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Sample records for aluminum vanadate ion

  1. Continuous spectroscopic analysis of vanadous and vanadic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.V.; Dutcher, R.A.; Fisher, M.S.; Kottle, S.; Stowe, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    Spectroscopic methods were investigated for the determination of vanadium ions in aqueous solutions arising in the production of vanadium (11) formate and its use in the LOMI (Low Oxidation-state Metal Ion) process for the chemical decontamination of systems in nuclear power plants. In the LOMI process, a dilute solution of vanadous formate and picolinic acid is used. The vanadous formate n reduces metal oxides in the scale on the equipment, causing the scale to break up and become suspended. The picolinic acid chelates these materials and makes them soluble. During the decontamination the progress is followed by analyses of the metal ions and of the radioactivity. When the values stop increasing, the decontamination is terminated. At present, it cannot be determined if the values are no longer changing due to all the scale being removed or due to the vanadous ion being spent. Infrared and ultraviolet-visible analysis were investigated as the means of analyzing for vanadium species. It was found that the complex formed by V(II) with picolinic acid could be used for colorimetric analysis for V(II) in the range of 0 - 0.011 moles/liter, which encompasses the concentration range used in the LOMI process. The findings will be used to develop an on-line instrument for continuously monitoring V(II) during decontamination

  2. Enthalpy of formation of vanadates of iron, chromium, and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Y.A.; Cheshnitskii, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Tret' yakov, Y.D.

    1985-09-01

    The study of vanadates of iron, aluminum and chromium is of importance for the analysis of the functioning of catalysts of organic synthesis reactions and for the study of vanadium corrosion of structural materials. Of principal interest, however, are the processes in the treatment of vanadium-containing metallurgical slags and waste from thermal power plants, in which these compounds play a major role. At the same time, the thermochemical properties of these substances, which are necessary for creating the physicochemical foundations of industrially important processes, have not been investigated sufficiently. The authors therefore undertake here a study of the compounds FeVO/sub 4/, AIVO/sub 4/, CrVO/sub 4/ and FeCr(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, to determine their enthalpies of formation.

  3. Heat capacity of iron, aluminum, and chromium vanadates at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshnitskii, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Ignashin, V.P.; Kesler, Y.A.

    1985-09-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of compounds participating in the processing of vanadium-containing raw materials have not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper the authors report on measurements of the heat capacities of the compounds FeVO/sub 4/, CrVO/sub 4/, AIVO/sub 4/, Fe/sub 2/V/sub 4/O/sub 13/ and FeCr(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ at high temperatures. The obtained experimental data on the high-temperature heat capacity of iron, aluminum, and chromium vanadates makes it possible to calculate the thermodynamic functions of these compounds at high temperatures.

  4. Separation of In (III)and Cd(II) Using Zirconium Vanadate As Inorganic Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, A.; Abou El Nour, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, zirconium vanadate as inorganic ion exchanger was chemically synthesized using homogeneous precipitation technique. The obtained zirconium vanadate was mixed with Indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solution using batch experiment. Ion exchange capacity of various metal ions was investigated. Effects of ph, initial concentration, weight of the sorbent and contact time on the adsorption of metals were studied. Chromatographic column methods were applied for separation of indium and cadmium. A fixed bed column of zirconium vanadate was successfully used for separation of indium and cadmium. The recovery percentage of both metal ions was about 98.4% using 2 M HCl and citrate buffer ph 3.5, respectively.

  5. Adsorption Isotherms of Cs+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Eu3+ on Zirconium Vanadate Ion-Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shady, S.A.; El-Ashery, S.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium vanadate had been prepared by the dropwise addition of 0.1 M sodium vanadate and 0.1 M zirconyl chloride by molar ratio of zirconium/vanadium 2. Exchange isotherms for Cs + /H + , Co 2+ /H + ,Zn 2+ /H + and Eu 3+ /H + have been determined at 25, 40 and 60 degree C. Besides, it was proved that cesium, cobalt, zinc and europium are chemically adsorbed. Moreover, the heat of adsorption of these ions on zirconium vanadate had been calculated and indicated that zirconium vanadate is of endothermic behavior towards these ions

  6. Electrodeposition of high-density lithium vanadate nanowires for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kang; Li, Xiujuan; Fang, Dong; Yi, Jianhong; Bao, Rui; Luo, Zhiping

    2018-07-01

    Lithium vanadate nanowires have been electrodeposited onto a titanium (Ti) foil by a direct current electrodeposition without template. The morphology, crystal structure, and the effects of deposition voltage, temperature and time on the prepared samples were tested and presented. The as-prepared lithium vanadate nanowires/Ti composite can be used as electrode for lithium-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode displayed a specific discharge capacitance as high as 235.1 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 30 mA g-1. This research provides a new pathway to explore high tap density vanadates nanowires on metals with enhanced electrochemical performance.

  7. EPR Study of Vanadium Ion in Zinc-Boro-Vanadate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renuka, C.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes EPR studies on x V 2 O 5 -(40-x)ZnO-60B 2 O 3 (where x 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol %) glass system. These studies indicate a strong compositional dependent trend and existence of characteristic boro-vanadate groups in these glasses. The EPR spectra show a distinct hyperfine structure of 51 V. Spectral analysis shows that the vanadium is present in the glass as vanadyl ion [VO] 2+ at tetragonally distorted octahedral site. The decrease of A || and A perpendicular with increase of V 2 O 5 concentration suggests an increase in the covalence between the central atom and the surrounding oxygen ligands.

  8. Novel hierarchical three-dimensional ammonium vanadate nanowires electrodes for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dong; Cao, Yunhe; Liu, Ruina; Xu, Weilin; Liu, Suqin; Luo, Zhiping; Liang, Chaowei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate (NH_4V_4O_1_0) nanowires grown on the Ti foil surface vertically. • The morphology of sample was changed with the amount of hexamethylenetetramine. • The sample deliver discharge capacity of 168.5 mA h g"−"1 at 2–4 V after 100 cycles. • The sample deliver discharge capacity of 330.5 mA h g"−"1 at 0.8–4 V after 100 cycles. - Abstract: Ammonium vanadate (NH_4V_4O_1_0) nanowire flowers and nanowires on titanium (Ti) foils are synthesized by hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-assisted hydrothermal reactions as a cathode material for lithium-ion battery. The as-prepared NH_4V_4O_1_0 nanowires are about 50 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effects of reaction time, temperature and additive concentration on the resulting morphology are investigated. Reversible lithium intercalation behavior of the nanowires has been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge–charge cycling. The NH_4V_4O_1_0 nanowires on Ti foil deliver a high discharge capacity of 168.5 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles between 2.0 and 4.0 V at 50 mA g"−"1. A high rate capability is obtained with a remaining discharge capacity of about 182.6 mA h g"−"1 after 35 cycles at various rates. Further, the NH_4V_4O_1_0 nanowires on Ti foil have a higher discharge capacity of 330.5 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 0.8–4.0 V at 50 mA g"−"1.

  9. Near-infrared quantum cutting in Yb3+ ion doped strontium vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawala, N. S.; Bajaj, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The materials Sr3-x(VO4)2:xYb were successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method varying the concentration of Yb3+ ions from 0 to 0.06 mol. It was characterize by powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology was studied by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied by spectrophotometers in near infra red (NIR) and ultra violet visible (UV-VIS) region. The Yb3+ ion doped tristrontium vanadate (Sr3(VO4)2) phosphors that can convert a photon of UV region (349 nm) into photons of NIR region (978, 996 and 1026 nm). Hence this phosphor could be used as a quantum cutting (QC) luminescent convertor in front of crystalline silicon solar cell (c-Si) panels to reduce thermalization loss due to spectral mismatch of the solar cells. The theoretical value of quantum efficiency (QE) was calculated from steady time decay measurement and the maximum efficiency approached up to 144.43%. The Sr(3-x) (VO4)2:xYb can be potentiality used for betterment of photovoltaic (PV) technology.

  10. A comparison of corrosion inhibition of magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum vanadate intercalated layered double hydroxides on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Jun-Cai; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Shuo-Qi; Song, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Min

    2018-04-01

    The magnesium aluminum and zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with NO3 -(MgAl-NO3-LDH and ZnAl-NO3-LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the magnesium aluminum and the zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with VO x -(MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH) were prepared by the anion-exchange method. Morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of LDHs were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, Raman and TG analyses. The immersion tests were carried to determine the corrosion inhibition properties of MgAl-VO x -LDH and ZnAl-VO x -LDH on AZ31 Mg alloys. The results showed that ZnAl-VO x -LDH possesses the best anion-exchange and inhibition abilities. The influence of treatment parameters on microstructures of LDHs were discussed. Additionally, an inhibition mechanism for ZnAl-VO x -LDH on the AZ31 magnesium alloy was proposed and discussed.

  11. Novel hierarchical three-dimensional ammonium vanadate nanowires electrodes for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Dong, E-mail: csufangdong@gmail.com [Key Lab of Green Processing and Functional Textiles of New Textile Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430700 (China); Cao, Yunhe; Liu, Ruina; Xu, Weilin [Key Lab of Green Processing and Functional Textiles of New Textile Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430700 (China); Liu, Suqin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410012 (China); Luo, Zhiping [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, NC 28306 (United States); Liang, Chaowei [Key Lab of Green Processing and Functional Textiles of New Textile Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430700 (China); Liu, Xiaoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiong, Chuanxi [Key Lab of Green Processing and Functional Textiles of New Textile Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430700 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate (NH{sub 4}V{sub 4}O{sub 10}) nanowires grown on the Ti foil surface vertically. • The morphology of sample was changed with the amount of hexamethylenetetramine. • The sample deliver discharge capacity of 168.5 mA h g{sup −1} at 2–4 V after 100 cycles. • The sample deliver discharge capacity of 330.5 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.8–4 V after 100 cycles. - Abstract: Ammonium vanadate (NH{sub 4}V{sub 4}O{sub 10}) nanowire flowers and nanowires on titanium (Ti) foils are synthesized by hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-assisted hydrothermal reactions as a cathode material for lithium-ion battery. The as-prepared NH{sub 4}V{sub 4}O{sub 10} nanowires are about 50 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effects of reaction time, temperature and additive concentration on the resulting morphology are investigated. Reversible lithium intercalation behavior of the nanowires has been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge–charge cycling. The NH{sub 4}V{sub 4}O{sub 10} nanowires on Ti foil deliver a high discharge capacity of 168.5 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles between 2.0 and 4.0 V at 50 mA g{sup −1}. A high rate capability is obtained with a remaining discharge capacity of about 182.6 mA h g{sup −1} after 35 cycles at various rates. Further, the NH{sub 4}V{sub 4}O{sub 10} nanowires on Ti foil have a higher discharge capacity of 330.5 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 0.8–4.0 V at 50 mA g{sup −1}.

  12. Elastic Properties and Structural Studies on Boro-Vanadate Glasses Containing Sulphate (SO42-) Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Sudhakar; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-12-01

    Elastic properties of xLi2SO4-16 Li2O-(84-x) [0.7 B2O3-0.3 V2O5] where (5≤x≥30) glasses have been prepared by melt quenching method and structural investigations were carried out using ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique at a frequency of 10 MHz and at 300 K. The molar volume increases and the density decreases with the increase of Li2SO4 concentration due to the incorporation of SO42- ions into the modified macromolecular network. The addition of Li2SO4 content leads to loose packing structure which is attributed to volume increasing effect and the reduction in the vibrations of borate and vanadate lattices. Increase in Li24SO results in decreasing cross link density which in turn decreases elastic moduli. The results are discussed in view of its network structure. The structural groups [VOO3/2]0 and [BO3/2]0 modify preferentially. This preference in modification is decided by the electronegativity (χ) of the structural groups.

  13. Three-Dimensional Porous Iron Vanadate Nanowire Arrays as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunhe; Fang, Dong; Liu, Ruina; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Hang; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jie; Xu, Weilin; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2015-12-23

    Development of three-dimensional nanoarchitectures on current collectors has emerged as an effective strategy for enhancing rate capability and cycling stability of the electrodes. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional porous iron vanadate (Fe0.12V2O5) nanowire arrays on a Ti foil has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Fe0.12V2O5 nanowires are about 30 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effect of reaction time on the resulting morphology is investigated and the mechanism for the nanowire formation is proposed. As an electrode material used in lithium-ion batteries, the unique configuration of the Fe0.12V2O5 nanowire arrays presents enhanced capacitance, satisfying rate capability and good cycling stability, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. It delivers a high discharge capacity of 293 mAh·g(-1) at 2.0-3.6 V or 382.2 mAh·g(-1) at 1.0-4.0 V after 50 cycles at 30 mA·g(-1).

  14. Carbon contaminant in the ion processing of aluminum oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaug, Y.; Roy, N.

    1989-01-01

    Ion processing can induce contamination on the bombarded surface. However, this process is essential for the microelectronics device fabrication. Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to study the simultaneous deposition of carbon impurity during ion bombardment of magnetron rf-sputtering deposited aluminum oxide film. Ion bombardment on aluminum oxide results in a preferential removal of surface oxygen and a formation of a metastable state of aluminum suboxide. Cosputtered implanted carbon contaminant appears to have formed a new state of stoichiometry on the surface of the ion bombarded aluminum oxide and existed as an aluminum carbide. This phase has formed due to the interaction of the implanted carbon and the aluminum suboxide. The Ar + ion sputter etching rate is reduced for the carbon contaminated oxide. The electrical resistance of the aluminum oxide between two gold strips has been measured. It is found that the electrical resistance is also reduced due to the formation of the new stoichiometry on the surface

  15. Potassium vanadate K0.23V2O5 as anode materials for lithium-ion and potassium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cailing; Luo, Shaohua; Huang, Hongbo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui; Liu, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuchun; Wang, Zhaowen

    2018-06-01

    A layered potassium vanadate K0.23V2O5 has been successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion and potassium-ion batteries. High structural stability is demonstrated by the ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the K0.23V2O5 exhibits a reversible capacity of 480.4 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and 439.7 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 300 cycles as well as good cycling stability. Even at a high current density of 800 mA g-1, a high reversible capacity of 202.5 mAh g-1 can be retained, indicating excellent rate performance. Whereas in potassium-ion batteries, it retains a capacity of 121.6 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 20 mA g-1 and 97.6 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. Such superior electrochemical performance of K0.23V2O5 can be ascribed to the special flower-like morphology and structure. Overall, the results highlight the great potential of K0.23V2O5 as an anode material for both lithium-ion and potassium-ion batteries.

  16. Investigation of phase stability and oxide ion performance in new perovskite-type bismuth vanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alas, Ahlam; Beg, Saba; Al-Areqi, Niyazi A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of the BICDVOX system, formulated as Bi 4 Cd x V 2−x O 11−(3x/2)−δ in the Cd substitution range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 were synthesized using the standard solid state reaction.The correlation between phase stability and oxide ion performance were investigated by variable temperature XRPD, DSC and AC impedance spectroscopy. The substitution of V 5+ by Cd 2+ exhibited different phase transitions upon varying composition. For compositions with x ≤ 0.05, two successive transitions; α↔β↔γ are evident, while the β↔γ transition exists in the composition range 0.05 4+ → V 5+ re–oxidation results in increased defect trapping effects in the system at higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► γ-Stabilized BICDVOX at lower dopant concentrations. ► Good oxide-ion conductivity at lower temperatures. ► High temperature-vanadium reduction with lower dopant concentrations.

  17. Reactive ion assisted deposition of aluminum oxynitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Suits, F.

    1989-01-01

    Optical properties, stoichiometry, chemical bonding states, and crystal structure of aluminum oxynitride (AlO/sub x/N/sub y/) thin films prepared by reactive ion assisted deposition were investigated. The results show that by controlling the amount of reactive gases the refractive index of aluminum oxynitride films at 550 nm is able to be varied from 1.65 to 1.83 with a very small extinction coefficient. Variations of optical constants and chemical bonding states of aluminum oxynitride films are related to the stoichiometry. From an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis it is observed that our aluminum oxynitride film is not simply a mixture of aluminum oxide and aluminum nitride but a continuously variable compound. The aluminum oxynitride films are amorphous from an x-ray diffraction analysis. A rugate filter using a step index profile of aluminum oxynitride films was fabricated by nitrogen ion beam bombardment of a growing Al film with backfill oxygen pressure as the sole variation. This filter shows a high resistivity to atmospheric moisture adsorption, suggesting that the packing density of aluminum oxynitride films is close to unity and the energetic ion bombardment densifies the film as well as forming the compound

  18. Electrophysical properties of calcium vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnenko, T.I.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrophysical properties of calcium vanadates are studied for the case of alteration of external parameters of the medium (PO 2 , T). It is lshown that structural transformations bring about changes in the nature of electrophysical properties of Ca 2 V 2 O 7 , Ca 3 (VO 4 ) 2 , this being the reason for charge redistribution in anion groupings. It is obvious, that the general conductivity of calcium methavanadate is mainly caused by ion transport. Ca(VO 3 ) 2 possesses amphoteric character of semiconducting properties: the type of conductivity changes from ''p'' to ''n'' with temperature increase. Polytherms of conductivity and sums of ion numbers of Ca 2 V 2 O 7 transition are given. It is established that calcium pyrovanadate has a mixed electron-ion conductivity

  19. Vanadate and phosphotransferases with special emphasis on ouabain/Na, K-ATPase interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A short introduction to the chemistry and possible physiological or toxicological role of vanadium is given. The +5 oxidation state, vanadate, is a very efficient inhibitor of several phosphotransferases and for that reason a prosperous tool in the study of such enzymes. Special emphasis is placed on studies with vanadate on the sodium pump. Vanadate appears to supplement ouabain as high affinity inhibitor of Na,K-ATPase. They are also complementary to one another since vanadate binds to the cytoplasmic aspect and ouabain to the extracellular side of the cell membrane, and moreover, they potentiate the binding of one another. The hypothesis that vanadate may act as a transition state analogue of phosphate seems supported by the observation that vanadate, like phosphate, is able to induce ouabain binding to Na,K-ATPase. The vanadate affinity is much higher than that of phosphate, however, and vanadate remains bound in a rather stable enzyme-vanadate-ouabain complex. Fluorescene studies indicate that different subspecies of an E 2 -conformation of the enzyme is obtained with vanadate and with ouabain. In molecular studies on Na,K-ATPase, e.g. in studies on the protein folding through the plasma-membrane, one can imagine that the simultaneous binding of an extracellular marker, ouabain, and of the intracellular marker, vanadate, may be most helpful tools. A proposed physiological regulatory role of vanadium on the pump activity seems less likely considering the simultaneous acceleration of K + -uptake which is probably due to adenylate cyclase activation. Vanadate seems more likely to have a pharmacological role as a cofactor for digitals binding to Na,K-ATPase. Finally, the vasoconstriction evoked by vanadate could indicate a pathophysiological role of the ion and vanadate could then become useful tool in experimental hypertension and uremia. (author)

  20. Investigation into process of solid-phase synthesis of calcium vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiev, A.A.; Krasnenko, T.I.; Slobodin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    Processes of solid-phase synthesis of calcium vanadates by Toubandt method, measuring electric conductivity and Ca 45 and V 48 radioactive indicators are investigated. It is shown that reaction diffusion during calcium vanadates production from oxides is ensured by calcium and oxygen ions or calcium ions and electrons through the product layer, as to oxygen - through the gas phase

  1. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.; Das, S. K.; Archer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a

  2. Enhanced Radiosensitivity of Tumor Cells Treated with Vanadate in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Za; Lee, Won Young

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular ions which have a major role in cellular function have been reported to affect repair of radiation damage. Recently it has been reported that ouabain sensitizes A549 tumor cells hut not CCL-120 normal cells to radiation. Ouabain inhibits the Na+-K+-pump rapidly thus it increases intracellular Na concentration. Vanadate which is distributed extensively in almost all living organisms in known to be a Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitors. This study was performed to see any change in radiosensitivity of tumor cell by vanadate and any role of Na+-K+-ATPase in radiosensitization. Experiments have been carried out by pretreatment with vanadate in human cell line(A549, JMG) and mouse cell line(L1210, spleen). For the cell survival MTT assay was performed for A549 and JMG cell and trypan blue dye exclusion test for L120, and spleen cells. Measurements of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in control, vanadate treated cell, radiation treated cell (9 Gy for A549 and JMG, 2 Gy for L1201, spleen), and combined 10-6 M vanadate and radiation treated cells were done. The results were summarized as follows. 1. L1210 cell was most radiosensitive, and spleen cell and JMG cell were intermediate, and A549 cell was least radiosensitive. 2. Minimum or cytotoxicity was seen with vanadate below concentration of 10-6 M. 3. In A549 cells there was a little change in radiosensitivity with treatment of vanadate. However radiation sensitization was shown in low dose level of radiation i. E. 2-Gy. In JMG cells no change in radiosensitivity was noted. Both L1210 and spleen cell had radiosensitization but change was greater in tumor cell. 4. Na+-K+-ATPase activity was inhibited significantly in tumor cell by treatment of vanadate. 5. Radiation itself inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity of tumor cell with high Na+- K+-ATPase concention. Increase in radiosensitivity by vanadate was closely associated with original Na+-K+-ATPase contents. From the above results vanadate had little cytotoxicity and it sensitized

  3. Ammonium vanadate titrimetric method for determination of micro amount uranium in rock and soil by using vanadate-gold indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yucheng.

    1990-01-01

    A new vanadate-gold indicator was successfully applied to the ammonium vanadate titrimetric method for determination of micro amount uranium in rock and soil. Uranium in 0.1g of sample is reduced by titanium trichloride in phosphoric acid. Excessive Ti (III) and other low-valent ions are oxidized by sodium nitrite, while the complex of uranium (IV)-phosphate is not oxidized. Excessive nitrite is destroyed by urea. When the concentration of phosphoric acid is 22-24 % , adding two drops of vanadate-gold indicator, uranium (IV) is titrated by standardized ammonium vanadate solution (T = 0.02-20gU/ml) and the end-point is judged by a violet-red color appearance

  4. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  5. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  6. Contribution to the study of urano-vanadates: precipitation, stability, and filiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicole, J.

    1969-01-01

    The interaction of uranyl ions with vanadic anhydride leads to the formation of different uranium vanadates according to which uranyl salt is used. With uranyl perchlorate solutions, urano-tri-meta-vanadic acid H[UO 2 (VO 3 ) 3 ] precipitates, and the excess uranyl ions then replace the H to give UO 2 [UO 2 (VO 3 ) 3 ] 2 . The addition of vanadic anhydride solution leads to the same compounds, although in this case there is prior formation of UO 2 [UO 2 (OH) 2 VO 3 ] 2 . Uranyl acetate on the other hand gives successively and quantitatively the acids H[UO 2 (VO 3 ) 3 ], H[UO 2 (OH)VO 3 ], and H[UO 2 (OH) 2 VO 3 ] and then the uranyl salt of this latter compound; the order in which the reagents are added is of no importance. The composition of the uranium vanadates obtained by interaction of solutions of uranyl perchlorate and of the various vanadates depends on the ratio Na 2 O/V 2 O 5 of the vanadates considered. For ratios of less than unity, derivatives of urano-tri-meta-vanadic acid are almost exclusively formed. For ratios equal to 3, the compounds are derivatives of urano-meta-vanadic acid. In between these two ratios, the compounds are derivatives of both acids simultaneously. The changes in these compounds with changing pH confirm these results. (author) [fr

  7. High Power Vanadate lasers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Strauss1_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3151 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Strauss1_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Laser Research Institute... University of Stellenbosch www.laser-research.co.za High Power Vanadate lasers H.J.Strauss, Dr. C. Bollig, R.C. Botha, Prof. H.M. von Bergmann, Dr. J.P. Burger Aims 1) To develop new techniques to mount laser crystals, 2) compare the lasing properties...

  8. Ion implantation and diamond-like coatings of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaczynski, G. W.; Hamdi, A. H.; Elmoursi, A. A.; Qiu, X.

    1997-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the wear resistance of some key automotive components, General Motors Research and Development Center initiated a study to determine the potential of surface modification as a means of improving the tribological properties of automotive parts, and to investigate the feasibility of mass producing such parts. This paper describes the plasma immersion ion implantation system that was designed for the study of various options for surface treatment, and it discusses bench testing procedures used for evaluating the surface-treated samples. In particular, both tribological and microstructural analyses are discussed for nitrogen implants and diamond-like hydrocarbon coatings of some aluminum alloys.

  9. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  10. Corrosion properties of aluminum based alloys deposited by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, B.; Krauss, S.; Wolf, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement of cadmium coatings by other protective measures is an important task because of the environmentally detrimental properties of cadmium. Therefore, aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings containing elements such as silicon or magnesium with more positive or negative positions in the galvanic series in relation to pure aluminum were deposited by ion beam assisted deposition onto glass and low carbon steel. Pure aluminum films were deposited onto low carbon steel in order to study the influence of the ion-to-atom arrival ratio and the angle of ion incidence on the corrosion properties. For examination of the pitting behavior as a function of the concentration of alloying element, quasipotentiostatic current-potential and potentiostatic current-time plots were measured in chlorine-containing acetate buffer. It is shown that these alloys can protect steel substrates under uniform and pitting corrosion conditions considerably better than pure aluminum coatings. ((orig.))

  11. Spectator Ions ARE Important! A Kinetic Study of the Copper-Aluminum Displacement Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Sabrina G.; Cohen, Skyler

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, spectator ions are responsible for unexpected kinetics in the biphasic copper(II)-aluminum displacement reaction, with the rate of reaction dependent on the identity of the otherwise ignored spectator ions. Application of a published kinetic analysis developed for a reaction between a rotating Al disk and a Cu(II) ion solution to the…

  12. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  13. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Cao, Guangqiu; Ding, Guochang; Lin, Sizu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+. PMID:27270726

  14. Characterization of ion-implanted aluminum and iron by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodkin, J.S.; Franzen, W.; Culbertson, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The change in the optical constants of aluminum alloy and iron samples caused by implantation with nitrogen and chromium ions has been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The objective is to develop a method for simple, non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted metals. 5 refs., 6 figs

  15. Revisiting the Corrosion of the Aluminum Current Collector in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianyuan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Li, Yan; Wang, Li; He, Xiangming; Zheng, Jianming; Liu, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A; Jorne, Jacob; Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-02

    The corrosion of aluminum current collectors and the oxidation of solvents at a relatively high potential have been widely investigated with an aim to stabilize the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries using such components. The corrosion behavior of aluminum current collectors was revisited using a home-build high-precision electrochemical measurement system, and the impact of electrolyte components and the surface protection layer on aluminum foil was systematically studied. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of aluminum foil was triggered by the electrochemical oxidation of solvent molecules, like ethylene carbonate, at a relative high potential. The organic radical cations generated from the electrochemical oxidation are energetically unstable and readily undergo a deprotonation reaction that generates protons and promotes the dissolution of Al 3+ from the aluminum foil. This new reaction mechanism can also shed light on the dissolution of transitional metal at high potentials.

