale with properties similar to that obtained at small scale.

  12. Studies of efficiency in a perforated rotating disc contactor using a polymer-polymer aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Sarubbo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The mass transfer process in a perforated rotating disc contactor (PRDC using a polymer-polymer aqueous two-phase system was investigated. The results show that the efficiency did not show a regular trend with the increase of the dispersed phase velocity and increased with the rotation velocity. The separation efficiency was higher for three rotating discs than for four discs. The increase in tie-line length decreased the efficiency. The separation efficiency reached high values, about 96% under conditions studied in this work.

  13. Hydrodynamic study of fine metallic powders in an original spouted bed contactor in view of chemical vapor deposition treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Caussat, Brigitte; Juarez, Fernando L.; Vahlas, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    An original gas–solid contactor was developed so as to treat by chemical vapor deposition, fine (mean diameter 23 μm) and dense (bulk density 7700 kg/m3) NiCoCrAlYTa powders with large size distribution. In order to avoid the presence of a distributor in the reactive zone, a spouted bed configuration was selected, consisting in a glass cylindrical column associated through a 60° cone to an inlet tube, connected at its bottom to a grid so as to support the powders at rest. A hydrodynamic study...

  14. Comparative non-dispersive solvent extraction of uranium and thorium using a hollow fiber contactor containing TBP/DHOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-dispersive solvent extraction of Uranium and Thorium was carried out from nitric acid medium using hollow fiber contactor containing TBP and DHOA as the carrier extractants. The effect of flow rate was studied while carrying out the extraction studies in counter current mode using 10 g/L solutions of the metal ions in 3 M HNO3 and 50 mL/minute was found to be most suitable for better separation efficiency. Stripping studies were also carried out using deionized water as the strippant for both the metal ions. (author)

  15. pH-sensitive micelles for targeted drug delivery prepared using a novel membrane contactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouini, Abdallah; Koutroumanis, Konstantinos P; Charcosset, Catherine; Georgiadou, Stella; Fessi, Hatem; Holdich, Richard G; Vladisavljević, Goran T

    2013-09-25

    A novel membrane contactor method was used to produce size-controlled poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymer micelles composed of diblock copolymers with different average molecular weights, Mn (9200 or 10,400 Da) and hydrophilic fractions, f (0.67 or 0.59). By injecting 570 L m(-2) h(-1) of the organic phase (a 1 mg mL(-1) solution of PEG-PCL in tetrahydrofuran) through a microengineered nickel membrane with a hexagonal pore array and 200 μm pore spacing into deionized water agitated at 700 rpm, the micelle size linearly increased from 92 nm for a 5-μm pore size to 165 nm for a 40-μm pore size. The micelle size was finely tuned by the agitation rate, transmembrane flux and aqueous to organic phase ratio. An encapsulation efficiency of 89% and a drug loading of ~75% (w/w) were achieved when a hydrophobic drug (vitamin E) was entrapped within the micelles, as determined by ultracentrifugation method. The drug-loaded micelles had a mean size of 146 ± 7 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.09 ± 0.01, and a ζ potential of -19.5 ± 0.2 mV. When drug-loaded micelles where stored for 50 h, a pH sensitive drug release was achieved and a maximum amount of vitamin E (23%) was released at the pH of 1.9. When a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond was incorporated between PEG and PCL blocks, no significant change in micelle size was observed at the same micellization conditions.

  16. Ammonia removal in the carbon contactor of a hybrid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoquart, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-12-15

    The hybrid membrane process (HMP) coupling powdered activated carbon (PAC) and low-pressure membrane filtration is emerging as a promising new option to remove dissolved contaminants from drinking water. Yet, defining optimal HMP operating conditions has not been confirmed. In this study, ammonia removal occurring in the PAC contactor of an HMP was simulated at lab-scale. Kinetics were monitored using three PAC concentrations (1-5-10 g L(-1)), three PAC ages (0-10-60 days), two temperatures (7-22 °C), in ambient influent condition (100 μg N-NH4 L(-1)) as well as with a simulated peak pollution scenario (1000 μg N-NH4L(-1)). The following conclusions were drawn: i) Using a colonized PAC in the HMP is essential to reach complete ammonia removal, ii) an older PAC offers a higher resilience to temperature decrease as well as lower operating costs; ii) PAC concentration inside the HMP reactor is not a key operating parameter as under the conditions tested, PAC colonization was not limited by the available surface; iii) ammonia flux limited biomass growth and iv) hydraulic retention time was a critical parameter. In the case of a peak pollution, the process was most probably phosphate-limited but a mixed adsorption/nitrification still allowed reaching a 50% ammonia removal. Finally, a kinetic model based on these experiments is proposed to predict ammonia removal occurring in the PAC reactor of the HMP. The model determines the relative importance of the adsorption and biological oxidation of ammonia on colonized PAC, and demonstrates the combined role of nitrification and residual adsorption capacity of colonized PAC.

  17. Biofilm growth of Chlorella sorokiniana in a rotating biological contactor based photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, W; Janssen, M; Cuaresma, M; Libor, Z; Bhaiji, T; Wijffels, R H

    2014-12-01

    Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, microalgae grow in biofilm on vertical rotating disks partially submerged in a growth medium. The objective is to evaluate the potential of the Algadisk photobioreactor with respect to the effects of disk roughness, disk rotation speed and CO2 concentration. These objectives where evaluated in relationship to productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, and long-term cultivation stability in a lab-scale Algadisk system. Although the lab-scale Algadisk system is used, operation parameters evaluated are relevant for scale-up. Chlorella Sorokiniana was used as model microalgae. In the lab-scale Algadisk reactor, productivity of 20.1 ± 0.7 g per m(2) disk surface per day and a biomass yield on light of 0.9 ± 0.04 g dry weight biomass per mol photons were obtained. Different disk rotation speeds did demonstrate minimal effects on biofilm growth and on the diffusion of substrate into the biofilm. CO2 limitation, however, drastically reduced productivity to 2-4 g per m(2) disk surface per day. Productivity could be maintained over a period of 21 weeks without re-inoculation of the Algadisk. Productivity decreased under extreme conditions such as pH 9-10, temperature above 40°C, and with low CO2 concentrations. Maximal productivity, however, was promptly recovered when optimal cultivation conditions were reinstated. These results exhibit an apparent opportunity to employ the Algadisk photobioreactor at large scale for microalgae biomass production if diffusion does not limit the CO2 supply.

  18. Biosorption of heavy metals in a photo-rotating biological contactor--a batch process study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, Sanaz; Lewis, David M

    2013-06-01

    Metal removal potential of indigenous mining microorganisms from acid mine drainage (AMD) has been well recognised in situ at mine sites. However, their removal capacity requires to be investigated for AMD treatment. In the reported study, the capacity of an indigenous AMD microbial consortium dominated with Klebsormidium sp., immobilised in a photo-rotating biological contactor (PRBC), was investigated for removing various elements from a multi-ion synthetic AMD. The synthetic AMD was composed of major (Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, Ca, Na, Ni) and trace elements (Fe, Al, Cr, Co, Se, Ag, Mo) at initial concentrations of 2 to 100 mg/L and 0.005 to 1 mg/L, respectively. The PRBC was operated for two 7-day batch periods under pH conditions of 3 and 5. The maximum removal was observed after 3 and 6 days at pH 3 and 5, respectively. Daily water analysis data demonstrated the ability of the algal-microbial biofilm to remove an overall average of 25-40 % of the major elements at pH 3 in the order of Na > Cu > Ca > Mg > Mn > Ni > Zn, whereas a higher removal (35-50 %) was observed at pH 5 in the order of Cu > Mn > Mg > Ca > Ni > Zn > Na. The removal efficiency of the system for trace elements varied extensively between 3 and 80 % at the both pH conditions. The batch data results demonstrated the ability for indigenous AMD algal-microbial biofilm for removing a variety of elements from AMD in a PRBC. The work presents the potential for further development and scale-up to use PBRC inoculated with AMD microorganisms at mine sites for first or secondary AMD treatment.

  19. Ammonia removal in the carbon contactor of a hybrid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoquart, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-12-15

    The hybrid membrane process (HMP) coupling powdered activated carbon (PAC) and low-pressure membrane filtration is emerging as a promising new option to remove dissolved contaminants from drinking water. Yet, defining optimal HMP operating conditions has not been confirmed. In this study, ammonia removal occurring in the PAC contactor of an HMP was simulated at lab-scale. Kinetics were monitored using three PAC concentrations (1-5-10 g L(-1)), three PAC ages (0-10-60 days), two temperatures (7-22 °C), in ambient influent condition (100 μg N-NH4 L(-1)) as well as with a simulated peak pollution scenario (1000 μg N-NH4L(-1)). The following conclusions were drawn: i) Using a colonized PAC in the HMP is essential to reach complete ammonia removal, ii) an older PAC offers a higher resilience to temperature decrease as well as lower operating costs; ii) PAC concentration inside the HMP reactor is not a key operating parameter as under the conditions tested, PAC colonization was not limited by the available surface; iii) ammonia flux limited biomass growth and iv) hydraulic retention time was a critical parameter. In the case of a peak pollution, the process was most probably phosphate-limited but a mixed adsorption/nitrification still allowed reaching a 50% ammonia removal. Finally, a kinetic model based on these experiments is proposed to predict ammonia removal occurring in the PAC reactor of the HMP. The model determines the relative importance of the adsorption and biological oxidation of ammonia on colonized PAC, and demonstrates the combined role of nitrification and residual adsorption capacity of colonized PAC. PMID:25459222

  20. Experimental study on the separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas using hollow fiber membrane contactors without wetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shui-ping; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang [Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Experiments on CO{sub 2} removal from flue gas using polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane contactors were conducted in this study. Absorbents including aqueous potassium glycinate (PG) solution, aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were used to absorb CO{sub 2} in the experiments. Based on the wetting experimental results, aqueous PG solution can offer a higher surface tension than water, aqueous MEA and MDEA solutions. Aqueous PG solution has a lower potential of membrane wetting after a continuously steady operation for 40 h to maintain CO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90%. Under moderate operating conditions, effects of the temperature, flow rate, and concentration of absorbents, and the flow rate of flue gas as well as the volumetric concentration of carbon dioxide in the flue gas on the mass transfer rate of CO{sub 2} were studied on a pilot-scale test facility. Unlike conventional absorbents, the mass transfer decreases with an increasing liquid temperature when using aqueous PG solution. Results show that CO{sub 2} removal efficiency was above 90% and the mass transfer rate was above 2.0 mol/(m{sup 2} h) using the PG aqueous solution. It indicates that the hollow fiber membrane contactor has a great potential in the area of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas when absorbent's concentration and liquid-gas pressure difference are designed elaborately. (author)

  1. Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Randolph, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

  2. Preparation of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles with a Continuous Gas-liquid Membrane Contactor:Particles Morphology and Membrane Fouling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhiqian; CHANG Qing; QIN Jin; MAMAT Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Nanosized calcium carbonate particles were prepared with a continuous gas-liquid membrane contactor.The effects of Ca(OH)2 concentration,CO2 pressure and liquid flow velocity on the particles morphology,pressure drop and membrane fouling were studied.With rising Ca(OH)2 concentrations,the average size of the particles increased.The effects of Ca(OH)2 concentration and CO2 pressure on particles were not apparent under the experimental conditions.When the Ca(OH)2 concentration and liquid flow velocity were high,or the CO2 pressure was low,the fouling on the membrane external surface at the contactor entrance was serious due to liquid leakage,whereas the fouling was slight at exit.The fouling on the membrane inner-surface at entrance was apparent due to adsorption of raw materials.The membrane can be recovered by washing with dilute hydrochloric acid and reused for at least 6 times without performance deterioration.

  3. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  4. Hollow fiber membrane contactors for post-combustion CO2 capture: a scale-up study from laboratory to pilot plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabanon, E.; Kimball, E.; Favre, E.; Lorain, O.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Ferre, D.; Gomez, A.; Broutin, P.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane contactors have been proposed for decades as a way to achieve intensified mass transfer processes. Post-combustion CO2 capture by absorption into a chemical solvent is one of the currently most intensively investigated topics in this area. Numerous studies have already been reported, unfort

  5. Virtual Prototyping Technology of AC Contactor%交流接触器虚拟样机设计技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓燕; 许志红

    2016-01-01

    采用虚拟样机技术,建立全面反映交流接触器动态特性的三维虚拟样机模型,模型包含完整触头系统、铁心系统及连接部件,从而考虑结构特点对其运动特性的影响。引入Ansys/LS-DYNA 动力学分析软件,采用基于连续介质力学的有限元法考虑机构之间的非线性接触、碰撞问题及弹性材料的形变作用,计算接触器动作过程中的触头弹跳情况。通过三维可视化界面得到触头、铁心等运动部件位移、速度随时间变化情况,对接触器动态特性进行直观地分析。通过交流接触器虚拟样机模型的仿真,从机械动力学角度,分析触头系统闭合速度和触头弹簧初压力、金属簧片物理特性及触头表面摩擦系数对触头弹跳的影响。交流接触器的三维虚拟样机设计对其结构优化设计具有良好的理论依据和实用价值。%With virtual prototyping technology, this paper establishes the 3D virtual prototyping model of AC contactor including the whole contact system, core system and connecting parts. It reflects the real dynamic characteristics of AC contactor affected by the structure. Based on the finite method of continuum mechanics, the nonlinear contact, collision problem and elastic material deformation have been taken into account in the dynamic analysis software Ansys/LS-DYNA. Contact bounce in the process of contactor action is simulated. Moreover, by 3D visualization window, the displacement and velocity of movable contact and core changing over time are obtained and the dynamic characteristics of contactor are analyzed visually. In addition, the influence of closure speed, pre force of spring, properties of reed and friction coefficient of contact on contact bounce has been analyzed from the view of mechanical dynamics. The 3D virtual prototype design of AC contactor provides theoretical basis for its structure optimization design and has high practical value.

  6. Performance Characteristics ofAC Contactor During Voltage Sag%晃电故障下交流接触器的工作特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林抒毅; 许志红

    2011-01-01

    电磁式交流接触器是一种应用广泛的低压电器产品,当晃电故障发生时,交流接触器可能因为不稳定电压而频繁接通或分断,对系统造成很大的影响。论文以CJ20.63A交流接触器为研究对象,建立考虑触头运动情况的电磁机构吸合过程、吸持阶段以及释放过程的磁路动态计算方程,并通过实验验证了模型的正确性。针对不同的合闸相角和工作状态进行仿真,分析了发生晃电故障时电压下降幅度、晃电故障持续时间、晃电故障发生时刻及电压相角变化对接触器工作特性的影响。结果表明,吸合阶段的晃电影响与吸合时问有直接关系,吸合以后的晃电故障影响存在临界%Electromagnetic contactor is a kind of widely used electric product. When the voltage drops suddenly, the contactor will be open or closed frequently, and the circuit will be influenced seriously. Based on the research of CJ20-63A contactor dynamic equations were established during closing, cIosed and opening processes; the movement process of the moving contact and the bounce of the contacts were considered at the meantime. The experimental data shows the model is correct. Simulations were carried out with respect to different working states and various closing phase angles. Influences of the range, duration and occurrence time of voltage drop, and the variation of voltage phases on performance characteristics of contactors were analyzed; the result indicates that the influences of voltage sag on the contactor are related to the closing time directly in the closing process; and a critical time value should be considered after the contactor is closed. This research provides the basic for the further study on the intelligent AC contactor with anti-voltage sag.

  7. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water--mercury system was used to study the effect of geometric variations on mass transfer rates in rectangular contractors similar to those proposed for the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) fuel reprocessing scheme. Since mass transfer rates were not accurately predicted by the Lewis correlation, other correlations were investigated. A correlation which was found to fit the experimental results is given. Mass transfer rates are being measured in a fluoride salt--bismuth contactor. Experimental results indicate that the mass transfer rates in the salt--bismuth system fall between the Lewis correlation and the modified correlation given above. Autoresistance heating tests were continued in the fluorinator mock-up using LiF--BeF2--ThF4 (72-16-12 mole percent) salt. The equipment was returned to operating condition, and five experiments were run. Although correct steady-state operation was not achieved, the results were encouraging. A two-dimensional electrical analog was constructed to study current flow through the electrode sidearm and other critical areas of the test vessel. These studies indicate that no regions of abnormally high current density existed in the first nine runs with the present autoresistance heating equipment. Localized heating had previously been the suspected cause for the failure to achieve proper operation of this equipment. (U.S.)

  8. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  9. PySALT: SALT science pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S. M.; Still, M.; Schellart, P.; Balona, L.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Pickering, T. E.; Potter, S.; Romero Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Wiliams, T.; Zietsman, E.

    2012-07-01

    The PySALT user package contains the primary reduction and analysis software tools for the SALT telescope. Currently, these tools include basic data reductions for RSS and SALTICAM in both imaging, spectroscopic, and slot modes. Basic analysis software for slot mode data is also provided. These tools are primarily written in python/PyRAF with some additional IRAF code.

  10. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  11. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some have a lot of salt in them. Home water softeners add salt to water. If you have one, limit how much tap water you drink. Drink bottled water instead. Ask your doctor if a salt substitute is safe for you. Many contain a lot ...

  12. Fractional reactive extraction for symmetrical separation of 4-nitro-D,L-phenylalanine in centrifugal contactor separators: experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kewen; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Panliang; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of 4-nitro-D,L-phenylalanine (D,L-Nphy) using PdCl2 {(s)-BINAP} as extractant in dichloroethane was studied experimentally in a countercurrent cascade of 10 centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs) at 5°C, involving flow ratio, extractant concentration, and Cl(-) concentration. The steady-state enantiomeric excess (ee) in both stream exits was 90.86% at a 93.29% yield. The predicted value was modeled using an equilibrium stage approach. The correlation between model and experiment was satisfactory. The model was applied to optimize the production of both enantiomers in >97% ee and >99% ee. 14 stages and 16 stages are required for 97% ee and 99% ee for both enantiomers, respectively.

  13. Control of nitratation in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification rotating biological contactor through disc immersion level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Boon, Nico; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Berckmoes, Karla; Mosquera, Mariela; Seuntjens, Dries; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2014-03-01

    With oxygen supply playing a crucial role in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor (RBC), its controlling factors were investigated in this study. Disc rotation speeds (1.8 and 3.6rpm) showed no influence on the process performance of a lab-scale RBC, although abiotic experiments showed a significant effect on the oxygenation capacity. Estimations of the biological oxygen uptake rate revealed that 85-89% of the oxygen was absorbed by the microorganisms during the air exposure of the discs. Indeed, increasing the disc immersion (50 to 75-80%) could significantly suppress undesired nitratation, on the short and long term. The presented results demonstrated that nitratation could be controlled by the immersion level and revealed that oxygen control in an OLAND RBC should be predominantly based on the atmospheric exposure percentage of the discs.

  14. Preparation of vitamin E loaded nanocapsules by the nanoprecipitation method: from laboratory scale to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-02-28

    Vitamin E or α-tocopherol is widely used as a strong antioxidant in many medical and cosmetic applications, but is rapidly degraded, because of its light, heat and oxygen sensitivity. In this study, we applied the nanoprecipitation method to prepare vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules, at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale. We scaled-up the preparation of nanocapsule with the membrane contactor technique. The effect of several formulation variables on the vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules properties (mean diameter, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency) was investigated. The optimized formulation at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale lead to the preparation of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules with mean diameter of 165 and 172 nm, respectively, and a high encapsulation efficiency (98% and 97%, respectively).

  15. Hydrodynamic and absorption studies of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous amide solutions using a bubble column contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the carbon dioxide absorption process in aqueous n-alkylpyrrolidones solutions, from the point of view of hydrodynamic studies as well as mass transfer, using a bubble column contactor. An analysis of the influence of solute concentration and gas flow-rate is complemented by the study of the effect caused by the alkyl group on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer. The presence of this kind of substance produces a decrease in mass transfer rate, but on the basis of interfacial area and mass transfer coefficient values, ethyl-2-pyrrolidine (EP shows suitable characteristics to replace methyl-2-pyrrolidine (MP in gas separation processes due to its lower safety problems.