  16. Study of ion plating parameters, coating structure, and corrosion protection for aluminum coatings on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Scott, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A study of ion-plating parameters (primarily deposition rate and substrate bias voltage), coating structure, and the corrosion protection provided by aluminum coatings on uranium is presented. Ion plating at low temperatures yields a variety of aluminum coating structures on uranium. For example, aluminum coatings produced at high deposition rates and low substrate bias voltages are columnar with voids between columns, as expected for high-rate vapor deposition at low temperatures. On the other hand, low deposition rate and high bias voltage produce a modified coating with a dense, noncolumnar structure. These results are not in agreement with other studies that have found no relationship between deposition rate and coating structure in ion plating. This discrepancy is probably due to the high deposition rates used in these studies. An accelerated, water vapor corrosion test indicates that the columnar aluminum coatings provide some corrosion protection despite their porous nature; however, the dense noncolumnar coatings provide significantly greater protection. These results indicate that ion-plated aluminum coatings produced at low deposition rates and high substrate bias voltages creates dense coating structures that are most effective in protecting uranium from corrosion

  17. Estimation of formation enthalpies of vanadates by Born-Gaber cycle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovkin, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    Principle possibility of calculating Gibbs energy of ionic compound formation as a function of thermochemical radii of component ions of temperature and pressure is shown. Formula for determination of thermochemical radii of polyatomic ions is suggested. Enthalpies of formation of 81 vanadates were estimated with the use of Kapustinsky equation and Born-Gaber cycle

  18. Improved corrosion resistance on biodegradable magnesium by zinc and aluminum ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruizhen; Yang, Xiongbo; Suen, Kai Wong; Wu, Guosong; Li, Penghui; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have promising applications as biodegradable materials, and plasma ion implantation can enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition. In this study, suitable amounts of zinc and aluminum are plasma-implanted into pure magnesium. The surface composition, phases, and chemical states are determined, and electrochemical tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to investigate the surface corrosion behavior and elucidate the mechanism. The corrosion resistance enhancement after ion implantation is believed to stem from the more compact oxide film composed of magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide as well as the appearance of the β-Mg17Al12 phase.

  19. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor, acoustic modes, and equation of state of two-temperature warm dense aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, L.; Förster, G. D.; Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.; Lewis, Laurent J.

    2018-04-01

    The ion-ion dynamical structure factor and the equation of state of warm dense aluminum in a two-temperature quasiequilibrium state, with the electron temperature higher than the ion temperature, are investigated using molecular-dynamics simulations based on ion-ion pair potentials constructed from a neutral pseudoatom model. Such pair potentials based on density functional theory are parameter-free and depend directly on the electron temperature and indirectly on the ion temperature, enabling efficient computation of two-temperature properties. Comparison with ab initio simulations and with other average-atom calculations for equilibrium aluminum shows good agreement, justifying a study of quasiequilibrium situations. Analyzing the van Hove function, we find that ion-ion correlations vanish in a time significantly smaller than the electron-ion relaxation time so that dynamical properties have a physical meaning for the quasiequilibrium state. A significant increase in the speed of sound is predicted from the modification of the dispersion relation of the ion acoustic mode as the electron temperature is increased. The two-temperature equation of state including the free energy, internal energy, and pressure is also presented.

  20. Effect of argon ion beam voltages on the microstructure of aluminum nitride films prepared at room temperature by a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Han Sheng; Cheng, C.-H.; Shih, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were successfully deposited at room temperature onto p-type (1 0 0) silicon wafers by manipulating argon ion beam voltages in a dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS). X-ray diffraction spectra showed that aluminum nitride films could be synthesized above 800 V. The (0 0 2) orientation was dominant at 800 V, above which the orientation was random. The atomic force microscope (AFM) images displayed a relatively smooth surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 2-3 nm, where this roughness decreased with argon ion beam voltage. The Al 2p 3/2 and N 1s spectra indicated that both the aluminum-aluminum bond and aluminum-nitrogen bond appeared at 600 V, above which only the aluminum-nitrogen bond was detected. Moreover, the atomic concentration in aluminum nitride films was concentrated in aluminum-rich phases in all cases. Nevertheless, the aluminum concentration markedly increased with argon ion beam voltages below 1000 V, above which the concentration decreased slightly. The correlation between the microstructure of aluminum nitride films and argon ion beam voltages is also discussed

  1. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  2. Tungsten ion implantation of aluminum for improved resistance to pitting corrosion -- electrochemical testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.; Buchanan, R.A.; Williams, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The greatly accelerated localized corrosion of aluminum in salt solutions has been observed and combated for many years. The susceptibility to pitting attack has been linked to the presence of chloride ions in the solution. Alloying additions to aluminum for improved corrosion resistance are restricted due to its limited solubility for passivating species such as chromium and molybdenum. However, many recent attempts to produce non-equilibrium alloys with these and other species, both through sputtering techniques and by rapid solidification, have met with very promising pitting resistance enhancements. The most dramatic increase in passivity is demonstrated by a thin co-sputtered film of Al and 9 atomic percent W, in which the pitting potential is increased by 2600 m V relative to pure Al. Recent efforts to extrapolate the promising W-Al thin film results to a bulk aluminum alloy using tungsten ion implantation are discussed here

  3. Modification of mechanical properties of single crystal aluminum oxide by ion beam induced structural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, W.; Nowak, R.; Horino, Y.; Baba, K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of ceramics is essentially determined by their surface qualities. As a surface modification technique, ion implantation provides the possibility to modify the mechanical properties of ceramics. Highly energetic ions are implanted into the near-surface region of a material and modify its composition and structure. Ions of aluminum, oxygen, nickel and tantalum were implanted into single-crystal α-aluminum oxide. Three-point bending tests showed that an increase in flexural strength of up to 30% could be obtained after implantation of aluminum and oxygen. Nickel and tantalum ion implantation increased the fracture toughness. Indentation tests with Knoop and Vickers diamonds and comparison of the lengths of the developed radial cracks showed that ion implantation leads to a reaction in cracking. The observed effects are assigned to radiation induced structural changes of the ceramic. Ion bombardment leads to radiation damage and formation of compressive stress. In case of tantalum implantation, the implanted near-surface zone becomes amorphous. These effects make the ceramic more resistant to fracture. (orig.)

  4. Differential ion beam sputtering of segregated phases in aluminum casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Metson, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel combination of SIMS and SPM for accurate 3D chemical mapping. ► Different removal rates of metallurgical phases by ion beam. ► Faster oxidation rate of silicon vs. aluminum at room temperature in vacuum. - Abstract: Differential sputtering of materials is an important phenomenon in materials science with many implications. One of the practical applications of this phenomenon is the modification of the interface between a substrate and coating during sputter coating of materials. Aluminum casting alloys, as common materials in many applications, are suitable candidates to investigate this phenomenon due to their phase separated microstructures. Changes at the sample surface under ion bombardment can be characterized by a range of complimentary techniques. The novel SIMS–SPM instrument used here enables a thorough investigation into the evolution of topography and composition caused by ion beam sputtering. For the alloy examined in this work, the aluminum regions are removed faster than the silicon particles. The faster oxidation rate of silicon compared to aluminum in the exposed surface can also be deduced from this study.

  5. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.h Mahvi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes. Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured. Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process. Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

     

  6. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabizadeh A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes.Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured.Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process.Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

  7. Phase transformations in nickel-aluminum alloys during ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eridon, J.; Rehn, L.; Was, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ion beam mixing of nickel-aluminum alloys with 500 keV krypton ions has been investigated over a range of temperature, composition, ion dose, and post-irradiation thermal treatments. Samples were formed by alternate evaporation of layers of aluminum and nickel. A portion of these samples was subsequently annealed to form intermetallic compounds. Irradiations were performed at both room temperature and 80 0 K using the 2MV ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase transformations were observed during both in situ irradiations in the High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) at Argonne, and also in subsequent analysis of an array of irradiated samples. Electron diffraction indicates the presence of metastable crystalline structures not present in the conventional nickel-aluminum phase diagram. Transformations occur at doses as low as 5 x 10 14 cm -2 and continue to develop as the irradiation progresses up to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 . Layer mixing is followed through Rutherford Backscattering analysis. Samples are also checked with x-rays and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). A thermodynamic argument is presented to explain the phase transformations in terms of movements on a free energy diagram. This analysis explains the interesting paradox concerning the radiation hardness of the NiAl phase and the amorphous structure of mixed Ni-50% Al layers

  8. Gibbs energies of protonation and complexation of platinum and vanadate metal ions with naringenin and phenolic acids: Theoretical calculations associated with experimental values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazary, Ahmed E.; Alshihri, Ayed S.; Alfaifi, Mohammad Y.; Saleh, Kamel A.; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I.; Fawy, Khaled F.; Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S.M.

    2016-01-01

    determined experimental stability constants of different metal complex species, the concentration distribution diagrams of the various metal ion complex species in solution was estimated using HySS 2009 software.

  9. Effect of fluoride additives on the corrosion of aluminum for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakajima; Mitsuhiro, Mori; Vinay, Gupta; Yoshimi, Ohzawa [Aichi Institute of Technology, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Toyota-shi (Japan); Hiroyuki, Iwata [Aichi Institute of Technology, Technical Research Center, Toyata-shi (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Effect of fluoride additives was investigated in organic solvents containing LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} to prevent the corrosion of aluminum current collector for lithium ion batteries. LiClO{sub 4} was also examined for comparison. Among examined LiBF{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6}, LiAsF{sub 6}, LiSbF{sub 6} and LiClO{sub 4}, LiBF{sub 4} was the best additive to suppress the corrosion of aluminum because its oxidation potential is close to that of CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -} anion. Corrosion currents for aluminum in a complex fluoride- or LiClO{sub 4}-added solvents became smaller in the order, LiSbF{sub 6}>LiAsF{sub 6}>LiClO{sub 4}>LiPF{sub 6}>LiBF{sub 4}. Oxidation potential of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} is nearly the same as that of CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}. However, the corrosion currents were similar to or slightly larger than those observed in LiPF{sub 6}-added solvents. SEM images of electrochemically oxidized aluminum samples indicated that the level of corrosion well coincided with the observed corrosion currents. The corrosion mechanism of aluminum was also proposed. (authors)

  10. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziani, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France); Delmotte, F., E-mail: Franck.Delmotte@InstitutOptique.fr [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Le Paven-Thivet, C. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, Université de Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex France (France); Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Roulliay, M. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay UMR 8214, Univ Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay France (France); Bridou, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Gasc, K. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France)

    2014-02-03

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B{sub 4}C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source.

  11. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziani, A.; Delmotte, F.; Le Paven-Thivet, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Roulliay, M.; Bridou, F.; Gasc, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B 4 C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source

  12. Films deposited from reactive sputtering of aluminum acetylacetonate under low energy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglin, Felipe Augusto Darriba; Prado, Eduardo Silva; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano, E-mail: elidiane@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Caseli, Luciano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Silva, Tiago Fiorini da; Tabacniks, Manfredo Harri [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Films were deposited from aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3 ) using a methodology involving reactive sputtering and low energy ion bombardment. The plasma was generated by the application of radiofrequency power to the powder containing electrode and simultaneously, negative pulses were supplied to the electrode where the substrates were attached. It was investigated the effect of the duty cycle of the pulses (Δ) on the properties of the coatings. Association of ion bombardment to the deposition process increased film thickness, structure reticulation and organic content. Ions from the deposition environment were implanted at the film-air interface or underneath it. Morphology and topography were altered depending on Δ. Considering the enhancement of Δ, it affected the flux of ions reaching the depositing interface and then the deposition rate, H content, crosslinking degree and surface microstructure. Alumina groups were detected in the infrared spectra, whereas the precipitation of amorphous alumina was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  13. Cathodoluminescence properties of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. N.; Petrova, M. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions is very interesting as a phosphor for conversion of light-emitting diode light for white light sources. The europium ion occupies the structural position of yttrium in yttrium aluminium garnet and has valence state Eu 3+ . Our sample was doped with Zr 4+ , which is why some of the europium ions had valence state Eu 2+ . As a rule, luminescence of Eu 3+ ions is observed in the orange and red range of spectrum. The luminescence of Eu 2+ in yttrium aluminum garnet is characterized by an intensive broad band with maximum of intensity at about 560 nm (green color). In this work, we studied the intensity and decay time dependences on europium concentration, and the influence of excitation power density on the cathodoluminescence of the sample. The most interesting result is the change of visible cathodoluminescence color in dependence on the density of the exciting power

  14. Intercalation of gaseous thiols and sulfides into Ag+ ion-exchanged aluminum dihydrogen triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aki; Saimen, Hiroki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Kimura, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Tsuhako, Mitsutomo

    2005-08-02

    Ag(+) ion-exchanged layered aluminum dihydrogen triphosphate (AlP) with the interlayer distance of 0.85 nm was synthesized by the ion-exchange of proton in triphosphate with Ag(+) ion. The amount of exchanged Ag(+) ion depended on the concentration of AgNO(3) aqueous solution. Ag(+) ion-exchanged AlP adsorbed gaseous thiols and sulfides into the interlayer region. The adsorption amounts of thiols were more than those of sulfides, thiols with one mercapto group > thiol with two mercapto groups > sulfides, and depended on the amount of exchanged Ag(+) ion in the interlayer region. The thiols with one mercapto group were intercalated to expand the interlayer distance of Ag(+) ion-exchanged AlP, whereas there was no expansion in the adsorption of sulfide. In the case of thiol with two mercapto groups, there was observed contraction of the interlayer distance through the bridging with Ag(+) ions of the upper and lower sides of the interlayer region.

  15. Annealing of chromium oxycarbide coatings deposited by plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP) for aluminum die casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; He, X.M.; Trkula, M.; Nastasi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Chromium oxycarbide coatings have been investigated for use as non-wetting coatings for aluminum die casting. This paper examines Cr-C-O coating stability and non-wetability at elevated temperatures for extended periods. Coatings were deposited onto 304 stainless steel from chromium carbonyl [Cr(CO) 6 ] by plasma immersion ion processing. The coatings were annealed in air at an aluminum die casting temperature of 700 deg. C up to 8 h. Coatings were analyzed using resonant ion backscattering spectroscopy, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometry. Molten aluminum was used to determine coating wetting and contact angle. Results indicate that the surface oxide layer reaches a maximum thickness of 900 nm. Oxygen concentrations in the coatings increased from 24% to 34%, while the surface concentration rose to almost 45%. Hardness values ranged from 22.1 to 6.7 GPa, wear coefficients ranged from 21 to 8x10 -6 mm 3 /Nm and contact angles ranged from 156 deg. to 127 deg

  16. Study on tribological behaviors of Fe+ ion implanted in 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Chen Jianmin; Shi Weidong; Liu Zhenmin

    2000-01-01

    2024 aluminum alloy was implanted with Fe + ions at a dose of 7x10 16 -3 x 10 17 Fe + /cm 2 . The depth profile of Fe element was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The composition of the surface layer was investigated by XRD with sample-tilting diffraction (STD) mode. The worn out surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Micro-hardness, friction and wear properties have been studied before and after Fe + implantation. An AES analysis shows Fe display Gaussian shape distributions. STD shows Al 5 Fe 2 formed during the implantation. Micro-hardness of surface layer was reduced after implantation, but it did not simply decrease with the increasing implantation doses. The friction and wear tests of implanted and unimplanted samples were carried out on a static-dynamic friction precise measuring apparatus. After implantation, the friction coefficient was reduced from 0.7 to 0.1; the wear resistance was improved remarkably, but decreased with increasing implantation dose. The wear mechanism of the unimplanted sample was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and plastic deformation. The wear reducing effect of Fe + ion induced on 2024 aluminum alloy is mainly attributed to tribooxidation of iron and transfixion of line defect. These two factors prevent the adhesive wear, abrasive wear and plastic deformation of 2024 aluminum alloy

  17. Aluminum surface modification by a non-mass-analyzed nitrogen ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shigeo; Iwaki, Masaya

    Non-mass-analyzed nitrogen ion implantation into polycrystal and single crystal aluminum sheets has been carried out at an accelerating voltage of 90 kV and a dose of 1 × 10 18 N ions/cm 2 using a Zymet implanter model Z-100. The pressure during implantation rose to 10 -3 Pa due to the influence of N gas feeding into the ion source. The characteristics of the surface layers were investigated by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and microscopy (TEM). The AES depth profiling shows a rectangular-like distribution of N atoms and little migration of O atoms near the surface. The high dose N-implantation forms c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AIN) crystallines, and especially irradiation of Al single crystals with N ions leads to the formation of a hcp AlN single crystal. It is concluded that the high dose N-implantation in Al can result in the formation of AlN at room temperature without any thermal annealing. Furthermore, non-mass-analyzed N-implantation at a pressure of 10 -3 Pa of the nitrogen atmosphere causes the formation of pure AlN single crystals in the Al surface layer and consequently it can be practically used for AlN production.

  18. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries Based on an Open-Tunnel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Huq, Ashfia; Wang, Shaofei; Park, Min Je; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-09-01

    Rechargeable batteries based on an abundant metal such as aluminum with a three-electron transfer per atom are promising for large-scale electrochemical energy storage. Aluminum can be handled in air, thus offering superior safety, easy fabrication, and low cost. However, the development of Al-ion batteries has been challenging due to the difficulties in identifying suitable cathode materials. This study presents the use of a highly open framework Mo 2.5 +  y VO 9 +  z as a cathode for Al-ion batteries. The open-tunnel oxide allows a facile diffusion of the guest species and provides sufficient redox centers to help redistribute the charge within the local host lattice during the multivalent-ion insertion, thus leading to good rate capability with a specific capacity among the highest reported in the literature for Al-based batteries. This study also presents the use of Mo 2.5 +  y VO 9 +  z as a model host to develop a novel ultrafast technique for chemical insertion of Al ions into host structures. The microwave-assisted method employing diethylene glycol and aluminum diacetate (Al(OH)(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ) can be performed in air in as little as 30 min, which is far superior to the traditional chemical insertion techniques involving moisture-sensitive organometallic reagents. The Al-inserted Al x Mo 2.5 +  y VO 9 +  z obtained by the microwave-assisted chemical insertion can be used in Al-based rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Polyrhodanine modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane for heavy metal ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jooyoung; Oh, Hyuntaek; Kong, Hyeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-03-15

    Polyrhodanine was immobilized onto the inner surface of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane via vapor deposition polymerization method. The polyrhodanine modified membrane was applied to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution because polyrhodanine could be coordinated with specific metal ions. Several parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time and metal species were evaluated systematically for uptake efficiencies of the fabricated membrane under continuous flow condition. Adsorption isotherms of Hg(II) ion on the AAO-polyrhodanine membrane were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) ion on the membrane was obeyed by a pseudo-second order equation, indicating the chemical adsorption. The maximum removal capacity of Hg(II) ion onto the fabricated membrane was measured to be 4.2 mmol/g polymer. The AAO-polyrhodanine membrane had also remarkable uptake performance toward Ag(I) and Pb(II) ions. Furthermore, the polyrhodanine modified membrane could be recycled after recovery process. These results demonstrated that the polyrhodanine modified AAO membrane provided potential applications for removing the hazardous heavy metal ions from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphology variation, composition alteration and microstructure changes in ion-irradiated 1060 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Si, Naichao; Wang, Quan; Zhao, Zhenjiang

    2018-02-01

    Morphology variation, composition alteration and microstructure changes in 1060 aluminum irradiated with 50 keV helium ions were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with x-ray elemental scanning, 3D measuring laser microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that, helium ions irradiation induced surface damage and Si-rich aggregates in the surfaces of irradiated samples. Increasing the dose of irradiation, more damages and Si-rich aggregates would be produced. Besides, defects such as dislocations, dislocation loops and dislocation walls were the primary defects in the ion implanted layer. The forming of surface damages were related with preferentially sputtering of Al component. While irradiation-enhanced diffusion and irradiation-induced segregation resulted in the aggregation of impurity atoms. And the aggregation ability of impurity atoms were discussed based on the atomic radius, displacement energy, lattice binding energy and surface binding energy.

  1. Retardation of surface corrosion of biodegradable magnesium-based materials by aluminum ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guosong; Xu, Ruizhen; Feng, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Wu, Zhengwei; Sun, Guangyong; Zheng, Gang; Li, Guangyao; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-07-01

    Aluminum ion implantation is employed to modify pure Mg as well as AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys and their surface degradation behavior in simulated body fluids is studied. Polarization tests performed in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the surface corrosion resistance after Al ion implantation is improved appreciably. This enhancement can be attributed to the formation of a gradient surface structure with a gradual transition from an Al-rich oxide layer to Al-rich metal layer. Compared to the high Al-content magnesium alloy (AZ91), a larger reduction in the degradation rate is achieved from pure magnesium and AZ31. Our results reveal that the surface corrosion resistance of Mg alloys with no or low Al content can be improved by Al ion implantation.

  2. Retardation of surface corrosion of biodegradable magnesium-based materials by aluminum ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guosong; Xu Ruizhen; Feng Kai; Wu Shuilin; Wu Zhengwei; Sun Guangyong; Zheng Gang; Li Guangyao; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum ion implantation is employed to modify pure Mg as well as AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys and their surface degradation behavior in simulated body fluids is studied. Polarization tests performed in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the surface corrosion resistance after Al ion implantation is improved appreciably. This enhancement can be attributed to the formation of a gradient surface structure with a gradual transition from an Al-rich oxide layer to Al-rich metal layer. Compared to the high Al-content magnesium alloy (AZ91), a larger reduction in the degradation rate is achieved from pure magnesium and AZ31. Our results reveal that the surface corrosion resistance of Mg alloys with no or low Al content can be improved by Al ion implantation.

  3. Uptake of Au(III) Ions by Aluminum Hydroxide and Their Spontaneous Reduction to Elemental Gold (Au(0)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama; Matsukado; Uchida; Motomura; Watanabe; Izawa

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of AuCl(4)(-) ions during the formation of aluminum hydroxide at pH 6 was examined. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the content of gold taken up by aluminum hydroxide decreased, suggesting that chloro-hydroxy complexes of Au(III) ion were taken up due to the formation of Al-O-Au bonds. It was found unexpectedly that the Au(III) ions taken up were spontaneously reduced to elemental gold without addition of a specific reducing reagent and then colloidal gold particles were formed. The mechanisms for the uptake of Au(III) ions by aluminum hydroxide and for their spontaneous reduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Investigation of the pitting of aluminum induced by chloride ions by holographic microphotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG LI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Holographic microphotography was used to investigate the dynamic processes of pitting during anodic dissolution of aluminum in a solution containing chloride ions. The induction and the follow-up propagation processes of the pitting were observed in real-time. A simple model of the propagating process of the pitting was deduced from the result of the holograms of the Al/electrolyte interface. The results prove that holographic microphotography is a useful tool to study the dynamic processes of pitting.

  5. Zinc vanadate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Lin, N.; Wei, T.; Liu, H.D.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of zinc vanadate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Zinc vanadate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue under solar light. - Abstract: Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and sodium vanadate as the raw materials. The zinc vanadate nanorods have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern and HRTEM image show that the zinc vanadate nanorods are composed of single crystalline monoclinic Zn 2 V 2 O 7 phase. SEM and TEM observations show that the diameter and length of the zinc vanadate nanorods are 50–100 nm and about 5 μm, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) has an essential role in the formation of zinc vanadate nanorods. The SDS-assisted nucleation and growth process have been proposed to explain the formation and growth of the zinc vanadate nanorods. Solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that the zinc vanadate nanorods have a band gap of 2.76 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the zinc vanadate nanorods have been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. The MB with the concentration of 10 mg L −1 can be degraded totally under the solar light irradiation for 4 h. It is suggested that the zinc vanadate nanorods exhibit promising application potential for the degradation of organic pollutants under solar light irradiation

  6. Formation of aluminum films on silicon by ion beam deposition: a comparison with ionized cluster beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhr, R.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Galloway, M.D.; Tanaka, S.; Yamada, A.; Yamada, I.

    1991-01-01

    The direct ion beam deposition (IBD) technique has been used to study the formation of oriented aluminum films on single crystal silicon substrates. In the IBD process, thin film growth is accomplished by decelerating a magnetically analyzed ion beam to low energies (10-200 eV) for direct deposition onto the substrate under UHV conditions. The aluminum-on-silicon system is one which has been studied extensively by ionized cluster beam (ICB) deposition. This technique has produced intriguing results for aluminum, with oriented crystalline films being formed at room temperature in spite of the 25% mismatch in lattice constant between aluminum and silicon. In this work, we have studied the formation of such films by IBD, with emphasis on the effects of ion energy, substrate temperature, and surface cleanliness. Oriented films have been grown on Si(111) at temperatures from 40 to 300degC and with ion energies of 30-120 eV per ion. Completed films were analyzed by ion scattering, X-ray diffraction, scanning-electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. Results achieved for thin films grown by IBD are comparable to those for similar films grown by ICB deposition. (orig.)