  16. Operating Characteristics Test System for AC/DC Contactor%交直流接触器动作特性测试系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文贵; 许志红

    2014-01-01

    The operating characteristics test system of AC/DC contactor was introduced.It achieves phase selection in the closing and opening course of contactor.Keyence laser displacement sensor is used to achieve the test of displacement of contact and iron core changing over time.Moreover,the sound signal making in the closing course of contactor by electret microphone is captured.The voltage,current of coil and main circuit with three-phase contacts are obtained.All signals mentioned above transmitting to PC based on data-acquisition,the system achieves data processing,automatically measuring and saving.The test system provides technical support for contactor studying and simulation,control strategy verifying of AC/DC contactor.It is of theoretical and practical significance in the design and development of AC/DC contactor.%介绍了一套交/直流接触器动作特性测试系统。系统实现了对交流接触器的选相分/合闸控制,采用激光位移传感器实现触头与铁心动态位移测试,驻极体传声器采集接触器闭合过程声音信号,霍尔传感器采集线圈回路和三相触头回路电压电流信号;同时使用数据采集卡将信号采集到上位机,完成数据的处理分析、自动测量、数据存储等功能。系统为交直流接触器的仿真研究、控制方案等提供技术支持,对提高接触器的设计与开发水平具有理论和实际意义。

  17. Continuous measuring method for static magnetic force of contactors%一种接触器静态吸力连续测量的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文锋; 朱翔鸥

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic process of AC contactor involves the coupling of electromagnetic conversion and mechanical movement, while the magnitude of the electromagnetic force is the function of both exciting current and the moving core displacement. However,there are some limitations in numerical calculation and simulation method. The results can not reflect the real process of the dynamics of the contactors. In order to understand the dynamic response of AC contactor precisely.it isimpossible to measure the electromagnetic force based on different currents and displacements. A method to achieve continuous measurement of the static magnetic force of contactors using force sensor is proposed, which can measure the electromagnetic force based on different currents and displacements. This method is used to measure the electromagnetic force of CJ20-100 contactor. The results are compared to simulation result, which shows that the methods is accurate. The measurement method provides an important reference value to study the dynamic characteristics of the electromagnetic contactors.%交流接触器动态过程涉及电磁转换和机械运动的耦合,其电磁吸力的大小同时是励磁电流和动铁芯位移的函数.目前广泛采用的数值计算与模拟仿真方法存在一定的局限性,其计算仿真结果难以反映真实的运动过程.为了准确掌握交流接触器的动态响应过程,需要对不同电流、不同位移时的电磁吸力进行测量.开发一种基于拉力传感器静态电磁吸力测量的方法,可以对不同电流或者不同位移时的电磁吸力进行连续测量.采用该测量方法对CJ20-100型接触器进行了实验研究,将测量结果与模拟仿真结果相比较,验证了该测量方法的准确性.该测量方法为电磁机构动态特性测量方法的研究提供了重要的参考价值.

  18. Technology of Zero-Current Breaking of Intelligent AC Contactor%智能交流接触器零电流分断技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍光海; 张培铭

    2012-01-01

    Zero-current breaking technology is an important content in the research of intelligent AC contactor, In this paper, the optimization calculation aimed to breaking quickly of the electromagnetic mechanism of the intelligent AC contactor is conducted, by using the ANSYS electromagnetic software and the artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm based on genetic algorithm. This method not only ensures the reliable contact process of the intelligent AC contactor, but also realizes a quick release of the executive mechanism, thus greatly reduces the influence to the stability and accuracy of the three-phase contactors, especially the first opening phase when zero-current breaking, which improves the reliability of zero-current breaking and increases the technology research level of the intelligent AC contactor. A prototype is made based on the results of the optimization designation. The testing results show that the breaking time of the intelligent AC contactor is shortened greatly, and the stability of the breaking time is improved significantly too, so the reliability of the zero-current breaking increases significantly.%零电流分断技术是交流接触器智能化研究的重要内容。本文采用Ansys电磁场软件和基于遗传算法的人工鱼群优化算法对智能交流接触器电磁动作机构进行以快速分断为目标的优化计算,不仅保证智能交流接触器可靠与优化的接通过程,而且实现了动作机构快速释放,从而大幅度减小机构分散性对三相触头特别是首开相触头零电流分断准确性与稳定性影响,提高零电流分断的可靠性,从而提高了交流接触器智能化技术的研究水平。根据优化设计结果加工了样机,对样机测试与试验的结果表明,智能交流接触器的分断时间大幅缩短,三相触头分断时间稳定性也得到明显改善,因此零电流分断的可靠性显著提高。

  19. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wuhua, E-mail: dwh203@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • An improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste was developed. • Genuine high level liquid waste was used in the hot test. • 72-Stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors were used in the hot test. • The decontamination factors of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. • The stripping efficiencies of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. - Abstract: High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P and T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10{sup 3}, 2.25 × 10{sup 4} and 1.68 × 10{sup 4} after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  1. SALT Science Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  2. Research on the Release Characteristics of Marine DC Contactor%船用直流接触器脱扣特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆干文; 韩露; 彭格; 袁征; 王永鑫

    2009-01-01

    论述了直流接触器脱扣原理,分析了影响直流接触器正确脱扣的主要因素,以三维有限元分析为基础,采用ANSYS软件仿真分析,提出一种减小铁心剩磁吸力的方法,保证船用接触器断电后可靠释放,提高了船用直流接触器的可靠性.%The principle of the release characteristics on marine DC eontaetor was surveyed and the main fac-tors which impact DC contactor correct release were analyzed.Based on 3D finite element method,by ANSYS soft-ware,a way to reduce residual flux force was introduced to ensure the DC eontactor release correctly.The reliability of marine DC contactor was impmved.

  3. Discussion on Usage of Contactor in Distribution Circuit of Frequency Converter%变频器配电回路中接触器的用法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧; 黄岩; 刘学忠; 张风友

    2015-01-01

    针对目前在变频器配电回路设计中,对接触器用法存在的一些争议进行分析讨论,包括在输入侧和输出侧使用接触器的原因,以及操作中需要注意的问题等,并结合实际案例进行分析,给出解决该问题的一般性原则。%Analysis and discussion have been made for some disputes about the usage of contactor in current design for distribution circuit of frequency converter, including the reason for using contactor at input side and output side and considerations during operation; actual cases are analyzed and general principles for solving such problem are offered.

  4. 船用真空接触器合闸速度研究%Research on Marine Vacuum Contactor Closing Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓松

    2015-01-01

    结合现有船用真空接触器样机,在分析船用真空接触器合闸机理的基础上,对影响船用真空接触器性能关键的合闸速度进行了理论分析和设计校核。通过试验验证,表明合闸速度满足设计要求。%Combined with the existing marine vacuum contactor prototype and based on analysis of the closing operations mechanism of marine vacuum contactor,this paper did some theoretical research and design proof on the closing speed of affecting the marine vacuum contactor’s characteristics and verified by experiment that the closing speed can meet the design requirements.

  5. 交流接触器自动检测系统设计%Design of Automatic Detecting System of AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 强秀华; 邹斌

    2012-01-01

    针对交流接触器传统检测方法存在的缺点,设计了交流接触器自动检测系统.首先,对检测流程和设计要求做了说明;然后,给出了数据采集程序和PLC程序流程图.结果表明,该系统运行可靠,检测精度高,达到了规定的设计目标.%Focused on the defects of the traditional method of detecting for AC contactor, the paper designed the auto-matic detecting system of AC contactor. Firstly detecting process and design requirements were introduced, secondly the software flowchart of data acquisition program and PLC program were given. The results showed that this automatic detec-ting runs reliably and has high accuracy, it achieves the required goals and designed requirements.

  6. 转换型接触器/继电器应用中的误区%Some Misunderstandings on Transfer Contactor and Relay Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔子南; 朱黔; 杨英奕; 夏瑞

    2014-01-01

    通过三个具有代表性的案例,介绍了单刀双掷或双刀双掷转换型接触器/继电器在电气控制电路中存在的隐患。分析了隐患产生的原因,并就如何正确使用转换型接触器/继电器提出了建议。%Three representative cases were presented in this article.Hidden troubles in the electric control circuit of single pole double throw or double pole double throw transfer contactor and relay were presented.Suggestions on how to use single pole double throw or double pole double throw transfer contactor and relay correctly were proposed.

  7. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste

  8. 膜接触器在环境治理中的应用研究进展%Novel Membrane Contactors and Their Application in Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 盛新江; 马青兰; 张国亮; 王家德

    2011-01-01

    In a novel membrane contactor, separation is efficiently integrated with conventional chemical separation technology, which achieves gas/liquid or liquid/liquid mass transfer without dispersion of one phase with another. After the first successful industrial installations, different kinds of membrane contactors have found important applications in environmental protection such as aromatics recovery from a process water, selective removal of heavy metals from an industrial process and recovery of ammonia, CO2 and H2S from an off gas stream. Principle of several typical membrane contactors were introduced, including membrane distillation, membrane adsorption, membrane extraction and membrane structured packing. Characteristics of material used in typical membrane contactors were also discussed.%膜接触器是将膜分离和传统化工单元操作有机结合而成的一种新型高效分离器,可不通过两相的直接接触而实现相间传质.继21世纪初首个工业化实例成功以来,在废水中芳香族化合物脱除、重金属选择吸收、废气中氨、CO2、H2S去除等多个领域的环境治理中,膜接触器技术的研究与应用日益重要.在此基础上,文章对膜蒸馏、膜吸收、膜萃取和膜填料替代等膜接触器技术的作用机理进行了比较,重点阐述了其在环境治理中的应用和发展状况,并对典型接触器中膜材料的性能和特点进行了分析.

  9. 一种高可靠性辅助触头设计与验证%Design and Verification of the Auxiliary Contactor with High Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟刚

    2015-01-01

    Against the current status of the poor reliability of the auxiliary contactors in low voltage electric appliances, the auxiliary contactor with double contacts that can laterally sliding is designed. The structure of double contacts can effectively reduce the beam current resistance, and the lateral sliding friction can effectively eliminate the dirt and oxide layers on surface of the contacts to reduce the membrane resistance. In addition, the simulation analysis for different types of the contact bridges is carried out, thus better structure of the contact bridge is obtained. The test results verify that the high reliable auxiliary contactor can effectively enhance the making capacity for small load, this provides certain reference to the design and optimization of the auxiliary contactors in low voltage electric appliances.%针对低压电器辅助触头可靠性差的现状,设计了一种双触点可横向滑动的辅助触头。其双触点结构可以有效降低束流电阻;横向滑动产生的滑动摩擦可以有效去除触点表面脏物和氧化层,降低触头接触的膜电阻。此外,对不同形式的触桥进行了仿真分析,获得了较优化的触桥结构。实测结果验证了高可靠性辅助触头可以有效提高小负载接通能力,从而为低压电器中辅助触头组的设计和优化提供相应参考。

  10. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport

  11. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.

  12. Toward gas-phase controlled mass transfer in micro-porous membrane contactors for recovery and concentration of dissolved methane in the gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Andrew J.; Jefferson, Bruce; McAdam, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    A micro-porous hollow fibre membrane contactor (HFMC) operated in sweep-gas mode has been studied to enable the recovery of dissolved methane from water in concentrated form. At high sweep-gas flow rates, up to 97% dissolved methane removal efficiency is achievable which is sufficient to achieve carbon neutrality (around 88%). An increase in methane composition of the recovered sweep-gas was achievable through two primary mechanisms: (i) an increase in liquid velocity which improved dissolved...

  13. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture: A Scale-Up Study from Laboratory to Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanon E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane contactors have been proposed for decades as a way to achieve intensified mass transfer processes. Post-combustion CO2 capture by absorption into a chemical solvent is one of the currently most intensively investigated topics in this area. Numerous studies have already been reported, unfortunately almost systematically on small, laboratory scale, modules. Given the level of flue gas flow rates which have to be treated for carbon capture applications, a consistent scale-up methodology is obviously needed for a rigorous engineering design. In this study, the possibilities and limitations of scale-up strategies for membrane contactors have been explored and will be discussed. Experiments (CO2 absorption from a gas mixture in a 30%wt MEA aqueous solution have been performed both on mini-modules and at pilot scale (10 m2 membrane contactor module based on PTFE hollow fibers. The results have been modelled utilizing a resistance in series approach. The only adjustable parameter is in fitting the simulations to experimental data is the membrane mass transfer coefficient (km, which logically plays a key role. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with scaleup computations from lab scale to pilot scale modules, with a particular emphasis on the km value, are presented and critically discussed.

  14. Power Consumption, Mixing Time, and Oxygen Mass Transfer in a Gas-Liquid Contactor Stirred with a Dual Impeller for Different Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Mohammed Issa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple or dual impellers are widely implemented in stirred contactors used in various biological processes like fermentation, water treatment, and pharmaceutical production. The spacing between impellers is considered as a crucial factor in designing of these types of contactors resulting in variation of oxygen mass transfer, mixing time, or power consumption for such biological system. A study of three parts was conducted to characterize the effect of the spacing between impellers on the most important parameters that related to biological contactor performance: oxygen mass transfer coefficient kla from the gas phase (air to the liquid phase (water, mixing time, and power consumption for different operating rotational speeds (1.67–3.33 rps and for three different spacing positions. The used impellers system in the study is a dual impeller system which consists of an inverted and bladed rotated cone (IBRC and a pitched-blade up-flow propeller (PBPU. The experimental results showed that the shorter spacing (the lower PBPU in a higher position is more convenient, as the achieved oxygen mass transfer coefficient has showed an improvement in its values with lower mixing time and with a slight alteration in power consumption.

  15. 对接触器干扰单片机系统的抑制%Inhibition of Contactor Interferences to Monolithic Microcomputer System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 那文鹏; 姚丽萍

    2001-01-01

    On the occasions of monolithic microcomputer and contactors are packed in one case, electromagnetic interferences, yielded by contactor coils as they are switched on or off, and spark interferences, generated by the pushbutton swi tches that control contactor coils as they are switched on or off, all make mono lith ic microcomputer application system work improperly. The article introduces inh ibiting methods such as phase splitting, TVP, resistive and capacitive absorbing , time delay and coupling removing.%当单片机与接触器装在同一箱体时,接触器线圈在通、断电时产生的电磁干扰 ,控制接触器线圈通电、断电的按钮开关在通、断电时产生的火花干扰,均使单片机应用系统不能正常工作。本文介绍了分相、TVP、阻容吸收、延时、去耦等抑制方法。

  16. 新型智能混合式交流接触器%A New Type of Hybrid Semiconductor Intelligent AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培铭; 陈从华; 郑昕

    2001-01-01

    介绍了一种新型的混合式智能交流接触器,其仅用2个单向晶闸管就实现了接触器的少弧或无弧运行,且大大降低成本,减少体积。该接触器实现了全过程的动态优化控制,达到了节能、节材、无噪声、高操作频率、高电寿命,且可与主控计算机进行双向通信。%A new-type hybrid semiconductor intelligent AC contactor was developed. In the contacts of this kind of contactor with two SCRs only will there be no arcing or just small arcing when they are broken. The cost and volume are reduced greatly. This contactor realizes the optimal control in dynamic process and brings the benefits of energy and materials saving, no noise, high operating frequency and high electrical endurance. And it can also be communicated with the central master computer.

  17. Novel Water Treatment Processes Based on Hybrid Membrane-Ozonation Systems: A Novel Ceramic Membrane Contactor for Bubbleless Ozonation of Emerging Micropollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos K. Stylianou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the presentation of novel water treatment systems based on ozonation combined with ceramic membranes for the treatment of refractory organic compounds found in natural water sources such as groundwater. This includes, firstly, a short review of possible membrane based hybrid processes for water treatment from various sources. Several practical and theoretical aspects for the application of hybrid membrane-ozonation systems are discussed, along with theoretical background regarding the transformation of target organic pollutants by ozone. Next, a novel ceramic membrane contactor, bringing into contact the gas phase (ozone and water phase without the creation of bubbles (bubbleless ozonation, is presented. Experimental data showing the membrane contactor efficiency for oxidation of atrazine, endosulfan, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE are shown and discussed. Almost complete endosulfan degradation was achieved with the use of the ceramic contactor, whereas atrazine degradation higher than 50% could not be achieved even after 60 min of reaction time. Single ozonation of water containing MTBE could not result in a significant MTBE degradation. MTBE mineralization by O3/H2O2 combination increased at higher pH values and O3/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.2 reaching a maximum of around 65%.

  18. Salt Weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  19. Contactor Energy Requirements for Capturing CO2 From ambient air using NaOH determined in a pilot-scale prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolaroff, J. K.; Keith, D.; Lowry, G.

    2005-12-01

    Systems for capturing CO2 from ambient air for sequestration have recently been proposed (e.g. Dubey et al., 2002; Zeman and Lackner, 2004; Keith et al., 2004). Capture from ambient air has a number of structural advantages over capture from point sources; in particular it makes possible future emissions scenarios with negative net CO2 emissions. The systems suggested use either a Ca(OH)2 or NaOH solution to capture CO2 and then regenerate the solution in a chemical loop. The energy requirements of such a system, however, have been hotly disputed (Herzog, 2003). The energy requirements and effectiveness of the chemical regeneration are well established as they are practiced on a large scale in the industrial kraft process used in pulp and paper production, but the energy and land use requirements of a contactor for this system are uncertain as this component of the system is not implemented industrially. In this research, we address the most controversial component of the system, the contactor, which extracts CO2 from air into solution. A prototype contactor with a spray tower design is constructed (1m by 6m), and CO2 absorption by a NaOH solution spray (5 l/min) is measured. The CO2 absorption efficiency and energy requirements per unit CO2 absorbed are calculated. The energy requirements of the contactor are found to be on the order of 10-40 kJ/mol-CO2, which is small compared to the energy of combustion of fossil fuels, and compared with the energy required for the regeneration steps. Thus, a NaOH-based spray tower design can serve as an energy-efficient contactor for capturing CO2 from ambient air. Dubey, M. K., Ziock, H., Rueff, G., Elliott, S., and Smith, W. S. (2002). ``Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through engineered chemical sinkage''. ACS -- Division of Fuel Chemistry Reprints, 47(1):81--84. Herzog, H. (2003). Assessing the feasibility of capturing co2 from the air. Technical report, MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. Keith

  20. Analysis and design of digital control for AC contactors%交流接触器数字化控制的分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海海; 许志红

    2015-01-01

    Digital control is put forward into AC contactors with dsPIC .Coil supply circuit is modified from BUCK whose current can be closed -loop in real -time by digital PI or on/off.The dynamic attraction and counterforce of contactor fit well in making to reduce the bounce or collision of contact and core , so the lifetime of AC contactors prolonged .Cutting off the PWM , keeping coil current in a low to save energy and undo noise after making stable .In breaking , the negative-voltage is adopted to enhance the break speed .Entire process of contactors are simulated by PROTEUS to guide the design of intelligent module and the analysis of control scheme .It also verified by experiments , which show that the digital control is flexibility and universality to improve the performance of AC contactors .%提出了以dsPIC为控制核心的交流接触器数字化控制技术。对BUCK电路进行改造作为线圈供电主回路,分别利用数字PI和流限开/关,实现了线圈电流的闭环控制,使得吸合过程的吸反力合理配合,减小触头和铁芯的弹跳与碰撞,提高电寿命。可靠吸合后,切断PWM斩波信号,转入直流低压运行,能耗小、无噪声。分断时,采用负压控制,线圈能量被快速吸收,提高了接触器的分断速度。通过PROTEUS软件对吸合、吸持和分断过程进行仿真,有助于智能控制模块的设计及控制方案的分析。相关试验结果表明,数字化控制技术改善了交流接触器各项性能指标,具有较好灵活性、通用性。

  1. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  2. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  3. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication and assembly of carbon steel vessels for metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was continued. Examination of the vessels and analysis of the salt and metal phases from the previously operated experiment MTE-3 was completed. Internal surfaces exposed to salts and bismuth appeared in excellent condition. Failure of the oxidation-resistant protective coating on the external surfaces allowed significant oxidation of these surfaces at the 6500C operating temperature, but was not extensive enough to affect the vessel integrity. A different protective coating with superior air-oxidation resistance was applied to the MTE-3B vessels. X-ray fluorescence analyses of the Li-Bi phase from the rare-earth stripper at the LiCl--Li-Bi interface contained significant amounts of iron and thorium. A 6-in. diam low-carbon steel stirred interface contactor was installed in the Salt-Bismuth Flowthrough Facility. Results from the first six runs using 97Zr and 237U tracers indicate that the salt-phase mass transfer coefficient based on 237U counting data is 37 +- 3 percent of the value predicted by the Lewis correlation for runs 1, 2, 3, and 5, and is 116 +- 10 percent of the Lewis value for runs 4 and 6. The mass transfer coefficients based on 97Zr counting data are felt to be less reliable than those based on 237U because of the inability to correct for self absorption of the 743.37 keV β- in the solid bismuth samples. Reaction of gaseous UF6 with UF4 dissolved in molten salt and the subsequent reduction with hydrogen of the resultant UF5 will be a flowthrough operation, and the main vessels will consist of a 36-liter feed tank, a UF6 absorption vessel, a hydrogen reduction column, and a receiver vessel. (U.S.)

  4. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  5. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  6. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  7. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  8. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Optimized Solvent in the 2-cm Centrifugal Contactor Apparatus Using Dissolved Salt Cake from Tank 37H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norato, M.A.