  7. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Gowda, Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-01-01

    Glasses in the system xLi 2 SO 4 -20Li 2 O-(80-x) [80P 2 O 5 -20V 2 O 5 ](5≥x≥20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li 2 SO 4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aω s where 's' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li 2 SO 4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  8. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity of phosphoglycerate mutase: stimulation by vanadate and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankiewicz, P.J.; Gresser, M.J.; Tracey, A.S.; Hass, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of inorganic vanadate (V/sub i/) to rabbit muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), studied by using 51 V nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, shows a sigmoidal dependence on vanadate concentration with a stoichiometry of four vanadium atoms per PGM molecule at saturating [V/sub i/]. The data are consistent with binding of one divanadate ion to each of the two subunits of PGM in a noncooperative manner with an intrinsic dissociation constant of 4 x 10 -6 M. The relevance of this result to other studies which have shown that the V/sub i/-stimulated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) phosphatase activity of PGM has a sigmoidal dependence on [V/sub i/] with a Hill coefficient of 2.0 is discussed. At pH 7.0, inorganic phosphate has little effect on the 2,3-DPG phosphatase activity of PGM, even at concentrations as high as 50 mM. Similarly, 25 μM V/sub i/ has little effect on the phosphatase activity. However, in the presence of 25 μM V/sub i/, a phosphate concentration of 20 mM increases the phosphatase activity by more than 3-fold. This behavior is rationalized in terms of activation of the phosphatase activity by a phosphate/vanadate mixed anhydride. This interpretation is supported by the observation of strong activation of the phosphatase activity by inorganic pyrophosphate. A molecular mechanism for the observed effects of vanadate is proposed, and the relevance of this study to the possible use of vanadate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of sickle cell anemia is discussed

  9. Z1 dependence of ion-induced electron emission from aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1980-01-01

    We have measured the electron emission yields γ of clean aluminum under bombardment with H + , H 2 + , D + , D 2 + , He + , B + , C + , N + , N 2 + , O + , O 2 + , F + , Ne + , S + , Cl + , Ar + , Kr + , and Xe + in the energy range 1.2--50 keV. The clean surfaces were prepared by in situ evaporation of high-purity Al under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. It is found that kinetic electron emission yields γ/sub k/, obtained after subtracting from the measured γ a contribution due to potential emission, are roughly proportional to the electronic stopping powers, for projectiles lighter than Al. For heavier projectiles there is a sizable contribution to electron emission from collisions involving rapidly recoiling target atoms, which increases with the mass of the projectile, and which dominates the threshold and near-threshold behavior of kinetic emission. The results, together with recently reported data on Auger electron emission from ion-bombarded Al show that the mechanism proposed by Parilis and Kishinevskii of inner-shell excitation and subsequent Auger decay is negligible for light ions and probably small for heavy ions on Al and in our energy range. We thus conclude that kinetic electron emission under bombardment by low-energy ions results mainly from the escape of excited valence electrons

  10. Environmentally Sustainable Aluminum-Coordinated Poly(tetrahydroxybenzoquinone) as a Promising Cathode for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Youngjin; Shim, Jimin; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Jung, Min Soo; Kim, Hanseul; Lee, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2018-01-31

    Na-ion batteries are attractive as an alternative to Li-ion batteries because of their lower cost. Organic compounds have been considered as promising electrode materials due to their environmental friendliness and molecular diversity. Herein, aluminum-coordinated poly(tetrahydroxybenzoquinone) (P(THBQ-Al)), one of the coordination polymers, is introduced for the first time as a promising cathode for Na-ion batteries. P(THBQ-Al) is synthesized through a facile coordination reaction between benzoquinonedihydroxydiolate (C 6 O 6 H 2 2- ) and Al 3+ as ligands and complex metal ions, respectively. Tetrahydroxybenzoquinone is environmentally sustainable, because it can be obtained from natural resources such as orange peels. Benzoquinonedihydroxydiolate also contributes to delivering high reversible capacity, because each benzoquinonedihydroxydiolate unit is capable of two electron reactions through the sodiation of its conjugated carbonyl groups. Electrochemically inactive Al 3+ improves the structural stability of P(THBQ-Al) during cycling because of a lack of a change in its oxidation state. Moreover, P(THBQ-Al) is thermally stable and insoluble in nonaqueous electrolytes. These result in excellent electrochemical performance including a high reversible capacity of 113 mA h g -1 and stable cycle performance with negligible capacity fading over 100 cycles. Moreover, the reaction mechanism of P(THBQ-Al) is clarified through ex situ XPS and IR analyses, in which the reversible sodiation of C═O into C-O-Na is observed.

  11. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurev, Ivan, E-mail: yiywork@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times.

  12. Vanadate, molybdate and tungstate for orthomolecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, J

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that oxyanions, such as vanadate (V) or vanadyl (IV), cause insulin-like effects on rats by stimulating the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Tungstate (VI) and molybdate (VI) show the same effects on rat adipocytes and hepatocytes. Results of uncontrolled trials on volunteers accumulated in Japan also suggest that tungstate effectively regulates diabetes mellitus without detectable side effects. Since these oxyanions naturally exist in organisms, oxyanion therapy, the oral administration of vanadate, vanadyl, molybdate, or tungstate, can be considered to be orthomolecular medicine. Therefore, these oxyanions may provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy. Many diseases in addition to diabetes mellitus might also be treated since the implication of these results is that tyrosine kinases are involved in a variety of diseases.

  13. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Channu, V.S.; Holze, Rudolf; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Mho, Sun-il; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV 6 O 16 .4H 2 O and Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 . The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  14. Aluminum surface corrosion and the mechanism of inhibitors using pH and metal ion selective imaging fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Walt, David R

    2002-02-15

    The localized corrosion behavior of a galvanic aluminum copper couple was investigated by in situ fluorescence imaging with a fiber-optic imaging sensor. Three different, but complementary methods were used for visualizing remote corrosion sites, mapping the topography of the metal surface, and measuring local chemical concentrations of H+, OH-, and Al3+. The first method is based on a pH-sensitive imaging fiber, where the fluorescent dye SNAFL was covalently attached to the fiber's distal end. Fluorescence images were acquired as a function of time at different areas of the galvanic couple. In a second method, the fluorescent dye morin was immobilized on the fiber-optic imaging sensor, which allowed the in situ localization of corrosion processes on pure aluminum to be visualized over time by monitoring the release of Al3+. The development of fluorescence on the aluminum surface defined the areas associated with the anodic dissolution of aluminum. We also investigated the inhibition of corrosion of pure aluminum by CeCl3 and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The decrease in current, the decrease in the number of active sites on the aluminum surface, and the faster surface passivation are all consistent indications that cerium chloride and 8-hydroxyquinoline inhibit corrosion effectively. From the number and extent of corrosion sites and the release of aluminum ions monitored with the fiber, it was shown that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a more effective inhibitor than cerium chloride.

  15. Adhesion-enhanced thick copper film deposition on aluminum oxide by an ion-beam-mixed Al seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Jae-Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a highly-adherent 30-μm Cu conductive-path coating on an aluminum-oxide layer anodized on an aluminum-alloy substrate for a metal-printed circuit-board application. A 50-nm Al layer was first coated with an e-beam evaporative deposition method on the anodized oxide, followed by ion bombardment to mix the interfacial region. Subsequently, a Cu coating was deposited onto the mixed seed layer to the designed thickness. Adhesions of the interface were tested by using tape adhesion test, and pull-off tests and showed commercially acceptable adhesions for such thick coating layers. The ion beam mixing (IBM) plays the role of fastening the thin seed coating layer to the substrate and enhancing the adhesion of the Cu conductive path on the anodized aluminum surface.

  16. Plasma source ion implantation process for corrosion protection of 6061 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Booske, J.H.; Shohet, J.L.; Jacobs, J.R.; Bernardini, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results of an investigation of the feasibility of using nitrogen plasma source ion implantation (PSII) treatment to improve corrosion resistance of 6061 aluminum to salt water. Flat Al samples were implanted with various doses of nitrogen. The surface microstructures and profiles of Al and N in the flat samples were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning Auger microprobe, x-ray diffraction. Corrosion properties of the samples and the components were evaluated using both a 500 hour salt spray field test and a laboratory electrochemical corrosion system. The tested samples were then analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion measurements have demonstrated that PSII can significantly improve the pitting resistance of 6061 aluminum. By correlating the analytical results with the corrosion test results, it has been verified that the improved corrosion resistance in PSII-treated coupons is due to the formation of a continuous AlN layer. It was also identified that the formation of a continuous AlN layer. It was also identified that the formation of a continuous AlN layer is mainly determined by the bias voltage and the total integrated implantation dose, and relatively insensitive to factors such as the plasma source, pulse length, or frequency

  17. Aluminum oxide mask fabrication by focused ion beam implantation combined with wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengjun; Iltanen, Kari; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka; Grigoras, Kestutis

    2013-01-01

    A novel aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) hard mask fabrication process with nanoscale resolution is introduced. The Al 2 O 3 mask can be used for various purposes, but in this work it was utilized for silicon patterning using cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The patterning of Al 2 O 3 is a two-step process utilizing focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation combined with wet chemical etching. Gallium (Ga + ) FIB maskless patterning confers wet etch selectivity between the irradiated region and the non-irradiated one on the Al 2 O 3 layer, and mask patterns can easily be revealed by wet etching. This method is a modification of Ga + FIB mask patterning for the silicon etch stop, which eliminates the detrimental lattice damage and doping of the silicon substrate in critical devices. The shallow surface gallium FIB irradiated Al 2 O 3 mask protects the underlying silicon from Ga + ions. The performance of the masking capacity was tested by drawing pairs consisting of a line and an empty space with varying width. The best result was seven such pairs for 1 μm. The smallest half pitch was 59 nm. This method is capable of arbitrary pattern generation. The fabrication of a freestanding single-ended tuning fork resonator utilizing the introduced masking method is demonstrated. (paper)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of titanium vanadate and vanadium antimonate and their use in treatment of some toxic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husein, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ion exchangers are insoluble solid materials, which carry exchangeable cations or anions. When the ion exchanger is in contact with an electrolyte solution, these ions are exchanged with an equivalent amount of other ions of the same sign .Synthetic inorganic ion exchangers possess good ion-exchange capacity, high chemical and radiation stabilities, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. These materials were characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, titanium vanadate was highly selective for Cs(I) while vanadium antimonate was selective for Cu 2+ ions . Thermodynamic parameters (i.e. ΔG o , ΔS o and ΔH o ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Cs + , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Co 2+ ions on titanium vanadate and vanadium antimonate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of diffusion of Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Cs + in the H -form of titanium vanadate and vanadium antimonate cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, drying temperature. The exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 plots. The values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. The data obtained have been compared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers. Exchange isotherms for H + /Co 2+ , H + /Cu 2+ , H + /Cd 2+ and H + /Cs + were determined at 25, 45 and 60±1 degree C. These isotherms showed that Co 2+ ,Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Cs + are chemically adsorbed. Moreover, the values of thermodynamic parameters were determined and the overall adsorption processes were found spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, removal of the above mentioned cations on titanium vanadate and

  19. High temperature reactive ion etching of iridium thin films with aluminum mask in CF4/O2/Ar plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive ion etching (RIE technology for iridium with CF4/O2/Ar gas mixtures and aluminum mask at high temperatures up to 350 °C was developed. The influence of various process parameters such as gas mixing ratio and substrate temperature on the etch rate was studied in order to find optimal process conditions. The surface of the samples after etching was found to be clean under SEM inspection. It was also shown that the etch rate of iridium could be enhanced at higher process temperature and, at the same time, very high etching selectivity between aluminum etching mask and iridium could be achieved.

  20. Performance characteristics of silver cerium vanadate batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Arof , Abdul; Kamaluddin , Burhanuddin; Radhakrishna , S.

    1993-01-01

    Stoichiometric ratios of AR grade AgI, Ag2O, V2O5 and CeO2 were melted in a furnace and the melt was rapidly quenched to liquid nitrogen temperature to form a glass. The glassy nature of the sample has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The microstructure and microanalysis studies of the silver cerium vanadate (SCV) have been carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). The SEM micrograph of the as-quenched melt showed c...

  1. Thermal management for high power lithium-ion battery by minichannel aluminum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Chuanjin; Xu, Jian; Qiao, Yu; Ma, Yanbao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new design of minichannel cooling is developed for battery thermal management system. • Parametric studies of minichannel cooling for a cell are conducted at different discharge rates. • Minichannel cooling can maintain almost uniform temperature (T_d_i_f_f < 1 °C). • Pumping power assumption is only about 5 milliwatt. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are widely used for battery electric (all-electric) vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) due to their high energy and power density. An battery thermal management system (BTMS) is crucial for the performance, lifetime, and safety of lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, a novel design of BTMS based on aluminum minichannel tubes is developed and applied on a single prismatic Li-ion cell under different discharge rates. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the performance of the BTMS using different flow rates and configurations. With minichannel cooling, the maximum cell temperature at a discharge rate of 1C is less than 27.8 °C, and the temperature difference across the cell is less than 0.80 °C using flow rate at 0.20 L/min, at the expense of 8.69e-6 W pumping power. At higher discharge rates, e.g., 1.5C and 2C, higher flow rates are required to maintain the same temperature rise and temperature difference. The flow rate needed is 0.8 L/min for 1.5C and 2.0 L/min for 2C, while the required pumping power is 4.23e-4 W and 5.27e-3 W, respectively. The uniform temperature distribution (<1 °C) inside the single cell and efficient pumping power demonstrate that the minichannel cooling system provides a promising solution for the BTMS.

  2. Effects of aluminum on growth, polyamine metabolism, and inorganic ions in suspension cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Daniel J. Jr. Coughin; Subhash C. Minocha

    1996-01-01

    The influence of age of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspensions on aluminum (Al) effects was studied by adding AICI3 (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) to the media on each day of a 7-day culture period and analyzing for changes in total cell mass, polyamines, arginine decarboxylase activity, and inorganic ions after 24 h of...

  3. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  4. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jing; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: → In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. → The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. → The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10 -3 emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10 -3 emu/g. → The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V 2 O 5 and BaCl 2 at 200 o C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba 3 V 2 O 8 with small amount of Ba 3 VO 4.8 coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of ∼20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO 4 tetrahedron with T d symmetry in Ba 3 V 2 O 8 . The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10 -3 emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10 -3 emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non-orthovanadate phase with spin S = 1/2.

  5. Examination of the metastable and stable pitting corrosion of aluminum modified with carbon by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensch, O.; Enders, B.; Knecht, J.; Ensinger, W.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that aluminum and aluminum alloys are sensitive to pitting corrosion when exposed to aqueous solutions containing aggressive anions like halides. The destructive nature of pitting is due to its high local dissolution rates at electrode potentials above the so-called pitting potential U p . Recently, it has been realized that also at potentials below U p , in the passive and cathodic regions and around the free corrosion potential, anodic current transients appear which have been attributed to metastable pitting events. For the purpose of full characterization of the pitting behavior, a program routine has been developed where the occurrence frequency, lifetime and rate of metastable pitting events are extracted from potentiostatic current/time-measurements depending on the electrode potential. The routine has been applied to measurements of carbon modified pure aluminum. Carbon modifications were done with carbon evaporation and carbon sputtering under concurrent argon ion bombardment. The results are discussed in terms of the applied modification technique, their parameters and their effects on the corrosion protection ability of aluminum modified by carbon

  6. High energy ions and energetic plasma irradiation effects on aluminum in a Filippov-type plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, M.V. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)], E-mail: mroshan20@yahoo.com; Rawat, R.S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Babazadeh, A.R.; Emami, M.; Sadat Kiai, S.M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, AEOI, 14155-1339 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Verma, R.; Lin, J.J.; Talebitaher, A.R.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2008-12-30

    High energy ions and energetic plasma irradiation of aluminum cathode inserts have been accomplished in nitrogen and argon filled plasma focus device. The Filippov-type plasma focus facility, Dena, with 288 {mu}F capacitor bank and charging voltage of 25 kV (90 kJ maximum storage energy) was first optimized for strong ion beam generation for nitrogen and argon gases by maximizing hard X-ray emission efficiency. X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy carried out to study the structural, morphological and compositional profile of the treated samples. Change in preferred orientation, emergence of meta-stable phases, generation of copper micro-droplets, and production of cracks across the sample are demonstrated and discussed. The micro-hardness measurements in Vickers scale reveal that after ion irradiation, the surface hardness of samples is reduced.

  7. Improved stability of organic light-emitting diode with aluminum cathodes prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Moon Jeong, Deuk Yeon Lee, Won Hoe Koo, Sang Hun Choi, Hong Koo Baik, Se-Jong Lee and Kie Moon Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated highly stable organic electroluminescent devices based on spin-coated poly-p-phenylene-vynylene (PPV thin films. The electrical properties of aluminum cathode, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, on PPV have been investigated and compared to those by thermal evaporation. Although energetic particles of Al assisted by Ar+ ion may damage the organic material, I–V–L characteristics are improved by applying thin Al buffer layer. In addition, a dense Al cathode inhibits the permeation of H2O and O2 into PPV film through pinhole defects, and thus retards dark spot growth. It may be deduced from highly packed structure of Al cathode with an increase in the contact area between Al and PPV that reduce the contact resistance. In conclusion, the lifetime of organic light-emitting device (OLED has been extended effectively by dense Al film through ion beam assisted deposition process.

  8. The effect of vanadate on receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid in rat liver parenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, G.M.; Gudmundsen, O.; Berg, T.

    1990-01-01

    Vanadate is a phosphate analogue that inhibits enzymes involved in phosphate release and transfer reactions. Since such reactions may play important roles in endocytosis, we studied the effects of vanadate on various steps in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid labeled with 125I-tyramine-cellobiose (125I-TC-AOM). The labeled degradation products formed from 125I-TC-AOM are trapped in the lysosomes and may therefore serve as lysosomal markers in subcellular fractionation studies. Vanadate reduced the amount of active surface asialoglycoprotein receptors approximately 70%, but had no effect on the rate of internalization and retroendocytosis of ligand. The amount of surface asialoglycoprotein receptors can be reduced by lowering the incubation temperature gradually from 37 to 15 degrees C; vanadate affected only the temperature--sensitive receptors. Vanadate inhibited degradation of 125I-TC-AOM 70-80%. Degradation was much more sensitive to vanadate than binding; half-maximal effects were seen at approximately 1 mM vanadate for binding and approximately 0.1 mM vanadate for degradation. By subcellular fractionation in sucrose and Nycodenz gradients, it was shown that vanadate completely prevented the transfer of 125I-TC-AOM from endosomes to lysosomes. Therefore, the inhibition of degradation by vanadate was indirect; in the presence of vanadate, ligand did not gain access to the lysosomes. The limited degradation in the presence of vanadate took place in a prelysosomal compartment. Vanadate did not affect cell viability and ATP content

  9. Light-Induced Surface Reactions at the Bismuth Vanadate/Potassium Phosphate Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Abdi, Fatwa F; Lamers, Marlene; Crumlin, Ethan J; Liu, Zhi; van de Krol, Roel; Starr, David E

    2018-01-18

    Bismuth vanadate has recently drawn significant research attention as a light-absorbing photoanode due to its performance for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this study, we use in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with "tender" X-rays (4.0 keV) to investigate a polycrystalline bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ) electrode in contact with an aqueous potassium phosphate (KPi) solution at open circuit potential under both dark and light conditions. This is facilitated by the creation of a 25 to 30 nm thick electrolyte layer using the "dip-and-pull" method. We observe that under illumination bismuth phosphate forms on the BiVO 4 surface leading to an increase of the surface negative charge. The bismuth phosphate layer may act to passivate surface states observed in photoelectrochemical measurements. The repulsive interaction between the negatively charged surface under illumination and the phosphate ions in solution causes a shift in the distribution of ions in the thin aqueous electrolyte film, which is observed as an increase in their photoelectron signals. Interestingly, we find that such changes at the BiVO 4 /KPi electrolyte interface are reversible upon returning to dark conditions. By measuring the oxygen 1s photoelectron peak intensities from the phosphate ions and liquid water as a function of time under dark and light conditions, we determine the time scales for the forward and reverse reactions. Our results provide direct evidence for light-induced chemical modification of the BiVO 4 /KPi electrolyte interface.

  10. Highly selective single-use fluoride ion optical sensor based on aluminum(III)-salen complex in thin polymeric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Ibrahim H.A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for fluoride ion based on the use of an aluminum(III)-salen complex as an ionophore within a thin polymeric film is described. The sensor is prepared by embedding the aluminum(III)-salen ionophore and a suitable lipophilic pH-sensitive indicator (ETH-7075) in a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film. Optical response to fluoride occurs due to fluoride extraction into the polymer via formation of a strong complex with the aluminum(III)-salen species. Co-extraction of protons occurs simultaneously, with protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 529 nm. Films prepared using dioctylsebacate (DOS) are shown to exhibit better response (e.g., linear range, detection limit, and optical signal stability) compared to those prepared using ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE). Films formulated with aluminum(III)-salen and ETH-7075 indicator in 2 DOS:1 PVC, exhibit a significantly enhanced selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of lipophilic anions including salicylate, perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate. The optimized films exhibit a sub-micromolar detection limit, using glycine-phosphate buffer, pH 3.00, as the test sample. The response times of the fluoride optical sensing films are in the range of 1-10 min depending on the fluoride ion concentration in the sample. The sensor exhibits very poor reversibility owing to a high co-extraction constant (log K = 8.5 ± 0.4), indicating that it can best be employed as a single-use transduction device. The utility of the aluminum(III)-salen based fluoride sensitive films as single-use sensors is demonstrated by casting polymeric films on the bottom of standard polypropylene microtiter plate wells (96 wells/plate). The modified microtiter plate optode format sensors exhibit response characteristics comparable to the classical optode films cast on quartz slides. The modified microtiter is utilized for the analysis of fluoride in diluted anti-cavity fluoride rinse

  11. Two-dimensional thermal simulations of aluminum and carbon ion strippers for experiments at SPIRAL2 using the highest beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Kim, V.; Lamour, E.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Piriz, A.R.; Rozet, J.P.; Stöhlker, Th.; Sultanov, V.; Vernhet, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on two-dimensional numerical simulations of heating of a rotating, wheel shaped target impacted by the full intensity of the ion beam that will be delivered by the SPIRAL2 facility at Caen, France. The purpose of this work is to study heating of solid targets that will be used to strip the fast ions of SPIRAL2 to the required high charge state for the FISIC (Fast Ion–Slow Ion Collision) experiments. Strippers of aluminum with different emissivities and of carbon are exposed to high beam current of different ion species as oxygen, neon and argon. These studies show that carbon, due to its much higher sublimation temperature and much higher emissivity, is more favorable compared to aluminum. For the highest beam intensities, an aluminum stripper does not survive. However, problem of the induced thermal stresses and long term material fatigue needs to be investigated before a final conclusion can be drawn.

  12. Contribution to the study of urano-vanadates: precipitation, stability, and filiation; Contribution a l'etude des uranivanadates: precipitation, stabilite et filiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The interaction of uranyl ions with vanadic anhydride leads to the formation of different uranium vanadates according to which uranyl salt is used. With uranyl perchlorate solutions, urano-tri-meta-vanadic acid H[UO{sub 2}(VO{sub 3}){sub 3}] precipitates, and the excess uranyl ions then replace the H to give UO{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(VO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 2}. The addition of vanadic anhydride solution leads to the same compounds, although in this case there is prior formation of UO{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}VO{sub 3}]{sub 2}. Uranyl acetate on the other hand gives successively and quantitatively the acids H[UO{sub 2}(VO{sub 3}){sub 3}], H[UO{sub 2}(OH)VO{sub 3}], and H[UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}VO{sub 3}] and then the uranyl salt of this latter compound; the order in which the reagents are added is of no importance. The composition of the uranium vanadates obtained by interaction of solutions of uranyl perchlorate and of the various vanadates depends on the ratio Na{sub 2}O/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} of the vanadates considered. For ratios of less than unity, derivatives of urano-tri-meta-vanadic acid are almost exclusively formed. For ratios equal to 3, the compounds are derivatives of urano-meta-vanadic acid. In between these two ratios, the compounds are derivatives of both acids simultaneously. The changes in these compounds with changing pH confirm these results. (author) [French] L'interaction des ions uranyles et de l'anhydride vanadique conduit a la formation de divers uranivanadates suivant le sel d'uranyle utilise. Avec les solutions de perchlorate d'uranyle, l'acide uranitrimetavanadique H[UO{sub 2}(VO{sub 3}){sub 3}] precipite puis les ions uranyles en exces se substituent a H pour donner UO{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(VO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 2}. L'addition de solution d'anhydride vanadique conduit aux memes composes avec toutefois une formation preliminaire de UO{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}VO{sub 3}]{sub 2}. Au contraire, l'acetate d'uranyle fournit successivement et quantitativement

  13. Effect of He+ fluence on surface morphology and ion-irradiation induced defect evolution in 7075 aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Ma, Qian; Wan, Hao; Yang, Bin; Ge, Junjie; Zhang, Lingyu; Si, Naichao

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of microstructure for 7075 aluminum alloys with 50 Kev helium ions irradiation were studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fluences of 1 × 1015, 1 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 ions cm-2 were selected, and irradiation experiments were conducted at room temperatures. The transmission process of He+ ions was simulated by using SRIM software, including distribution of ion ranges, energy losses and atomic displacements. Experimental results show that irradiated pits and micro-cracks were observed on irradiation sample surface, and the size of constituent particles (not including Mg2Si) decreased with the increasing dose. The x-ray diffraction results of the pair of peaks is better resolved in irradiated samples might indicate that the stressed structure consequence due to crystal defects (vacancies and interstitials) after He+ implantation. TEM observation indicated that the density of MgZn2 phase was significantly reduced after helium ion irradiation which is harmful to strength. Besides, the development of compressive stress produced a large amount of dislocation defects in the 1015 ions cm-2 sample. Moreover, higher fluence irradiation produced more dislocations in sample. At fluence of 1016 ions cm-2, dislocation wall formed by dislocation slip and aggregation in the interior of grains, leading to the refinement of these grains. As fluence increased to 1017 ions cm-2, dislocation loops were observed in pinned dislocation. Moreover, dislocation as effective defect sink, irradiation-induced vacancy defects aggregated to these sinks, and resulted in the formation of helium bubbles in dislocation.

  14. Removal of Fluoride Ion from Aqueous Solution by Nanocomposite Hydrogel Based on Starch/Sodium Acrylate/Nano Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of fluoride in drinking water has received increasing interest, due to its beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Contamination of drinking water by fluoride can cause potential hazards to human health. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to different methods for the removal of fluoride from drinking and waste waters. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of nano composite hydrogel based on starch/sodium acrylate/aluminum oxide in reduction of fluoride concentration in drinking water and industrial waste water. In a batch system, the dynamic and equilibrium adsorption of fluoride ions were studied with respect to changes in determining parameters such as pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, starch/acrylic acid weight ratio and weight percent of nano aluminum oxide. The obtained equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models, as well as the kinetic data with pseudo-first order and pseudo- second order models. The results showed that optimum pH was found to be in the range of 5 to 7. Removal efficiency of fluoride was increased with decreases in initial concentration of fluoride. Sixty percent of initial value of fluoride solution was removed by nano composite hydrogel (4 wt% of nano aluminum oxide at 240 min (initial fluoride concentration = 5 ppm, pH 6.8 and temperature = 25ºC. Under the same condition, the equilibrium adsorption of fluoride ions was 85% and 68% for initial solution concentration of 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Adsorption isotherm data showed that the fluoride sorption followed the Langmuir model. Kinetics of sorption of fluoride onto nano composite hydrogel was described by pseudo-first order model.

  15. Facile Aluminum Reduction Synthesis of Blue TiO2 with Oxygen Deficiency for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi; Yu, Linghui; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2015-12-07

    An ultrafacile aluminum reduction method is reported herein for the preparation of blue TiO2 nanoparticles (donated as Al-TiO2 , anatase phase) with abundant oxygen deficiency for lithium-ion batteries. Under aluminum reduction, the morphology of the TiO2 nanosheets changes from well-defined rectangular into uniform round or oval nanoparticles and the particle size also decreases from 60 to 31 nm, which can aggressively accelerate the lithium-ion diffusion. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) results reveal that plentiful oxygen deficiencies relative to the Ti(3+) species were generated in blue Al-TiO2 ; this effectively enhances the electron conductivity of the TiO2 . X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis indicates that a small peak is observed for the Al-O bond, which probably plays a very important role in the stabilization of the oxygen deficiencies/Ti(3+) species. As a result, the blue Al-TiO2 possesses significantly higher capacity, better rate performance, and a longer cycle life than the white pure TiO2 . Such improvements can be attributed to the decreased particle size, as well as the existence of the oxygen deficiencies/Ti(3+) species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Physiological responses of suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus to aluminum: changes in polyamines and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinhua Zhou; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    1995-01-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) treatment on polyamines were studied using suspension cultures of Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don]. The addition of A1 (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mM) to the suspension cultures caused a significant increase in putrescine within 24h only in freshly transferred cells. By contrast, Al treatment reduced putrescine...

  17. Aluminum ions inhibit phospholipase D in a microtubule-dependent manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Pleskot, R.; Schwarzerová, K.; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, O.; Novotná, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2008), s. 554-556 ISSN 1065-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Aluminum toxicity * Phospholipase D * Microtubules Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2008

  18. Characterization of vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity and isolation of yeast DNA which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasi, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity has been characterized in plasma membranes from the yeast S cerevisiae. NADH oxidation activity was maximally stimulated at pH 5.0 in phosphate buffer. NADH oxidation was not dependent on the concentration of plasma membranes. The vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity was abolished under anaerobic conditions and the concomitant uptake of oxygen occurred during NADH oxidation. The activity was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and stimulated by the presence of paraquat. These results indicate that the vanadate stimulation of NADH oxidation in yeast plasma membranes occurs as a result of the vanadate-dependent oxidation of NADH by superoxide, generated by a plasma membrane NADH oxidase. 51 V-NMR results indicated that a phosphate-vanadate anhydride was the stimulatory species in pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. Yeast DNA has been isolated which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

  19. Simultaneous sorption of fluoride and arsenic ions (V) in a naturally occurring material modified with iron and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez M, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, two materials, zeolite and pozzolans from the States of Oaxaca and Mexico, were used respectively, which were modified to evaluate their efficiencies to remove F and As(V) ions from solution and natural water. The materials were modified with iron and aluminum using an electrochemical cell, and with the hydroxides formed with iron and aluminum chloride solutions. The natural and modified materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy X-ray disperse spectroscopy analysis, specific area and the point of zero charge (pHzpc). F- and As(V) adsorption properties of both materials were investigated. Experimental data on the sorption processes of F- ions by modified zeolite and pozzolans were adjusted to the kinetic models of pseudo-second-order (q e, 0408 mg /g K, 4.33 g / mg h) and Lagergen (q e, 0.807 mg/g K L, 1.83 1/min), respectively. Both materials showed the best fit to the Freundlich isotherm, Kf, 0.33 and 0.64 (mg/g) (L/mg) for pozzolans and zeolite respectively; suggesting a physical adsorption process on a heterogeneous material. Experimental adsorption capacities of pozzolans and modified zeolite for F ions were 0.36 and 0.83 mg/g respectively. The results of the kinetics of adsorption of As(V) were treated with the Largergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models; however the adsorption rate was high and consequently the rate constants could not be calculated. The isotherms data were fitted to the Freundlich model and the constants Kf were 6.24 and 11.15 (mg/g) (L/mg) for pozzolans and zeolite respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption processes suggest endothermic adsorption for F- ions by both materials and for As(V) by the pozzolans. The free energy values ΔG indicate spontaneous processes and not spontaneous for F- ions by pozzolans. The adsorption of As (V) by the pozzolans presented an exothermic and spontaneous behavior. Finally, a study was performed in columns with

  20. Stoichiometry and characterization of aluminum oxynitride thin films grown by ion-beam-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabinski, J.S. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Hu, J.J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)], E-mail: Jianjun.Hu@WPAFB.AF.MIL; Bultman, J.E. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Pierce, N.A. [Propulsion Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Voevodin, A.A. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2008-07-31

    Oxides are inherently stable in air at elevated temperatures and may serve as wear resistant matrices for solid lubricants. Aluminum oxide is a particularly good candidate for a matrix because it has good diffusion barrier properties and modest hardness. Most thin film deposition techniques that are used to grow alumina require high temperatures to impart crystallinity. Crystalline films are about twice as hard as amorphous ones. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of most engineering steels are degraded at temperatures above 250-350 deg. C. This work is focused on using energetic reactive ion bombardment during simultaneous pulsed laser deposition to enhance film crystallization at low temperatures. Alumina films were grown at several background gas pressures and temperatures, with and without Ar ion bombardment. The films were nearly stoichiometric except for depositions in vacuum. Using nitrogen ion bombardment, nitrogen was incorporated into the films and formed the Al-O-N matrix. Nitrogen concentration could be controlled through selection of gas pressure and ion energy. Crystalline Al-O-N films were grown at 330 deg. C with a negative bias voltage to the substrate, and showed improved hardness in comparison to amorphous films.

  1. Synthesis of aluminum nitride films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition using hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Liru; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is of interest in the industry because of its excellent electronic, optical, acoustic, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this work, aluminum nitride films are deposited on silicon wafers (100) by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) using a modified hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc plasma source and with no intentional heating to the substrate. The mixed metal and gaseous plasma is generated by feeding the gas into the arc discharge region. The deposition rate is found to mainly depend on the Al ion flux from the cathodic arc source and is only slightly affected by the N 2 flow rate. The AlN films fabricated by this method exhibit a cubic crystalline microstructure with stable and low internal stress. The surface of the AlN films is quite smooth with the surface roughness on the order of 1/2 nm as determined by atomic force microscopy, homogeneous, and continuous, and the dense granular microstructures give rise to good adhesion with the substrate. The N to Al ratio increases with the bias voltage applied to the substrates. A fairly large amount of O originating from the residual vacuum is found in the samples with low N:Al ratios, but a high bias reduces the oxygen concentration. The compositions, microstructures and crystal states of the deposited films are quite stable and remain unchanged after annealing at 800 deg. C for 1 h. Our hybrid gas-metal source cathodic arc source delivers better AlN thin films than conventional PIIID employing dual plasmas

  2. Vanadate monomers and dimers both inhibit the human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crans, D C; Simone, C M; Saha, A K; Glew, R H

    1989-11-30

    A combination of enzyme kinetics and 51V NMR spectroscopy was used to identify the species of vanadate that inhibits acid phosphatases. Monomeric vanadate was shown to inhibit wheat germ and potato acid phosphatases. At pH 5.5, the vanadate dimer inhibits the human prostatic acid phosphatase whereas at pH 7.0 it is the vanadate monomer that inhibits this enzyme. The pH-dependent shift in the affinity of the prostatic phosphatase for vanadate is presumably due to deprotonation of an amino acid side chain in or near the binding site resulting in a conformational change in the protein. pH may be a subtle effector of the insulin-like vanadate activity in biological systems and may explain some of the differences in selectivity observed with the protein phosphatases.

  3. Local charge exchange of He{sup +} ions at Aluminum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, P., E-mail: pierfrancesco.riccardi@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria and INFN – Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci cubo 33C, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Sindona, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria and INFN – Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci cubo 33C, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Dukes, C.A. [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Surface Physics, Materials Science and Engineering University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-04-04

    We report on experiments designed to observe the correlation between the autoionization of doubly excited helium atoms and the Auger decay of 2p vacancies in Al. The autoionizing states are formed when incident He{sup +*} and He{sup ++} are neutralized by resonant electron capture at the surface. 2p excitation in Al occurs in dielectronic charge transfer during the close encounter of an excited helium ion and an Al atom. These results clarify the mechanism for Al-2p excitation in the case of singly charged ground state He{sup +}(1s) ion impact, where the dielectronic transition occurs after promotion of the 1s electron of incoming ions. - Highlights: • We observe the correlation between autoionization of doubly excited helium atoms and the Auger decay of 2p vacancies in Al. • 2p excitation in Al occurs in dielectronic charge transfer during the close encounter of an excited helium ion and an Al atom. • These results clarify the mechanism for Al-2p excitation in the case of singly charged ground state He{sup +}(1s) ion impact.

  4. Diode-pumped two-frequency lasers based on c-cut vanadate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A A; Garnov, Sergei V; Zagumennyi, A I; Zavartsev, Yu D; Kutovoi, S A; Vlasov, V I; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2009-01-01

    The luminescent and lasing properties of the neo-dymium ion at the 4 F 3/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition in c-cut vanadate crystals (Nd:YVO 4 , Nd:GdVO 4 , and Nd:Gd 1-x Y x VO 4 ) are studied. Tuning of the laser radiation wavelength (Δλ = 5.4 nm) is demonstrated. Two-frequency laser schemes with the use of a Lyot filter, a Fabry-Perot etalon, and a Brewster prism as spectral selection elements are proposed and experimentally realised. Stable two-frequency lasing of a laser based on the c-cut Nd:GdVO 4 crystal was obtained in the cw, Q-switched (nanosecond pulses), and active acousto-optic mode-locked (picosecond pulses) regimes. (lasers)

  5. ENDOR investigations of the Ce.sup.3+./sup. ions in YAG: Transferred hyperfine interaction with nearest aluminum ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azamat, Dmitry; Badalyan, A. G.; Feng, D.H.; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Baranov, P. G.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Bayer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 24 (2017), s. 1-3, č. článku 243903. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA16-22092S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ENDOR * Ce 3+ ions in YAG * transferred hyperfine interactions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  6. Intercalation of vanadate in Ni, Zn layered hydroxyacetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Ricardo; Barriga, Cristobalina; Ulibarri, M.A.; Rives, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Interlayer acetate anions in layered double hydroxyacetates of Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ have been exchanged by oxovanadates following three synthetic routes (at 60 deg. C, under hydrothermal conditions and after preswelling with caprylate anions) and different pH; direct exchange at room temperature was not successful. Complete exchange was achieved under adequated conditions, and the precise nature of the interlayer anion depends on the pH during exchange: at low pH (4.5), the presence of α-VO 3 chains, with anchoring (grafting) of the species to the hydroxide layers, is proposed. At higher pH (9.5) V 2 O 7 4- species are present in the interlayer. Thermal decomposition of these vanadate-intercalated products leads to formation of orthorhombic Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ vanadates, together with NiO

  7. Characterization and Conduction Mechanism of Highly Conductive Vanadate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuaki Nishida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent studies of highly conductive barium iron vanadate glass with a composition of 20 BaO ∙ 10 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 (in mol %. Isothermal annealing of the vanadate glass for several ten minutes at a given temperature, higher than glass transition temperature or crystallization temperature, caused an increase in σ. Substitution of CuI (3d10, ZnII (3d10 and CuII (3d9 for FeIII (3d5 was investigated to elucidate the effect of electron configuration on the conductivity (σ. A marked decrease in the activation energy of conduction (Ea was also observed after the annealing. Values of Ea were correlated to the energy gap between the donor level and the conduction band (CB in the n-type semiconductor model. Isothermal annealing of ZnII-substituted vanadate glass (20 BaO ∙ 5 ZnO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 at 450 °C for 30 min showed an increase in σ from 2.5 × 10–6 to 2.1 × 10–1 S cm–1, which was one order of magnitude larger than that of non-substituted vanadate glass (3.4 × 10–2 S cm–1. Under the same annealing condition, σ’s of 2.0 × 10–1 and 3.2 × 10–1 S cm–1 were observed for 20 BaO ∙ 5 Cu2O ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 and 20 BaO ∙ 5 CuO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 glasses, respectively. These results demonstrate an increase in the carrier (electron density in the CB, primarily composed of anti-bonding 4s-orbitals.

  8. Mixed vanadates: optimization of optical properties by varying chemical composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levushkina, V.; Spassky, D.; Brik, M.G.; Zych, E.; Madej, A.; Belsky, A.N.; Bartosiewicz, Karol; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 189, Sep (2017), s. 140-147 ISSN 0022-2313 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316906 - LUMINET Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : yttrium vanadate * energy-transfer * single-crystals * YVO 4 crystals * doped YVO 4 * luminescence * growth * scintillator * LuVO 4 * improvement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  9. The effect of copper ions, aluminum ions and their mixtures on separation of pectin from the sugar beet juice

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljanin, Tatjana A.; Mišljenović, Nevena M.; Koprivica, Gordana B.; Jevrić, Lidija R.; Grbić, Jasna P.

    2013-01-01

    In sugar industry there is a problem of the presence of undesirable macromolecules compounds such as pectin in sugar beet juice. The affinity of calcium ions commonly used in the sugar industry for the removal of pectin from the sugar beet juice is relatively small. Coagulation and precipitation of pectin can be performed by process of discharging that is chemically induced. Compounds with di- and trivalent cations such as pure CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3 or their mixtures can be applied for clari...

  10. Aerosol deposition of (Cu,Ti) substituted bismuth vanadate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Jörg, E-mail: Functional.Materials@Uni-Bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Fuierer, Paul [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Moos, Ralf [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    Bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11}, and related compounds with various metal (Me) substitutions, Bi{sub 4}(Me{sub x}V{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 11−δ}, show some of the highest ionic conductivities among the known solid oxide electrolytes. Films of Cu and Ti substituted bismuth vanadate were prepared by an aerosol deposition method, a spray coating process also described as room temperature impact consolidation. Resultant films, several microns in thickness, were dense with good adhesion to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and high temperature X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the effects of temperature on the structure and microstructure of the film. The particle size remained nano-scale while microstrain decreased rapidly up to 500 °C, above which coarsening and texturing increased rapidly. Impedance measurements of films deposited on inter-digital electrodes revealed an annealing effect on the ionic conductivity, with the conductivity exceeding that of a screen printed film, and approaching that of bulk ceramic. - Highlights: • Cu and Ti doped bismuth vanadate films were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD). • Dense 3–5 μm thick films were deposited on alumina, silicon and gold electrodes. • Annealing of the AD-layer increases the conductivity by 1.5 orders of magnitude. • Effect of temperature on structure and microstructure was investigated.

  11. Facile synthesis of ammonium vanadate nanofibers by using reflux in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Hun [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Jun Mo [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Ammonium vanadate nanofibers were synthesized by simple reflux method in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate without relying on surfactants, catalysts, harmful solvents and autoclave. The degree of intercalation by cationic ammonium ions into the crystal structure of vanadium oxide along with its change in chemical composition were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR). The morphological changes toward nanofiber structure, having diameter of 20–30 nm and a few μm length, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of synthetic conditions, such as reaction time and concentration of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), on the crystal structures and morphologies of the resulting products have investigated. As a result, the ammonium vanadate nanofiber was formed in a short reaction time through a simple reflux method and yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate nanofiber (AVFr) was prepared by simple reflux method. • AVFr yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. • The electrical conductivity was improved by the increased amount of ammonium ion. • Sulfate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) play a crucial role in controlling the morphology of nanofiber.

  12. Effect of multipulse waveform on gains of soft X-ray lines of lithium-like aluminum ions in recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okasaka, Kazunobu; Hara, Tamio; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Ando, Kozo; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Oyama, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Using the recombination plasma scheme, we investigated the amplified spontaneous emissions (ASE) from lithium-like aluminum plasmas produced by multipulse laser irradiation. Three types of multipulse waveforms of Nd-glass laser beam were treated. We measured the time-integrated intensities of the 3d-4f (15.5 nm) and the 3d-5f (10.6 nm) lines of lithium-like aluminum ions for 2.5-cm-long and 1.25-cm-long plasmas. The effective time-averaged gains estimated from these time-integrated intensities varied with the multipulse waveforms. using a hydrodynamic simulation, we discussed the time history of plasma parameters in the recombining plasma. We concluded that the modifying multipulse waveform contributed to the effective time-averaged gain by maintaining the helium-like ion density until the gain was generated. (author)

  13. Removal of aluminum turbidity from heavy water reactors by precipitation ion exchange using magnesium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.S.; Shanker, R.; Velmurugan, S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Rao, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A special magnesium hydroxide MG(OH)/sub 2/ sorber, loaded onto an ion-exchange matrix has been developed to remove hydrated alumina turbidity in heavy water. This sorber was applied to the coolant/moderator system in the research reactor Dhruva. The sorber not only removed turbidity but also suspended uranium at parts per billion levels and associated β, γ activity. The sorption is based on the attraction between the positively charged Mg(OH)/sub 2/ surface and the negatively charged hydrated alumina particles

  14. Graphene-Armored Aluminum Foil with Enhanced Anticorrosion Performance as Current Collectors for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhan; Tang, Miao; Chen, Shulin; Ci, Haina; Wang, Kexin; Shi, Liurong; Lin, Li; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Gao, Peng; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) foil, as the most accepted cathode current collector for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), is susceptible to local anodic corrosions during long-term operations. Such corrosions could lead to the deterioration or even premature failure of the batteries and are generally believed to be a bottleneck for next-generation 5 V LIBs. Here, it is demonstrated that Al foil armored by conformal graphene coating exhibits significantly reinforced anodic corrosion resistance in both LiPF 6 and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide (LiTFSI) based electrolytes. Moreover, LiMn 2 O 4 cells using graphene-armored Al foil as current collectors (LMO/GA) demonstrate enhanced electrochemical performance in comparison with those using pristine Al foil (LMO/PA). The long-term discharge capacity retention of LMO/GA cell after ≈950 h straight operations at low rate (0.5 C) reaches up to 91%, remarkably superior to LMO/PA cell (75%). The self-discharge propensity of LMO/GA is clearly relieved and the rate/power performance is also improved with graphene mediations. This work not only contributes to the long-term stable operations of LIBs but also might catalyze the deployment of 5 V LIBs in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters: activation barriers and chemical reactions for deuterium and aluminum cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrold, M.F.; Bower, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a new approach to investigating chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters. This approach involves investigating the collision-energy dependence of chemisorption using low-energy ion beam techniques. The method provides a direct measure of the activation barrier for chemisorption and in some cases an estimate of the desorption energy as well. They describe the application of this technique to chemisorption of deuterium on size-selected aluminum clusters. The activation barriers increase with cluster size (from a little over 1 eV for Al 10 + to around 2 eV for Al 27 + ) and show significant odd-even oscillations. The activation barriers for the clusters with an odd number of atoms are larger than those for the even-numbered clusters. In addition to chemisorption of deuterium onto the clusters, chemical reactions were observed, often resulting in cluster fragmentation. The main products observed were Al/sub n-1/D + , Al/sub n-2/ + , and Al + for clusters with n + and Al/sub n-1/D + for the larger clusters

  16. 2-Hydroxy-naphthyl functionalized mesoporous silica for fluorescence sensing and removal of aluminum ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Trisha; Roy, Ankita; Uyama, Hiroshi; Roy, Partha; Nandi, Mahasweta

    2017-06-06

    Mesoporous silica functionalized with a 2-hydroxy-naphthyl moiety has been synthesized and characterized by standard techniques like powder X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption/desorption studies, transmission electron microscopy and spectral studies like FT-IR, UV-visible, fluorescence and 13 C and 29 Si solid state NMR. The functionalized silica material showed significant enhancement in its emission intensity in the presence of Al 3+ ions whereas other metal ions could not bring about any increase in its emission intensity. They either quench the emission or do not alter the intensity significantly making the functionalized material a fluorescence chemosensor for Al 3+ . The sensitivity of the probe towards Al 3+ has been determined to be high with a low limit of detection value. As functionalized silica is not soluble in common solvents, it has been effectively used to bind and remove Al 3+ from a solution. Theoretical calculations on a model system have been performed to investigate the electronic spectral transitions.

  17. Relationships between chemical compositions, microstructure, and corrosion properties in molybdenum ion implanted aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis compares the corrosion properties of Al annealed after implantation with selected Mo concentrations to those of as-implanted Al with same Mo level and to pure Al. The principal results in this investigation are the improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance for Al implanted with Mo relative to pure Al in both the as-implanted and as-implanted-annealed state. The corrosion properties were related to the microstructures and chemical profiles in the surface-modified-regions. Potentiodynamic measurements indicate that stability of various species on the surface controls corrosion behavior in the Al-Mo system. Dual energy Mo implant procedure was used to produce a relatively thick ion implanted layer. The processing parameters were selected to produce specimen containing a continuous Al 12 Mo film with two different microstructures in the annealed material. The most improved pitting corrosion resistance was achieved in an as-implanted alloy which was implanted at 95 keV and then at 25 keV. This alloy was very resistant to pitting corrosion in a neutral aqueous solution containing 0.1 M chloride ion. Surface chemical analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy indicates that the role of Mo in inhibiting pitting corrosion is related to the formation of stable Mo oxide film

  18. On the mechanism of aluminum ion-induced neurotoxicity: The effects of aluminum species on G-protein-mediated processes and on drug interactions with the N-methyl-D-aspartate modulated ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    To establish what effects Al 3+ may have on G-protein mediate signal transduction, the effects of Al 3+ on the signal-coupling G-protein from retinal rod outer segments (G t or transducin) have been investigated as a model for the effects of Al 3+ on signal transduction by G-proteins in general. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of Al 3+ on the isolated, light-dependent rhodopsin catalyzed GTP-GDP exchange on G t ; the light-dependent GTPase activity of G t ; the light-independent cGMP hydrolysis by PDE; and the light activated, rhodopsin catalyzed, cGMP hydrolysis by PDE in vitro. To determine the effects of two defined species of aluminum on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-channel modulation we utilized a specific radioligand binding assay. This allowed us to compare the effects of aluminum to other metal ions on specific [ 3 H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor-channel complex. This complex is involved in long-term potentiation, which is currently being investigated as the mechanism by which learning and memory occur and has been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. We have investigated the effects of two different species of aluminum, as well as Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Li + on the specific binding of [ 3 H]MK-801 to the NMDA receptor-channel complex under depolarized conditions

  19. Development of nanostructured silver vanadates decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, R D; Souza Filho, A G; Alves, O L [Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido (LQES), Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13081-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Brocchi, M; Martins, D [Departamento de Genetica, Evolucao and Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Duran, N, E-mail: rholtz@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Biologica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-07

    In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and application of silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent. These hybrid materials were synthesized by a precipitation reaction of ammonium vanadate and silver nitrate followed by hydrothermal treatment. The silver vanadate nanowires have lengths of the order of microns and diameters around 60 nm. The silver nanoparticles decorating the nanowires present a diameter distribution varying from 1 to 20 nm. The influence of the pH of the reaction medium on the chemical structure and morphology of silver vanadates was studied and we found that synthesis performed at pH 5.5-6.0 led to silver vanadate nanowires with a higher morphological yield. The antimicrobial activity of these materials was evaluated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus and very promising results were found. The minimum growth inhibiting concentration value against a MRSA strain was found to be ten folds lower than for the antibiotic oxacillin.

  20. Strontium vanadate nanoribbons: Synthesis, characterization and detection of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qing; Shao, Mingwang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale, high-purity and uniform strontium vanadate (Sr 2 V 2 O 7 ) nanoribbons were easily synthesized via a hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The as-prepared products were up to hundreds of micrometers in length, 200-600 nm in width, and 20 nm in thickness. These nanomaterials were employed to modify glassy carbon electrode, which displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity in detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. A linear relationship between the concentrations of dopamine and its oxidation peak currents was obtained. The modified electrode exhibited high reproducibility and stability, which might be found potential application in the biosensors.

  1. Aluminum and gallium nuclei as microscopic probes for pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance diagnostics of electric-field gradient and spin density in garnet ceramics doped with paramagnetic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Edinach, E. V.; Asatryan, H. R.; Romanov, N. G.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Khanin, V. M.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.; Baranov, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    The presence of aluminum and gallium isotopes with large nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments in the nearest environment of impurity ions Mn2+ and Ce3+ in garnets made it possible to use hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with these ions to determine the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron and the gradient of the electric field at the sites of aluminum and gallium in the garnet lattice. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron spin echo detected electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance measurements have been performed. Large difference in the electric field gradient and quadrupole splitting at octahedral and tetrahedral sites allowed identifying the positions of aluminum and gallium ions in the garnet lattice and proving that gallium first fills tetrahedral positions in mixed aluminum-gallium garnets. This should be taken into account in the development of garnet-based scintillators and lasers. It is shown that the electric field gradient at aluminum nuclei near Mn2+ possessing an excess negative charge in the garnet lattice is ca. 2.5 times larger than on aluminum nuclei near Ce3+.

  2. Kaks nooremat luuletajat : Bernard Kangro "Vanad majad" ja Heiti Talviku "Kohtupäev" / Ants Oras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oras, Ants

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Kangro, Bernard. Vanad majad : luuletusi 1936-37. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanikkude Liit, 1937 ; Talvik, Heiti. Kohtupäev. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanikkude Liit, 1937. Varem ilmunud: Eesti Kirjandus, 1937, nr. 12, lk. 618-622

  3. Nonspecific nature of the vanadate inhibition of rat ileal (Na, K)-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, J.J.; Rowe, W.A.; Tomicic, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    Vanadate has been suggested as an intracellular regulator of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. To test this hypothesis the authors examined the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of vanadate on 86 Rb efflux and influx (measurements of the activity of the Na-pump) in rat ileum under conditions of normal, reduced and increased (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. The half maximal inhibition of the Rb efflux and the half maximal inhibition of the Rb influx were not different in the three conditions tested. This suggests that vanadate does not have a regulatory effect on the activity of the Na-K-transport enzyme. The vanadate effect seem rather, to be nonspecific in terms of being unrelated, on a mole per mole basis, to the activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase enzyme

  4. Nonspecific nature of the vanadate inhibition of rat ileal (Na, K)-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjar, J.J.; Rowe, W.A.; Tomicic, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    Vanadate has been suggested as an intracellular regulator of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. To test this hypothesis the authors examined the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of vanadate on /sup 86/Rb efflux and influx (measurements of the activity of the Na-pump) in rat ileum under conditions of normal, reduced and increased (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. The half maximal inhibition of the Rb efflux and the half maximal inhibition of the Rb influx were not different in the three conditions tested. This suggests that vanadate does not have a regulatory effect on the activity of the Na-K-transport enzyme. The vanadate effect seem rather, to be nonspecific in terms of being unrelated, on a mole per mole basis, to the activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase enzyme.