    2002-10-21

    A solvent extraction process for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions has been developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant (BOBCalix) dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix (Isopar(R) L). An alkylphenoxy alcohol modifier added to the solvent enhances the extraction power of the calixarene and prevents the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, trioctylamine (TOA), improves stripping performance and mitigates the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The solvent extraction process was successfully demonstrated with actual SRS HLW supernate during testing performed at SRTC in FY-2001. However, the solvent system has recently been optimized to enhance extractant solubility in the diluent and increase suppressor concentration. The results of the optimized solvent performance in tests using the same SRS composite waste supernate as was used FY-20 01 are described in another report.

  9. Biodegradation and detoxification potential of rotating biological contactor (RBC) with Irpex lacteus for remediation of dye-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachova, Katerina; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Cerven, Jiri; Novotny, Cenek

    2013-12-01

    Use of fungal organisms in rotating biological contactors (RBC) for bioremediation of liquid industrial wastes has so far been limited in spite of their significant biodegradation potential. The purpose was to investigate the power of RBC using Irpex lacteus for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes and dyeing textile liquors. Recalcitrant dye Methylene Blue (150 mg L(-1)) was decolorized within 70 days, its mutagenicity removed, and the biological toxicity decreased more than 10-fold. I. lacteus biofilm in the RBC completely decolorized within 26 and 47 days dyeing liquors containing disperse or reactive dyes adjusted to pH4.5 and 5-fold diluted with the growth medium, respectively. Their respective biological toxicity values were reduced 10- to 10(4)-fold in dependence of the test used. A battery of toxicity tests comprising Vibrio fisheri, Lemna minor and Sinapis alba was efficient to monitor the toxicity of textile dyes and wastewaters. Strong decolorization and detoxification power of RBC using I. lacteus biofilms was demonstrated.

  10. Shifts in the microbial community, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the biofilm in a full-scale rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingxing; Guo, Feng; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial community shifts, especially nitrifiers and denitrifiers, in the biofilm of two rotating biological contactor (RBC) trains with different running times along the plug flowpath. The microbial consortia were profiled using multiple approaches, including 454 high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, clone libraries, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results demonstrated that (1) the overall microbial community at different locations had distinct patterns, that is, there were similar microbial communities at the beginnings of the two RBC trains and completely different populations at the ends of the two RBC trains; (2) nitrifiers, including ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB, Nitrosomonas) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, Nitrospira), increased in relative abundance in the biofilm along the flowpath, whereas denitrifiers (Rhodanobacter, Paracoccus, Thauera, and Azoarcus) markedly decreased; (3) the AOA were subdominant to the AOB in all sampled sections; and (4) strong ecological associations were shown among different bacteria. Overall, the results of this study provided more comprehensive information regarding the biofilm community composition and assemblies in full-scale RBCs.

  11. Effect of Flow Rate and Disc Area Increment on the Efficiency of Rotating Biological Contactor for Treating Greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of greywater treatment through RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is related to many factors including rotational speed of disc, surface area of the media, thickness of biological film; quality and flow rate of influent. The plastic media provides surface for biological slime. The slime is rotated alternatively into the settled wastewater and then into atmosphere to provide aerobic conditions for the microorganisms. In this study the performance of RBC is investigated at different flow rates and disk areas of media by introducing additional discs on the shaft of RBC. Initially efficiency of the RBC was observed on six flow rates at the disc area of 9.78m2. Furthermore optimized three flow rates were used to augment the disk area. The efficiency of RBC system was improved significantly at disk area of 11.76m2 and flow rate of 20 L/h. Under these conditions the removal of BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and TSS (Total Suspended Solid was observed 83, 57 and 90% respectively

  12. Effect of flow rate and disc area increment on the efficiency of rotating biological contactor for treating greywater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of greywater treatment through RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor) is related to many factors including rotational speed of disc, surface area of the media, thickness of biological film; quality and flow rate of influent. The plastic media provides surface for biological slime. The slime is rotated alternatively into the settled wastewater and then into atmosphere to provide aerobic conditions for the microorganisms. In this study the performance of RBC is investigated at different flow rates and disk areas of media by introducing additional discs on the shaft of RBC. Initially efficiency of the RBC was observed on six flow rates at the disc area of 9.78m/sup 2/. Furthermore optimized three flow rates were used to augment the disk area. The efficiency of RBC system was improved significantly at disk area of 11.76m/sup 2/ and flow rate of 20 L/h. Under these conditions the removal of BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) was observed 83, 57 and 90% respectively. (author)

  13. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  14. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Team Concert festivals are all about good music, good friends, and big crowds. But for some ... school, North Carolina: Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the ...

  15. Electromagnetic Transformation of DF4D Diesel Locomotive Electric Air Contactor%DF4D型内燃机车电空接触器电磁化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬明; 朱琳; 欧阳爱莲

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of high failure rate and poor reliability of the electric air contactor of the DF4D die⁃sel locomotive,the improvement scheme of the electro pneumatic contactor is put forward in this paper.%本文针对DF4D型内燃机车主电路电空接触器故障率高、可靠性差等问题,提出电空接触器电磁化改进方案。

  16. Simulation of computational fluid dynamics in ozone contactor%臭氧接触池的计算流体力学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 邓保庆; 陆丽; 李勋栋

    2012-01-01

    The hydraulic characteristic of ozone contactor has a great impact on the disinfection effect of microorganism. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) technique was used to simulate the flow field of a single - column ozone contactor. The Eulerian multiphase model and the standard k - e turbulent model were used in the simulation. The results show that ozone distribution is relatively uniform in the single -column contactor. In general, there does not exist the phenomenon of "dead zone" , which helps to guarantee high disinfection efficiency. However, gas bubble was found to accumulate underneath the outlet trough. The results offer a sample for optimizing the ozonation system.%臭氧接触池的水力特性直接影响着微生物消毒效果.利用计算流体力学(CFD)技术,采用欧拉多相流模型和标准k-ε湍流模型对单管臭氧接触池内的流场进行数值模拟.结果表明:单管式臭氧接触池内臭氧分布比较均匀,基本上没有“死区”现象的产生,可以保证较高的消毒效率,但是气体气泡大量聚集在接触池出口槽下方.模拟结果对单管式臭氧接触池的优化有一定的借鉴作用.

  17. Integrated Control and Simulation of AC Contactor%交流接触器集成控制与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄杰榕; 许志红

    2014-01-01

    将集成控制技术引入交流接触器的控制中,以智能功率芯片为核心,集成跨周期调制电路和功率开关管,以132 kHz的高频工作模式,对交流接触器进行闭环控制。使用Multisim和LabView软件,建立智能控制下的接触器闭环机电一体化仿真系统。通过仿真系统分析瞬态特性,合理设计控制模块的工作模式,从底层分析高频工作方式引起电子器件产生的噪声及抑制措施,达到对电磁机构动作特性的良好控制,试验验证了集成方案的可行性。%This paper introduced integrated control technology to intelligent contactor control.The smart power IC built in internal power MOSFET and PSM circuit is the core of the control module.The control module works in the high frequency of 132 kHz to control the AC contactor with closed-loop.And using the software of Multisim and LabVIEW,the mechatronics simulation system of AC contactor with intelligent control was built.By means of the simulation system,this paper analyzed the working principle of control circuit and audio-frequency noise of electron device.The experiments were performed to verify the control module.

  18. Machine Tool Used AC Contactor Reliability Evaluation Method%机床用交流接触器可靠性评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宾; 陆俭国

    2014-01-01

    Introduction was made to AC contactor reliability study development situations both at home and abroad. This paper described the reliability test method of machine tool used AC contactor mechanical operation and the evaluation method, pointing out that the product failure distribution type is Weibull distribution when AC contactor turning on/off the rating electrical load, failure rate is not constant, it is not suitable to adopt failure rate value as reliability index, but to adopt reliability measurement test, and the corresponding methods were given.%介绍了国内外开展交流接触器可靠性研究概况,阐述了机床用交流接触器机械操作可靠性试验方法与评估方法。指出交流接触器通断实际电气负载时产品失效分布类型为威布尔分布,失效率不是常数,不宜采用失效率大小作为交流接触器通断实际电气负载时的可靠性指标,而应采用可靠性测定试验,并给出了交流接触器通断实际电气负载时可靠性试验方法与提供可靠性数据的评估方法。

  19. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kan, E-mail: xiekan@bit.edu.cn [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r = 0.9 m) under ≈10{sup −5 }Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ≈300 eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ≈75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3 A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  20. The effects of a realistic hollow cathode plasma contactor model on the simulation of bare electrodynamic tether systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blash, Derek M.

    The region known as Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) has become populated with artificial satellites and space debris since humanities initial venture into the region. This has turned LEO into a hazardous region. Since LEO is very valuable to many different countries, there has been a push to prevent further buildup and talk of even deorbiting spent satellites and debris already in LEO. One of the more attractive concepts available for deorbiting debris and spent satellites is a Bare Electrodynamic Tether (BET). A BET is a propellantless propulsion technique in which two objects are joined together by a thin conducting material. When these tethered objects are placed in LEO, the tether sweeps across the magnetic field lines of the Earth and induces an electromotive force (emf) along the tether. Current from the space plasma is collected on the bare tether under the action of the induced emf, and this current interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to create a drag force that can be used to deorbit spent satellites and space debris. A Plasma Contactor (PC) is used to close the electrical circuit between the BET and the ionospheric plasma. The PC requires a voltage and, depending on the device, a gas flow to emit electrons through a plasma bridge to the ionospheric plasma. The PC also can require a plasma discharge electrode and a heater to condition the PC for operation. These parameters as well as the PC performance are required to build an accurate simulation of a PC and, therefore, a BET deorbiting system. This thesis focuses on the development, validation, and implementation of a simulation tool to model the effects of a realistic hollow cathode PC system model on a BET deorbit system.

  1. Mass transfer studies in miniature Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) with 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotating disc contactor is the widely used liquid-liquid extraction equipment for its high throughput and efficiency. In this work mass transfer performance of the miniature RDC column for the 30% TBP/nitric acid biphasic system was studied in terms of the operating variables such as rotor speed and flow rate of the aqueous and organic phase. The RDC column used in the experiments was shown. The column shell is made up of thick glass having diameter of 10.5 cm and height 100 cm. The rotor diameter is 5.3 cm and stator opening diameter is 6.3 cm. Totally 25 number of rotor discs were welded in the rotating shaft. This shaft was aligned in such a way that each rotor was placed in the centre of the compartment formed in between the two stator rings. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of rotor speed and superficial velocity of the dispersed and continuous phase on mass transfer efficiency. The organic solvent was made as the continuous phase and O/A ratio was set as 4 in both the continuous to dispersed phase(c-d) and dispersed to continuous phase (d-c) mass transfer experiments. The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) was estimated based on the solvent phase. The graphical representation of NTU was shown. The NTU value was observed as 4 and 3 respectively for extraction and stripping at the combined through put of 60 L/h and the rotor speed of 1000 rpm. This corresponds to the Height of Transfer Unit (HTU) value of 15 cm and 20 cm respectively for d-c and c-d mass transfer. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient was increasing with rotor speed and superficial velocity of the liquid phases. The overall mass transfer coefficient also increases with increase in hold up

  2. Salt treatment Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Task of NUKEM Technologies GmbH is to develop a technical solution for the treatment of salt containing effluents at Fukushima Daiichi. The target of the treatment is a solidified product suitable for the safe storage on site. Therefore, NUKEM investigated several technologies (direct cementation, drying and storage, drying and subsequent cementation) in order to find a fit for purpose solution. The following tasks have been considered: (a) Mechanical strength and homogeneity of the product; (b) Cost efficient solution (cost for the drying system vs. reduced amount of storage containers); (c) Proven technology; (d) On site storage. NUKEM made some practical test in parallel with different recipes. The aim was to embed as much as possible salt quantity into the cement matrix, but still meet the requested mechanical strength and required homogeneity. As a result NUKEM recommended to apply the following technologies (a) a drying system, to produce a dry salt product (b) a cementation facility, to generate a homogeneous salt/cement matrix (c) a filling station with attached CMS (Container measuring station) to fill the resulting cement/salt matrix into containers suitable for the storage at Fukushima Daiichi. (orig.)

  3. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  4. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  5. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  6. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  7. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  8. Analysis and Treatment of Causes for Common Faults of AC Contactor%交流接触器常见故障原因分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英力

    2011-01-01

    AC Contactor ia the most common used apparatus in electric drive and automatic control system.As an actuator, it can frequently and automatically control the starting, running and stopping of the motors, or even the connecting and breaking of the power lines in far distance.This paper mainly expounds the causes for common faults of AC Contactor and its treatment.%交流接触器是电力拖动和自动控制系统中应用最普遍的一种电器.它作为执行元件,可以远距离频繁地自动控制电动机的启动、运转和停止,以及电力线路的接通与分断.本文对交流接触器常见故障产生的原因及采取的相应处理方法进行了阐述.

  9. 200A三相交流接触器的无火花控制%The sparkless control of 200A 3-phase AC contactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党方义; 苟亚仙; 李锐

    2001-01-01

    AC contactors are widely used in various industrial fields.However,any conventional applications show that their contacts need frequent maintenance as they are so often burnt,thus even causing peripheral equipment to be damaged,which would have serious effects on the normal operation of the industrial production.The sparkless AC contactors described in this paper can solve such a difficult problem successfully by using the by-pass techniqure of short-time current,so that they can keep operating with no need of maintenance.%交流接触器广泛用于各种工业领域。然而,传统用法中接触器的触点经常被烧损,需要频繁维护,使用寿命短,有时甚至造成周边设备损坏,严重影响工业生产的正常运作。本文中的无火花交流接触器应用短时间电流傍路技术成功地解决了这一难题,可做到免维护使用。

  10. 大容量交流接触器灭弧性能的试验研究%Experimental Research of Arc Extinction Performance of Big-Capacity AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史亚闻; 曾萍; 葛顺锋

    2015-01-01

    This paper researched the effects of arc extinction performance of big-capacity AC contactors which are caused by the different structure of arc chamber according to the method of test waveform image and high speed photography.The research results show that the placement of guiding-arc flake,the shape of leading-arc flake and distance between leading-arc flake and arc splitters are crirical to enhancing arc extinction performance of AC contactors.In addition,this method of research can shorten the developing period of AC contactor and reduce the cost of contactors'R&D.%通过试验波形图和高速摄影的方法研究了不同灭弧室结构对大容量交流接触器灭弧性能的影响。研究结果表明,导弧片的布置和引弧片的形状以及灭弧栅片与引弧片之间的位置关系都会对交流接触器的灭弧性能起到至关重要的作用。同时该试验方法能够缩短交流接触器的研发周期,降低研发成本。

  11. The Control Technology of Self-correction for Intelligent AC Contactors%智能交流接触器自校正控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤龙飞; 许志红

    2015-01-01

    将电力电子传统的电压控制模式及Buck电路经改造应用于交流接触器的智能控制中,实现了智能交流接触器的闭环控制。在此基础上,提出了加入主触头状态捕捉电路的自校正控制方案,分析自校正控制的工作原理,采用电流扫描方式实现自校正控制,使智能交流接触器具有起动过程自校正功能,减少了智能交流接触器起动过程中的触头弹跳。通过对自校正参数的记忆,精确复现起动电流,减少了智能交流接触器在线运行的触头弹跳。该控制方案对接触器本体的结构参数依赖较低,对输入电压波动不敏感,可以自动调整吸力特性,不需要对接触器进行复杂的建模仿真即可完成相对优化的过程控制,提高智能交流接触器的电寿命,结合相关实验验证了方案的有效性。%This paper applied the voltage control mode and the transformed buck circuit into the intelligent control of the ac contactor and realized closed-loop control. On this basis, a self-correction control scheme with the state capture circuit of main contacts has been proposed. This paper analyzed the principle of the self-correction control and realized it by current scanning. The control scheme can reduce the bounces of the ac contactor in making process with the offline self-correction. Through memory the offline self-correction parameters, the control module can recurrence the making coil current accurately. This control scheme relies less on the structure parameters of the ac contactor and is not sensitive to the input voltage fluctuation. The intelligent ac contactor can adjust the attractive force automatically and enhance the electrical life of the ac contactor. The complex modeling and simulation is not necessary during the optimal control. The experimental results verify the validity of the control scheme.

  12. Co-simulation and Digital Control Technology of the Intelligent AC Contactor%智能交流接触器一体化仿真及数字控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志红; 汤龙飞

    2015-01-01

    A brand-new simulation method for the intelligent AC contactor was proposed. The simulation method integrated the SPICE simulation of the control module with the dynamic simulation of the contactor and realized the closed-loop point-by-point co-simulation between the intelligent control module and the AC contactor. The underlying hardware circuit of the intelligent AC contactor can be designed in Multisim. And the dynamic model of AC contactor can be designed in LabVIEW. In addition, a two-way data channel has been built between Multisim and LabVIEW. Both of the softwares perform the nonlinear time-domain simulation simultaneously and independently, and exchange data at the end of each simulation time step so as to realize the co-simulation. The co-simulation system can find a reasonable control scheme for the intelligent AC contactor. At the same time, the digital control technology has been introduced and a current closed-loop control module for AC contactor was designed. The co-simulation and the digital control have been verified effectively.%该文提出了一种新的智能交流接触器仿真方法,将SPICE电路仿真与接触器动态仿真完全集成,实现了智能控制模块与接触器本体一体化的逐点闭环仿真系统.在Multisim 电路仿真软件中进行智能控制模块的底层硬件电路设计,在LabVIEW中构建接触器的动态仿真程序,同时构建Multisim和LabVIEW之间的双向数据通道,两个独立的仿真程序同时进行非线性时域仿真,然后在每一个仿真步长结束时交换数据,进行一体化仿真.通过一体化仿真确定合理的接触器运动过程控制方案,同时引入数字变流技术,开发了智能交流接触器电流闭环数字控制模块,并进行相关实验,验证了一体化仿真及数字控制的有效性.

  13. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  14. 斜极面交流接触器动态特性与优化设计研究%Research for dynamic characteristics and optimization design in inclined surface AC contactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍光海; 张培铭

    2011-01-01

    ANSYS software is used to simulate the dynamic characteristics of flat surface AC contactor and the dynamic characteristics is tested by high-speed cameras to verify the correctness of the simulation results. The magnetic force characteristics of inclined surface AC contactor in different angles are calculated and the static characteristics with the flat surface AC contactor are compared. Finally, artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm is used based on genetic algorithm to optimize the design of the dynamic characteristics of inclined surface AC contactor. The optimization results show that the coil and core volume of inclined surface decrease greatly than that of the flat surface, and its dynamic characteristics is better than flat surface AC contactor.%采用ANSYS有限元软件对平极面铁心的交流接触器动态特性进行仿真计算并通过高速摄像机进行了机构动态特性的非接触测试验证,证明仿真计算的正确性.在此基础上计算了斜极面铁心交流接触器在不同斜角度下的吸力特性,对平极面交流接触器与斜极面交流接触器静态特性进行比较分析.最后采用基于遗传算法的人工鱼群优化算法对斜极面交流接触器进行动态优化计算,优化结果表明,斜极面交流接触器线圈、铁心的体积比平极面有大幅度的减小,而且其动态特性比平极面交流接触器更好.

  15. Quiz: What's the Buzz about Salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Too Much Salt Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt Spring / ...

  16. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  17. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A. (Anne); González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.A. (Daniel A.)

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  18. Demonstration of a SANEX Process in Centrifugal Contactors using the CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP Molecule on a Genuine Fuel Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, D.; Christiansen, B.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Inst Transuranium Elements, D-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Foreman, M.R.S. [Univ Reading, Dept Chem, Reading RG6 6AD, Berks, (United Kingdom); Geist, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst Nukl Entsorgung, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy Res Safety Res and Reactor Technol, D-52425 Julich, (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat Energie Atom Valrho, CEA, DRCP SCPS, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)

    2009-07-01

    Efficient recovery of minor actinides from a genuine spent fuel solution has been successfully demonstrated by the CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP/DMDOHEMA extractant mixture dissolved in octanol. The continuous countercurrent process, in which actinides(III) were separated from lanthanides(III), was carried out in laboratory centrifugal contactors using an optimized flow-sheet involving a total of 16 stages. The process was divided into 9 stages for extraction from a 2 M nitric acid feed solution, 3 stages for lanthanide scrubbing, and 4 stages for actinide back-extraction. Excellent feed decontamination factors for Am (7000) and Cm (1000) were obtained and the recoveries of these elements were higher than 99.9%. More than 99.9% of the lanthanides were directed to the raffinate except Gd for which 0.32% was recovered in the product. (authors)

  19. Preparation of drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes at a large scale using a membrane contactor: Application to trans-anethole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Riham; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Jraij, Alia; Auezova, Lizette; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-12-10

    The present study aimed to prepare liposomes loaded with cyclodextrin/drug inclusion complexes at a pilot scale based on the ethanol injection technique. Anethole (ANE), a major component of anise and fennel essential oils, was used as a model of a volatile and highly hydrophobic drug. Membrane contactor (600mL) and a pilot plant (3L) were used for liposome production. The liposome preparations obtained were characterized for size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, stability and ANE release rate. All experimental set-ups were shown to be appropriate for the preparation of small, multilamellar vesicles with narrow size distribution and good stability at 4°C. The drug release study showed that only a small amount of ANE was released from liposome formulations after 21days of storage at 4°C. The loading rate of ANE was higher when ethanol was evaporated directly on the pilot plant compared to a rotary evaporation.