  5. White upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped K+-Na+ ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass channel waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Baojie; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Lin, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth ions doped K+-Na+ ion-exchanged aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass channel waveguides have been designed and fabricated. Under 980 nm laser pumping, an intense upconversion white light transmission trace was observed in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped NMAG glass channel waveguide and a high-brightness light spot was achieved from the output end of the fiber connected to the waveguide channel. The fluorescent colors were diverse and located within or near the white region in CIE chromaticity diagram under various pumping powers. These admirable results indicate that Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+ triply doped NMAG channel waveguide is a promising light source for medical and high-precision processing illumination.

  6. Cross sections for pion, proton, and heavy-ion production from 800 MeV protons incident upon aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicello, J.F. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA)); Schillaci, M.E.; Liu Lonchang (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    When high-energy cosmic rays interact with electronics or other materials in a spacecraft, including the occupants themselves, pions are produced as secondary particles. These secondary pions interact further in the materials producing nuclear secondaries, including nuclear recoils and heavy-ion tertiaries. The secondary pions and the the tertiary particles are capable of producing single-event upsets and other damage in integrated circuits and damage in biological systems. Negative pions stopping in materials are particularly effective because of their unique ability to produce short-range heavy particles from pion stars. With the Los Alamos National Laboratory's version of the intranuclear cascade evaporation code, VEGAS, we have calculated the number of pions produced per energy interval per incident proton from 800 MeV protons on aluminum-27 and silicon-28 along with corresponding results for neutrons, protons, and heavier ions. (orig.).

  7. The Effect of Cerium Ions on the Structure, Porosity and Electrochemical Properties of Si/Zr-Based Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings Deposited on Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rodič

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the synthesis and characterization of Si/Zr-based hybrid sol-gel coatings with and without the addition of cerium(III ions. The coatings were deposited on aluminum aiming to act as an effective and ecologically harmless alternative to toxic chromate coatings. The chemical composition, structure, thermal properties and porosity of the non-doped and Ce-doped coatings containing various Zr contents were examined by Raman spectroscopy and photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy. The corrosion properties of the coated aluminum substrates were studied using AC and DC electrochemical methods in 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte solution. Barrier and protecting properties of the coatings were monitored upon long-term immersion in chloride solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of cerium ions was two-fold: on the formation of a more condensed Si−O−Zr network structure and on the formation of Ce-based deposits, which diminish the rate of cathodic reaction at the coating/metal interface. These effects acted synergistically and resulted in the creation of the coatings with effective barrier and active corrosion protection.

  8. Aluminum ions alter the function of non-specific phospholipase C through the changes in plasma membrane physical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2015), e1031938 ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/12/P950; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1942; GA ČR GA13-19073S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : aluminum toxicity * Arabidopsis thaliana * benzyl alcohol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  10. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  11. Reducing cell-to-cell spacing for large-format lithium ion battery modules with aluminum or PCM heat sinks under failure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Brittany; Ostanek, Jason; Heinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Finite element analysis to evaluate heat sinks for large format li-ion batteries. • Solid metal heat sink and composite heat sink (metal filler and wax). • Transient simulations show response from rest to steady-state with normal load. • Transient simulations of two different failure modes were considered. • Significance of spacing, material properties, interface quality, and phase change. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for large-scale, shipboard energy storage systems utilizing lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, there has been growing research in thermal management of lithium-ion battery modules. However, there is little information available on the minimum cell-to-cell spacing limits for indirect, liquid cooled modules when considering heat release during a single cell failure. For this purpose, a generic four-cell module was modeled using finite element analysis to determine the sensitivity of module temperatures to cell spacing. Additionally, the effects of different heat sink materials and interface qualities were investigated. Two materials were considered, a solid aluminum block and a metal/wax composite block. Simulations were run for three different transient load profiles. The first profile simulates sustained high rate operation where the system begins at rest and generates heat continuously until it reaches steady state. And, two failure mode simulations were conducted to investigate block performance during a slow and a fast exothermic reaction, respectively. Results indicate that composite materials can perform well under normal operation and provide some protection against single cell failure; although, for very compact designs, the amount of wax available to absorb heat is reduced and the effectiveness of the phase change material is diminished. The aluminum block design performed well under all conditions, and showed that heat generated during a failure is quickly dissipated to the coolant, even under the

  12. Effect of the neutral charge fraction in the Coulomb explosion of H2+ ions through aluminum foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Cristian D.; Abril, Isabel; Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Lantschner, Gerardo H.; Eckardt, Juan C.; Arista, Netor R.

    2002-01-01

    The Coulomb explosion of the proton fragments dissociated from H 2 + molecules moving through thin aluminum foils has been studied by means of their energy spectra, measured in the forward direction, and by computer simulations. The covered energy range goes from 25 to 100 keV/u. Estimations of the neutral charge fraction of the fragments inside the foil have been obtained by comparison of the experimental energy spectra with the computer simulations

  13. Effect of the neutral charge fraction in the Coulomb explosion of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions through aluminum foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Cristian D. E-mail: cdenton@fis.utfsm.cl; Abril, Isabel; Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Lantschner, Gerardo H.; Eckardt, Juan C.; Arista, Netor R

    2002-06-01

    The Coulomb explosion of the proton fragments dissociated from H{sub 2}{sup +} molecules moving through thin aluminum foils has been studied by means of their energy spectra, measured in the forward direction, and by computer simulations. The covered energy range goes from 25 to 100 keV/u. Estimations of the neutral charge fraction of the fragments inside the foil have been obtained by comparison of the experimental energy spectra with the computer simulations.

  14. Experimental investigation of aluminum complexing with sodium ion and of gallium and iron (III) speciation in natural solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakonov, Igor

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to acquire thermodynamic data on the aqueous complexes forming between sodium and aluminum, gallium and hydroxide, and iron (III) and hydroxide. These data will provide for a better understanding of the transport and distribution of these elements in surface and hydrothermal fluids. Stability constants of the sodium-aluminate complex (Na Al(OH) 4 deg.) were obtained from boehmite solubility measurements at temperatures from 125 to 350 deg. C in alkaline solutions containing from 0.1 to 1 mol/L sodium. Complementary potentiometric measurements were performed with a sodium selective electrode, between 75 and 200 deg C (the potentiometric study was carried out by Gleb Pokrovski). Analyses of these data within the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model allowed determination of the HKF parameters for Na Al(OH) 4 deg. and calculation of its thermodynamic properties to 800 deg. C and 5 kb. The results of this work show that Na Al(OH) 4 deg. complex formation increases significantly the solubility of aluminum-bearing minerals and consequently aluminum mobility in hydrothermal fluids. Gallium speciation in surface and hydrothermal fluids is dominated by the negatively charged species, Ga(OH) 4 - . The thermodynamic properties of this species were determined from of OEGaOOH solubility measurements as a function of pH and temperature from 25 to 250 deg. C. In general, the variation of gallium aqueous speciation with pH is similar to that of aluminum other than at temperatures less than 200 deg. C over the pH range 3 - 6. This difference can account for the independent behavior of gallium versus aluminum in numerous low temperature natural systems. The thermodynamic properties of Fe(OH) 3 deg. which dominates the speciation of Fe(III) in surface waters and Fe(OH) 4 - were determined from hematite solubility measurements as a function of pH, oxygen pressure and temperature from 110 to 300 deg. C. The available thermodynamic data on

  15. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  16. AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors with reduced leakage current and enhanced breakdown voltage using aluminum ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shichuang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Fu, Kai, E-mail: kfu2009@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: cqchen@mail.hust.edu.cn; Yu, Guohao; Zhang, Zhili; Song, Liang; Deng, Xuguang; Li, Shuiming; Sun, Qian; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qi, Zhiqiang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing, E-mail: kfu2009@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: cqchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-01-04

    This letter has studied the performance of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors on silicon substrate with GaN buffer treated by aluminum ion implantation for insulating followed by a channel regrown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. For samples with Al ion implantation of multiple energies of 140 keV (dose: 1.4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}) and 90 keV (dose: 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}), the OFF-state leakage current is decreased by more than 3 orders and the breakdown voltage is enhanced by nearly 6 times compared to the samples without Al ion implantation. Besides, little degradation of electrical properties of the 2D electron gas channel is observed where the maximum drain current I{sub DSmax} at a gate voltage of 3 V was 701 mA/mm and the maximum transconductance g{sub mmax} was 83 mS/mm.

  17. Morphological and electrical properties of zirconium vanadate doped with cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa F. Elkady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cesium doped zirconium vanadate ZrV2O7 with different Cs dopant content (Cs/Zr varied from 0 to 0.5 in weight ratio were fabricated by hydrothermal technique at 120 °C for 60 min. The synthesized materials are thermally treated using microwave technique. The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized materials and thermally treated samples were investigated using XRD and SEM respectively. It was evident that all synthesized specimens have cubic phase structural without any extra phase but after heat treatment Orthorhombic phase appear with doped samples. However, the morphological structure of the doped synthesized materials has transferred from nanoparticles into rods aspect with heat treatment for the different dopant ratio. Moreover, the electrical properties of both the synthesized and thermally treated materials are studied by AC impedance measurements. The results indicated that the ionic conductivity of Cs-doped ZrV2O7 materials decreased by increasing the dopant ratio while that thermally treated samples the ionic conductivity increase by increasing the dopant ratio. Finally, the concentration of cesium dopants is found to play crucial role in tuning the morphology and electrical properties of nanostructures.

  18. Room temperature synthesis and high temperature frictional study of silver vanadate nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D P; Polychronopoulou, K; Rebholz, C; Aouadi, S M

    2010-08-13

    We report the room temperature (RT) synthesis of silver vanadate nanorods (consisting of mainly beta-AgV O(3)) by a simple wet chemical route and their frictional study at high temperatures (HT). The sudden mixing of ammonium vanadate with silver nitrate solution under constant magnetic stirring resulted in a pale yellow coloured precipitate. Structural/microstructural characterization of the precipitate through x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the high yield and homogeneous formation of silver vanadate nanorods. The length of the nanorods was 20-40 microm and the thickness 100-600 nm. The pH variation with respect to time was thoroughly studied to understand the formation mechanism of the silver vanadate nanorods. This synthesis process neither demands HT, surfactants nor long reaction time. The silver vanadate nanomaterial showed good lubrication behaviour at HT (700 degrees C) and the friction coefficient was between 0.2 and 0.3. HT-XRD revealed that AgV O(3) completely transformed into silver vanadium oxide (Ag(2)V(4)O(11)) and silver with an increase in temperature from RT to 700 degrees C.

  19. Room temperature synthesis and high temperature frictional study of silver vanadate nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D P; Aouadi, S M [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale-62901 (United States); Polychronopoulou, K [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 1678 (Cyprus); Rebholz, C, E-mail: dineshpsingh@gmail.com, E-mail: saouadi@physics.siu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 1678 (Cyprus)

    2010-08-13

    We report the room temperature (RT) synthesis of silver vanadate nanorods (consisting of mainly {beta}-AgV O{sub 3}) by a simple wet chemical route and their frictional study at high temperatures (HT). The sudden mixing of ammonium vanadate with silver nitrate solution under constant magnetic stirring resulted in a pale yellow coloured precipitate. Structural/microstructural characterization of the precipitate through x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the high yield and homogeneous formation of silver vanadate nanorods. The length of the nanorods was 20-40 {mu}m and the thickness 100-600 nm. The pH variation with respect to time was thoroughly studied to understand the formation mechanism of the silver vanadate nanorods. This synthesis process neither demands HT, surfactants nor long reaction time. The silver vanadate nanomaterial showed good lubrication behaviour at HT (700 deg. C) and the friction coefficient was between 0.2 and 0.3. HT-XRD revealed that AgV O{sub 3} completely transformed into silver vanadium oxide (Ag{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 11}) and silver with an increase in temperature from RT to 700 deg. C.

  20. Vanadate-induced inhibition of renin secretion is unrelated to inhibition Na,K-ATPase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, P.C.; Rossi, N.F.; Churchill, M.C.; Ellis, V.R. (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence that three inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase activity-ouabain, K-free extracellular fluid, and vanadate--inhibit renin secretion by increasing Ca{sup 2+} concentration in juxtaglomerular cells, but in the case of vanadate, it is uncertain whether the increase in Ca{sup 2+} is due to a decrease in Ca{sup 2+} efflux or to an increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx through potential operated Ca channels. In the present experiments, the rat renal cortical slice preparation was used to compare and contrast the effects of ouabain, of K-free fluid, and of vanadate on renin secretion, in the absence and presence of methoxyverapamil, A Ca channel blocker. Basal renin secretory rate averaged 7.7 {plus minus} 0.3 GU/g/60 min, and secretory rate was reduced to nearly zero by 1 mM ouabain, by K-free fluid, by 0.5 mM vanadate, and by K-depolarization. Although 0.5 {mu}M methoxyverapamil completely blocked the inhibitory effect of K-depolarization, it failed to antagonize the inhibitory effects of ouabain, of K-free fluid, and of vanadate.

  1. Red mud a byproduct of aluminum production contains soluble vanadium that causes genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mišík, Miroslav [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Ian T. [Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Reismüller, Matthias; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Mišíková, Katarina [Department of Botany, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mayes, William M. [Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences, University of Hull, Scarborough YO11 3AZ (United Kingdom); Knasmueller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Red mud (RM) is a byproduct of aluminum production; worldwide between 70 and 120 million tons is produced annually. We analyzed RM which was released in the course of the Kolontar disaster in Hungary into the environment in acute and genotoxicity experiments with plants which are widely used for environmental monitoring. We detected induction of micronuclei which reflect chromosomal damage in tetrads of Tradescantia and in root cells of Allium as well as retardation of root growth with contaminated soils and leachates. Chemical analyses showed that RM contains metals, in particular high concentrations of vanadium. Follow-up experiments indicated that vanadate causes the effects in the plants. This compound causes also in humans DNA damage and positive results were obtained in carcinogenicity studies. Since it was found also in RM from other production sites our findings indicate that its release in the environment is a global problem which should be studied in more detail. Capsule abstract: Our findings indicate that the red mud causes genotoxic effect in plants probably due to the presence of vanadate which is contained at high concentrations in the residue. - Highlights: • Red mud, a by-product of aluminum production, causes DNA-damage in higher plants. • We showed that this effect is caused by vanadate a known carcinogenic genotoxin. • Vanadate is contained in high concentrations in the residue. • Release of red mud may cause adverse effects in ecosystems and affect human health.

  2. Removal of aluminum, iron and manganese ions from industrial wastes using granular activated carbon and Amberlite IR-120H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Goher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of aluminum, iron and manganese from some pollution sources that drain into Ismailia Canal has been investigated using two different sorbents; granular activated carbon (GAC and Amberlite IR-120H (AIR-120H. Batch equilibrium experiments showed that the two sorbents have maximum removal efficiency for aluminum and iron pH 5 and 10 min contact time in ambient room temperature, while pH 7 and 30 min were the most appropriate for manganese removal. Dosage of 2 g/l for both GAC and AIR-120H was established to give the maximum removal capacity. At optimum conditions, the removal trend was in order of Al+3 > Fe+2 > Mn+2 with 99.2, 99.02 and 79.05 and 99.55, 99.42 and 96.65% of metal removal with GAC and AIR-120H, respectively. For the three metals, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms showed higher R2 values, with a slightly better fitting for the Langmuir model. In addition, separation factors (RL and exponent (n values indicated favorable Langmuir (0 < RL < 1 and Freundlich (1 < n < 10 approach. GAC and AIR-120H can be used as excellent alternative, effective and inexpensive materials to remove high amounts of heavy metals from waste water.

  3. Simultaneous sorption of fluoride and arsenic ions (V) in a naturally occurring material modified with iron and aluminum; Sorcion simultanea de iones fluoruros y arsenico (V) en un material de origen natural modificado con hierro y aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez M, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, two materials, zeolite and pozzolans from the States of Oaxaca and Mexico, were used respectively, which were modified to evaluate their efficiencies to remove F and As(V) ions from solution and natural water. The materials were modified with iron and aluminum using an electrochemical cell, and with the hydroxides formed with iron and aluminum chloride solutions. The natural and modified materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy X-ray disperse spectroscopy analysis, specific area and the point of zero charge (pHzpc). F- and As(V) adsorption properties of both materials were investigated. Experimental data on the sorption processes of F- ions by modified zeolite and pozzolans were adjusted to the kinetic models of pseudo-second-order (q e, 0408 mg /g K, 4.33 g / mg h) and Lagergen (q e, 0.807 mg/g K L, 1.83 1/min), respectively. Both materials showed the best fit to the Freundlich isotherm, Kf, 0.33 and 0.64 (mg/g) (L/mg) for pozzolans and zeolite respectively; suggesting a physical adsorption process on a heterogeneous material. Experimental adsorption capacities of pozzolans and modified zeolite for F ions were 0.36 and 0.83 mg/g respectively. The results of the kinetics of adsorption of As(V) were treated with the Largergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models; however the adsorption rate was high and consequently the rate constants could not be calculated. The isotherms data were fitted to the Freundlich model and the constants Kf were 6.24 and 11.15 (mg/g) (L/mg) for pozzolans and zeolite respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption processes suggest endothermic adsorption for F- ions by both materials and for As(V) by the pozzolans. The free energy values ΔG indicate spontaneous processes and not spontaneous for F- ions by pozzolans. The adsorption of As (V) by the pozzolans presented an exothermic and spontaneous behavior. Finally, a study was performed in columns with

  4. CuO and Ag2O effect on electrical properties of barium vanadate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolova, L.D.; Glasova, M.N.; Kalygina, V.M.; Spasibkina, S.N.; Khorikov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of CuO on barium vanadate glass (BVG) conductivity on direct and alternating currents in the frequency range (10 2 -10 4 )Hz has been studied. Effect of Ag 2 O has been also studied for comparison, as Ag and Cu have idendical structure of external electron shells (d 10 , S 1 ). CuO introduction to binary barium vanadate glasses as a modificator results in the conductivity improvement on direct and alternating currents conditioned with reducing activation energy of small radius polaron jump, apparently, owing to exchange (ferromagnetic) interaction between V(IV) and Cu(II). Jump activation energy in barium vanadate glasses with Ag 2 O increases and conductivity drops due to the distance increase between vanadium atoms

  5. Aluminum ions alter the function of non-specific phospholipase C through the changes in plasma membrane physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The first indication of the aluminum (Al) toxicity in plants growing in acidic soils is the cessation of root growth, but the detailed mechanism of Al effect is unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al stress on the activity of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) in the connection with the processes related to the plasma membrane using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine. We observed a rapid and significant decrease of labeled diacylglycerol (DAG), product of NPC activity, in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with AlCl₃. Interestingly, an application of the membrane fluidizer, benzyl alcohol, restored the level of DAG during Al treatment. Our observations suggest that the activity of NPC is affected by Al-induced changes in plasma membrane physical properties.

  6. Separation and recovery of chromium and vanadium metal ions from waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothmann, H.; Bauer, G.; Stuhr, A.; Retelsdorf, H-J.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of Cr- and V- recovery from waste waters, precipitation of chromate and vanadate ions as insoluble compounds, absorption of Cr and V on solid ion exchange resins, absorption of Cr and V on fluid ion exchangers. Extraction with fluid exchangers: simultaneous extraction of Cr and V with Ion Exchanger Hoe F 1857 to determine the distribution isotherms, separate extraction of Cr in a continuously operating mixer-settler plant, separate extraction of vanadate in a constantly operating mixer-settler plant, test with an extraction column, losses in the organic phase during chromium and vanadium extraction, discussion of the test results and economic considerations

  7. Redox transitions in strontium vanadates: Electrical conductivity and dimensional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, J.; Yaremchenko, A.A.; Frade, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion of strontium vanadates are measured. • Conductivity of SrVO 3−δ is 10 6 –10 8 times higher compared to Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and Sr 3 V 2 O 8 . • Sr 2 V 2 O 7 transforms on reduction to SrVO 3−δ via (5Sr 3 V 2 O 8 + SrV 6 O 11 ) intermediate. • This process is kinetically stagnated due to good redox stability of Sr 3 V 2 O 8 . • Large volume changes on Sr 2 V 2 O 7 ↔ SrVO 3 transformation are confirmed by dilatometry. - Abstract: The reversibility of redox-induced phase transformations and accompanying electrical conductivity and dimensional changes in perovskite-type SrVO 3−δ , a parent material for a family of potential solid oxide fuel cell anode materials, were evaluated employing X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, dilatometry and electrical measurements. At 873–1273 K, the electrical conductivity of SrVO 3−δ is metallic-like and 6–8 orders of magnitude higher compared to semiconducting V 5+ -based strontium pyrovanadate Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and strontium orthovanadate Sr 3 V 2 O 8 existing under oxidizing conditions. SrVO 3−δ is easily oxidized to a pyrovanadate phase at atmospheric oxygen pressure. Inverse reduction in 10%H 2 –90%N 2 atmosphere occurs in two steps through (5Sr 3 V 2 O 8 + SrV 6 O 11 ) intermediate. As Sr 3 V 2 O 8 is relatively stable even under reducing conditions, the perovskite phase and its high level of electrical conductivity cannot be recovered completely in a reasonable time span at temperatures ⩽1273 K. Dilatometric studies confirmed that SrVO 3 ↔ Sr 2 V 2 O 7 redox transformation is accompanied with significant dimensional changes. Their extent depends on the degree of phase conversion and, apparently, on microstructural features

  8. "Vanade ja kobedate" Väino uuendas tutvust maaga / Gert Kiiler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiler, Gert

    2002-01-01

    RUUT Pictures alustas täispika rahvakomöödia "Vanad ja kobedad saavad jalad alla" või "Seiklusjutte maalt" võtteid Viljandimaal Mustlas, peaosades Henrik Normann ja Madis Milling. Režissöör on Rando Pettai

  9. A Determination of V205 Activity in Corrosive Molten Vanadate-Sulfate Phases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Robert

    1994-01-01

    .... We have recently devised a thermogravimetric (TGA)/S03 equilibrium technique that could potentially be used to 'chart' the V2O5 activity in vanadate-sulfate melts over a wide range of Na/V ratios, SO3 partial pressures and temperatures...

  10. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  11. Effect of vanadate on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity in skeletal muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Youn, J; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    of vanadate (NaVO3) on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity (V(max) = intrinsic activity x [GLUT4 protein]) was studied in muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles. Giant vesicles (average diameter 7.6 microns) were produced by collagenase treatment of rat skeletal muscle. The vesicles were incubated......) 55% and 60%, respectively, compared with control. The plasma membrane GLUT4 protein content was not changed in response to vanadate. It is concluded that vanadate decreased glucose transport per GLUT4 (intrinsic activity). This finding suggests that regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle...

  12. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, M.; Laucournet, R.; Billy, E.

    2014-02-01

    A hydrometallurgical process is developed to recover valuable metals of the lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Effect of parameters such as type of acid (H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl), acid concentration (1-4 mol L-1), leaching time (3-18 h) and leaching temperature (25-90 °C) with a solid to liquid ratio fixed at 5% (w/v) are investigated to determine the most efficient conditions of dissolution. The preliminary results indicate that HCl provides higher leaching efficiency. In optimum conditions, a complete dissolution is performed for Li, Ni, Co and Al. In the nickel and cobalt recovery process, at first the Co(II) in the leaching liquor is selectively oxidized in Co(III) with NaClO reagent to recover Co2O3, 3H2O by a selective precipitation at pH = 3. Then, the nickel hydroxide is precipitated by a base addition at pH = 11. The recovery efficiency of cobalt and nickel are respectively 100% and 99.99%.

  13. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  14. Removal of aluminum(III)-based turbidity in water using hydrous titanium oxide dispersed in ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.; Karweer, S.B.; Iyer, R.K.; Phatak, G.M.; Iyer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    An adsorber consisting of hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) dispersed in a Dowex-type ion-exchange resin matrix (designated RT resins) has been developed which is capable of removing Al(III)-based colloidal dispersions in the neutral pH condition. The effect of resin crosslinking, particle size, HTiO loading, turbidity level, and flow rate on the turbidity removal efficiency of RT resins has been studied. It is demonstrated that a train of columns comprising RT resin, H + , and OH - form of resins could be used for large-scale purification operations at high flow rates. These columns, apart from removing turbidity and associated radioactivity, can effectively remove dissolved uranium present in ppb levels when used for water purification in nuclear reactors

  15. Deposition of single-layer and graded aluminum nitride coatings on vanadium substrates using ion-beam assisted reactive evaporation (ITER task no. ETA-EC-BLR26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamarani, F.; Lang, R.; Owles, R.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the project has been to develop a reactive evaporation process for the fabrication of aluminum nitride coatings on pure vanadium substrates. The aluminum nitride coatings are to be used as electrical insulators on the surfaces of structural materials in contact with liquid metal coolants. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of yttrium vanadate phosphor prepared by the non-hydrolytic sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Marcela G.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Calefi, Paulo S.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino

    2014-01-01

    We used the non-hydrolytic sol–gel route to synthesize YVO 4 crystalline phases doped with europium III ion. We heat-treated the samples at 600, 800, and 1000 °C and characterized the materials by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and photoluminescence. Larger weight loss occurred until 500 °C, ascribed to removal of residual precursor molecules. X-ray diffraction patterns evidenced YVO 4 phase formation at 600 °C. The crystallite size depended on the heat treatment temperature. SAXS showed that the nature of the system interfaces changed as a function of the thermal treatment. The excitation spectra of the samples displayed the charge transfer band. The photoluminescence data revealed the characteristic transition bands arising from the 5 D 0 → 5 F J (J=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) manifolds under maximum excitation at the charge transfer band and the 5 L 6 level of the Eu 3+ ion. The 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition dominated the emission spectra, indicating that the Eu 3+ ion occupies a site without inversion center. The lifetime and quantum efficiency values were about 0.70 ms and 50%, respectively, corroborating literature results. -- Highlights: • This study described the preparation of the yttrium vanadate by non-hydrolytic sol–gel. • The SAXS curves can be interpreted from the fractal theory for a two-phase model. • The goal of the work is the preparation of the phosphors at low temperature. • The lifetimes depend on wavelength of the excitation

  17. Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of yttrium vanadate phosphor prepared by the non-hydrolytic sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Marcela G.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Calefi, Paulo S.; Ciuffi, Katia J. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira, 201 Franca, SP, CEP 14404-600 (Brazil); Nassar, Eduardo J., E-mail: ejnassar@unifran.br [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira, 201 Franca, SP, CEP 14404-600 (Brazil); Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Ver. Olimpio Grande s/n Itabaiana, SE, CEP 49500-000 (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    We used the non-hydrolytic sol–gel route to synthesize YVO{sub 4} crystalline phases doped with europium III ion. We heat-treated the samples at 600, 800, and 1000 °C and characterized the materials by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and photoluminescence. Larger weight loss occurred until 500 °C, ascribed to removal of residual precursor molecules. X-ray diffraction patterns evidenced YVO{sub 4} phase formation at 600 °C. The crystallite size depended on the heat treatment temperature. SAXS showed that the nature of the system interfaces changed as a function of the thermal treatment. The excitation spectra of the samples displayed the charge transfer band. The photoluminescence data revealed the characteristic transition bands arising from the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 5}F{sub J} (J=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) manifolds under maximum excitation at the charge transfer band and the {sup 5}L{sub 6} level of the Eu{sup 3+} ion. The {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition dominated the emission spectra, indicating that the Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies a site without inversion center. The lifetime and quantum efficiency values were about 0.70 ms and 50%, respectively, corroborating literature results. -- Highlights: • This study described the preparation of the yttrium vanadate by non-hydrolytic sol–gel. • The SAXS curves can be interpreted from the fractal theory for a two-phase model. • The goal of the work is the preparation of the phosphors at low temperature. • The lifetimes depend on wavelength of the excitation.

  18. Gamma-irradiation effect on dielectric properties of vanadate doped polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Ellil, M.S.; Ahmed, M.A.; El-Ahdal, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The real part of the dielectric constant (ε) for different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% by wt.) of the ammonium meta vanadate doped polyvinyl alcohol was measured as a function of temperature and frequency. Different γ-ray doses (2.0, 5.0 and 10kGy) were used for samples irradiation. The dielectric constant of the samples reveals more than one peak depending on the vanadate concentration as well as the applied frequency. The main relaxation peak was discussed with reference degradation and crosslinking that vary drastically with the γ-dose. The hump that appeared at high temperature was found to be due to order-disorder transition. The variation of the internal dynamic viscosity of the sample by irradiation was found to play a role in the polarization process as well as (ε) values. Gradual increase in (ε) was obtained by increasing the γ-dose. (author)

  19. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible porous substrates: ZnO on anodic aluminum oxide films and Al2O3 on Li ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kashish; Routkevitch, Dmitri; Varaksa, Natalia; George, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) was examined on flexible porous substrates utilizing a rotating cylinder reactor to perform the S-ALD. S-ALD was first explored on flexible polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrates to obtain S-ALD growth rates on flat surfaces. ZnO ALD with diethylzinc and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C was the model S-ALD system. ZnO S-ALD was then performed on nanoporous flexible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. ZnO S-ALD in porous substrates depends on the pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and reactant exposure time that define the gas transport. To evaluate these parameters, the Zn coverage profiles in the pores of the AAO films were measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS measurements were conducted for different reaction conditions and AAO pore geometries. Substrate speeds and reactant pulse durations were defined by rotating cylinder rates of 10, 100, and 200 revolutions per minute (RPM). AAO pore diameters of 10, 25, 50, and 100 nm were utilized with a pore length of 25 μm. Uniform Zn coverage profiles were obtained at 10 RPM and pore diameters of 100 nm. The Zn coverage was less uniform at higher RPM values and smaller pore diameters. These results indicate that S-ALD into porous substrates is feasible under certain reaction conditions. S-ALD was then performed on porous Li ion battery electrodes to test S-ALD on a technologically important porous substrate. Li 0.20 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 electrodes on flexible metal foil were coated with Al 2 O 3 using 2–5 Al 2 O 3 ALD cycles. The Al 2 O 3 ALD was performed in the S-ALD reactor at a rotating cylinder rate of 10 RPM using trimethylaluminum and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C. The capacity of the electrodes was then tested versus number of charge–discharge cycles. These measurements revealed that the Al 2 O 3 S-ALD coating on the electrodes enhanced the capacity stability. This S-ALD process could be extended to roll-to-roll operation for

  20. Vanadate influence on metabolism of sugar phosphates in fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Žižić

    Full Text Available The biological and chemical basis of vanadium action in fungi is relatively poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the influence of vanadate (V5+ on phosphate metabolism of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Addition of V5+ caused increase of sugar phosphates signal intensities in 31P NMR spectra in vivo. HPLC analysis of mycelial phosphate extracts demonstrated increased concentrations of glucose 6 phosphate, fructose 6 phosphate, fructose 1, 6 phosphate and glucose 1 phosphate after V5+ treatment. Influence of V5+ on the levels of fructose 2, 6 phosphate, glucosamine 6 phosphate and glucose 1, 6 phosphate (HPLC, and polyphosphates, UDPG and ATP (31P NMR was also established. Increase of sugar phosphates content was not observed after addition of vanadyl (V4+, indicating that only vanadate influences its metabolism. Obtained results from in vivo experiments indicate catalytic/inhibitory vanadate action on enzymes involved in reactions of glycolysis and glycogenesis i.e., phosphoglucomutase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase in filamentous fungi.

  1. Effect of antimony oxide on magnesium vanadates for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.T.; Chi, Z.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, ROC Taichung (Taiwan)

    2001-05-17

    The effect of antimony oxide addition to MgV{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Mg{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} was studied in the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Significant improvements in sulfur selectivity and yield were observed for the uncalcined mechanical mixtures of magnesium vanadates with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Calcination of the mechanical mixtures resulted in the much stronger synergy in catalytic activity and sulfur selectivity. For the uncalcined samples, XRD, TPR and XPS studies indicated that antimony reduction behaviors in the mechanical mixtures differed very much from those in {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone, suggested that their selectivity improvements might be due to the interactions (probably oxygen transfer) between {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesium vanadates. For the calcined samples, XRD results indicated that their better catalytic performances in H{sub 2}S oxidation were primarily attributed to the formation of VSbO{sub 4} compound from antimony oxide and magnesium vanadates.

  2. 1H and 51V NMR studies of the interaction of vanadate and 2-vanadio-3-phosphoglycerate with phosphoglycerate mutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Gresser, M.J.; Tracey, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of complexes of vanadate with 2-phosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate have been studied using 51 V nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Signals attributed to two 2,3-diphosphoglycerate analogues, 2-vanadio-3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phospho-3-vanadioglycerate, were detected but were not fully resolved from signals of inorganic vanadate and the anhydride formed between vanadate and the phosphate ester moieties of the individual phosphoglycerates. Equilibrium constants for formation of the two 2,3-bisphosphate analogues were estimated as 2.5 M -1 for 2-vanadio-3-phosphoglycerate and 0.2 M -1 for 2-phospho-3-vanadioglycerate. The results of the binding study are fully consistent with noncooperativity in the binding of vanadiophosphoglycerate to the two active sites of phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). The results obtained here are in accord with these vanadate-phosphoglycerate complexes being much more potent inhibitors of phosphoglycerate mutase than either monomeric or dimeric vanadate. These results strongly support the view that phosphoryl transfer in this enzyme involves a pentacoordinate phosphate intermediate and suggests that the two active sites operate independently of each other

  3. Comparison of the vanadate oxidase method with the diazo method for serum bilirubin determination in dog, monkey, and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Mehrdad; Schnaars, Henry; Sibley, John; Honor, David

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used method for bilirubin concentration determination is the diazo method, which measures the color of azobilirubin. The vanadate oxidase method is based on oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin by vanadate. The objective of this study was to compare total and direct bilirubin concentration ([Bt] and [Bd], respectively) determined by the diazo and vanadate oxidase methods in pooled serum samples from dogs, monkeys, and rats spiked with panels of different concentrations of bilirubin standards. Pooled serum samples from 40 dogs, 40 monkeys, and 60 rats were spiked with either ditaurine conjugates of bilirubin or a standard reference material. The results obtained from both assays were compared using Deming regression analysis. The intra- and interassay precision, expressed as a percentage of the coefficient of variation (%CV), was determined for [Bt] and [Bd], and the mean percentage of recovery was calculated. The vanadate oxidase method displayed an excellent correlation (r  =  0.99-1.00) with the diazo method. Using Deming regression, there were minimal negative or positive constant and proportional biases for [Bt] and [Bd]. The precision studies revealed that the vanadate oxidase method has comparable between-run and within-run CVs to those of the diazo method. The recovery study demonstrated that the diazo method more closely approximates the expected values of [Bt]. In conclusion, the vanadate oxidase method is a simple and rapid method that can be employed as an alternative to the diazo method when interfering substances are present in the serum samples of dog, monkey, and rat.

  4. Chemical studies on the synthesis and characterization of some ion- exchange materials and its use in the treatment of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, A.B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Now inorganic ion exchange materials play an important role in analytical chemistry, based originally on their thermal and radiation resistance as well as their stability to chemical attack.Vanadate salts are one of the main categories of inorganic ion exchange materials widely used in separation and preconcentration of some toxic and hazardous elements from different waste media. Attempts in this study are focused on the preparation of two inorganic ion exchange materials ,Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) for treatment of hazardous waste.These material were characterized using X-ray spectra (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the materials have been found that they are highly selective for Pb(II) and Cs(I)ions. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e. ΔG, ΔS and ΔH) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ and Co 2+ ions on Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + and Pb 2+ ions for Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) as cation exchangers were studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperatures and drying temperatures. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 plots. The values of diffusion coefficients, activation energies and entropies of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. The data obtained have been compared with that reported for other inorganic exchangers. Exchange isotherms for Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ ions were determined at 25, 45 and 65±1 degree C. These isotherms showed that Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ are physically adsorbed. Finally, separations of the above

  5. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional cuprates and vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzkern, S.

    2001-01-01

    In a combination of experimental and theoretical methods in this thesis the electronic structures of quasi-one-dimensional cuprates and vanadates were studied. For this the momentum-dependent loss function was measured by means of the electron energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission on monocrystals of Li 2 CuO 2 , CuGeO 3 , V 2 O 5 and α'-NaVO 5 . The comparison of the experimental data with results from band-structure and cluster calculations allowed conclusions on the mobility and correlations of the electrons in these systems

  6. Vanadate impedes adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells derived from different depots within bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Alexander Jacobs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIO is associated with an increase in bone marrow adiposity which skews the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC progenitors away from osteoblastogenesis and towards adipogenesis. We have previously found that vanadate, a non-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, prevents GIO in rats, but it was unclear whether vanadate directly influenced adipogenesis in bone-derived MSCs. For the present study, we investigated the effect of vanadate on adipogenesis in primary rat MSCs derived from bone marrow (bmMSCs and from the proximal end of the femur (pfMSCs. By passage 3 after isolation, both cell populations expressed the MSC cell surface markers CD90 and CD106, but not the haematopoietic marker CD45. However, although variable, expression of the fibroblast marker CD26 was higher in pfMSCs than in bmMSCs. Differentiation studies using osteogenic and adipogenic induction media (OM and AM, respectively demonstrated that pfMSCs rapidly accumulated lipid droplets within 1 week of exposure to AM, while bmMSCs isolated from the same femur only formed lipid droplets after 3 weeks of AM treatment. Conversely, pfMSCs exposed to OM produced mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM after 3 weeks, compared to 1 week for OM-treated bmMSCs. Vanadate (10 µM added to AM resulted in a significant reduction in AM-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic gene markers (PPARγ2, aP2, adipsin in both pfMSCs and bmMSCs. Pharmacological concentrations of glucocorticoids (1 µM alone did not induce lipid accumulation in either bmMSCs or pfMSCs, but resulted in significant cell death in pfMSCs. Our findings demonstrate the existence of at least two fundamentally different MSC depots within the femur, and highlights the presence of MSCs capable of rapid adipogenesis within the proximal femur, an area prone to osteoporotic fractures. In addition, our results suggest that the increased bone marrow

  7. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Weijiang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); South China Institute of Environmental Science, MEP, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Fu, Fenglian, E-mail: fufenglian2006@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Acid-washed zero-valent iron and zero-valent aluminum were used in PRBs. • The time that removal efficiencies of heavy metal were above 99.5% can keep 300 h. • Removal mechanism of Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} was discussed. • Heavy metal ions were removed by reduction, adsorption, and co-precipitation. - Abstract: The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  8. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weijiang; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acid-washed zero-valent iron and zero-valent aluminum were used in PRBs. • The time that removal efficiencies of heavy metal were above 99.5% can keep 300 h. • Removal mechanism of Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ was discussed. • Heavy metal ions were removed by reduction, adsorption, and co-precipitation. - Abstract: The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  9. A high-peak-power passively Q-switched composite variable-cut vanadate laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We present laser sources based on a novel method of controlling spectral parameters in diode-pumped vanadate lasers. Angular dependences of the luminescence intensity of Stark transitions at the 4F3/2‒4I11/2 transition in vanadate crystals are investigated. The operation of diode-pumped passively Q-switched composite variable-cut (θ = var, φ = 0) YVO 4 –Nd 3+  : YVO 4 lasers with Cr 4+  : YAG saturable absorber is demonstrated (the narrowest pulse of 2 ns with the highest peak power of 24.3 kW). In the experiment, an efficient self-Raman laser was realized, based on the multifunctional variable-cut (θ = 25°, φ = 0) YVO 4 –Nd 3+  : YVO 4 laser crystal with the passive Q-switched. (letters)

  10. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  11. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-07-14

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Photoelectroactivity of bismuth vanadate prepared by combustion synthesis: effect of different fuels and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Renata; Serafim, Jessica A.; Lucilha, Adriana C.; Dall' Antonia, Luiz H., E-mail: luizh@uel.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Materiais; Silva, Marcelo R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CTI/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Colegio Tecnico Industrial; Lepre, Luiz F.; Ando, Romulo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Espectroscopia Molecular

    2014-04-15

    The bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) is a semiconductor that has attracted much attention due to the photocatalytic efficiency in the visible light region. The objective of this work was to synthesize monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} by solution combustion synthesis, with different surfactants and fuels and apply it as photoelectrodes. The characterization by infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed that all samples showed characteristic bands of the monoclinic structure BiVO{sub 4}. The samples synthesized with glycine and glycine/Tween® 80 had V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The film obtained from the alanine/ Tween® 80 showed highest photocurrent values, which may be related to smaller size particles (200 to 300 nm) observed by scanning electron microscopy images. The films obtained using alanine showed highest values of rate constant reaction and percentage discoloration of methylene blue. (author)

  13. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad, E-mail: shahid@skku.edu [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Material Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Nafady, Ayman [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan); Hussain, Rafaqat [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies (Malaysia); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Institute of Chemical Sciences (Pakistan)

    2013-08-15

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 Degree-Sign C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices.

  14. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad; Nafady, Ayman; Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor M.; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Hussain, Rafaqat; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. Effect of co-existing ions during the preparation of alumina by electrolysis with aluminum soluble electrodes: Structure and defluoridation activity of electro-synthesized adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchomgui-Kamga, Eric, E-mail: etchomgui@yahoo.fr [UMR CNRS n°6226 Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, ENSCR, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 50837 - 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Yaoundé-I, BP 812 Yaoundé (Cameroon); Audebrand, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.audebrand@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR CNRS n°6226 Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes-1, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Darchen, André, E-mail: Andre.Darchen@ensc-rennes.fr [UMR CNRS n°6226 Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, ENSCR, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 50837 - 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • pH increases during electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes are rationalized. •Composition of electrogenerated aluminas is dependent upon the electrolyte used. • All the electrogenerated aluminas contained nanoparticles of boehmite AlOOH. • The defluoridation activity of the aluminas was dependent upon the electrolyte used. -- Abstract: The electrochemical dissolution of aluminum was carried out to prepare hydrated aluminas which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical titrations and defluoridation activities. Aluminas were obtained at controlled pH depending upon the counter cations of the electrolyte. A boehmite AlOOH phase was isolated mainly in ammonium solution, while aluminas synthesized in the other media contained a mixture of phases, usually both boehmite and bayerite γ-Al(OH){sub 3}. All the boehmite phases contained nano-crystallites of less than 3 nm. Batch defluoridation experiments revealed a second influence of the original electrolyte. Aluminas were very effective in defluoridation with abatement rates of 99.5%, 98.5% and 97.3% from neutral fluoride solution at 10 mg L{sup −1} when they were prepared in solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NH{sub 4})HCO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}Cl, respectively. The maximum fluoride capacities were 46.94; 10.25 and 12.18 mg g{sup −1} for aluminas prepared in solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}; (NH{sub 4})HCO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}Cl, respectively. The amount of dissolved Al was found to be less than 0.19 mg L{sup −1} at neutral pH. These results show that a defluoridation with electro-synthesized aluminas would be more efficient and safe than a direct electrocoagulation.

  16. Effect of co-existing ions during the preparation of alumina by electrolysis with aluminum soluble electrodes: Structure and defluoridation activity of electro-synthesized adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchomgui-Kamga, Eric; Audebrand, Nathalie; Darchen, André

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • pH increases during electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes are rationalized. •Composition of electrogenerated aluminas is dependent upon the electrolyte used. • All the electrogenerated aluminas contained nanoparticles of boehmite AlOOH. • The defluoridation activity of the aluminas was dependent upon the electrolyte used. -- Abstract: The electrochemical dissolution of aluminum was carried out to prepare hydrated aluminas which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical titrations and defluoridation activities. Aluminas were obtained at controlled pH depending upon the counter cations of the electrolyte. A boehmite AlOOH phase was isolated mainly in ammonium solution, while aluminas synthesized in the other media contained a mixture of phases, usually both boehmite and bayerite γ-Al(OH) 3 . All the boehmite phases contained nano-crystallites of less than 3 nm. Batch defluoridation experiments revealed a second influence of the original electrolyte. Aluminas were very effective in defluoridation with abatement rates of 99.5%, 98.5% and 97.3% from neutral fluoride solution at 10 mg L −1 when they were prepared in solution of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , (NH 4 )HCO 2 and NH 4 Cl, respectively. The maximum fluoride capacities were 46.94; 10.25 and 12.18 mg g −1 for aluminas prepared in solution of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ; (NH 4 )HCO 2 and NH 4 Cl, respectively. The amount of dissolved Al was found to be less than 0.19 mg L −1 at neutral pH. These results show that a defluoridation with electro-synthesized aluminas would be more efficient and safe than a direct electrocoagulation

  17. Melting, growth, and faceting of lead precipitates in aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gråbæk, L.; Bohr, J.; Andersen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum single crystals cut in the direction were implanted with 2 x 10(20) m-2 Pb+ ions at 75 or 150 keV. The implanted insoluble lead precipitated as epitaxially oriented crystallites in the aluminum matrix. The precipitates were studied by x-ray diffraction at Riso, DESY, and Brookhaven...

  18. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  19. Application of silver vanadate solid electrolyte mixed with Al2O3 in Ag/I2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Karim bin Arof.

    1993-01-01

    The glassy silver vanadate electrolyte of the composition 70AgI-20Ag20-10V205 was added with Al2O3 in varying percentages to form several physical mixtures that will be used to fabricate several solid stare electrochemical cells in order to study the influence of the dispersoid on the silver vanadate cells internal resistance and lifetime of the silver vanadate cells. The internal resistance of the cells increased on addition of Al2O3 but the cell with the mixture of Al2O3 and electrolyte in the weight ratio 2:3 has the lowest internal resistance. The increase in the internal resistance of the cell is attributed to the insulating nature of Al2O3. Although the internal resistance of the cell increased, it was observed that the time needed for the cell potential to drop to 400 mV at a constant discharge current of 30 uA increase in discharge lifetime was also observed when a second cell of the same mixed electrolyte constituents was discharged at 40 uA current drain. We have attempted to explain the increase in discharge lifetime in terms of the space charge layer developed between the insulator and the ionic conductor which results in a dipole region across which a potential difference is developed. This potential difference is responsible in prolonging the discharge lifetime of the cells

  20. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  1. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  2. Effects of Polypropylene Orientation on Mechanical and Heat Seal Properties of Polymer-Aluminum-Polymer Composite Films for Pouch Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxinyu Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polyamide-aluminum foil-polypropylene (PA-Al-PP composite films with different orientation status of the PP layer were prepared, and their morphology, tensile, peeling and heat seal behavior were studied. The comparative study of tensile and fracture behaviors of single-layer film of PA, Al and PP, as well as the composite films of PA-Al, PP-Al and PA-Al-PP revealed that in PA-Al-PP composite film, the PA layer with the highest tensile strength can share the tensile stress from the Al layer during stretching, while the PP layer with the lowest tensile strength can prevent further development of the small cracks on boundary of the Al layer during stretching. Moreover, the study of heat seal behavior suggested that both the orientation status and the heat seal conditions were important factors in determining the heat seal strength (HSS and failure behavior of the sample. Four failure types were observed, and a clear correspondence between HSS and failure types was found. The results also elucidated that for the composite film, only in the cases where the tensile stress was efficiently released by each layer during HSS measurement could the composite film exhibit desired high HSS that was even higher than its tensile strength.

  3. On the Role of Built-in Electric Fields on the Ignition of Oxide Coated NanoAluminum: Ion Mobility versus Fickian Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    on Al ion diffu- sion can be computed using the Nernst –Planck equation . The Nernst –Plank equation is given in Eq. 4,22 J = − D dC dx − zFDC RT d dx...The use of the bulk diffusion equation is reason- able since during the time scales considered the movement of only the atoms initially on the surface

  4. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted

  5. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  6. Oxygen pumping characteristics of Cu-Ti double substituted bismuth vanadate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paydar, M.H. [Shiraz Univ. (Iran). Dept. of Metallurgy and Material Sciences; Hadian, A.M. [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Dept. of Metallurgy and Material Sciences; Fafilek, G. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Technische Elektrochemie

    2002-07-01

    In the present paper, we are going to report on a detailed study of the characteristics of an electrochemical oxygen pump for an open system using Cu-Ti double substituted bismuth vanadate as the electrolyte. The major objectives are to show a correlation between oxygen pumping current, cell voltage, Faradic efficiency and oxygen production rate. The maximum current density that can be applied without significant structural modification has been determined and the effect of working temperature on the mentioned parameters have been investigated. The results show that there is an Ohmic relationship between current and voltage at low current densities and a deviation towards lower voltages than expected from Ohm's law with increasing current density. The oxygen production rate increased in a linear fashion by increasing the current density while at high current densities, corresponding to the non linear current voltage section, its gradient decline. Under constant current load, at very high current density (I > 800 mAcm{sup -2}), instability in cell potential was observed, which was reversible and supposed to be the effect of electronic percolation. (orig.)

  7. A review of the low temperature properties of the rare earth vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth vanadates have long been studied for their interesting magnetic properties and cooperative Jahn-Teller distortions. In the main, most of this work has been carried out at temperatures down to 1 K or so (e.g. Gehring and Gehring 1975). In this review NMRON (NMR on Oriented Nuclei), and other low temperature experiments in the mK regime, are presented and discussed. It will be argued that the low temperature properties of these compounds are just as interesting as their high temperature counterparts. In general, the nuclear and electronic wavefunctions become intermixed, leading to a variety of interesting physical effects, such as enhanced nuclear magnetism, quadrupolar induced intermediate state re-orientation etc. These effects have, in turn, spawned new methods for the investigation of magnetic structures, and thermometric detection of 166 Ho NMR both by internal and external thermometers. Several experiments are suggested, including magnetic refrigeration, Moessbauer, EPR in the ∼30 GHz range, in addition to thermometric NMR and NMRON. Nuclear Orientation (NO) studies of HoVO 4 , using in-situ radioactive 166 Ho, has led to the development of new techniques for the determination of complex spin structures and mixed domains, and can be used to rival or complement neutron scattering. Copyright (1998) Australian Journal of Physics

  8. Characteristics and corrosion studies of vanadate conversion coating formed on Mg–14 wt%Li–1 wt%Al–0.1 wt%Ce alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yibin; Li Ning; Li Deyu; Zhang Milin; Huang Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vanadate film forms on the surface of Mg–Li–Al–Ce alloy. ► Vanadate coating improves the corrosion resistance. ► Vanadate coating is composed of Mg(OH) 2 , Li 2 O and V 2 O 5 . - Abstract: Mg–14Li–1Al–0.1Ce alloy is immersed in NH 4 VO 3 + K 3 (Fe(CN) 6 ) solutions with different NH 4 VO 3 and/or K 3 (Fe(CN) 6 ) concentrations, and different immersion time. The surface morphology and composition of the vanadate coating are then characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the corrosion behavior of the conversion coating is studied by polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results indicate that the vanadate film with better corrosion resistance forms on Mg–Li–Al–Ce surface after the sample is immersed in 30 g L −1 NH 4 VO 3 + 3.75 g L −1 K 3 (Fe(CN) 6 ) solution at 80 °C for 10 min. The coating consists of V 2 O 5 , Li 2 O and Mg(OH) 2 .

  9. Characteristics and corrosion studies of vanadate conversion coating formed on Mg-14 wt%Li-1 wt%Al-0.1 wt%Ce alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yibin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning, E-mail: lininghit@263.net [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Deyu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin; Huang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadate film forms on the surface of Mg-Li-Al-Ce alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadate coating improves the corrosion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadate coating is composed of Mg(OH){sub 2}, Li{sub 2}O and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. - Abstract: Mg-14Li-1Al-0.1Ce alloy is immersed in NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} + K{sub 3}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) solutions with different NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} and/or K{sub 3}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) concentrations, and different immersion time. The surface morphology and composition of the vanadate coating are then characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the corrosion behavior of the conversion coating is studied by polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results indicate that the vanadate film with better corrosion resistance forms on Mg-Li-Al-Ce surface after the sample is immersed in 30 g L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} + 3.75 g L{sup -1} K{sub 3}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) solution at 80 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The coating consists of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Li{sub 2}O and Mg(OH){sub 2}.

  10. Effect of adding aluminum ion on the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of terbium doped yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles films prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldbea, Ftema W.; Ibrahim, N.B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my; Yahya, M.

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • The conductivity of YIG films increased with increasing of Al content. • The saturation magnetization at room temperature decreased with increasing Al{sup 3+} content. • Al{sup 3+} substituted Tb-YIG films has been prepared by a sol-gel method. - Abstract: Tb{sub 0.8}Y{sub 2.2}Al{sub y}Fe{sub 5−y}O{sub 12} nanoparticle films with y = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were prepared by a sol–gel method for potential use as a magnetic sensor and in magneto-optical applications. The films were deposited onto quartz substrate, followed by annealing at 900 °C in air for 2 h. X-ray diffractometry results confirmed the formation of a pure garnet structure. The lattice parameter decreased with increasing Al{sup 3+} content due to the substitution of Al{sup 3+} ions with the larger Fe{sup 3+} ions. The grain size of the films decreased up to y = 0.6. This variation is discussed based on the stress on the grain surface. The films observed to be transparent between 76 and 92% in the visible and infrared regions. The films demonstrated a strong absorption of 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1} caused by the charge transfer transition in the UV region. The absorption edge shifts to lower wavelengths at higher Al contents of 0.8 and 1 due to electronic transitions. The conductivity of films increased with increasing of Al content due to the increasing in free carrier concentration. The saturation magnetization at room temperature decreased with increasing Al{sup 3+} content, whereas the coercivity increased markedly at y = 0.6.