  20. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection.

  1. Design of Remanence Contactor and Its Energy Saving Control Module%剩磁接触器及其节能控制模块的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光熙

    2014-01-01

    针对剩磁接触器设计了节能控制模块,同时探讨了将普通接触器经磁系统改造成剩磁接触器的问题。详细阐述了剩磁接触器各个工作阶段,节能控制模块的工作原理,并具体分析了普通接触器磁系统改造中钢材的选择。%This article explained how the remanence contactor works with the support of its control module. Then it expounded the operational principle of the control module during different working time periods.Lastly the article suggests how to select the materials of magnetic system.

  2. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  3. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection. PMID:26099849

  4. Preparation of drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes at a large scale using a membrane contactor: Application to trans-anethole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Riham; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Jraij, Alia; Auezova, Lizette; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-12-10

    The present study aimed to prepare liposomes loaded with cyclodextrin/drug inclusion complexes at a pilot scale based on the ethanol injection technique. Anethole (ANE), a major component of anise and fennel essential oils, was used as a model of a volatile and highly hydrophobic drug. Membrane contactor (600mL) and a pilot plant (3L) were used for liposome production. The liposome preparations obtained were characterized for size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, stability and ANE release rate. All experimental set-ups were shown to be appropriate for the preparation of small, multilamellar vesicles with narrow size distribution and good stability at 4°C. The drug release study showed that only a small amount of ANE was released from liposome formulations after 21days of storage at 4°C. The loading rate of ANE was higher when ethanol was evaporated directly on the pilot plant compared to a rotary evaporation. PMID:27577919

  5. Design and Realization of Dynamic Characteristics Test-system for Contactor with Three Degrees of Freedom%具有三自由度的接触器动态特性测试系统设计及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁步猛; 章上聪; 吴桂初; 舒亮

    2016-01-01

    Quick lock, switch of measuring target for laser displacement sensor in the three-dimensional degree and quick in-stallation of contactors were realized by the design of mechanical structure for contactor test -system.Therefore, the test efficiency of contactor's dynamic characteristic was improved .The system includes removable testing mechanism and adjustable installation mechanism.The integration all modules used for testing dynamic characteristics parameters with three -axis slide used for locking measured target within three-dimensional degree in the removable testing mechanism makes multiple parameters of contactor 's dy-namic characteristics can be acquired real-time, fast and synchronously .Different type contactors can be fixed fast and easily with the adjustable installation mechanism .The test system developed in the paper can improve efficiency and timeliness in the testing of dynamic characteristics of contactor greatly .%通过对接触器测试系统机械结构的设计,实现了激光位移传感器在三个维度内对测量目标快速锁定、切换以及接触器的快速省力安装,提高了接触器动态特性测量的效率。该系统包括可移动测试机构和可调式安装机构。所设计的可移动测试机构集成了各种动态特性参数测试所需要的模块以及可以实现在三维度内对测量目标进行锁定的三轴滑台,达到对接触器动态特性多路参数的实时、快速、同步的测量。所设计的可调式接触器安装机构可以实现不同型号接触器快速、省力的安装。整个测试系统可以显著提高接触器动态特性测试的效率和实时性。

  6. Application of Nonporous Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor in CO2 Removal%中空纤维致密膜基吸收法在CO2脱除中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜尚; 孙承贵; 贾静璇; 康国栋; 曹义鸣; 袁权

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the application potential of hollow fiber membrane contactors, a commercial nonporous polyimide hollow fiber membrane contactor (φ200) was tested by using tap water and seawater as absorbents to separate the CO2 from the gas mixture of CO2 and N2. The effects of liquid flow rate, liquid pressure, gas flow rate and gas pressure on the removal efficiency and overall mass transfer coefficient of CO2 were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the membrane resistance and liquid film resistance control the mass transfer when tap water and seawater are employed as absorbents. Furthermore, the removal efficiency is enhanced when the liquid/gas flow rate ratio increases. The nonporous hollow fiber contactor could perform a high CO2 removal with efficiency over 70%by optimizing the operation conditions. Finally, a stable operation process was achieved. This smooth mass transfer process indicates that the nonporous hollow fiber membrane eliminates bubbling problem and weeping problem that are frequently encountered in microporous hollow fiber contactor. Therefore, the non-porous hollow fiber contactor used in this experiment has great potential for application as a gas-liquid contactor.%  以商业φ200聚酰亚胺中空纤维致密膜大组件为接触器,淡水和海水为吸收剂,进行了CO2/N2混合气中CO2的脱除实验。考察了气液相压力和流量对CO2脱除率和过程总传质系数的影响。结果显示,液相压力对膜接触器的影响不大,而加大液/气相流量比可以提高CO2的脱除效率,通过控制操作条件可使膜接触器的CO2脱除率在70%以上。实验过程中,气液两相压力可在较宽范围内独立操作,且无鼓泡和漏液现象发生。研究表明中空纤维致密膜基接触器在CO2气体分离领域具有很好的应用潜力和前景。

  7. Dynamics of salt playa polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Fourrière, A.

    2014-12-01

    In natural salt playa or in evaporation pools for the salt extraction industry, one can sometimes see surprising regular structures formed by ridges of salt. These ridges connect together to form a self-organized network of polygons one to two meters in diameter, which we call salt polygons. Here we propose a mechanism based on porous media convection of salty water in soil to explain the formation and the scaling of the salt polygons. Surface evaporation causes a steady upward flow of salty water, which can cause precipitation near the surface. A vertical salt gradient then builds up in the porous soil, with heavy salt-saturated water lying over the less salty source water. This can drive convection when a threshold is reached, given by a critical Rayleigh number of about 7. We suggest that the salt polygons are the surface expression of the porous medium convection, with salt crystallizing along the positions of the convective downwellings. To study this instability directly, we developed a 2D analogue experiment using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a porous medium saturated with a salt solution and heated from above. We perform a linear stability analysis of this system, and find that it is unstable to convection, with a most unstable wavelength that is set by a balance between salt diffusion and water evaporation. The Rayleigh number in our experiment is controlled by the particle size of our model soil, and the evaporation rate. We obtain results that scale with the observation of natural salt polygons. Using dye, we observe the convective movement of salty water and find downwelling convective plumes underneath the spots where surface salt ridges form, as shown in the attached figure.

  8. Reactor performance in terms of COD and nitrogen removal and bacterial community structure of a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayess, Rassil R; Saikaly, Pascal E; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Li, Dong; Semerjian, Lucy

    2013-02-01

    Integrating microbial fuel cell (MFC) into rotating biological contactor (RBC) creates an opportunity for enhanced removal of COD and nitrogen coupled with energy generation from wastewater. In this study, a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor (referred to as RBC-MFC unit) integrating MFC with RBC technology was constructed for simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds and electricity generation from a synthetic medium containing acetate and ammonium. The performance of the RBC-MFC unit was compared to a control reactor (referred to as RBC unit) that was operated under the same conditions but without current generation (i.e. open-circuit mode). The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and COD/N ratio on the performance of the two units was investigated. At low (3.05 gCOD g⁻¹N) and high COD/N ratio (6.64 gCOD g⁻¹N), both units achieved almost similar COD and ammonia-nitrogen removal. However, the RBC-MFC unit achieved significantly higher denitrification and nitrogen removal compared to the RBC unit indicating improved denitrification at the cathode due to current flow. The average voltage under 1000 Ω external resistance ranged between 0.03 and 0.30 V and between 0.02 and 0.21 V for stages 1 and 2 of the RBC-MFC unit. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed high bacterial diversity at the anode and cathode of both units. Genera that play a role in nitrification (Nitrospira; Nitrosomonas), denitrification (Comamonas; Thauera) and electricity generation (Geobacter) were identified at the electrodes. Geobacter was only detected on the anode of the RBC-MFC unit. Nitrifiers and denitrifiers were more abundant in the RBC-MFC unit compared to the RBC unit and were largely present on the cathode of both units suggesting that most of the nitrogen removal occurred at the cathode.

  9. Reactor performance in terms of COD and nitrogen removal and bacterial community structure of a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sayess, Rassil R.

    2013-02-01

    Integrating microbial fuel cell (MFC) into rotating biological contactor (RBC) creates an opportunity for enhanced removal of COD and nitrogen coupled with energy generation from wastewater. In this study, a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor (referred to as RBC-MFC unit) integrating MFC with RBC technology was constructed for simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds and electricity generation from a synthetic medium containing acetate and ammonium. The performance of the RBC-MFC unit was compared to a control reactor (referred to as RBC unit) that was operated under the same conditions but without current generation (i.e. open-circuit mode). The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and COD/N ratio on the performance of the two units was investigated. At low (3.05 gCOD g-1N) and high COD/N ratio (6.64 gCOD g-1N), both units achieved almost similar COD and ammonia-nitrogen removal. However, the RBC-MFC unit achieved significantly higher denitrification and nitrogen removal compared to the RBC unit indicating improved denitrification at the cathode due to current flow. The average voltage under 1000 Ω external resistance ranged between 0.03 and 0.30 V and between 0.02 and 0.21 V for stages 1 and 2 of the RBC-MFC unit. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed high bacterial diversity at the anode and cathode of both units. Genera that play a role in nitrification (Nitrospira; Nitrosomonas), denitrification (Comamonas; Thauera) and electricity generation (Geobacter) were identified at the electrodes. Geobacter was only detected on the anode of the RBC-MFC unit. Nitrifiers and denitrifiers were more abundant in the RBC-MFC unit compared to the RBC unit and were largely present on the cathode of both units suggesting that most of the nitrogen removal occurred at the cathode. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  11. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  12. Research progress in study of electrophoretic membrane contactor%电泳膜接触器研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文娴; 卢会霞; 王建友

    2013-01-01

    The electrophoretic membrane contactor (EMC) is a novel membrane separation technology in which porous membranes are stacked or replaced partial ion exchange membranes by porous membranes in conventional electrodialysis cell. The porous membranes act as the contact interface between the two liquid streams where the mass transfer takes place. The voltage,applied in a direction perpendicular to the flows,is the only driving force. This review paper described the principles of EMC. Cell configuration and operation mode of EMC were briefly discussed. The influences of important operation factors,such as pH of solution and electric field strength,polymer materials and molecular weight cutoff of porous membranes on the mass transfer of EMC process were analyzed in detail. Pollution status of the porous membranes during the operation of EMC was explored and the application potential of EMC in separation and purification of biomacromolecules was discussed. EMC further extends the application field of electrodialysis by using of porous membrane,which could be used in separation and purification of biomolecules greater than 500 Da. Membrane fouling could be effectively minimized due to external electric field.%电泳膜接触器(EMC)是在传统电渗析器中引入多孔膜,或用多孔膜代替部分离子交换膜的一种新型膜分离技术,其中多孔膜作为两液流的接触界面,提供传质的场所,垂直于液流方向的电场是唯一的驱动力。本文介绍了EMC的工作原理,并简要概述了EMC的膜堆构型及运行模式。详细分析了进料液pH值、电场强度等操作参数、多孔膜的材质和截留相对分子质量等对EMC过程传质的影响,且对EMC运行过程中多孔膜的污染状况进行了探讨,并展望了EMC在生物大分子分离和纯化中的应用潜力。EMC中多孔膜的引入,使得EMC可以用于相对分子质量大于500 Da的生物分子的分离与纯化,进一步拓宽了电渗

  13. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  14. Salt and the glycaemic response.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorburn, A W; Brand, J C; Truswell, A S

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that salt increases plasma glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods was investigated. Six healthy adults took four morning test meals randomly: 50 g carbohydrate as cooked lentils or white bread, with or without 4.25 g of added salt (an amount within the range of salt found in a meal). When salt was added to the lentils the incremental area under the three hour plasma glucose curve was significantly greater than that for lentils alone (43.2 mmol.min/l v 11.1 mmol.min/l (...

  15. LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  16. 继电器、断路器、交流接触器在100 kW发射机中的应用%Relays, Circuit Breakers, AC Contactors used in 100 kW Transmitters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学东

    2015-01-01

    DF100 kW transmitter, using a lot of relays, circuit breakers, AC contactor control switch as a transmitter. Detailed summary of all relays, circuit breakers, AC contactors whole transmitter, and various switches for a detailed explanation for reference.%DF100 kW发射机中采用了很多继电器、断路器、交流接触器作为发射机中的控制开关。详细总结了整部发射机的所有继电器、断路器、交流接触器,并对各种开关进行了详细的讲解,以供参考。

  17. Problem Analysis of LCU and Electromagnetic Contactor Added on SS3 Electric Locomotive%SS3型电力机车加改LCU和电磁接触器出现的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树平

    2014-01-01

    SS3型电力机车同时进行LCU和电磁接触器改造后,出现电磁接触器不能可靠动作的问题,对其造成的原因进行了分析,介绍了解决该问题的方法,并提出了防止类似问题发生的建议。%When SS3 electric locomotive is reformed by adding LCU and electromagnetic contactor , it appears problem as electromagnetic contactor failure to actuate .This paper analyzes the reason that causes this problem and introduces the method to solve it ,and finally gives suggestion to prevent the same problem .

  18. 一种新颖的交流接触器无声节电技术%A Novel Technology of Noiseless & Electricity -saving Power in AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆念强

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a changing and controlling method of AC contactor' s actuation and DC keeping. The noiseless & electricity-saving component used in AC contactor has many advantages, such as better performance, lower cost and easier installing and maintenance.%提出了一种新颖的交流接触器电磁吸合与吸持状态的切换和控制方法,并给出了典型电路。采用该方法设计的交流接触器无声节电器或节电线圈性能好、成本低、安装维护方便。

  19. 基于模糊自适应控制的接触器过零投切系统研究%Research on Contactor Zero Crossing Switching System Based on Fuzzy Adaptive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇泽; 王立国

    2014-01-01

    以负载变化不剧烈条件下高压动态无功补偿为研究背景,发挥接触器在高压领域的优势,针对接触器投切电容器造成的投切瞬间会产生浪涌电流及过电压的问题,提出接触器过零投切的同步关合控制方式。通过对接触器的动态特性分析,对真空接触器控制系统设计,并对接触器响应时间进行实验测试,基于接触器响应时间与操作电压以及环境温度的变化规律进行归纳,提出采用模糊自适应控制对不同环境温度以及操作电压下的接触器响应时间的预估方法,做到投切电容器的时间控制在电压电流零点附近的1ms 内,并进行相应的仿真与实验验证,取得了良好的效果。所作研究可有效控制电容器在投切瞬间产生的浪涌电流和电压闪变的不利影响,确保在满足系统无功补偿的条件下实现电网的安全稳定运行。%Considering the high pressure dynamic reactive power compensation with the load changing gently and the advantage of contactor in high pressure field,a contactor zero - crossing switching synchronization closing control mechanism has been proposed in this paper,aiming at the problem of instant overvoltage and surge current casued by contactor switching capacitor. Through the dynamic characteristics analysis of the contactor and the designing of the vacuum contactor control system,as well as the test of the response time of the contactor,a fuzzy adaptive control based estimating method for the contactor response time with different ambient temperatures and operating voltages has been proposed in this paper,based on the summary of the response time of contactor based on operating voltage and ambient temperature,which will guarantee the time of switched within 1ms when the capacitor voltage and current control near zero. Corresponding simulations and experimental verifications have achieved good results. The proposed method can effectively control

  20. Fracture Analysis of 4 J29 Alloy Contactors in Electrical Connectors%电连接器4J29合金接触体断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振伟; 周静怡; 刘昌奎

    2015-01-01

    采用体视显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、能谱分析仪、光学显微镜,对断裂的电连接器接触体进行表面和断口的宏微观形貌观察,断口表面化学成分及显微组织分析. 结果表明:电连接器接触体在含Cl-介质中发生应力腐蚀开裂,最终在工作振动应力作用下发生疲劳断裂;裂纹萌生阶段主要特征为腐蚀坑和沿晶,扩展阶段的主要特征为裂纹穿晶、分叉和疲劳条带. 酸洗后腐蚀性Cl-的残留与接触体表面镀层开裂导致接触体断裂.%By stereomicroscopy, SEM, EDS and optical microscopy, macro and micro morphology observation, microstructure examination, and chemical composition analysis were carried out to analyze the failure mode and cause of the contactors in electrical connectors. The results show that stress corrosion cracking( SCC) occurred to the contactors in the media containing Cl-, resulting in fatigue rupture under vibration stress. The main characters in the failure initial stage of the contactors are corrosion pits and intergranular cracks, and the main characters in the failure crack extension stage are intragranular cracks, cracks branching and fatigue striations. Residual corrosive Cl- after acid cleaning and coating cracking caused fracture of the contactors.

  1. 基于小波变换与灰色理论相结合的交流接触器电寿命预测%Electrical Lifetime Prediction of AC Contactor Based on Wavelet Transform and Grey Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦通; 曹云东

    2015-01-01

    为实现对交流接触器电寿命的准确诊断,提出了一种基于小波变换与灰色GM(1,1)模型相结合的交流接触器电寿命预测方法。采用小波变换对信号进行多分辨率分析提取特征量,再基于灰色GM(1,1)模型得出预测结果。通过自主搭建交流接触器通断试验平台进行全寿命试验,验证了方法的合理性。结果表明,提出的方法能够准确预测出交流接触器的电寿命状态。%For diagnosing the electrical life of AC contactor accurately,a method of electrical lifetime prediction of AC contactor based on wavelet transform and grey GM(1 ,1 )model was proposed.To extract feature vector,the wavelet transform was used in the signal multi-resolution analysis.Based on the GM(1 ,1 )model,the predicted result was calculated.To verify the rationality of the method,the experimental platform for the whole life experiment of AC contactor was self-constructed.The result of the test shows that the proposed method can predict the life state of AC contactor effectively.

  2. 灭弧室结构对交流接触器电寿命影响的试验研究%Test Study of Arc Extinguish Chamber Structure’s Impact on Electrical Life of AC Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪从礼

    2014-01-01

    Introduction was made to the principle and method of arc extinction of contactor and analysis was made to the arc extinguish cham-ber structure of AC contactor and the impacts of effective gas escape area on electrical life. Taking the arc extinguish chamber structure of frame 150 A contactor as an example, AC-4 electrical life test was carried out for 3 sample machines. The test result shows that for same current frame contactors, its arc extinguish chamber structure has vitally important impact on electrical life, and providing the requirement of electric gap and distance is met, the bigger the effective gas escape area is, the larger the number of electrical life times is.%介绍了接触器的灭弧原理及方式,分析了交流接触器灭弧室结构及有效排气孔面积对电寿命的影响。以框架为150 A 接触器的灭弧室结构为例,对3个样机进行 AC-4电寿命试验,试验结果表明对于同电流框架的接触器,其灭弧室结构对电寿命影响至关重要,且在满足电气间隙和爬电距离时,有效排气孔面积越大,电寿命次数越大。

  3. Analysis and Treatment of Common Faults of High Voltage Vacuum Contactor%高压真空接触器常见故障的处理及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛明学

    2011-01-01

    High voltage vacuum contactors are widely used in high voltage power system of power plant. In order to help the field workers correctly and promptly treat the common faults of high voltage vacuum contactors, this paper introduced the working principle of high voltage vacuum contactor operating mechanism, detailedly described the common faults and treatment methods in previous operation and maintenance, and analyzed the causes of the faults. In addition, suggestions were offered to reduce the fault rate of high voltage vacuum contactors.%高压真空接触器在发电厂高压厂用电系统中应用广泛.若发生的故障处理不及时,将会直接影响发电厂机组的安全经济运行.为帮助现场工作人员正确、及时处理高压真空接触器的常见故障,笔者根据多年的实践经验,首先对高压真空接触器操作机构的工作原理进行简要叙述,然后重点对实际运行和检修维护中发现的故障及处理经过进行详细描述,对造成故障的原因进行分析,最后对如何降低高压真空接触器故障发生率提出建议.