  11. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  12. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  13. Weld Development for Aluminum Fission Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Jesse Norris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    The Sigma welding team was approached to help fabricate a small fission chamber (roughly ½ inch dia. x ½ inch tall cylinder). These chambers are used as radiation sensors that contain small traces of radionuclides (Cf 252, U 235, and U 238) that serve to ionize gas atoms in addition to external radiation. When a voltage is applied within the chamber, the resulting ion flow can be calibrated and monitored. Aluminum has the advantage of not forming radioactive compounds when exposed to high external radiation (except from minor Na alloy content). Since aluminum has not been used before in this application, this presented an unexplored challenge.

  14. Effect of vanadate and of removal of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ on tension development and 45Ca efflux in rat and frog myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesser, H; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    1983-01-01

    Vanadate in the range 0-5 mM has positive inotropic effects on myocardial strips of frog and to a lesser extent on those of rat. Inhibiting the sarcolemmal Na+, Ca2+ exchange by a solution free of Ca2+ and Na+ caused a drop in 45Ca efflux and a transient increase in resting tension. These effects...... were more expressed for the frog than for the rat myocardium, which suggests that the Na+ for Ca2+ exchange across the cell membrane is more important in the frog than in the rat myocardium. A subsequent addition of vanadate at 2 or 5 mM had no effect on 45Ca efflux, while it increased the resting...... tension. This increase was higher for the frog than for the rat myocardium. These results suggest that the inotropic effects of vanadate may be due to an effect on membrane-bound Ca2+-ATPase....

  15. Operational impact of using a vanadate oxidase method for direct bilirubin measurements at an academic medical center clinical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Dhungana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the operational impact of using vanadate oxidase versus diazo direct bilirubin assays for an academic medical center patient population. Design and methods: Retrospective study was done over an approximately 3.5 year period. The main automated chemistry instrumentation was a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 line. The Roche Direct Bilirubin assay was compared to Diazyme Laboratories Direct Bilirubin Assay and Randox Laboratories Direct Bilirubin assay using manufacturer's guidelines for hemolysis index, lipemia index, and analytical measurement range (AMR. Results: Retrospective data was analyzed for 47,333 serum/plasma specimens that had clinical orders for direct bilirubin. A total of 5943 specimens (12.6% exceeded the hemolysis index limit for the Roche method compared to only 0.2% and 0.05% of specimens for the Diazyme and Randox methods, respectively. The impact was particularly large on patients less than 2 years old, for which 51.3% of specimens exceeded the hemolysis index for the Roche method. A total of 1671 specimens (3.5% exceeded the lipemia index limit for the Roche method compared to less than 0.1% for the Randox method. Lastly, 988 (2.1% of specimens had direct bilirubin concentrations exceeding the upper AMR limit of 10 mg/dL [171 µmol/L] for the Roche assay compared to less than 1% of specimens for the vanadate oxidase methods. Conclusions: Vanadate oxidase direct bilirubin methods offer advantages over diazo methods in terms of less interference by hemolysis and lipemia, as well as wider AMR. The advantages are particularly evident for neonatal and infant populations. Keywords: Bilirubin, Clinical chemistry tests, Hemolysis, Hyperlipidemias, Jaundice, Photometry

  16. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen; Matsuoka, Masato

    2007-01-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO 3 ), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 μM)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 μM NaVO 3 for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 μM NaVO 3 for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na 3 VO 4 ) and ammonium metavanadate (NH 4 VO 3 ), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO 3 , treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO 3 -induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO 3 . However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO 3 -induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO 3 were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line

  17. Operational impact of using a vanadate oxidase method for direct bilirubin measurements at an academic medical center clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Neha; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the operational impact of using vanadate oxidase versus diazo direct bilirubin assays for an academic medical center patient population. Retrospective study was done over an approximately 3.5 year period. The main automated chemistry instrumentation was a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 line. The Roche Direct Bilirubin assay was compared to Diazyme Laboratories Direct Bilirubin Assay and Randox Laboratories Direct Bilirubin assay using manufacturer's guidelines for hemolysis index, lipemia index, and analytical measurement range (AMR). Retrospective data was analyzed for 47,333 serum/plasma specimens that had clinical orders for direct bilirubin. A total of 5943 specimens (12.6%) exceeded the hemolysis index limit for the Roche method compared to only 0.2% and 0.05% of specimens for the Diazyme and Randox methods, respectively. The impact was particularly large on patients less than 2 years old, for which 51.3% of specimens exceeded the hemolysis index for the Roche method. A total of 1671 specimens (3.5%) exceeded the lipemia index limit for the Roche method compared to less than 0.1% for the Randox method. Lastly, 988 (2.1%) of specimens had direct bilirubin concentrations exceeding the upper AMR limit of 10 mg/dL [171 µmol/L] for the Roche assay compared to less than 1% of specimens for the vanadate oxidase methods. Vanadate oxidase direct bilirubin methods offer advantages over diazo methods in terms of less interference by hemolysis and lipemia, as well as wider AMR. The advantages are particularly evident for neonatal and infant populations.

  18. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn2VO6: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara; Wang, Chun-Hai; So, Karwei; Evans, John S.O.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević

    2015-01-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn 2 VO 6 , known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn 2 VO 6 adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO 4 tetrahedra, ZnO 6 octahedra and VO 4 tetrahedra, and Bi 2 O 12 dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM 2 AO 6 (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn 2 VO 6 , calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of BiZn 2 VO 6 , a new structure type in the BiM 2 AO 6 (M=Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn; A=V, P, As) family. - Highlights: • Structure solution from PXRD data by repeated minimisations from random starting values. • New structure type in the BiM 2 AO 6 (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family. • Electronic structure calculation

  19. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  20. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  1. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  2. Bioleaching of copper, aluminum, magnesium and manganese from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was done to check the bioleaching feasibility of brown shale for the recovery of copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) ions using Ganoderma lucidum. Different experimental parameters were optimized for the enhanced recovery of metals ions. Effect of different substrates like ...

  3. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  4. Aluminum uptake from natural waters by a radiation-grafted membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazante-Yamaguishi, Renata; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br, E-mail: ryamaguishi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Styrene grafted, chemically modified polymeric membranes were used to carry off aluminum of drinking water from wells located at Billings dam region. The membranes comprised polymeric substrates of PVC (polyvinylchloride) and PP (polypropylene), which were mutually grafted with gamma radiation. The chemical modification included three basic reaction paths: Friedel-Crafts acylation, 2-methylanisole coupling and a final oxidation; this modification enables aluminum selectivity on the membrane. This chemical process inserts a salicylated derivative bonded onto the aromatic ring of styrene; such molecular arrangement is responsible for complexation of aluminum ions. The aluminum sorption capacity of these membranes was evaluated firstly from an aluminum control solution, where parameters like the ideal pH value for aluminum sorption and the interfering species were studied and correlated to know the best conditions for aluminum uptake. Later, the membranes were used for aluminum remediation of natural waters (real-life samples). The applicability results and limits are then discussed. (author)

  5. Aluminum uptake from natural waters by a radiation-grafted membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazante-Yamaguishi, Renata; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Styrene grafted, chemically modified polymeric membranes were used to carry off aluminum of drinking water from wells located at Billings dam region. The membranes comprised polymeric substrates of PVC (polyvinylchloride) and PP (polypropylene), which were mutually grafted with gamma radiation. The chemical modification included three basic reaction paths: Friedel-Crafts acylation, 2-methylanisole coupling and a final oxidation; this modification enables aluminum selectivity on the membrane. This chemical process inserts a salicylated derivative bonded onto the aromatic ring of styrene; such molecular arrangement is responsible for complexation of aluminum ions. The aluminum sorption capacity of these membranes was evaluated firstly from an aluminum control solution, where parameters like the ideal pH value for aluminum sorption and the interfering species were studied and correlated to know the best conditions for aluminum uptake. Later, the membranes were used for aluminum remediation of natural waters (real-life samples). The applicability results and limits are then discussed. (author)

  6. Characterization of vanadate-based transition-state-analogue complexes of phosphoglucomutase by spectral and NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W.J. Jr; Burgner, J.W. II; Post, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Near ultraviolet spectral studies were conducted on two inhibitor complexes obtained by treating the dephospho form of the phosphoglucomutase·Mg 2+ complex with inorganic vanadate in the presence of either glucose 1-phosphate or glucose 6-phosphate. Part of the spectral differences between the two inhibitor complexes arises because the glucose phosphate moiety in the complex derived from glucose 1-phosphate binds to the enzyme in a different way from the glucose phosphate moiety in the complex derived from glucose 6-phosphate and because these alternative binding modes produce different environmental effects on the aromatic chromophores of the dephospho enzyme. These spectra differences are strikingly similar to those induced by the binding of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate to the phospho enzyme. 31 P NMR studies of the phosphate group in these complexes also provide support for this binding pattern. Difference spectroscopy was used to resolve the spectrum of both inhibitor complexes to obtain the absorbance of their oxyvanadium chromophores. A spectrum more nearly like that of a normal vanadate ester is observed for the oxyvanadium chromophore in the corresponding complex involving glucose 1-phosphate and Li + instead of Mg 2+

  7. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs

  8. First-principles surface interaction studies of aluminum-copper and aluminum-copper-magnesium secondary phases in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago H.; Nelson, Eric B.; Williamson, Izaak; Efaw, Corey M.; Sapper, Erik; Hurley, Michael F.; Li, Lan

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory-based calculations were performed to study θ-phase Al2Cu, S-phase Al2CuMg surface stability, as well as their interactions with water molecules and chloride (Cl-) ions. These secondary phases are commonly found in aluminum-based alloys and are initiation points for localized corrosion. Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations provide insight into the origins of localized (pitting) corrosion processes of aluminum-based alloys. For both phases studied, Cl- ions cause atomic distortions on the surface layers. The nature of the distortions could be a factor to weaken the interlayer bonds in the Al2Cu and Al2CuMg secondary phases, facilitating the corrosion process. Electronic structure calculations revealed not only electron charge transfer from Cl- ions to alloy surface but also electron sharing, suggesting ionic and covalent bonding features, respectively. The S-phase Al2CuMg structure has a more active surface than the θ-phase Al2Cu. We also found a higher tendency of formation of new species, such as Al3+, Al(OH)2+, HCl, AlCl2+, Al(OH)Cl+, and Cl2 on the S-phase Al2CuMg surface. Surface chemical reactions and resultant species present contribute to establishment of local surface chemistry that influences the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys.

  9. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  10. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  11. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  12. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  13. Lithium1.3Aluminum0.3Titanium1.7Phosphate as a solid state Li-ion conductor: Issues with microcracking and stability in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Spencer D.

    Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP) with formula Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was analyzed and tested to better understand its applicability as a solid state ion conducting ceramic material for electrochemical applications. Sintered samples were obtained from Ceramatec, Inc. in Salt Lake City and characterized in terms of density, phase-purity, fracture toughness, Young's modulus, thermal expansion behavior, mechanical strength, a.c. and d.c. ionic conductivity, and susceptibility to static and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous Li salt solutions. It was shown that LATP is prone to microcrack generation because of high thermal expansion anisotropy. A.c. impedance spectra of high-purity LATP of varying grain sizes showed that microcracking had a negative impact on the ionic conduction of Li along grain boundaries, with fine-grained (1.7±0.7 µm) LATP having twice the ionic conductivity of the same purity of coarse-grained (4.8±1.9 µm) LATP at 50°C. LATP with detectible secondary phases had lower ionic conductivity for similar grain sizes, as would be expected. The Young's modulus of fine-grained LATP was measured to be 115 GPa, and the highest biaxial strength was 191±11 MPa when tested in mineral oil, 144±13 MPa as measured in air, and 26±7 MPa after exposure to deionized water, suggesting that LATP undergoes stress-corrosion cracking. After exposure to LiOH, the strength was 76±19 MPa. This decrease in strength was observed despite there being no measureable change in a.c. impedance spectra, X-ray diffraction, or sample mass, suggesting phosphate glasses at grain boundaries. The chemical and electrochemical stability of high-purity LATP in aqueous electrochemical cells was evaluated using LiOH, LiCl, LiNO3, and LiCOOCH3 salts as the Li source. LATP was found to be most stable between pH 8-9, with the longest cell operating continuously at 25 mA cm-2 for 625 hours at 40°C in LiCOOCH3. At pH values outside of the 7-10 range, eventual membrane degradation

  14. A novel ion imager for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Miyata, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsutomu

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new area detector for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ion microscope, and its performance. The operational principle is based on detecting the change in potential of a floating photodiode caused by the ion-induced secondary-electron emission and the incoming ion itself. The experiments demonstrated that 10 1 -10 5 aluminum ions per pixel can be detected with good linear response. Moreover, relative ion sensitivities from hydrogen to lead were constant within a factor of 2. The performance of this area detector provides the potential for detection of kiloelectronvolt ion images with current ion microscopy

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of the new vanadate AgCaVO{sub 4}. Comparison with the arcanite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenert, Gwilherm [PANalytical B.V., Almelo (Netherlands)

    2017-07-01

    We report the synthesis and the crystal structure of the new vanadate AgCaVO{sub 4} from laboratory powder X-ray data. Contrary to the previously reported AgBVO{sub 4} (B=Mg, Cd), AgCaVO{sub 4} exhibits the arcanite structure (β-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Although it exhibits the same structure than arcanite, significant differences are observed. These differences are explained by deriving the atomic displacement field. The change of connectivity within the structure between β-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and AgCaVO{sub 4} results from a rotation of the VO{sub 4} tetrahedra giving rise to a change from a face sharing to an edge sharing octahedral chains. Additionally, the thermal expansion of AgCaVO{sub 4} has been investigated up to 800 C.

  16. Density gradient localization of vanadate- and NO-3-sensitive ATPase from sterile cultures of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the separation and some characteristics of ATPase activities bound with plant membanes prepared from sterile cultures of Spirodela polyrrhiza. The membrane-bound ATPases were separated on sucrose gradients and distinguished by membrane density and sensitivity to several inhibitors. The results showed that N0-3-sensitive ATPase activity associated with the tonoplast was localized at a sucrose density between 1.095-1.117 g•cm-3. The vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity bound with the plasma membrane showed a density between 1.127-1.151 g•cm-3. Both ATPases were insensitive to azide and oligomycin and were separable from markers for mitochondria.

  17. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity of the f......Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  18. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  19. Aluminum Solubility in Complex Electrolytes - 13011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, S.F. [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., 1806 Terminal Dr., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Johnston, C.T. [Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Predicting aluminum solubility for Hanford and Savannah River waste liquids is very important for their disposition. It is a key mission goal at each Site to leach as much aluminum as practical from sludges in order to minimize the amount of vitrified high level waste. And it is correspondingly important to assure that any soluble aluminum does not precipitate during subsequent decontamination of the liquid leachates with ion exchange. This report shows a very simple and yet thermodynamic model for aluminum solubility that is consistent with a wide range of Al liquors, from simple mixtures of hydroxide and aluminate to over 300 Hanford concentrates and to a set of 19 Bayer liquors for temperatures from 20-100 deg. C. This dimer-dS{sub mix} (DDS) model incorporates an ideal entropy of mixing along with previous reports for the Al dimer, water activities, gibbsite, and bayerite thermodynamics. We expect this model will have broad application for nuclear wastes as well as the Bayer gibbsite process industry. (authors)

  20. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S + I - surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  1. Radiation effects in crystalline SiO2: the role of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliburton, L.E.; Koumvakalis, N.; Markes, M.E.; Martin, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) and infrared absorption (IR) experiments have provided information about the role of aluminum in the radiation response of commercially available high-quality synthetic quartz. Samples obtained from two separate sources were investigated, and identical radiation responses were found for the two materials. Interstitial ions such as H + , Li + , and Na + as well as radiation-induced holes trapped at oxygen ions act as charge compensators for the ever-present substitutional aluminum ions. Usually the charge compensator is located adjacent to the aluminum, and this gives rise to Al-OH - , Al-Li + , Al-Na + , and [Al/sub e/ + ] 0 centers. Absolute concentrations of these compensated aluminum centers have been determined as a function of irradiation and annealing temperature for a variety of samples, both swept and unswept. The various treatments simply exchange one type of compensator for another at the aluminum sites, and within experimental error, the sum of the aluminum centers remains constant for a given sample. This direct accountability of all the aluminum ions in hydrogen-swept samples strongly suggests that the 3306- and 3367-cm -1 infrared bands are associated with the Al-OH - center. Also, the ESR and IR results show that the aluminum content of randomly selected bars of high-quality quartz can vary by an order of magnitude

  2. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  3. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  4. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  5. The study of an aluminium-alloy distributed ion pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.C.; Lin, W.J.; Chen, J.R.; National Tsinghua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan

    1990-01-01

    A distribution ion pump with aluminum chamber, aluminum anodes and titanium cathodes has been studied. It was observed from AES and RBS analyses that a titanium layer with oxygen and nitrogen atoms (with a ratio T i /N + 0 ≅ 0.7) was deposited on the surface of the aluminum anode. (author)

  6. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  7. Calcium and strontium salts of (glycinato-κ(2)N,O)oxidobis(peroxido-κ(2)O,O')vanadate(V) tetrahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Uchida, Ayana; Hashimoto, Masato

    2013-12-15

    The title salts calcium (glycinato-κ(2)N,O)oxidobis(peroxido-κ(2)O,O')vanadate(V) tetrahydrate, Ca[VO(O2)2(NH2CH2COO)]·4H2O, and strontium (glycinato-κ(2)N,O)oxidobis(peroxido-κ(2)O,O')vanadate(V) tetrahydrate, Sr[VO(O2)2(NH2CH2COO)]·4H2O, crystallized at pH ca 7.4 with similar lattice parameters. The glycinate anion acts as a bidentate N,O-chelating ligand, and the V atom has a pentagonal bipyramidal geometry, with two η(2)-peroxo groups and the glycinate N atom in the equatorial plane, and one terminal oxo and a glycinate O atom at the axial positions. The H atoms of three of the four water molecules in the strontium salt exhibited disorder over three positions for each molecule.

  8. Hydrogen Treatment and FeOOH overlayer: Effective approaches for enhancing the photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance of bismuth vanadate thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Aadesh P.; Saini, Nishant; Mehta, Bodh R.

    2018-01-01

    The water oxidation capability of the promising photoanode bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is hampered by poor bulk electron transport and by high rates of charge recombination at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate that a dual modification of BiVO4 by: (i) annealing in a hydro......The water oxidation capability of the promising photoanode bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is hampered by poor bulk electron transport and by high rates of charge recombination at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate that a dual modification of BiVO4 by: (i) annealing...... modification strategy used here offers a simple but effective approach of improving the water oxidation performance of BiVO4....

  9. Facile synthesis of aluminum-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres and their electrochemical performance for high-voltage Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaolin, E-mail: liu_x_l@sina.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi (China); Li, Dan; Mo, Qiaoling; Guo, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xiaoxiao [College of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi (China); Chen, Guoxin, E-mail: gxchen@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, Zhejiang (China); Zhong, Shengwen [College of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi (China)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and Al doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres as 5 V cathodes are prepared by templated transformation method using monodisperse MnCO{sub 3} microspheres as precursor. As a cathodic material for high voltage lithium ion batteries, the as-synthesized LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and Al doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres are investigated by galvanostatic cycling (GC) approach to evaluate their electrochemical properties in the range of 2.7–4.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} at the current rate 1 C. - Highlights: • LNMO and LANMO hollow microspheres are synthesized by template method. • The as-synthesized hollow microspheres have particle-size of 2 μm. • The hollow structure is responsible for improved electrochemical performance. - Abstract: This paper presents the preparation of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and aluminum (Al) doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres as 5 V cathodes using monodisperse MnCO{sub 3} microspheres as precursor and template, which were synthesized using MnSO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O, NaHCO{sub 3} and ethanol in water at room temperature. XRD and morphology characterization results indicated that the as-prepared LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and Al doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} were both spinel structure, and have particle sizes of 2–3 μm. The cathode electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and Al doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres (as 5 V cathodes) were evaluated and compared by galvanostatic cycling (GC) vs. Li/Li{sup +} at the current rate 1 C in 2.7–4.8 V. The specific initial capacities of all samples were in the range of 70–120 mA h g{sup −1}. Compared to undoped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}, Al doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} hollow structures can effectively improve discharge capacity (up to 140 (±5) mA h g{sup −1}) and cycling stability (70

  10. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  11. Aluminum Corrosion and Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum corrosion and turbidity formation in reactors correlate with fuel sheath temperature. To further substantiate this correlation, discharged fuel elements from R-3, P-2 and K-2 cycles were examined for extent of corrosion and evidence of breaking off of the oxide film. This report discusses this study

  12. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  13. Studies on the removal of interference of iron in the determination of uranium by direct titration with ammonium meta vanadate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, A.A.; Charyulu, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the uranium content in metal powder and alloys, routinely used method in NUMAC control Lab is dissolution of sample in 10 M phosphoric acid under heating and determination of uranium by ammonium meta vanadate method-visual indicator end point. If iron is present, it interferes quantitatively. The method is modified for removing the interference of iron by dissolving the samples in conc. phosphoric acid and Fe 2+ is quantitatively oxidized to Fe 3+ by nitric acid prior to analysis. (author)

  14. Electrochemical transformations of oxygen and the defect structure of solid solutions on the basis of alkaline earth metal ortho-vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodos, M.Ya.; Belysheva, G.M.; Brajnina, Kh.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of iso- and heterovalent substitution in the structure of alkaline earth metal ortho-vanadates and synthesis conditions, simulating the definite type of their crystal lattice disordering, on the character of potentiodynamic anodic-cathodic curves has been investigated by the method of cyclic voltammetry. Correlation between signals observed and the defect structure of oxide compounds is refined. Oxygen chemisorption is shown to be determined by concentration of nonequilibrium oxygen vacancies, which formation is accompanied by appearance of quasi-free electrons

  15. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  16. Studies on Chromium-free Conversion coatings on Aluminum | Oki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a chromium-free conversion coating on aluminum has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger Electron (AES) and Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) techniques. Within the limits of the resolution of the TEM, the coating is uniformly clear and featureless. It is composed ...

  17. Solubility and dissolution kinetics study of uranium phosphates and vanadates: implications for the front end of the electronuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretaz, F.

    2013-01-01

    In the current context of restart of the nuclear energy, the needs in uranium are expected to increase significantly. Moreover, in a perspective of sustainable development, the exploitation, the treatment and the purification of uranium ores need to be optimized. It is thus necessary to determine reliable thermodynamic data (and especially solubility constants) for the systems of interest, especially uranium(VI) phosphates and vanadates. In this aim, a multi parametric study of the dissolution of meta-torbernite Cu 0.8 (H 3 O) 0.2 (UO 2 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2.8 H 2 O, meta-autunite Ca(UO 2 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2.6 H 2 O, meta-ankoleite K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2.6 H 2 O and carnotite K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (VO 4 ) 2.3 H 2 O was undertaken. First, analogues of these four minerals were synthesized, based only on dry chemistry process for carnotite or on wet chemistry methods for the phosphate phases. They were then extensively characterized (in terms of structure, microstructure and chemical composition). It particularly highlighted the similar structures of such compounds. The anionic groups (PO 4 3- or V 2 O 8 6- ) and uranyl form parallel layers between which counter cations (Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ or K + ) and water molecules are inserted. However, the counter cations present in the interlayer space of the three phosphate phases present different lability. The synthetic phases were also compared to their natural analogues, except for meta-ankoleite, which allowed us to point out significant differences in the composition (presence of impurities in natural samples) and the morphology (grain size). The dissolution of these phases was then studied from a kinetic and thermodynamic point of view, through leaching tests in static and dynamic conditions, in various acid media (sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric) and at different temperatures. In these conditions, the dissolution of meta-autunite was found to be un-congruent due to the precipitation of uranyl phosphate then avoiding the determination of

  18. Structure determination of a novel metal-organic compound synthesized from aluminum and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny; Brink, Bastian; Andersen, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    .979(1)°. The structure consists of aluminum ions coordinating N and O in distorted octahedra, sharing an edge through two hydroxide ions. These dinuclear complexes are connected by pydc ions, which at one end coordinate by nitrogen and oxygen and only by oxygen at the other end. The pydc orientation is reversed...... in the neighboring pydc, forming double stranded chains interconnected by the aluminum dinuclear complexes in a ladder-like arrangement along [001]....

  19. Yttrium aluminum garnet coating on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Camila M.A.; Freiria, Gabriela S.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J., E-mail: eduardo.nassar@unifran.edu.br

    2016-02-15

    Thin luminescent films have seen great technological advances and are applicable in the production of a variety of materials such as sensors, solar cells, photovoltaic devices, optical magnetic readers, waveguides, lasers, and recorders. Systems that contain yttrium aluminum oxide are important hosts for lanthanide ions and serve as light emission devices. This work deals with the deposition of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) film doped with Eu{sup 3+} onto a glass substrate obtained by the sol–gel methodology. Spray pyrolysis furnished the yttrium aluminum oxide powder. Dip-coating at a withdrawal speed of 10 mm min{sup −1} and evaporation led to deposition of different numbers of layers of the YAG:Eu{sup 3+} film onto the glass substrate from a YAG:Eu{sup 3+} powder suspension containing ethanol, water, and tetraethylorthosilicate. Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transparency measurements aided film characterization. The emission spectra revealed that the number of layers influenced film properties. - Highlights: • The spray pyrolysis was used to obtain luminescent YAG:Eu{sup 3+}. • The matrix was deposited as transparent films. • The YAG:Eu{sup 3+} was deposited by sol–gel process onto glass substrate.