  4. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  5. 交流励磁接触器吸合动态过程的仿真研究%Study on dynamic closing course simulation and experiment for AC contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜太行; 王进立; 孙小禄; 李娜; 肖娜

    2011-01-01

    In the optimum design of AC contaclors, it is necessary to analyze its dynamic behavior in the circuit, especially for improving the capability of contactor and designing the electromagnet. A dynamic mathematic model of AC contactor is proposed by labview and also simulated the dynamic behavior of contactor. The influences of the different electrical circuit parameters and contact spring parameters on the contact bounce are investigated. The proposed method is useful in the dynamic behavior.%在交流接触器的设计与操作中,研究其动态过程对于优化设计操作电磁铁和提高其整体性能具有非常重要的意义。利用LabVIEW软件编程建立了接触器闭合过程的动态数学模型,模型实现了对接触器动态过程的仿真分析。在此基础上仿真研究了不同合闸相角、线圈电压对接触器闭合过程及其对触头弹跳的影响,为研究接触器的动态特性提供了途径。

  6. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  8. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  9. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  10. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  11. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  12. Design of an AC Contactor Control Module Started by Closed Loop Chopping%闭环斩波起动交流接触器控制模块设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤龙飞; 许志红

    2013-01-01

    将斩波控制技术引入到交流接触器智能控制中,设计一种闭环斩波起动的交流接触器智能控制模块,使交流接触器具有闭环直流起动、闭环直流保持、抗电压跌落等功能,进一步增强其工作可靠性,满足了企业对大容量抗电压跌落交流接触器的需求:起动闭环采用线圈电流反馈,可以快速调节接触器线圈电流,便于优化控制;保持闭环可以根据接触器线圈电阻自动进行保持电压闭环与保持电流闭环的快速切换,拓展模块的适用范围;对模块工作原理进行瞬态及交流仿真,分析线圈尖峰电流的抑制方法,设计控制回路补偿网络,并结合相关实验验证设计的有效性.%In this paper,the chopper control technology was introduced into the intelligent control of the AC contactor and an AC contactor control module starting with closed loop chopping has been designed.With this control module,the AC contactor has the functions of closed-loop DC starting,closed-loop DC keeping and anti-voltage sag.The proposed control module not only satisfies enterprises for high-capacity AC contactors with the function of anti-voltage sag but also makes it more robust.Starting closed loop uses coil current as feedback and allows the module to adjust the contactor coil current quickly.The optimization of starting process can be realized easier.The keeping closed loop can use coil voltage or coil current as feedback,it depends on the coil resistance.According to the control principle,the transient analysis and the AC analysis have been made,this paper also analyzed the suppression measures of current spike and designed the compensation network.The experimental results verify the validity of the control module.

  13. Three-dimensional numerical simulation for combining clear water tank and ozone contactor%臭氧接触池与清水池合建的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 施周; 周石庆; 陆先镭

    2012-01-01

    利用计算流体力学软件Fluent,结合标准κ-ε模型和组分输运模型,建立了臭氧接触池和清水池的三维紊流模型;通过计算流体的停留时间分布曲线(RTD),对臭氧接触池的水力效率进行了模拟研究。在此基础上,提出了在清水池前段第一廊道设置臭氧接触池的合建方案。结果表明:单一的臭氧接触池水力效率较低,T10/HRT值仅为0.42;而臭氧接触池与清水池经过合建后,T10/HRT值达到0.65,其臭氧消毒水力效率提高了55%。%The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was adopted to build the three dimensional model of ozone contactor and clear water tank,and a standard κ-ε model and a species transport model were employed.An optimized simulation of the hydraulic efficiency for ozone contactor and clear water tank was conducted through simulating and calculating the retention time distribution(RTD) curve.And on the above basis,the modified design of setting an ozone contactor in the first corridor of clear water tank was proposed.The results of our experiments indicated that the single ozone contactor had a low hydraulic efficiency with the T10/HRT=0.42.However,after the optimization of design by combining the clear water tank and the ozone contactor,the hydraulic efficiency increased by 55%,and the value of T10/HRT reached up to 0.65.

  14. 智能斜极面交流接触器动态优化设计与分析%Dynamic Optimization Design and Analysis for Intelligent Inclined Surface Alternating Current Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍光海; 张培铭

    2011-01-01

    采用ANSYS电磁场分析软件与基于遗传算法的人工鱼群优化算法对智能平极面交流接触器进行以快速分断、提高零电流分断准确性与稳定性为目标的动态优化计算,并验证了优化算法的正确性.考虑到斜极面交流电磁系统的优越性,对平极面交流接触器与斜极面交流接触器静态特性进行比较分析,提出了智能斜极面交流接触器的结构方案.根据上述优化算法,对智能斜极面交流接触器进行了智能动态优化设计.优化结果表明:智能斜极面交流接触器与智能平极面交流接触器相比,其用铜量减小45%,用铁量减小23%,而且具有更好的动态特性、更高的零电流分断准确性与稳定性.%We conducted dynamic optimized calculation of electromagnetic mechanism for the goal of breaking quickly and zero current break stability by using artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm based on genetic algorithm, and verifies the validity of optimization algorithm. According to the advantage of inclined surface alternating current contactor, the proposal of intelligent inclined surface alternating current contactor was proposed. The method of intelligent dynamic optimization design was used to optimization design the intelligent inclined surface alternating current contactor base on the previous optimized algorithm. The optimization results showed that the coil volume of intelligent incline surface alternating current contactor decrease 45% than that of flat surface,and the iron core volume decrease 23 %. Moreover, its dynamic characteristics were better than those of intelligent flat surface alternating current contactor.

  15. 控制箱交流接触器烧毁的原因分析及试验研究%Analysis and Experimental Research on the Burning Causes of AC Contactor in Control box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许涛; 张鲲羽; 李少军

    2016-01-01

    针对某汽轮发电机组在汽轮机安保试验过程中出现的机旁控制箱交流接触器烧毁的故障,对电动油泵启停的控制原理进行了详细的介绍,对交流接触器烧毁的原因进行了详尽的分析并制订了详细的试验方案,原因分析与最终试验结果表明导致交流接触器烧毁的主要原因是将压力继电器的连接管路接错,引起交流接触器频繁动作,局部电流过大产生电弧,导致交流接触器烧毁。在更换交流接触器并对管路进行正确连接后,试验进行三次,电动油泵与主油泵正常切换,故障排除。该故障的排除为后续汽轮发电机组的使用提供了试验依据及数据支撑。%The AC contactor of control box burned in the process of the safety test of a steam turbine generator unit. The start-stop control principle of electric pump is detailed introduced. The reasons for the burning of the AC contactor of control box are analyzed in detail and the detailed test plan is formed. Cause analysis and the experimental results shows that the main reason of the burning is the wrong pressure relay connection pipe, which causes frequent AC contactor action, and the local current is too large that produces arc, which leads to the burning of AC contactor. With the replacement of AC contactor and after the piping are properly connected, the switch between electric oil pump and main oil pump is normal after three tests. The elimination of the error can support the following use of the steam turbine unit.

  16. Study on membrane contactor and operating technology for flue gas desulfurization by seawater%海水烟气脱硫膜吸收单元及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 关毅鹏; 张召才; 郭春刚; 刘国昌; 李晓明

    2011-01-01

    以海水作为吸收剂,采用自行研制的中空纤维管式膜接触器作为吸收单元,进行膜吸收法海水烟气脱硫过程模拟试验研究.考察膜接触器结构、膜填充密度、膜吸收单元工艺方式、模拟烟气SO2浓度、温度、气液流量等因素对脱硫效率的影响.结果表明,提高烟气温度、海水流量、膜接触器内气液分布均匀程度、气液相有效接触面积、增加膜吸收级数,均有利于提高脱硫率;烟气流量及SO2浓度的增大不利于SO2的脱除;烟气流经管程的气液流程方式利于提高脱硫率,但是气阻大,进气压力高,工程化应用难以实现.提高膜材料传质特性和优化设计膜接触器结构是提高膜吸收法烟气脱硫效率的根本途径.%A comprehensive investigation of flue gas desulfurization was carried out by hydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor with seawater as absorbent. The effects of various factors, such as membrane packing density, flow path of gas and fluid, concentration of SO2, gas temperature, configuration and connecting form of membrane contactors on desulfurization efficiency were studied. It is beneficial to absorption efficiency of SO2, with the increase in flue gas temperature, seawater flux, the contacting area between gas and seawater, stage numbers of membrane contactors, as well as the distribution degree of uniformity of gas and liquid in the membrane contactor. The absorption process could be enhanced when the flue gas was fed into the HF lumen side of the membrane, but the gas pressure was too high for the pracrtical utilization. The module configuration plays an important role in improving the mass transfer. The development of new module of membrane contactor and membrane structure/materials for improving mass transferring would be fundamental factor to increase the absorption efficiency.

  17. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  18. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  20. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  1. Does salt increase thirst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  2. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  3. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  4. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  5. Performance evaluation and mass transfer study of CO{sub 2} absorption in flat sheet membrane contactor using novel porous polysulfone membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabian, Nima; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shakeri, Mohsen [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The performance of gas-liquid membrane contactor for CO{sub 2} capture was investigated using a novel polysulfone (PSF) flat membrane prepared via non-solvent phase inversion method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as an additive in the dope solution of PSF membranes. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that PSF membrane with PVP has a finger-like structure, but the PSF membrane without PVP has a sponge-like structure. Also, characterization results through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement demonstrated that the porosity, surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the PSF membrane increased with addition of PVP to the dope solution. Mass transfer resistance analysis, based on CO{sub 2} absorption flux, displayed that addition of PVP to the dope solution of PSF membrane decreased membrane mass transfer resistance, and significantly improved CO{sub 2} absorption flux up to 2.7 and 1.8 times of absorption fluxes of PSF membrane without PVP and commercial PVDF, respectively.

  6. Experimental and Model Studies on Continuous Separation of 2-Phenylpropionic Acid Enantiomers by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kewen; Zhang, Pangliang; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Multistage enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as extractant was studied experimentally in a counter-current cascade of centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs). Performance of the process was evaluated by purity (enantiomeric excess, ee) and yield (Y). A multistage equilibrium model was established on the basis of single-stage model for chiral extraction of 2-PPA enantiomers and the law of mass conservation. A series of experiments on the extract phase/washing phase ratio (W/O ratio), extractant concentration, the pH value of aqueous phase, and the number of stages was conducted to verify the multistage equilibrium model. It was found that model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was applied to predict and optimize the symmetrical separation of 2-PPA enantiomers. The optimal conditions for symmetric separation involves a W/O ratio of 0.6, pH of 2.5, and HP-β-CD concentration of 0.1 mol L(-1) at a temperature of 278 K, where eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach up to 37% and Yeq (equal yield) to 69%. By simulation and optimization, the minimum number of stages was evaluated at 98 and 106 for eeeq > 95% and eeeq > 97%.

  7. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  8. Biofilm establishment and heavy metal removal capacity of an indigenous mining algal-microbial consortium in a photo-rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, S; Lewis, D M; Moheimani, N R

    2012-09-01

    An indigenous mining algal-microbial consortium was immobilised within a laboratory-scale photo-rotating biological contactor (PRBC) that was used to investigate the potential for heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage (AMD). The microbial consortium, dominated by Ulothrix sp., was collected from the AMD at the Sar Cheshmeh copper mine in Iran. This paper discusses the parameters required to establish an algal-microbial biofilm used for heavy metal removal, including nutrient requirements and rotational speed. The PRBC was tested using synthesised AMD with the multi-ion and acidic composition of wastewater (containing 18 elements, and with a pH of 3.5 ± 0.5), from which the microbial consortium was collected. The biofilm was successfully developed on the PRBC's disc consortium over 60 days of batch-mode operation. The PRBC was then run continuously with a 24 h hydraulic residence time (HRT) over a ten-week period. Water analysis, performed on a weekly basis, demonstrated the ability of the algal-microbial biofilm to remove 20-50 % of the various metals in the order Cu > Ni > Mn > Zn > Sb > Se > Co > Al. These results clearly indicate the significant potential for indigenous AMD microorganisms to be exploited within a PRBC for AMD treatment.

  9. Improvement of anaerobic digestion performance by continuous nitrogen removal with a membrane contactor treating a substrate rich in ammonia and sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterböck, B; Nikolausz, M; Lv, Z; Baumgartner, M; Liebhard, G; Fuchs, W

    2014-04-01

    The effect of reduced ammonia levels on anaerobic digestion was investigated. Two reactors were fed with slaughterhouse waste, one with a hollow fiber membrane contractor for ammonia removal and one without. Different organic loading rates (OLR) and free ammonia and sulfide concentrations were investigated. In the reactor with the membrane contactor, the NH4-N concentration was reduced threefold. At a moderate OLR (3.1 kg chemical oxygen demand - COD/m(3)/d), this reactor performed significantly better than the reference reactor. At high OLR (4.2 kg COD/m(3)/d), the reference reactor almost stopped producing methane (0.01 Nl/gCOD). The membrane reactor also showed a stable process with a methane yield of 0.23 Nl/g COD was achieved. Both reactors had predominantly a hydrogenotrophic microbial consortium, however in the membrane reactor the genus Methanosaeta (acetoclastic) was also detected. In general, all relevant parameters and the methanogenic consortium indicated improved anaerobic digestion of the reactor with the membrane.

  10. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:26794740

  11. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products.

  12. Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telis Vânia Regina Nicoletti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20ºC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m²/s.

  13. Salt drilling in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.S.; Collins, K.B.; Hackney, R.M.

    1983-07-11

    Design and operation data dealing with drilling and setting casings through Rocky Mountain salt formations are explained and summarized. Discussed is the origin of salt deposits, how salt can be detected during the planning and drilling of a well, and the different drilling strategies employed during salt rock drilling. Well casing design and cementing are also discussed, as well as failures which occur due to salt deposition.

  14. Spatial Testing of Dynamic Process and Analysis Technique of Intelligent AC Contactors Based on the Monocular Vision Technology%基于单目视觉技术的智能交流接触器三维动态测试与分析技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德为; 庄煜祺; 张培铭; 严俊奇

    2014-01-01

    Based on the intelligent AC contactor control system and the auxiliary plane mirror imaging system, a special dynamic process of intelligent AC contactor testing method is proposed by collecting sequence images of the dynamic process of AC contactors with a monocular high-speed camera. By detecting and identifying feature points on moving targets of AC contactors from the image sequence, and dynamically tracking feature point position changes, the action mechanism with dynamic process of intelligent AC contactors is comprehensively tested and analyzed. The measuring technique and the analysis method have far-reaching significance for intelligent control and prototypeoptimization design of AC contactors.%在智能交流接触器智能控制系统和平面镜辅助成像技术的基础上,提出了基于单目高速摄像机采集智能交流接触器动态过程的序列图像,进行智能交流接触器三维动态特性测试的方法。从图像序列中检测识别智能交流接触器运动部件的特征标记点,动态跟踪特征标记点的位姿,从而对智能交流接触器动作机构动态过程进行全方位的测试与分析。该测试技术与分析方法对智能交流接触器运动的智能控制、样机优化设计的研究意义重大。

  15. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  16. Development of Intelligent AC Contactor Controller with Wide-range Input Voltage%智能型宽电压交流接触器控制器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志英; 陈丽安; 于季刚

    2011-01-01

    提出一种智能型宽电压交流接触器控制器的研制方案.该控制器对施加在接触器线圈两端的电压采用PWM控制及自适应调节,使普通交流接触器实现了在宽范围交直流输入电压(AC 24~380 V或DC 24~220 V)内稳定可靠工作,具有很好的通用性,大幅度减少了产品种类;同时使接触器还可实现节能、无声运行、无弧或少弧分断、在线设置、显示、远程通信和远程操作等功能,提高了交流接触器的性能指标.%This paper presents a controller's design proposal of intelligently controlled AC contactor with wide-range input voltage.The controller can make general AC contactor be operated reliably with a wide range AC or DC input voltage(AC 24~380 V or DC 24~220 V) by using PWM control and self-adaptive adjustment in the coil's voltage,and realize the functions of energy saving,silent operation,less arc or no arc break,setting,display,communication,remote operation etc.Accordingly,the performance and characteristic of the contactor will be enhanced greatly and the types of product will be reduced considerably as well.

  17. 一种电磁接触器主触头断开压降失效分析及对策%Failure Analysis and Countermeasures for the Failure of the Main Contact of Electromagnetic Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑红

    2016-01-01

    In reliability test an electromagnetic contactor disconnect the pressure dropped in the main contact . The paper analyzed the reason of the failure problems , and put forward the countermeasures of failure . Based on the strategy implementation good effect has obtained .%一种电磁接触器在进行可靠性试验时出现主触头断开压降失效问题,对失效问题进行了原因分析,并提出了失效解决对策,通过对对策实施取得了良好效果。

  18. Canister compatibility with Carlsbad salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No significant reaction was found when candidate canister alloys were heated with salt from Carlsbad, New Mexico, for up to 5000 hours in sealed capsules and for up to 10,000 hours in unsealed capsules at temperatures (80 to 2250C) that bracket the maximum temperature calculated for reference Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste containers at 20-foot spacings in salt. Additional tests were made at 6000C in sealed capsules to characterize reactions that may occur between candidate canister alloys and any component of the salt that is released when decrepitation occurs. Under these extreme conditions there was no significant attack of Type 304L stainless steel. But, there was up to 20-mils attack of the low-carbon steel

  19. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  20. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  1. Oxidation properties of "Solar Salt"

    OpenAIRE

    BENAISSA, Wassila; Carson, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Solar Salt is a name sometimes given to a molten salt mixture made up of about 60% of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 40% of potassium nitrate (KNO3). This composition is near the eutectic point and is thermally stable until 600°C. It is popular in Industrial Solar Energy Projects and is used for storing energy in the form of heat to smooth out the peaks in electricity production. However for some technologies, combustible substances, like a thermal fluid for example, may come into contact with th...

  2. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, José Vicente; PRADOS PEDRAZA, MARTA DE; Pérez-Muelas Picón, Mª Nieves; Carcel Carrión, Juan Andrés; Benedito Fort, José Javier

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 ºC for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting a...

  4. Integrated AMP-PAN, TRUEX, and SREX Flowsheet Test to Remove Cesium, Surrogate Actinide Elements, and Strontium from INEEL Tank Waste Using Sorbent Columns and Centrifugal Contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Law, Jack Douglas; Todd, Terry Allen; Wood, D. J.; Garn, Troy Gerry; Wade, Earlen Lawrence

    2000-02-01

    Three unit operations for the removal of selected fission products, actinides, and RCRA metals (mercury and lead) have been successfully integrated and tested for extended run times with simulated INEEL acidic tank waste. The unit operations were ion exchange for Cs removal, followed by TRUEX solvent extraction for Eu (actinide surrogate), Hg, and Re (Tc surrogate) removal, and subsequent SREX solvent extraction for Sr and Pb removal. Approximately 45 L of simulated INTEC tank waste was first processed through three ion exchange columns in series for selective Cs removal. The columns were packed with a composite ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) sorbent. The experimental breakthrough data were in excellent agreement with modeling predictions based on data obtained with much smaller columns. The third column (220 cm3) was used for polishing and Cs removal after breakthrough of the up-stream columns. The Cs removal was >99.83% in the ion exchange system without interference from other species. Most of the effluent from the ion exchange (IX) system was immediately processed through a TRUEX solvent extraction flowsheet to remove europium (americium surrogate), mercury and rhenium (technetium surrogate) from the simulated waste. The TRUEX flowsheet test was performed utilizing 23 stages of 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors. Greater than 99.999% of the Eu, 96.3% of the Hg, and 56% of the Re were extracted from the simulated feed and recovered in the strip and wash streams. Over the course of the test, there was no detectable build-up of any components in the TRUEX solvent. The raffinate from the TRUEX test was stored and subsequently processed several weeks later through a SREX solvent extraction flowsheet to remove strontium, lead, and Re (Tc surrogate) from the simulated waste. The SREX flowsheet test was performed using the same centrifugal contactors used in the TRUEX test after reconfiguration and the addition of three stages. Approximately 99.9% of

  5. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  6. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union's free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  7. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is evaluat

  8. Salt Lake 2002 mascot story

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The story of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games Mascots is inspired from our culture. Centuries ago, the first inhabitants etched in stone the images of animals that shared their world. These simple pictograms became the foundation for cultural legends — oral stories that inspired generations to respect and admire the natural world of Utah..

  9. Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ginger Mint Nutmeg Oregano Paprika/smoked paprika Parsley Rosemary Salt-free seasoning mix Tarragon Thyme Use Condiments, ... Much of a Good Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand- ...

  10. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A....

  11. 一种空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料的研究%AgNi Contact Material for AC Contactor of Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    AgNi contact materials used in AC contactors of air conditioners were introduced. Proper-ties of AgNi contact materials with different Ni contents and different types of additives were com-pared, including the physical properties, material losses, arc energy and welding force. Results show that, because of the requirements of high rated current and long service life, the optimum Ni content in AgNi contact materials for AC contactors of air conditioners is 15%. Meanwhile the addition of trace amounts of brittle substance will improve the electrical properties of AgNi materi-als.%  介绍了空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料,比较了不同Ni含量和不同类型添加物的AgNi触点材料的力学物理性能、烧损量、燃弧能量以及熔焊力等。结果表明,对于额定电流大、电寿命要求高的空调接触器用AgNi触点材料,其最佳Ni含量为15%左右;添加微量脆性物质能改善AgNi触点材料的电性能。

  12. Development of a Kind of New Type AC Contactor with Electricity-Saving Technology%一种具有节电技术的新型交流接触器开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓军

    2013-01-01

      Introduction was made to product characteristics, technical superiorities, material application and use conditions etc of a kind of new type AC contactor using pulse width modulation (PWM) technology to realize intelligent control. The application of PWM technology and structure renovation obviously raised the reliability, adaptability and safety of products. The products realized energy saving and material saving, in conformity with the newest development trend of contactors at home.%  介绍了一种利用脉宽调制(PWM)技术实现智能控制的新型交流接触器的产品特点、技术优势以及材料应用和使用情况等。通过PWM技术应用以及结构创新,使产品在可靠性、适应性及安全性上显著提升并实现节能、节材,符合当前国内交流接触器最新发展趋势。

  13. Calculation of Contactor Action Voltage Value in Different Ambient Temperature%接触器在不同工作环境温度下动作电压值的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月英

    2011-01-01

    Introduction was made to the method of using serial resistors for calculation when AC contactor was in action performance test under special temperature.Via theory calculation for suck in and release voltage of AC contactor winding,the problem of correctl%介绍了交流接触器动作性能试验时在不同工作环境温度下,使用串联电阻计算的方法。通过对交流接触器线圈吸合和释放电压的理论计算,解决制造企业虽不具备标准要求的环境温度条件而能准确地计算出线圈的吸合和释放电压问题,帮助制造企业合理地控制产品的主要技术数据,提高产品合格率。

  14. On the Rig Electrical Control System Using DC Contactor Safety Improvements%浅析钻机电控系统直流接触器使用安全性能的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙

    2016-01-01

    针对石油钻机直流电控系统中使用的国产直流接触器,在系统正常运行时所出现的主触头温度过高等问题,提出改进方案或措施。电控系统的正常运行验证,国产直流接触器性能安全、使用效果好,为国产化直流接触器在石油钻机直流电控系统中的使用和推广奠定了基础。%Domestic oil rig DC DC contactor control system used during normal system operation occurs when the temperature is too high the main contacts and other issues,improve programs or measures submitted through normal operation to verify the electronic control system,and achieved good security,using the results for the localization of the oil rig in the DC contactors DC control system use and promotion of the foundation.

  15. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  16. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-01

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed. PMID:15773087

  17. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  18. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...

  19. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  20. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  1. Salt transport in Songkhla Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpinatepong, S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity surveys in 1997 revealed that in the dry season salinity in Thale Sap Songkhla, Thale Sap and Thale Luang reached the maximum values of 30, 11 and 5 ppt, respectively. Among the complex system of the lake, Khlong Pak Ro showed a complicate seawater transport with a maximal salinity of 20 ppt. Incomplete mixing with a stratification at a depth of 2-3 m occured. The difference in salinity between the surface and the bottom was about 3 ppt. A vertically-averaged salt transport model was employed to simulate the salinity intrusion in the lake. The results showed quite good agreement with the observation. The model depicted a sharp drop of the water level at the entrance from the Gulf into the lake. The tidal energy then spread widely in Thale Sap Songkhla and continuously decreased to Thale Luang. The predicted salinity indicated that salt transport in the lake is governed by tide and water losses from the lake. Tidal movement generated a quasi-steady state of salinity in three months. The water losses for two months caused the salinity to rise 5.8 ppt/1 mm/day loss (~13 m3/sat Pak Ro. With a loss of 2.3 mm/day (~28 m3/s, the whole lake became brackish in three months. The salt entered the lake mainly through Khlong Luang, and only for 13 percent through Ao Thong Ben.

  2. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  3. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  4. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  5. Salt drilling in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.S.; Collins, K.B.; Hackney, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    A compilation of literature, design and operational data dealing with drilling and setting casing through salt formations is explained and summarized. This paper is adapted to drilling conditions in the Rocky Mountain area. Discussion includes the origin of salt deposits, how salt can be detected during the planning and drilling of a well, and different drilling strategies employed for drilling salt. Casing design and cementing are discussed as well as failure of casing due to salt loading. Operating experience is reviewed in several Rocky Mountain areas. Casing strings were set through salt with collapse ratings ranging from .3 psi per foot to 1.5 psi per foot. Casing collapse due to salt loading was observed in several wells with casing design ratings less than 1.0 psi per foot. Conclusions are made concerning the major areas discussed in the paper including salt flow, interbedded salt, cementing and drilling strategy. The suggestion is made that casing set through salt zones should be designed for a collapse rating of 1.2 psi per foot.

  6. Research on a high-speed contactor used for voltage-downcast compensation apparatus%一种用于电压瞬低补偿装置中的高速真空接触器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王普庆; 袁端磊; 董恩源; 秦涛涛

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise's important devices such as micro motor, precision instrument and so on, demand high quality power transmission. Instant voltage-downcast due to line-fault or power failure will reduce the yield of production. In traditional high-efficiency UPS supply, the price of power electronic devices is expensive and running losses is high whose loss-heat can damage to components because of semiconductor's long-time working. So a high-speed contactor consists of repulsion actuator and permanent magnet actuator is presented in this paper, which can act reliably by high speed and has big current-transit capacity. When the power faults occur, the high-speed contactor will break quickly, and a power electronic device which is parallel with it will finish the remaining task. Ansys software is used for finite element simulation, and the results are analyzed, based on which the model machine is manufactured. Finally, test shows that the novel contactor can move fast, and the energizing time is very short which can ensure the compensation system work successfully.%企业的重要设备如微特电机、精密仪器等对供电质量要求很高,由于故障等原因引起的瞬间电压低落或者停电会严重影响产品的合格率.传统的高效UPS供电中,采用大功率电力电子器件存在着价格昂贵、运行损耗大等问题.本文提出一种采用斥力机构与永磁机构混合使用的高速接触器,动作迅速可靠,通流量大.采用Ansys对其进行了有限元仿真,对仿真结果进行了相关分析,并在此基础上制作了样机.通过机械实验表明,新型高速接触器能很好地完成工作.

  7. Experimental study on separation of CO2 by polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor%聚丙烯中空纤维膜组件分离烟气中的CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿如敏; 沙焱; 陈浩; 杨林军

    2013-01-01

    This research presented separation of CO2 from flue gas by polypropylene(PP) hollow fiber membrane contactors,using aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) as absorption solvents. Effects of operating conditions,water vapor and SO2 on the performance and integrity of the membrane were investigated. The results showed that the best liquid-gas ratio was 24 L/m3,the concentration of MEA was 0.6 mol/L and temperature at the contactor entrance had little effect on absorption efficiency. The concentration of CO2 had little effect on absorption efficiency when the concentration was in the range of 10%-20%. The adsorption of SO2 is prior to CO2,but it isn’t obvious for the low concentration of SO2. Adsorption of water vapor on the hole walls of membrane contactors forms capillary condensation,preventing the penetration of CO2.%膜吸收法在大型工业燃煤电厂二氧化碳(CO2)捕集方面具有很好的应用前景,但烟气组分对该技术效果影响还有待进一步研究。本文以单乙醇胺(MEA)为吸收剂,开展了疏水性聚丙烯(PP)中空纤维膜组件分离模拟烟气中的 CO2的实验研究,考察了吸收操作条件以及燃煤烟气中水汽和 SO2对膜组件吸收效率的影响。结果表明,试验的最佳液气比为24 L/m3;MEA的浓度为0.6 mol/L;膜组件进口的温度变化对吸收效率基本没有影响;CO2的浓度在10%~20%内变动对吸收效率影响不大。与CO2相比,SO2会优先发生吸收作用,而水汽则会吸附在聚丙烯中空纤维膜组件的孔壁上,产生毛细管凝聚现象,阻塞CO2的渗透吸收。

  8. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds and often have a high nature conservation interest. They rarely exist in isolation and form an integral part of many estuaries, other tidal inlets and bays. The objectives of this study are flora and vegetation of salt marshes. In this study, on the basis of field surveys, is given a phytosociological classification of the Albanian salt marshes vegetation by the European standard methods of phytosociology (Zurich-Montpellier. The salt marsh communities of Albania are poor in endemism and generally similar to relevant vegetation types elsewhere in the Mediterranean. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. Coastal salt marshes of Albania are offered a number of 62 taxa, extended in 16 diverse families. The most presented families are Chenopodiaceae 24 %, followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 11%. Salt marshes are populated by halophytes, plants that can live under saline conditions. Plant species diversity is low, since the flora must be tolerant of salt and anoxic mud substrate [4]. The most common salt marsh plant communities in coastal area of Albania are salt meadows dominated by glasswort (Salicornia europaea, pioneer marsh communities, perennial vegetation of marine saline mud’s mainly composed of scrub such as

  9. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  10. Salt transport in Songkhla Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpinatepong, S.

    2005-01-01

    Salinity surveys in 1997 revealed that in the dry season salinity in Thale Sap Songkhla, Thale Sap and Thale Luang reached the maximum values of 30, 11 and 5 ppt, respectively. Among the complex system of the lake, Khlong Pak Ro showed a complicate seawater transport with a maximal salinity of 20 ppt. Incomplete mixing with a stratification at a depth of 2-3 m occured. The difference in salinity between the surface and the bottom was about 3 ppt. A vertically-averaged salt transport model was...

  11. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  12. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established

  13. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  14. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  15. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D.; Row, Guru TN; Maitra, Uday

    2005-01-01

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and P-31 NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been develope...

  16. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  17. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of −40 to −80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  18. The effect of organic salts on HPMC

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkolpiyawat, Jiraporn

    2012-01-01

    The presence of organic salts as drug counter-ions and buffers in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrices is often overlooked. This study investigates their potential to influence polymer solution properties and matrix drug release kinetics. A homologous series of aliphatic organic salts influenced solution and matrix properties in rank order of hydrocarbon chain length. Monovalent salts containing 1to4 C-atoms had little effect on polymer surface activity, but lowered sol:gel transit...

  19. 接枝PVDF膜吸收器中CO2吸收特性和传质规律的研究%CO2 Absorption Characteristics and Mass Transfer Performance in Grafted PVDF Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婷琳; 陈仁菊; 肖凯军

    2012-01-01

    本文以CO2为吸收气体,NaOH为吸收液,研究了N-异丙基丙烯酰胺(PNIPAM)接枝的PVDF中空纤维膜吸收器吸收二氧化碳的吸收特性以及传质规律,并建立膜吸收器中二氧化碳的传质模型.研究结果表明:PNIPAM接枝PVDF中空纤维膜吸收器的CO2吸收率随吸收液浓度和吸收液的流量的升高而升高,随气体流量升高而降低;在实验操作条件下,较佳吸收二氧化碳的工艺参数为:吸收液浓度为0.4 mol/L,吸收液流量为16 L/h,气体流量为250 L/h,气液两相流动方式采用逆流方式.此时,二氧化碳的吸收率接近100%;而对二氧化碳气体吸收过程中传质的研究得出,总传质系数KG=17.5~26.3×10-5mol·m-2·s-1·KPa-1,传质通量NCO2=3.8~7.6×10-6 mol·m-2·s-1;采用PNIPAM接枝PVDF中空纤维膜吸收器,NaOH水溶液吸收CO2 具有良好的吸收效率.%In this paper, CO2 absorption characteristics and mass transfer performance in N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) grafted PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor using NaOH solution as absorbing liquid to absorb carbon dioxide were studied, and then mass transfer model of CO2 absorption was established. The absorption rates of carbon dioxide in PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor was improved by the increase in the concentration and flow rate of absorbing liquid, while decreased with gas flow. The optimal processing parameters for absorbing CO2 via grafted PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor were: 0.4 mol/L of absorbing liquid concentration, 16 L/h of flow rate of absorbing liquid, and 250 L/h of gas flow rate at a counter flow of gas against absorbing liquid. Under the above operating conditions, the absorption rate of carbon dioxide was nearly 100% and total mass transfer coefficient is KG=17.5~26.3×10-5 mol·m-2s-1·KPa-1. The mass transfer flux was about NcO2=3.8~7.6×10-6 mol·m-2·s-1. The characteristics of absorption of CO2 for grafted PVDF membrane contactor were of good efficiency of

  20. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  1. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  2. Helping crops stand up to salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  3. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  4. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  5. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  6. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely 10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if 5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  7. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  8. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  9. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li;

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  11. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Influence of thiazide on salt hypertension. [Chlorothiazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, J.; Ohanian, E.V.; Dahl, L.K.

    1977-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chronic diuretic therapy with chlorothiazide on the course of salt hypertension in hypertension-resistant (R) and hypertension-sensitive (S) strains of rats. Investigation of the effects of chlorothiazide on blood pressure, 24-hour urinary /sup 24/Na and aldosterone excretion, and plasma renin activity (PRA) produced the following observations: (1) Chlorothiazide failed to prevent the development of salt hypertension in S rats. (2) After 12 weeks, S rats on high salt plus chlorothiazide exhibited a rapid fall in blood pressure to levels indistinguishable from those of S rats on low salt. (3) Chlorothiazide significantly increased urinary /sup 24/Na excretion only in S rats on high salt (P < 0.01). (4) Chlorothiazide significantly increased PRA and urinary aldosterone excretion in both strains on low or high salt diets (P < 0.001). (5) Morbidity and mortality of salt hypertension were alleviated by chlorothiazide treatment. The unique aspect of this study is the finding that chlorothiazide did not abolish the hypertensinogenic action of salt in S rats.

  13. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  14. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  15. Salt contamination assessment and remediation guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impacts associated with excess salt in oil and surface water or groundwater (a frequent occurrence in oil and gas production) may be manifested as degradation of soil chemical or physical properties, impaired vegetable growth and degraded surface or groundwater quality. Spill prevention is by far the most effective and most efficient way of avoiding these adverse effects and the attendant remediation costs. However, when spills do occur effective response, based on a comprehensive understanding of impacts, salt movements and remediation procedures can mitigate the adverse environmental effects. This guide is designed to assist those involved in the prevention, assessment, remediation and management of salt-contaminated sites. It summarizes the regulatory requirements in Alberta, including salt remediation objectives, and provides an overview of salt spill problems and effective site assessment and remediation procedures. Background information on the sources of salt, the movement of salt in soil and groundwater, and the adverse effects of salt on soil, vegetation and groundwater is provided in an appendix attached to the Guide. A selected bibliography and a glossary of terms are also included. 42 refs., tabs., figs

  16. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  17. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximu

  18. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG)

  19. Salt disposal effects found small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant effects‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.

  20. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  1. Model calculations to formation of salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a contribution from the geophysical side and its target is to explain the formation of long stretched salt deposits - salt walls - in a better manner than has been done sofar using model calculations. A few works have already been dedicated to this subject (they are treated in chapter 5). They all have the disadvantage however in not being able to represent the time sequence of the salt deposit generations. Precisely the latter is achieved in this work by including assumed initial interference. The values for the salt wall distance and its growth rate are improved upon. The Schleswig-Holstein salt deposit is taken as example. The model calculations are supported by model experiments. (orig.)

  2. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Thermodynamic investigation of fluoride salts for nuclear energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Beilmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this work thermodynamic properties of molten fluoride salts and salt mixtures are investigated. Fluoride salts have advantageous properties to be used in energy producing systems based on the conversion from heat to energy like i.e in Molten Salt Reactors. For this purpose it is very important to have detailed information about the heat capacity of the pure salts and salt mixtures. To get a better understanding about the heat capacity in mixtures drop calorimetry measurements of mixture...

  4. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  5. QC83-80N矿用隔爆型可逆空气磁力起动器的真空化改造%The Vacuum Reform of the QC83-80N Flameproof Magnetic Force Starter with Reversible Air Contactors Used in Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星荣; 杨毅; 崔文强; 李安平; 宋建成

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the vaccum reform ofthe QC83-80N flameproof magnetic force starter with reversible air contactors used in mine. The reformed switch has adopted JDB-80N electronic complex protector to protect control motor from short circuit, overload, openphase and lock for leakage, etc. The combination of new mechanical interlocking mechanism and control circuit can lock reversible vaccum contactors not only in electricity but also in mechanism, which improves the interlocking reliability of two contactors.%文章对QC83-80N矿用隔爆型空气磁力起动器的真空化改造特点进行了论述。改造后的开关采用JDB-80N电子综合保护器对控制电机进行保护,可完成电动机的短路、过载、断相和漏电闭锁等保护功能。新设计的机械联锁机构与控制电路配合,不仅能从电气上而且能从机械上对正反向真空接触器进行闭锁,提高了两接触器联锁的可靠性。

  6. Different combination of drugs regarding the damage on organs targeting salt sensitivity or non-salt-sensitive hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the damage on organs from salt sensitivity hypertension or non-salt-sensitive hypertension and the selection of drug combination.Methods 120 hypertensive patients including 60 cases salt-sensitive(SS)

  7. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  8. Synthesis and properties of acetamidinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalový Zdeněk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetamidines are starting materials for synthesizing many chemical substances, such as imidazoles, pyrimidines and triazines, which are further used for biochemically active compounds as well as energetic materials. The aim of this study was to synthesise and characterise a range of acetamidinium salts in order to overcome the inconvenience connected with acetamidinium chloride, which is the only commercially available acetamidinium salt. Results Acetamidinium salts were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, NMR and - in the case of energetic salts - DTA. The structures of previously unknown acetamidinium salts were established by X-ray diffraction analysis. Hygroscopicities in 90% humidity of eight acetamidinium salts were evaluated. Conclusions The different values of hygroscopicity are corroborated by the structures determined by X-ray analysis. The acetamidinium salts with 2D layered structures (acetamidinium nitrate, formate, oxalate and dinitromethanide show a lack of hygroscopicity, and the compounds with 3D type of structure (acetamidinium chloride, acetate, sulphate and perchlorate and possessing rather large cavities are quite hygroscopic.

  9. Ecogeomorphic Heterogeneity Sculpts Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    state for marsh boundaries, which would make the prediction of failure events impossible. Internal physical processes allowing salt marshes to reach self-organized criticality are geotechnical, biological, and related to the non-homogeneity of salt marshes whose material discontinuities act as stress raisers.

  10. The influence of salt formation on electrostatic and compression properties of flurbiprofen salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuk, Enes; Ghori, Muhammad U; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Laity, Peter R; Panchmatia, Pooja M; Conway, Barbara R

    2013-12-15

    Salt formation is an effective method of improving physicochemical properties of acidic and basic drugs. The selection of a salt form most suitable for drug development requires a well-designed screening strategy to ensure various issues are addressed in the early development stages. Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders may cause problems during processing such as segregation of components due to the effects of particle adhesion. However, very little work has been done on the effect of salt formation on triboelectrification properties. In this paper, salts of flurbiprofen were prepared by combining the drug with a selection of closely related amine counter ions. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of the counter ion on electrostatic charge of the resultant salts to inform the salt selection process. The experimental results show the magnitude of charge and polarity of the flurbiprofen salts to be highly dependent on the type of counter ion selected for the salt formation. Furthermore, particle adhesion to the stainless steel surface of the shaking container and the salts' compression properties were measured. The formed salts had lower electrostatic charges, improved tabletability, and resulted in reduced adhesion of these powders compared with the parent drug.

  11. Distillation and condensation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

    2009-12-01

    Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than the other salts (KCl and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt). Vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were similar to that of KCl. The temperature to obtain the vaporization flux (0.1 g min -1 cm -2) was decreased by much as 150 °C by a reduction of the ambient pressure from 5 Torr to 0.5 Torr. Condensation behavior of the salt vapors was different with the ambient pressure. Almost all of the salt vapors were condensed and were formed into salt lumps during a salt distillation at the ambient pressure of 0.5 Torr and they were collected in the condensed salt storage. However, fine salt particles were formed when the salt distillation was performed at 10 Torr and it is difficult for them to be recovered. Therefore, it is thought that a salt vacuum distillation and condensation should be performed to recover almost all of the vaporized salts at a pressure below 0.5 Torr.

  12. Underground storage of gas in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantin, C.; Leblanc, B.

    1981-01-01

    In areas lacking geologic formations suitable for aquiferous storage, salt caverns can serve as underground storage reservoirs if (1) the salt layers are thick enough (over 500 ft) and deep enough (1650-5000 ft), (2) the average concentration of insolubles is less than about 25%, (3) the layer of insolubles is less than 3 ft thick, (4) the distribution of insolubles is homogeneous enough, and (5) the brine can be discharged at a 10,600-14,000 ft/sup 3//hr flow rate. The development and operation of a typical salt-cavern storage reservoir, including leaching techniques and control equipment are described.

  13. Modeling of salt solubilities in mixed solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chiavone Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Hückel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Hückel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt solubility measurements in aqueous organic solvent mixtures.

  14. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  15. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  16. Simulated waste package test in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Site Characterization Project Office (SRPO), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), in cooperation with Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), simulated waste package test at Asse Salt Mine (Asse). The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of heat produced of the decay of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) on: (1) Migration of brine moisture; (2) Thermomechanical response of the salt; (3) Geomechanical response of the room mined in salt; (4) Corrosion on potential HLW waste package container materials; and (5) Generation of gases. This paper describes the test performed, results obtained, and the performance of instruments and data acquisition system deployed

  17. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  18. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated (Jordan et al., 2014; Stauffer et al., 2015). The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high purity, granular sodium chloride.

  19. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  20. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often...

  1. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of thei formation, and the associated parameters

  2. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  3. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of their formation, and the associated parameters

  4. Salt Stress Proteins Induced in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Duché, Ophélie; Trémoulet, Frédéric; Glaser, Philippe; Labadie, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to tolerate salt stress is of particular importance, as this pathogen is often exposed to such environments during both food processing and food preservation. In order to understand the survival mechanisms of L. monocytogenes, an initial approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the pattern of protein synthesis in response to salt stress. Of 400 to 500 visible proteins, the synthesis of 40 proteins (P < 0.0...

  5. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  6. Results from the Salt Phase of SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Miknaitis, K; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently completed an analysis of data from the salt phase of the experiment, in which NaCl was added to the heavy-water neutrino target to enhance sensitivity to solar neutrinos. Results from the 391-day salt data set are summarized, including the measured solar neutrino fluxes, the electron energy spectrum from charged current interactions, and the day-night neutrino flux asymmetries. Constraints on neutrino mixing parameters including the new measurements are also given.

  7. Swiss survey on salt intake: main results

    OpenAIRE

    Chappuis Aline; Bochud Murielle; Glatz Nicolas; Vuistiner Philippe; Paccaud Fred; Burnier Michel

    2011-01-01

    [Contents] 1. Executive summary. 2. Introduction. 3. Methods. 4. Main results. 4.1. Participants. 4.2. Estimation of dietary salt intake using 24-hour urine collection. 4.3. Blood pressure and hypertension. 4.4. Anthropometric data (Body weight, height and body mass index BMI; prevalence of overweight and obesity; waist circumference;...). 4.5. Knowledge and behaviors towards salt. 5. Discussion.

  8. Iodized salt induced thyrotoxicosis: Bangladesh perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Latif, S A; Kamal, M M; Asaduzzaman, M; Akther, A; Laila, Z H

    2009-07-01

    The effects of iodized and non-iodized salt on the thyroid gland and its hormones T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were studied in 200 individuals who were the residents of plain areas of greater Mymensingh district. The subjects were collected from the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh. Out of 200 individuals 150 were using iodized salt and 50 were using non-iodized salt. The iodized and non-iodized salt users were marked as study and control groups respectively. Blood samples were taken from both the groups and T3 and T4 in blood serum were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) while TSH was determined by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). The mean concentration of T3 were 2.633 nmol/L and 2.223 nmol/L and T4 concentration were 122.444 nmol/L and 110.355 nmol/L in study and control group respectively. The mean TSH concentration was 5.044 mIU/L and 9.622 mIU/L in study and control group respectively. The data indicated that continuous and long term use of iodized salt increased both T3 and T4 and decreased TSH in study group. The results were significant (piodinated salt induced thyrotoxicosis (ISIT) in peoples living in plain areas of Bangladesh. We suggest close regular monitoring of T3, T4 and TSH and urinary excretion of iodine of individuals who are using iodized salt for better management of iodinated salt program in our setting. PMID:19623141

  9. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...

  10. Cytoskeleton and plant salt stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Che; Zhang, Li-Jun; Huang, Rui-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic component of plant cells and mainly based on microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs). The important functions of dynamic cytoskeletal networks have been indicated for almost every intracellular activity, from cell division to cell movement, cell morphogenesis and cell signal transduction. Recent studies have also indicated a close relationship between the plant cytoskeleton and plant salt stress tolerance. Salt stress is a significant factor tha...

  11. Modeling of salt solubilities in mixed solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavone Filho O.; Rasmussen P.

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Hückel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Hückel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubilit...

  12. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  13. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  14. 电压暂降起始点与相位跳变对交流接触器影响的分析%Influence Analysis of Point-on-wave of Voltage Sag Initiation and Sag Phase Jump on Alternating Current Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永海; 洪旺松; 兰巧倩

    2016-01-01

    电压暂降是电能质量中较为严重的问题之一,它对交流接触器等敏感设备造成了严重的影响。除电压暂降幅值和持续时间两个特征量会影响交流接触器的正常运行外,暂降的起始点、相位跳变等特征量也会对交流接触器的通断造成较大影响。文中进行了电压暂降对交流接触器影响的机理分析,建立了仿真模型,进行了暂降起始点、相位跳变对交流接触器磁通变化的影响分析与接触器通断分析;选取主流厂家生产的8个交流接触器进行了试验研究,得到了与机理分析相一致的结果,并绘制了电压暂降不同起始点与相位跳变特征量下交流接触器的耐受度曲线,可为交流接触器应对电压暂降问题提供基础数据,以减小电压暂降对其造成的影响,降低经济损失。%Voltage sag is one of the serious problems of power quality,which would cause severe impact on sensitive equipment such as alternating current (AC) contactors.In addition to voltage sag amplitude and duration which will affect the normal operation of AC contactors,the characteristics such as point-on-wave of sag initiation,sag phase jump also have significant impact on the switching of AC contactors.This paper makes a mechanism analysis of the impact of voltage sag on the AC contactor and builds a simulation model of the sag for analyzing the impact of point-on-wave of sag initiation and phase jump on the flux variation and switching of the AC contactor.Then eight AC contactors from mainstream manufacturers are studied and test results consistent with the results of the mechanism analysis are obtained.Finally,the AC contactor”s tolerance curves with different voltage sag characteristics of point-on-wave of sag initiation and the phase jump are plotted,which can provide basic data for the AC contactor to deal with the problem of voltage sag and reduce the corresponding economic loss.

  15. Salt and miscarriage: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Salt is a major mineral element that plays fundamental roles in health and disease. Excessive salt intake is a major cause of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Miscarriage and preeclampsia are the most common pregnancy complications with multiple etiological factors, including inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. More recently, different studies indicated that excessive salt intake is involved in the development of inflammatory processes through induction of T helper-17 pathway and their inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, several studies indicated the pivotal role of inflammation in the etiology of miscarriage, preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcome. Here, it is hypothesized that excessive salt intake around the time of conception or during pregnancy can trigger inflammatory processes, which consequently associated with increased risk of miscarriage, preeclampsia or adverse pregnancy outcome. Thus, this hypothesis suggests that low salt intake around the time of conception or during pregnancy can decrease the risk of miscarriage or adverse pregnancy outcome. This hypothesis also offers new insights about the role of salt in the etiology of miscarriage and preeclampsia.

  16. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks

  17. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  18. Thermal Treatment of Salt-Loaded Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eung Ho; Kim, Joon Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salts such as molten LiCl salt from an oxide fuel reduction process and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from an electro refining process must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are known to be leach resistance and waste form durability. US Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed a ceramic waste form (CWF) fabrication technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from ANL Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The CWF, which was made by first occluding salt in zeolite A at 730 K and then encapsulating the zeolite in a borosilicate binder glass by a hot isostatic press (HIP) method or pressureless consolidation (PC) method, has the phase composition of about 70% sodalite, 25% binder glass, and a 5% total of inclusion phases (halite, nepheline, and various oxides and silicates). US ANL showed that the chemical durability and leach resistance of the CWF were higher than those of glass waste form for high level waste from aqueous process, by a 7-day product consistency test (PCT). However, the waste form fabrication process for waste LiCl salt is somewhat different in mixing temperature from that for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at US ANL. The former is mixed at 920 K, whereas, the later mixing is accomplished at 730 K. Such difference in mixing temperature results in the different major phase of SLZ, that is, zeolite Li-A from LiCl salt, and unchanged zeolite A from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. This unchanged phase of zeolite A during an immobilization step is transformed to sodalite, which was known to be very high leach-resistant, in the step of encapsulating with borosilicate glass. In this work, we tried to investigate the transformation of major phase of SLZ, from zeolite Li-A to Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod using zeolite only sodalite, by a quantitative analysis with a software for X-ray diffractometer during the thermal treatment under 1170 K.

  19. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  20. Effects of Salt on Wheat Flour Dough Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Most food chemistry characteristics in the dough fermentation of salt are not solved. Effects of salt on the acceleration process of wheat flour dough fermentation were studied, respectively. The mechanism of dough expansion influenced by salt and yeast was also investigated. The dough expansion rate with no salt reached a maximum of 18% in the 50 min dough fermentation time. In contrast, dough with 2.0% salt reached an expansion rate of 96% in 30 min of fermentation. Furthermore, the maximum...

  1. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials. PMID:26299313

  3. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    . Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  4. Genotypic Differences in Antioxidative Stress and Salt Tolerance of Three Poplars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ruigang; Chen Shaoliang; Ma Haiyuan; Liu Liyuan; Li He; Weng Haijiao; Hao Zhiyong; Yang Shuang

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate genotypic difference in antioxidative ability and salt tolerance in poplars,the authors investigated the effects of increasing content of soil NaC1 on salt concentration in leaves,superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities,malondialdehyde (MDA)content,and membrane permeability (MP) in Populus euphratica Oliv.,P.popularis"35-44,"and P.×euramericana cv.I-214 (hereafter abbreviated as P.cv.I-214).Na+and C1- concentrations in leaves of P.popularis increased markedly over the increase of the duration of exposure to salinity,and culminated after 28 days of salt stress.SOD and POD activities declined correspondingly,followed by significant increases of MDA and MP,and leaf injury was finally observed.Compared with P.popularis,leaf Na+and C1- in P.cv.I-214 exhibited a trend similar to P.popularis,but a lower salt-induced increase of MDA and permeability was observed and lighter leaf necrosis occurred.In contrast to P.popularis and P.cv.I-214,SOD and POD activities in P.euphratica leaves increased rapidiy at the beginning of salt stress with a light soil NaCl concentration of 58.5 mmol/L.Furthermore,salt ion concentration,MDAcontent,and MP in P.euphratica leaves did not increase significantly during 28 days of increasing salt stress.Therefore,the increase in MP in P.popularis and P.cv.I-214 had a close relationship with a salt buildup in leaves under increasing salt stress.Salt-induced declines of SOD and POD activities might accelerate lipid peroxide and consequently resulted in ion leakage.P.euphratica rapidly activated antioxidant enzymes after the onset of salt stress,which might reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the subsequent acceleration of lipid peroxide.P.euphratica leaves exhibited a higher capacity to exclude salt in a longer period of increasing salinity,thus limited salt-induced lipid peroxide and MP,which contributed to membrane integrity maintenance and salt tolerance of P.euphratica.

  5. Application of Firbre-film Contactor in Coker LPG Sweetening Process%纤维膜接触器在焦化液化气脱硫醇中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兵; 夏和青; 蒋春林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了利用纤维膜接触器技术脱除焦化液化气中硫醇的原理和工艺流程。脱硫醇后的液化气总硫含量基本维持在90 mg/m3以下,硫醇脱除率为96%左右,达到民用液化气标准,而且碱耗低,还可进一步回收丙烯,经济效益明显。%The reaction principle and technological process of fibre-film contactor in Coker LPG Sweetening Process was simply introduced.Removal ratio of mercaptan was 96%.The sulfur content in Coker LPG sweetening kept with less than 90%basically,which was up to the standard of civil LPG.The method can reduce soda consumption and recycle was more propylene with great influence in economy.

  6. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  7. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  8. Salt-restriction-spoon improved the salt intake among residents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa. DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention group were provided with an improved salt-restriction-spoon and health education, and were informed of their actual salt intake and 24HUNa. Not any intervention was given to those in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The scores on the variables of Health Belief Model, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24HUNa. ANALYSIS: Covariance analyses, Chi-square tests, Student's t tests, and repeated measures analyses of variance. RESULTS: After 6 months of intervention, the intervention group felt significantly less objective barriers, and got access to significantly more cues to action as compared to the control group. The using rate and the correctly using rate of salt-restriction-spoon were significantly higher in the intervention group. The daily salt intake decreased by 1.42 g in the intervention group and by 0.28 g in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 7.044, P<0.001 and significant difference between groups by time (F = 2.589, P = 0.041. The 24HUNa decreased by 34.84 mmol in the intervention group and by 33.65 mmol in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 14.648, P<0.001 without significant difference between groups by time (F = 0.222, P = 0.870. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention effect was acceptable, therefore, the improved salt-restriction-spoon and corresponding

  9. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out.......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...

  10. Glyme-lithium salt phase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Wesley A

    2006-07-01

    Phase diagrams are reported for glyme mixtures with simple lithium salts. The glymes studied include monoglyme (DME), diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme. The lithium salts include LiBETI, LiAsF6, LiI, LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3, LiBr, LiNO3, and LiCF3CO2. The phase diagrams clearly illustrate how solvate formation and thermophysical properties are dictated by the ionic association strength of the salt (i.e., the properties of the anions) and chain length of the solvating molecules. This information provides critical predictive capabilities for solvate formation and ionic interactions common in organometallic reagents and battery electrolytes. PMID:16805630

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  12. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  13. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    A general synthetic route to novel nitrogen-bridged heterocyclic carbenium ions of the acridinium and triangulenium type has been developed and investigated. The synthetic method is based on nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) on the tris(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)carbenium ion (1) with primary a...... amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  14. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  15. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D; Row, T N Guru; Maitra, Uday

    2005-10-21

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and 31P NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been developed (with 23-phosphonodeoxycholate at pH 3.3), which changes color upon gelation. The investigation of the first hydrogels derived from trihydroxy bile acid analogs 1 and 6 was made using fluorescence, 31P NMR, X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism and SEM. The present studies reveal that the gel network consists of a chiral, fibrous structure possessing hydrophobic interiors. PMID:16211104

  16. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  17. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, R M

    1999-06-01

    A case of hyponatraemia associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage is presented. The provisional diagnosis of an inappropriate antidiuresis was made and treatment with fluid restriction was instituted. However the patient continued to deteriorate as the diuresis continued and the hyponatraemia worsened, resulting in hypovolaema. The salt wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed and saline and fludrocortisone (0.2 mg/day) was initiated, reducing the renal salt loss, increasing the plasma sodium and improving the neurological status of the patient. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is an important and under-recognised cause of hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients, particularly in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is essential to differentiate it from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to avoid complications of hypovolaemia and reduced cerebral perfusion as illustrated by this case. Brain natriuretic peptide may be responsible for this syndrome although this requires further investigation.

  18. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  19. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  20. Tendzin Phuntso's Chemistry of Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangSheng; CaiJingfeng

    2003-01-01

    An examination of large quantities of Tibetan data for a project entitled "Alchemy and Alchemic Medicines of Tibet revealed that ancient Tibetan terminology for and classification of inorganic salts have much in common with modern chemistry. This is particularly true of research conducted by Tendzin Phuntso (born in 1672 in Gongjo Count, Chamdo, Tibet) and his representative work, "gso rig gcesb dus rin chen phreng ba bzugs so". This work summarizes Tibetan recognition of inorganic salts in chemistry over the course of 1000 years or more, and is of great significance in the world history of science and technolgy.

  1. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  2. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K2CuCl4.2H2O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  3. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    OpenAIRE

    T. Janc; M. Kastelic; M. Bončina; Vlachy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, $T_{cloud}$, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer) and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer). We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above $I_{buffer} = 0.6$ mol dm$^{-3}$ does not affect the $T_{cloud}$ values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte b...

  4. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  5. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrite salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  6. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  7. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado-Caffaro, M.A.; Grado-Caffaro, M. [Scientific Consultants, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  8. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-02-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  9. Cyanoplatinate (II) salts as luminescent materials for scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, P.; Hansen, P.Gregers; Jacobsen, C.F.

    1962-01-01

    described, and for two other salts information on the composition was lacking. Many of the salts are colorless and the luminescence is in most cases in the blue region. The measurements include light yield and decay time under excitation with fast electrons. Most of the salts were found to be efficient......Eleven cyanoplatinate (II) salts have been studied under excitation with fast, charged particles. The salts were prepared via the barium compound, and crystals were grown from aqueous solutions. The formulae were determined by standard analytical procedures. Four of the salts were not previously...

  10. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  11. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  12. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  13. Salt Lake Community College 1999 Report Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This document is an institutional self-assessment report by Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) for 1999. Performance indicators chosen to gauge the relative success of SLCC in achieving its mission, values and goals include: (1) participation rate by students who are minorities; (2) participation rate by students with disabilities; (3) new student…

  14. Salt Lake Community College Report Card, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This report provides an overview of Salt Lake Community College and assesses institutional performance on several indicators. The following indicators are included: (1) participation rate by ethnicity; (2) participation rate by disability; (3) new student assessment of programs and services; (4) success rates of developmental education students;…

  15. Salt repository project closeout status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Fluorescent carbon dot–molecular salt hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayuela, Angelina; Kennedy, Stuart R.; Soriano, Laura; Jones, Christopher D.; Valcárcel, M.; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of functionalised carbon nanodots within a novel low molecular weight salt hydrogel derived from 5-aminosalicylic acid is reported. The carbon dots result in markedly enhanced gelation properties, while inclusion within the hydrophobic gel results in a dramatic fluorescence enhancement for the carbon nanomaterials. The resulting hybrid CD gels exhibit a useful sensor response for heavy metal ions, particularly Pb2+.

  17. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.;

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  18. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric consta...

  19. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  1. Suggestopedic/SALT research in English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of research. carried out under the auspices of the Institute for Language Teaching, University of Stellenbosch,l at the Cape Town College of Education. The study tests and evaluates a Remedial Literature Course for English-speaking college students using Suggestopedia!SALT. The subjects in _the remedial and normative groups were English-speaking students in the senior primary class. A ten-week suggestopedic!SALT English Literature Course was developed for the remedial course. Two measuring instruments were used: an English Literary Concepts Test and an Opinionnaire on attitudes towards EnglishLiterature. The validation, treatment and analysis oft he data are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Die verslag handel oor navorsing aan die Kaapstadse Onderwyskollege onder die beskerming van dielnstituutvir Taalonderrig van die UniversiteitvanStellenbosch.Die ondersoek toets en evalueer 'n remedierende letterkunde kursus vir Engelssprekende kollegestudente waar Suggestopedagogiek!SALT gebruik is. Die studente in die remedierende ennormatiewe groepe was Engelssprekend en in die senior-primere klas. 'n Suggestopediese!SALT Engelsletterkunde- kursus wat 10 weke sou duur, is vir die remedierende kursus ontwerp. Twee meetinstrumente is gebruik: 'n toets van Engels-literere konsepte en' n vraelys oor houdings ten opsigte van Engels-letterkunde. Die geldigverklaring. behandeling en ontleding van data word bespreek. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings volg.

  2. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  3. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  4. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  5. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Galvan-Ampudia; C. Testerink

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to avo

  6. Heat transfer behavior of molten nitrate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba K.; Clark, Michael M.; Teigen, Bard C.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Anderson, Mark H.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of molten nitrate salt as heat transfer fluid and thermal storage medium decouples the generation of electricity from the variable nature of the solar resource, allowing CSP plants to avoid curtailment and match production with demand. This however brings some unique challenges for the design of the molten salt central receiver (MSCR). An aspect critical to the use of molten nitrate (60wt%/40wt% - NaNO3/KNO3) salt as heat transfer fluid in the MSCR is to understand its heat transfer behavior. Alstom collaborated with the University of Wisconsin to conduct a series of experiments and experimentally determined the heat transfer coefficients of molten nitrate salt up to high Reynolds number (Re > 2.0E5) and heat flux (q″ > 1000 kW/m2), conditions heretofore not reported in the literature. A cartridge heater instrumented with thermocouples was installed inside a stainless steel pipe to form an annular test section. The test section was installed in the molten salt flow loop at the University of Wisconsin facility, and operated over a range of test conditions to determine heat transfer data that covered the expected operating regime of a practical molten salt receiver. Heat transfer data were compared to widely accepted correlations found in heat transfer literature, including that of Gnielinski. At lower Reynolds number conditions, the results from this work concurred with the molten salt heat transfer data reported in literature and followed the aforementioned correlations. However, in the region of interest for practical receiver design, the correlations did not accurately model the experimentally determined heat transfer data. Two major effects were observed: (i) all other factors remaining constant, the Nusselt numbers gradually plateaued at higher Reynolds number; and (ii) at higher Reynolds number a positive interaction of heat flux on Nusselt number was noted. These effects are definitely not modeled by the existing correlations. In this paper a new

  7. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  8. Salt Marsh Integrity Data at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  9. Salt Marsh Integrity Data at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  10. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  11. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  12. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  13. The Salt (Science-Arts-Language-Technology) Comenius Project: Primary School Students' Views about Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula ONDRATSCHEK; BALIM, Ali Günay; Suat TURKOGUZ

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate students' views towards salt structure, properties and application areas. "The SALT Comenius Project" initiated activities in 2012. This project was conducted with 10 European countries including Turkey, Germany, Italy, Poland, Greece, Spain, Estonia, Austria, Romania, and Scotland. The aim of this project is to develop friendships between primary school students through science, art, language, technology, and culture and to increase students' attention toward...

  14. Flood Insurance Study, City of South Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake County

    OpenAIRE

    Federal Emergency Management Agency

    1994-01-01

    This Flood Insurance Study investigates the existence and severity of flood hazards in the City of South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah, and aids in the administration of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. This study has developed flood risk data for various areas of the community that will be used to establish actuarial flood insurance rates and assist the community in its efforts to promote sound flood plain management. Minimum flood...

  15. Salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties display differential methylome flexibility under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Vanessa Azevedo; João Maroco; M Margarida Oliveira; Ana Paula Santos

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISAbased technique, which is an...

  16. Ditosylate Salt of Itraconazole and Dissolution Enhancement Using Cyclodextrins

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Neeraj; Shishu; Bansal, Gulshan; Kumar, Sandeep; Jana, Asim Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation has been a promising approach for improving the solubility of poorly soluble acidic and basic drugs. The aim of the present study was to prepare the salt form of itraconazole (ITZ), a hydrophobic drug to improve the solubility and hence dissolution performance. Itraconazolium ditolenesulfonate salt (ITZDITOS) was synthesized from ITZ using acid addition reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid. Salt characterization was performed using 1H NMR, mass spectrometry, Fourier transform i...

  17. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  18. FORMULATED SOLVENT FOR ORGANOSULFURS REMOVAL FROM LPG IN FIBER FILM CONTACTOR%纤维液膜接触器内复配型溶剂高效脱除液化气中有机硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 沈本贤; 孙辉; 刘纪昌

    2015-01-01

    对比纤维液膜接触器与筛板塔的传质面积、N-甲基二乙醇胺(MDEA)与4种复配型溶剂(UDS-Ⅰ, UDS-Ⅱ,UDS-Ⅲ,UDS-Ⅳ)对有机硫的溶解性能,并在纤维液膜接触器内考察操作条件对优选溶剂脱硫效果的影响。结果表明:在纤维液膜接触器内以 UDS-Ⅳ为优选溶剂脱除液化气中的硫化物,可从提高传质面积、传质推动力等方面提高有机硫传质速率,从而提高有机硫脱除率;UDS-Ⅳ溶剂对总有机硫的脱除率较 MDEA 高45.7百分点,总有机硫在 UDS-Ⅳ溶剂-液化气体系的分配比较 MDEA-液化气体系增加6~9倍;在优化的工艺条件下,UDS-Ⅳ溶剂可将焦化液化气的 H2 S 和总硫分别脱除至1 mg/m3和240 mg/m3以下,总有机硫脱除率高达93%以上。%The mass transfer areas of the fiber film contactor and the sieve plate tower,and the sol-ubility for organosulfurs of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA )and formulated solvents (UDS-Ⅰ, UDS-Ⅱ,UDS-Ⅲ,UDS-Ⅳ)were compared. In addition,the influence of operation conditions on the desulfurization performance of the preferred formulated solvent UDS-Ⅳ was investigated. The results indicate that the process combining UDS-Ⅳ and a fiber film contactor can increase the removal rate for organic sulfurs from LPG with improved mass transfer area and driving force. The removal rate for total organosulfur of UDS-Ⅳ solvent is 45.7 percentage points higher than that of MDEA. Meanwhile,the distribution ratios of organosulfurs in UDS-Ⅳ solvent-LPG system are found 7—10 times as much as those in MDEA-LPG system. Under optimum operation conditions,UDS-Ⅳ solvent can reduce the con-tents of H2 S and total sulfur of the LPG to less than 1 and 240 mg/m3 ,respectively,and the removal ef-ficiency for total organosulfur is above 93%.

  19. Salt matters: How salt affects the rheological and physical properties of gelatine for analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Mojoli, G.

    2016-06-01

    Gelatine is extensively used as analogue material for the easiness to tune its physical and rheological properties. The addition of salt to gelatine is generally adopted to increase the density of the material, improving the scaling of the models. However, the way the addition of salt changes the rheological properties of gelatine is generally underestimated. Here, we investigate both rheological and physical properties (i.e., density and transparency) of type A pig-skin 2.5 wt.% gelatine at T = 10 °C as a function of salt concentration, cNaCl, and ageing time. We established a standard preparation recipe and measuring protocol, yielding to uniform samples with reproducible behaviour. Rheometric measurements show that the presence of salt weakens the gelatine structure, with a decrease of both material rigidity and viscosity as cNaCl increases. Salted gelatine behaviour moves from viscoelastic to dominantly elastic as the ageing time increases. Density and cloudiness also increase with cNaCl. Finally, we present results from subduction interplate seismicity models performed with pure and salted gelatines, showing that the modified material may improve the modelling performance and open new perspectives in experimental tectonics.

  20. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  1. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  2. Salt or cocrystal of salt? Probing the nature of multicomponent crystal forms with infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cameron Capeletti; Guimarães, Freddy Fernandes; Ribeiro, Leandro; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-10-01

    The recognition of the nature of a multicomponent crystal form (solvate, salt, cocrystal or cocrystal of salt) is of great importance for pharmaceutical industry because it is directly related to the performance of a pharmaceutical ingredient, since there is interdependence between the structure, its energy and its physical properties. In this context, here we have identified the nature of multicomponent crystal forms of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine with mandelic acid through infrared spectroscopy. These investigated crystal forms were the known S-mandelic acid cocrystal of lamivudine R-mandelate trihydrate (1), a cocrystal of salt, and lamivudine R-mandelate (2), a salt. This approach also supports the identification and distinction of both ionized and unionized forms of mandelic acid in the infrared spectrum of 1. In this way, infrared spectroscopy can be useful to distinguish a cocrystal of salt from either salt or cocrystal forms. In the course of this study, for the first time we have also characterized and determined the crystal structure of R-mandelic acid cocrystal of sodium R-mandelate (3).

  3. Salt Marshes as Potential Indicatore of Global Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairens, David; Jung, S.H.;

    2011-01-01

    Coastal scientists postulate that salt marshes are significantly affected by dynamics of global climate. However, few studies have explicitly proposed a perspective that regards salt marshes as potential indicators of climate change. This review article evaluates the possibility of salt marshes a...

  4. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under...

  6. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 to 34 percent. Calcium hydroxide 3 percent maximum. Water 14 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts per... blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  7. Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding 'memory for saltiness' in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations.

  8. Recent Trends in Bird Abundance on Rhode Island Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marsh habitat is under pressure from development on the landward side, and sea level rise from the seaward side. The resulting loss of habitat is potentially disastrous for salt marsh dependent species. To assess the population status of three species of salt marsh dependent...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  10. Solutions to Soil Problems: I. High Salinity (Soluble Salts)

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Vernon; Koenig, Rich

    2010-01-01

    Salinity is a measure of the total amount of soluble salts in soil. As soluble salt levels increase, it becomes more difficult for plants to extract water from soil. Some plants are more resistant than other’s, but as the salt levels exceed their ability to extract water, they become water stressed.

  11. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  13. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Hoogenveen, R.T.; Hoekstra, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduct

  14. Environment annual report: Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and improving the environment is integral to every aspect of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Salt Lake Organizing Committee for Olympic Winter Games of 2002 is planning a variety of programs to both conserve and enhance the region’s environment, leaving the Salt Lake area a better, cleaner place than it was before the Games.

  15. Development of High-temperature Molten Salt Transport Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Park, G. I.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The pyrochemical process, which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997, consists of processes such as pretreatment, oxide reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and waste salt treatment. In pyroprocessing, high-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because the molten salt used in an electrorefiner should be transported to next process, the electrowinning process to recover U/TRU/RE after the electrorefining process is finished. However, there have been few transport studies on high temperature molten salt. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology is a crucial prerequisite. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated. In addition, the performance test of the apparatus in the system was then carried out. After the electrorefining process, the molten salt used is transported to an electrowinning system to recover U/TRU/RE, and a high temperature molten salt transfer technology by suction is now being developed. To develop engineering-scale salt transport technology, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed a Ar cell, 2{sup nd} of the PRIDE facility for engineering-scale salt transport demonstration, and its performance was confirmed from blank and performance tests for the PRIDE salt transport system.

  16. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  17. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  18. Analysis of allochthonous salt and salt welds in the northern Gulf of Mexico utilizing 3D seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.A.; House, W.M. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The widespread availability of 3D seismic data sets in the northern Gulf of Mexico has resulted in the emergence of new play concepts such as subsalt exploration. Time and depth migrations of these 3D data allow interpreters to develop a detailed understanding of the geological processes that contribute to the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Gulf. These data provide excellent imaging of structural features, and result in the correct spatial positioning of those structural elements. Analysis of the geometrical relationships between allochthonous salt, salt welds and subsalt reflectors aids in the development of salt emplacement models. These models are subsequently tied to other elements of the hydrocarbon system such as fluid migration and reservoir development. Salt sheets and horizontal salt welds often separate distinct structural domains in the supra salt and subsalt section, and complex structural deformation above salt or a salt weld may not translate into the subsalt section.

  19. Analysis of allochthonous salt and salt welds in the northern Gulf of Mexico utilizing 3D seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.A.; House, W.M. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The widespread availability of 3D seismic data sets in the northern Gulf of Mexico has resulted in the emergence of new play concepts such as subsalt exploration. Time and depth migrations of these 3D data allow interpreters to develop a detailed understanding of the geological processes that contribute to the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Gulf. These data provide excellent imaging of structural features, and result in the correct spatial positioning of those structural elements. Analysis of the geometrical relationships between allochthonous salt, salt welds and subsalt reflectors aids in the development of salt emplacement models. These models are subsequently tied to other elements of the hydrocarbon system such as fluid migration and reservoir development. Salt sheets and horizontal salt welds often separate distinct structural domains in the supra salt and subsalt section, and complex structural deformation above salt or a salt weld may not translate into the subsalt section.

  20. Salt damage at Petra, Jordan: a study of the effects of wind on salt distribution and crystallisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bala awi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The crystallisation of salts in porous building materials is a principle agent of decay in historic monuments and archaeological sites, including the World Heritage Site of Petra, Jordan. Nonetheless, the mechanism of salt damage is still inadequately understood. This research was undertaken in order to examine the role of wind speed in the salt damage process. The first aim of the research was to evaluate the role of wind speed in salt crystallisation and distribution. The second aim was to ...

  1. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Campbell, Norm R C; MacGregor, Graham A

    2012-10-01

    There is compelling evidence that dietary salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure (BP) and that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈ 9 - 12 g/day in most countries to the recommended level of reduction to 3 - 4 g/day has a greater effect and there needs to be ongoing consideration of lower targets for population salt intake. Cohort studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective measures to improve public health worldwide. In the Americas, a salt intake of > 9 g/day is highly prevalent. Sources of salt in the diet vary hugely among countries; in developed countries, 75% of salt comes from processed foods, whereas in developing countries such as parts of Brazil, 70% comes from salt added during cooking or at the table. To reduce population salt intake, the food industry needs to implement a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods in developed countries. In developing countries, a public health campaign plays a more important role in encouraging consumers to use less salt coupled with widespread replacement of salt with substitutes that are low in sodium and high in potassium. Numerous countries in the Americas have started salt reduction programs. The challenge now is to engage other countries. A reduction in population salt intake will result in a major improvement in public health along with major health-related cost savings.

  2. Low retinol levels differentially modulate bile salt-induced expression of human and mouse hepatic bile salt transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. Hoeke; J.R.M. Plass; J. Heegsma; M. Geuken; D. van Rijsbergen; J.F.W. Baller; F. Kuipers; H. Moshage; P.L.M. Jansen; K.N. Faber

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXRalpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXRalpha by the vitamin A derivative 9-

  3. Low Retinol Levels Differentially Modulate Bile Salt-Induced Expression of Human and Mouse Hepatic Bile Salt Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeke, Martijn O.; Plass, Jacqueline R. M.; Heegsma, Janette; Geuken, Mariska; van Rijsbergen, Duncan; Baller, Julius F. W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Moshage, Han; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXR alpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11 I) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXR alpha by the vitamin A derivativ

  4. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň; Ondřej Bučko; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová; Lukáš Hleba; Peter Haščík; Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, f...

  5. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  6. [The morphological structure of salt gland and salt secretion in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Li-Ran; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2006-08-01

    The leaves of Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux were scanned with a scanning electron microscope, it showed that the upper-epidermis had almost the same number of salt glands as the lower-epidermis (Plate I-1, 2), and the salt gland is the typical bicelluar gland, which consists of a large basal cell inlaid into the epidermis and a small cap cell (Plate I-6). These salt glands were distributed mainly on the leaf veins, which favors the rapid collection of salts from the roots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated that the salt glands could effectively absorb Na(+) from the epidermal cells and mesophyllous cells (Table 1), then secreted Na(+) from the cap cells (Plate I-4), which would decrease the salinity of plant. After the plants were treated with various salts for 17 d, the ion contents of the leaves and the secretion were measured, and the results implied that salt glands had different selection in absorbing and secreting Na(+) , K(+) and Ca(2+), that is, the plants first selected K(+) when absorbing ions, while first selected Na(+) when sending ions out, but Ca(2+) was fewer in both absorbed and secreted, and the order of secretion of the three ions was found to be Na(+)>K(+)>Ca(2+) (Figs. 1-6). The secretion of Na(+) or three ions were respectively higher than that of leaves within 24 h (Figs. 1, 2, 7, 8), while K(+) situation was completely opposite with them (Figs. 3, 4). At the same time, the total ion content and composition inside the leaves remained more or less constant (Fig. 8). PMID:16957392

  7. Molten salts database for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  8. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  9. Salt-induced aggregation of stiff polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to study the process of aggregation of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes due to the presence of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one polyelectrolyte meeting others at right angles, and the kinetic pathway to bundle formation is found to be similar to that of flocculation dynamics of colloids as described by Smoluchowski. The aggregation process is found to favor the formation of finite bundles of 10-11 filaments at long times. Comparing the distribution of the cluster sizes with the Smoluchowski formula suggests that the energy barrier for the aggregation process is negligible. Also, the formation of long-lived metastable structures with similarities to the raft-like structures of actin filaments is observed within a range of salt concentration.

  10. Tagging Salt Tolerant Gene Using PCR Markers in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bei; QIU Li-juan; SHAO Gui-hua; CHANG Ru-zhen; LIU Li-hong; XU Zhan-you; LI Xiang-hua; SUN Jian-ying

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen and identify PCR markers associated with salt tolerant gene in soybean( Glycine soja L. ) so that salt tolerance can be identified efficiently and accurately. Between these tolerant and sensitivity to salt and three crosses were tested in this experiment. By BSA method, two codominant PCR markers were identified through the salt tolerant (sensitive) cuitivars bulks and the salt tolerant (sensitive) individual bulks of a F2 population. There was a 600bp band in the sensitive individuals and a 700bp band or two 700bp/600bp bands in the tolerant individuals. The markers were closely linked with salt tolerant/sensitive alleles. Moreover the markers were tested in the other two F2 populations from "salt tolerant cultivar × sensitive cuitivar" and confirmed by 12 salt tolerance cultivars and 13 salt sensitive cultivars with different genetic background. It indicated that the markers (700bp and 600bp) could be applied in salt tolerant identification of the soybean germplasm resources, and markers-assisted selection in salt tolerant breeding of soybean. The markers, its obtained method and application were patented for invention in 1998.

  11. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  12. Hydrogeological investigations at the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of recordings of water gauge indicators for the hydrological years 1982-1987, annual hydrograph curves for the water table in borings, groundwater table hydrograph curves, natural vertical flow, as well as the times and proportionate height of ground water recharge at the Asse salt mine are established. On the basis of the hydrograph curves for tritium content in ground water, the age of the tritium model was determined. (DG)

  13. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  14. Salt-resistant short antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for the development of antibiotics against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, in vivo applications of AMPs remain obscure due to salt and serum mediated inactivation. The high cost of chemical synthesis of AMPs also impedes potential clinical application. Consequently, short AMPs resistant toward salt and serum inactivation are desirable for the development of peptide antibiotics. In this work, we designed a 12-residue amphipathic helical peptide RR12 (R-R-L-I-R-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide) and two Trp containing analogs of RR12 namely RR12Wpolar (R-R-L-I-W-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide), and RR12Whydro (R-R-L-I-R-L-W-L-R-L-L-R-amide). Designed peptides demonstrated potent antibacterial activity; MIC ranging from 2 to 8 μM, in the presence of sodium chloride (150 mM and 300 mM). Antibacterial activity of these peptides was also detected in the presence of human serum. Designed peptides, in particular RR12 and RR12Whydro, were only poorly hemolytic. As a mode of action; these peptides demonstrated efficient permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane and lysis of cell structure. We further investigated interactions of the designed peptides with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative bacteria. Designed peptides adopted helical conformations in complex with LPS. Binding of peptides with LPS has yielded dissociation the aggregated structures of LPS. Collectively, these designed peptides hold ability to be developed for salt-resistant antimicrobial compounds. Most importantly, current work provides insights for designing salt-resistant antimicrobial peptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 345-356, 2016. PMID:26849911

  15. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  16. Electromagnetic process to purify nuclear molten salts

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Molist, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The separation between actinides and fission products could be realized by a pyrometallurgical liquid/liquid extraction process. Thanks to an oxide-reductive reaction, a mass exchange occurs at the interface between a polluted molten salt layer and a containment loquid metal layer. The aims of this project is to develop the diffusion process which occurs and the thermodynamics process associated to this phenomena. This work consist in two parts: -An experimental prototype industrial type inst...

  17. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  18. An analysis of SALT in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludolph Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of SALT/Suggestopedia for the teaching of beginners' German to students at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Two experimental groups and a control group are involved to determine, amongst others, whether SALT is viable in South African conditions and whether it really accelerates the learning of a foreign language. This study is approached pragmatically and on a relatively small scale to ensure a sound basis. A number of challenges have been encountered of which the most important are the rigid system at a university (for example the timetable and the difficulty of producing convincing, quantitative results. Qualitatively the students show an early competence and spontaneity not experienced before, in comparison with the control group. The most promising aspect is the fact that the lecturers of the experimental groups are convinced that Suggestopedia offers and satisfies the students as well as the lecturers much more than any other conventional method used by them. In hierdie artikel word die gebruik van SALT/Suggestopedagogiek vir die aanlecr van Duits op beginnersvlak geanaliseer, soos gei"mplementeer aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Twee eksperimentele groepe sowel as 'n kontrolegroep is betrek om ondcr meer te bepaal of SALT lewensvatbaar is in Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede en of dit werklik die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal versnel. Hierdie studie is pragmatics aangepak en op 'n relatiewe klein skaal om 'n gesonde basis te verseker. 'n Aantal struikelblokke moes oorkom word, soos die onbuigbare sisteem aan 'n Universiteit (die rooster en die probleem om oortuigende kwantitatiewe resultate te ewer. Kwalitatief gesproke, vertoon die studente 'n vroee bekwaamheid en 'n spontanei"teit wat nog nooit tevore ondervind is nie. Die belowendste aspek is egter dat die lektore van die eksperimentele groep oortuig is dat Suggestopedagogiek meer te bied het, en lektore sowel as stildente meer bevredig as enige

  19. Niche modelling of salt marsh plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sought to extend the niche model of Spartina anglica to other salt marsh species, and to include tidal submergence in the models. The method used and preliminary data analysis are described. Tidal level and submergence niche models are examined, and niche width, niche overlap and species interaction are considered. Tidal level models and submergence niche models are compared for the 5 most common species. (UK)

  20. pyhrs: Spectroscopic data reduction package for SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Steven M.

    2015-11-01

    The pyhrs package reduces data from the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). HRS is a dual-beam, fiber fed echelle spectrectrograph with four modes of operation: low (R~16000), medium (R~34000), high (R~65000), and high stability (R~65000). pyhrs, written in Python, includes all of the steps necessary to reduce HRS low, medium, and high resolution data; this includes basic CCD reductions, order identification, wavelength calibration, and extraction of the spectra.