  20. Yttrium aluminum garnet coating on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Camila M.A.; Freiria, Gabriela S.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Thin luminescent films have seen great technological advances and are applicable in the production of a variety of materials such as sensors, solar cells, photovoltaic devices, optical magnetic readers, waveguides, lasers, and recorders. Systems that contain yttrium aluminum oxide are important hosts for lanthanide ions and serve as light emission devices. This work deals with the deposition of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) film doped with Eu 3+ onto a glass substrate obtained by the sol–gel methodology. Spray pyrolysis furnished the yttrium aluminum oxide powder. Dip-coating at a withdrawal speed of 10 mm min −1 and evaporation led to deposition of different numbers of layers of the YAG:Eu 3+ film onto the glass substrate from a YAG:Eu 3+ powder suspension containing ethanol, water, and tetraethylorthosilicate. Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transparency measurements aided film characterization. The emission spectra revealed that the number of layers influenced film properties. - Highlights: • The spray pyrolysis was used to obtain luminescent YAG:Eu 3+ . • The matrix was deposited as transparent films. • The YAG:Eu 3+ was deposited by sol–gel process onto glass substrate.

  1. Effect of diabetes on the ion pumps of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Seham

    2013-01-01

    To establish whether the activities of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca2+-ATPases ion pumps in bladder smooth muscle are altered as a consequence of diabetes and, if so, how this might contribute to bladder cystopathy. Urinary bladder dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with diabetes. Pressure generation requires calcium and cytosolic ATP. Activities of these pumps are responsible for calcium homeostasis. Rat urinary detrusor muscle strips were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses to the Na+/K+-ATPase pump inhibitor, ouabain, the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), were examined from normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats for 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Ouabain, vanadate, and CPA caused concentration-dependent contractions of bladder strips from diabetic and normal rats. The degree of contraction of diabetic bladder muscle was lower than that of controls. This reduction was a function of duration of diabetes. For ouabain, the reduction peaked at 2 weeks, with partial restoration to normal after diabetes induction. For vanadate and CPA, the reduction increased with the duration of diabetes. The ion pumps are important modulators of bladder smooth muscle tone, and in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the activity of these pumps is impaired. Although this is only a single model of diabetes, these findings suggest that a defect in these pumps may be an important component of the development of diabetic bladder cystopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  3. The Mean Excitation Energy of Atomic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum...

  4. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  5. Comprehensive Investigation of Silver Nanoparticle/Aluminum Electrodes for Copper Indium Sulfide/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arar, Mario; Pein, Andreas; Haas, Wernfried

    2012-01-01

    ,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PSiF-DBT) nanocomposite solar cells, which improves the fill factor compared to pure aluminum electrodes. A comprehensive structural investigation was performed by means of transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry revealing the presence of silver...... nanoparticles in an aluminum oxide matrix between the absorber layer and the aluminum cathode. In combination with complementary optical investigations, the origin of the improvement is ascribed to a facilitated charge extraction....

  6. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  7. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  8. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...... electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  9. Effect of sulfur addition and heat treatment on electrical conductivity of barium vanadate glasses containing iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaan, M.Y., E-mail: myhassaan@yahoo.com [Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, 11884 Cairo (Egypt); Ebrahim, F.M.; Mostafa, A.G. [Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, 11884 Cairo (Egypt); El-Desoky, M.M., E-mail: mmdesoky@gmail.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez (Egypt)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Selected glasses of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-BaO-5Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} system have been transformed into nanomaterials by annealing at temperature close to crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) for 1 h. {yields} Glass ceramic nanocrystals are important because of their physical properties which are not obtainable in other classes of materials. {yields} Crystal and grain sizes are the most significant structural parameters in electronic nanocrystalline glassy phases. {yields} These phases have very high electrical conductivity, hence glass-ceramic nanocrystals are expected to be used, for example, as a gas sensor. - Abstract: Six glass samples with a composition of 75V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10BaO + 15Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mol%, with 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt% of sulfur were prepared by using a quenching method. The samples were measured by XRD, DSC, TEM, Moessbauer spectrometry and D.C. conductivity. The prepared samples were heat treated at temperature close to their crystallization temperatures for 1 h, and then the previous measurements were repeated. The results showed that the treatment process caused the formation of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and FeVO{sub 4} nanocrystals with size of 17-25 nm dispersed in the glass matrix. The addition of sulfur reduced only the vanadium ions to V{sup 4+}, while it was found that iron ions were Fe{sup 3+} only. D.C. conduction enhanced due to the small polaron or electron hopping from V{sup 4+} to V{sup 5+} ions. The heat treated samples exhibit much higher conductivity and much lower activation energy than the as-prepared glasses. The heat treated samples showed decreased thermal stability with the addition of sulfur. This considerable enhancement of electrical conductivity after nanocrystallization referred to the formation of extensive and dense network of electronic conduction paths which are situated between V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals and their surfaces.

  10. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  11. Preparation of a Microspherical Silver-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Bismuth Vanadate Composite and Evaluation of Its Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel Ag-reduced graphene oxide (rGO-bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 (AgGB ternary composite was successfully synthesized via a one-step method. The prepared composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area measurement, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse-reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS. The results showed that bulk monoclinic needle-like BiVO4 and Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 40 nm formed microspheres (diameter, 5–8 μm with a uniform size distribution that could be loaded on rGO sheets to facilitate the transport of electrons photogenerated in BiVO4, thereby reducing the rate of recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in the coupled AgGB composite system. Ag nanoparticles were dispersed on the surface of the rGO sheets, which exhibited a localized surface plasmon resonance phenomenon and enhanced visible light absorption. The removal efficiency of rhodamine B dye by AgGB (80.2% was much higher than that of pure BiVO4 (51.6% and rGO-BiVO4 (58.3% under visible light irradiation. Recycle experiments showed that the AgGB composite still presented significant photocatalytic activity after five successive cycles. Finally, we propose a possible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B dye using the composite photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

  12. Luminescent rare earth vanadate nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ and Bi3 for sensing and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alberto; Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Zyuzin, Mikhail; Hartmann, Raimo; Ashraf, Sumaira; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting interest in nanomedicine due to their potential medical applications, ranging from optical biolabels and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to carriers for drug and gene delivery for disease therapy.[1] Rare earth (RE) based nanophosphors exhibit important advantages compared with other available luminescent materials, such as quantum dots and nanostructures functionalized with organic dyes, due to their lower toxicities, photostabilities, high thermal and chemical stabilities, high luminescence quantum yields, and sharp emission bands.[2] Yttrium orthovanadate NPs doped with Eu3+ and Bi3+, functionalized with poly acryl acid (PAA), and excitable by near-ultraviolet light have been synthesized by homogeneous precipitation at 120 °C from solutions of rare earth precursors (yttrium acetylacetonate and europium nitrate), bismuth nitrate, sodium orthovanadate, and PAA, in an ethylene glycol/water mixture. Quasispheres with sizes from 93 to 51 nm were obtained. The as synthesized NPs were already functionalized with PAA. The NPs showed the typical red luminescence of Eu3+, which can be excited with near-UV light through an energy transfer from the vanadate anion. The presence of Bi3+ shifts the maximum of the broad excitation band from 280 nm to 342 nm. This excitation path is much more efficient than the direct excitation of the Eu3+ electronic levels, and results in a much higher luminescence. The NPs can be uptaken by HeLa cells, and are eventually located in the lysosomes after being internalized. Finally, the functionalization with PAA provides -COOH anchors for adding functional ligands of biomedical interest that can be used for sensing applications.

  13. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Wang, Chun-Hai; So, Karwei; Evans, John S.O. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Evans, Ivana Radosavljević, E-mail: ivana.radosavljevic@durham.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6} adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra, ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 12} dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, a new structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn; A=V, P, As) family. - Highlights: • Structure solution from PXRD data by repeated minimisations from random starting values. • New structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family. • Electronic structure calculation.

  14. Single mutation confers vanadate resistance to the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaszewski, S.; Van Herck, J.C.; Dufour, J.P.; Kulpa, J.; Nieuwenhuis, B.; Goffeau, A.

    1987-01-01

    A single-gene nuclear mutant has been selected from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe for growth resistance to Dio-9, a plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor. From this mutant, called pma1, an ATPase activity has been purified. It contains a Mr = 100,000 major polypeptide which is phosphorylated by [gamma- 32 P] ATP. Proton pumping is not impaired since the isolated mutant ATPase is able, in reconstituted proteoliposomes, to quench the fluorescence of the delta pH probe 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxy acridine. The isolated mutant ATPase is sensitive to Dio-9 as well as to seven other plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitors. The mutant H+-ATPase activity tested in vitro is, however, insensitive to vanadate. Its Km for MgATP is modified and its ATPase specific activity is decreased. The pma1 mutation decreases the rate of extracellular acidification induced by glucose when cells are incubated at pH 4.5 under nongrowing conditions. During growth, the intracellular mutant pH is more acid than the wild type one. The derepression by ammonia starvation of methionine transport is decreased in the mutant. The growth rate of pma1 mutants is reduced in minimal medium compared to rich medium, especially when combined to an auxotrophic mutation. It is concluded that the H+-ATPase activity from yeast plasma membranes controls the intracellular pH as well as the derepression of amino acid, purine, and pyrimidine uptakes. The pma1 mutation modifies several transport properties of the cells including those responsible for the uptake of Dio-9 and other inhibitors

  15. Characterization of anodic barrier films on tantalum and 1100 aluminum by ISS/SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Ion scattering spectrometry (ISS) and concurrent secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to determine the depth profiles of anodic barrier oxide films grown on tantalum and type 1100 aluminum. The sputter rate in each case was determined from the film thickness measured by the anodic overvoltage, and the penetration time determined by the decrease in intensity of the metal oxide fragment observed using SIMS. A mixture of helium and neon ions was used to sputter aluminum oxide films in order to observe ion scattering of helium by oxygen, while taking advantage of the higher sputtering rate available with neon. A comparison of sputter rates for helium and neon on tantalum oxide indicated that neon sputtered the film at a rate eight times that of helium. SIMS depth profiling of the residual boron in the anodic aluminum oxide indicated a mixing effect which did not permit adequate resolution of the interface between the oxide film and the underlying metal

  16. Electrical conductivity improvement of strontium titanate doped lead vanadate glasses by nanocrystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desoky, M.M., E-mail: mmdesoky@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, El-Arish (Egypt); Zayed, H.S.S.; Ibrahim, F.A.; Ragab, H.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, El-Arish (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The structural and electrical conductivity (sigma) of annealed SrTiO{sub 3}-PbO{sub 2}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses were studied. The annealing of initially glass samples leads to formation of nanocrystalline grains embedded in the glassy matrix. XRD patterns of the glass-ceramic samples show that nanocrystals were embedded in the glassy matrix with an average grain size of 32 nm. The glass-ceramic nanocrystals obtained by annealing at temperatures close to the crystallization temperature T{sub c} exhibit enhancement of electrical conductivity up to four orders of magnitude than initially glasses. The enhancement of the electrical conductivity due to annealing was attributed to two interdependent factors: (i) an increase of concentration of V{sup 4+}-V{sup 5+} pairs; and (ii) formation of defective, well-conducting regions along the glass-crystallites interfaces. From the conductivity temperature relation, it was found that small polaron hopping model was applicable at temperature above theta{sub D}/2 (theta{sub D}, the Debye temperature). The electrical conduction at T >theta{sub D}/2 was due to non-adiabatic small polaron hopping (SPH) of electrons between vanadium ions. The parameters obtained from the fits of the experimental data to this model appear reasonable and are consistent with glass composition.

  17. Electrical conductivity improvement of strontium titanate doped lead vanadate glasses by nanocrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desoky, M.M.; Zayed, H.S.S.; Ibrahim, F.A.; Ragab, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electrical conductivity (σ) of annealed SrTiO 3 -PbO 2 -V 2 O 5 glasses were studied. The annealing of initially glass samples leads to formation of nanocrystalline grains embedded in the glassy matrix. XRD patterns of the glass-ceramic samples show that nanocrystals were embedded in the glassy matrix with an average grain size of 32 nm. The glass-ceramic nanocrystals obtained by annealing at temperatures close to the crystallization temperature T c exhibit enhancement of electrical conductivity up to four orders of magnitude than initially glasses. The enhancement of the electrical conductivity due to annealing was attributed to two interdependent factors: (i) an increase of concentration of V 4+ -V 5+ pairs; and (ii) formation of defective, well-conducting regions along the glass-crystallites interfaces. From the conductivity temperature relation, it was found that small polaron hopping model was applicable at temperature above θ D /2 (θ D , the Debye temperature). The electrical conduction at T >θ D /2 was due to non-adiabatic small polaron hopping (SPH) of electrons between vanadium ions. The parameters obtained from the fits of the experimental data to this model appear reasonable and are consistent with glass composition.

  18. Bilayer lift-off process for aluminum metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas E.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Crow, Nathaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently published reports in the literature for bilayer lift-off processes have described recipes for the patterning of metals that have recommended metal-ion-free developers, which do etch aluminum. We report the first measurement of the dissolution rate of a commercial lift-off resist (LOR) in a sodium-based buffered commercial developer that does not etch aluminum. We describe a reliable lift-off recipe that is safe for multiple process steps in patterning thin (recipe consists of an acid cleaning of the substrate, the bilayer (positive photoresist/LOR) deposition and development, the sputtering of the aluminum film along with a palladium capping layer and finally, the lift-off of the metal film by immersion in the LOR solvent. The insertion into the recipe of postexposure and sequential develop-bake-develop process steps are necessary for an acceptable undercut. Our recipe also eliminates any need for accompanying sonication during lift-off that could lead to delamination of the metal pattern from the substrate. Fine patterns were achieved for both 100-nm-thick granular aluminum/palladium bilayer bolometers and 500-nm-thick aluminum gratings with 6-μm lines and 4-μm spaces.

  19. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  20. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  1. Synthesis, optical properties and photodegradation for methylene blue of Ni-vanadate K{sub 2}Ni(VO{sub 3}){sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuting; Pu, Yinfu; Huang, Yanlin, E-mail: huang@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Jing; Lu, Juan, E-mail: lujuan@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: juanlu@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China)

    2015-11-15

    A Ni{sup 2+}-containing vanadate, K{sub 2}Ni(VO{sub 3}){sub 4} was developed as a new visible-light-driven photocatalyst. The nanoparticles were prepared by the modified Pechini method. The sample was characterized by the measurements such as X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and UV–Vis absorption spectrum. The photocatalytic activity of K{sub 2}Ni(VO{sub 3}){sub 4} nanoparticles was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation in air. K{sub 2}Ni(VO{sub 3}){sub 4} shows a photocatalytic activity due to the efficient absorption in the UV–Visible-light wavelength region with a narrowed band-gap energy of 2.08 eV and an indirectly allowed electronic transition. These results indicate that this vanadate garnet could be a potential photocatalyst driven by visible light. The effective photocatalytic activity was discussed on the basis of the special structural characteristic such as heavily distorted NiO{sub 6}, rich, activated optical centers with tunnel structure for high photocatalytic capacity, and discussed on the basis of the photoluminescence and the decay lifetime.

  2. Bluish-White Luminescence in Rare-Earth-Free Vanadate Garnet Phosphors: Structural Characterization of LiCa3MV3O12 (M = Zn and Mg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takuya; Abe, Yusuke; Koizumi, Atsuya; Ueda, Tadaharu; Toda, Kenji; Sato, Mineo

    2018-01-16

    Extensive attention has been focused toward studies on inexpensive and rare-earth-free garnet-structure vanadate phosphors, which do not have a low optical absorption due to the luminescence color being easily controlled by its high composition flexibility. However, bluish emission phosphors with a high quantum efficiency have not been found until now. In this study, we successfully discovered bluish-white emitting, garnet structure-based LiCa 3 MV 3 O 12 (M = Zn and Mg) phosphors with a high quantum efficiency, and the detailed crystal structure was refined by the Rietveld analysis technique. These phosphors exhibit a broad-band emission spectra peak at 481 nm under near UV-light excitation at 341 nm, indicating no clear difference in the emission and excitation spectra. A very compact tetrahedral [VO 4 ] unit is observed in the LiCa 3 MV 3 O 12 (M = Zn and Mg) phosphors, which is not seen in other conventional garnet compounds, and generates a bluish-white emission. In addition, these phosphors exhibit high quantum efficiencies of 40.1% (M = Zn) and 44.0% (M = Mg), respectively. Therefore, these vanadate garnet phosphors can provide a new blue color source for LED devices.

  3. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  4. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  5. CHROMATE INHIBITION OF THE LOCALIZED CORROSION OF ALUMINUM: MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL TRANSIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, K.; ISAACS, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the inhibition by chromate ions of the localized corrosion of aluminum by electrochemical transient measurements. In agreement with other work, the measurements demonstrated that chromate is a cathodic inhibitor for aluminum in open circuit. The reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium is assumed to take place on catalyzed sites of the surface. The resulting products inhibit oxygen reduction reactions at these sites, thereby retarding pitting corrosion

  6. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations

  7. Comparative Analysis of Serum Levels of Aluminum and Lead in Dialysis Patients, Pre and post Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Atieh Makhlough; Mohammad Shokrzadeh; Maryam Shaliji; Siyavash Abedi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation or deficiency of trace elements can occur in hemodialysis patients and it increases risk of cardiovascular or other organs disorders. Special ions levels such as sodium and bicarbonate in dialysis fluid are accurately regulated but the remaining elements are not regularly measured. Aluminum and lead belong to the biologic performance free heavy metals .They also has a tendency to accumulate in hemodialysis patients. This study aims to compare serum aluminum and lead l...

  8. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys in chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Filho, Jorge Eustaquio de

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have been used as cladding materials for nuclear fuel in research reactors due to its corrosion resistance. Aluminum owes its good corrosion resistance to a protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its surface. In pool type TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear in Belo Horizonte, previous immersion coupon tests revealed that aluminum alloys suffer from pitting corrosion, in spite of high quality of water control. Corrosion attack is initiated by breaking the protective oxide film on aluminum alloy surface. Chloride ions can break this oxide film and stimulate metal dissolution. In this study the aluminum alloys 1050, 5052 and 6061 were used to evaluate their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions. The electrochemical techniques used were potentiodynamic anodic polarization and cyclic polarization. Results showed that aluminum alloys 5052 and 6061 present similar corrosion resistance in low chloride solutions (0,1 ppm NaCl) and in reactor water but both alloys are less resistant in high chloride solution (1 ppm NaCl). Aluminum alloy 1050 presented similar behavior in the three electrolytes used, regarding to pitting corrosion, indicating that the concentration of the chloride ions was not the only variable to influence its corrosion susceptibility. (author)

  9. Optical spectroscopy of orbital and magnetic excitations in vanadates and cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benckiser, Eva Vera

    2007-10-01

    Within the scope of this thesis, the low-energy excitations of undoped Mott insulators RVO 3 with R = Y, Ho, and Ce, (Sr,Ca)CuO 2 and La 8 Cu 7 O 19 have been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. The compounds RVO 3 with R=rare-earth ion recently have attracted a lot of interest because of their unusual structural, orbital, and magnetic properties. The compounds undergo a series of temperatureinduced phase transitions accompanied by a change of orbital and magnetic order. Furthermore, it has been proposed that YVO 3 represents the first realization of a one-dimensional orbital liquid and an orbital Peierls phase, with a transition to an orbitally ordered phase at lower temperatures. In this thesis, we present the optical conductivity σ(ω) of RVO 3 with R=Y, Ho, and Ce for energies from 0.1 to 1.6 eV as a function of temperature (10-300 K) and polarization of the incident light parallel to the crystallographic axes (σ a ,σ b ,σ c ). Our main experimental result is the observation of two absorption features at 0.55 eV in σ a (ω) and 0.4 eV in σ c (ω) which are assigned to collective orbital excitations, in contrast to conventional local crystal-field transitions. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that in RVO 3 with R=Y, Ho, and Ce the orbital exchange interactions play a decisive role. In a second study, we have investigated the magnetic excitations of low-dimensional quantum magnets, namely the spin chain (Sr,Ca)CuO 2 and the five-leg ladder La 8 Cu 7 O 19 . For (Sr,Ca)CuO 2 , two absorption features around 0.4 eV in σ c (ω) (chain direction) and σ b (ω) (inter-chain direction) are identified as magnetic contributions to the optical conductivity. The analysis of σ c (ω) enables the very precise determination of the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling J c as a function of temperature and Ca substitution. We have found J c =(227±4) meV for SrCuO 2 at low temperatures and no effect on J c upon Ca-substitution of 10%. Furthermore, we

  10. Packaging material and aluminum. Hoso zairyo to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T [Mitsubishi Aluminum Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    The present paper introduces aluminum foil packaging materials among the relation between packing materials and aluminum. The characteristics of aluminum foil in the packaging area are in its barrier performance, non-toxicity, tastelessness and odorlessness. Its excellent functions and processibility suit best as functional materials for food, medicine and industrial material packaging. While an aluminum foil may be used as a single packing material as in foils used in homes, many of it as a packaging material are used in combination with adhesives, papers or plastic films, or coated or printed. It is used as composite materials laminated or coated with other materials according to their use for the purpose of complementing the aluminum foil as the base material. Representative method to laminate aluminum foils include the wet lamination, dry lamination, thermally dissolved lamination and extruded lamination. The most important quality requirement in lamination is the adhesion strength, which requires a close attention in selecting the kinds of adhesive, laminating conditions, and aging conditions. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  12. Biosorption of aluminum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa loaded on Chromosorb 106 prior to its graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A biosorption procedure for separation-enrichment of aluminum in environmental samples has been presented in this work. Pseudomonas aeruginosa loaded on Chromosorb 106 has been used as biosorbent for that purpose. P. aeruginosa is a gram-negative, aerobic rod. The influences of pH of the aqueous solution, eluent type, eluent volume, sample volume, etc. were examined on the quantitative recovery of aluminum in P. aeruginosa loaded on Chromosorb 106. The effects of concomitant ions on the recoveries of aluminum were also investigated. The detection limit based on 3 sigma for aluminum is 30 ng L -1 . Three certified reference materials (LGC 6010 Hard Drinking Water, NIST-SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NRCC-DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle) were analyzed for the validation of the presented procedure. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of aluminum in environmental samples including natural water and food samples. The concentration of aluminum in real samples was found at ppb level

  13. Colorimetric properties of TiN coating implanted by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: zhouqg99@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Bai, X.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xue, X.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, X.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, J. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China); Wang, D.R. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2005-04-05

    TiN coating was prepared by cathodic arc deposition and implanted aluminum using a metal vacuum vapor arc ion source with doses ranging from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The purpose of this work was to determine the dependence of the colorimetric properties of TiN films on the implanting conditions, especially by the aluminum ion implantation. The colorimetry of coatings was evaluated quantitatively in terms of CIE L * a * b *. The color coordinate values L *, a *, and b * provide a numerical representation of the color of the surface. With the dose increasing, the surface color has no obvious change but the surface turns brighter, and a * as well as b * values all decline. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the aluminum implantation induced a slight shift of diffraction peaks. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was employed to analyze the surface valence states. The oxygen in surface top layer does not decrease a * and b * values, it partially combined with nitrogen.

  14. Excited state electron affinity calculations for aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Adnan Yousif

    2017-08-01

    Excited states of negative aluminum ion are reviewed, and calculations of electron affinities of the states (3s^23p^2)^1D and (3s3p^3){^5}{S}° relative to the (3s^23p)^2P° and (3s3p^2)^4P respectively of the neutral aluminum atom are reported in the framework of nonrelativistic configuration interaction (CI) method. A priori selected CI (SCI) with truncation energy error (Bunge in J Chem Phys 125:014107, 2006) and CI by parts (Bunge and Carbó-Dorca in J Chem Phys 125:014108, 2006) are used to approximate the valence nonrelativistic energy. Systematic studies of convergence of electron affinity with respect to the CI excitation level are reported. The calculated value of the electron affinity for ^1D state is 78.675(3) meV. Detailed Calculations on the ^5S°c state reveals that is 1216.8166(3) meV below the ^4P state.

  15. Optical spectroscopy of orbital and magnetic excitations in vanadates and cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benckiser, Eva Vera

    2007-10-15

    Within the scope of this thesis, the low-energy excitations of undoped Mott insulators RVO{sub 3} with R = Y, Ho, and Ce, (Sr,Ca)CuO{sub 2} and La{sub 8}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 19} have been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. The compounds RVO{sub 3} with R=rare-earth ion recently have attracted a lot of interest because of their unusual structural, orbital, and magnetic properties. The compounds undergo a series of temperatureinduced phase transitions accompanied by a change of orbital and magnetic order. Furthermore, it has been proposed that YVO{sub 3} represents the first realization of a one-dimensional orbital liquid and an orbital Peierls phase, with a transition to an orbitally ordered phase at lower temperatures. In this thesis, we present the optical conductivity {sigma}({omega}) of RVO{sub 3} with R=Y, Ho, and Ce for energies from 0.1 to 1.6 eV as a function of temperature (10-300 K) and polarization of the incident light parallel to the crystallographic axes ({sigma}{sub a},{sigma}{sub b},{sigma}{sub c}). Our main experimental result is the observation of two absorption features at 0.55 eV in {sigma}{sub a}({omega}) and 0.4 eV in {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) which are assigned to collective orbital excitations, in contrast to conventional local crystal-field transitions. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that in RVO{sub 3} with R=Y, Ho, and Ce the orbital exchange interactions play a decisive role. In a second study, we have investigated the magnetic excitations of low-dimensional quantum magnets, namely the spin chain (Sr,Ca)CuO{sub 2} and the five-leg ladder La{sub 8}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 19}. For (Sr,Ca)CuO{sub 2}, two absorption features around 0.4 eV in {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) (chain direction) and {sigma}{sub b}({omega}) (inter-chain direction) are identified as magnetic contributions to the optical conductivity. The analysis of {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) enables the very precise determination of the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling J{sub c} as a

  16. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  17. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  18. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  19. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  20. [Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Hui-qing; Deng, Ya-bin; Guo, Meng-lin; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Determination of chondroitin sulfate in the biomedical field has an important value. The conventional methods for the assay of chondroitin sulfate are still unsatisfactory in sensitivity, selectivity or simplicity. This work aimed at developing a novel method for sensitive and selective determination of chondroitin sulfate by fluorimetry. We found that some kinds of cationic surfactants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region, with high efficiency. But, the fluorescence of the above-mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits. Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most efficient quenching effect. It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4Pc and TDBAC. Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the addition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association, leading to the release of AlS4Pc, thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method with simplicity, accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS. Factors including the reaction time, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed. Under optimum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.20~10.0 μg · mL(-1). The detection limit for CS was 0.070 μg · mL(-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results. This work expands the applications of AlS4Pc in biomedical area.

  1. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  2. All-Aluminum Thin Film Transistor Fabrication at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihui Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3 insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction unit. The measurements of transmittance electronic microscopy (TEM and X-ray reflectivity (XRR revealed the smooth interfaces between ~2.2-nm-thick Al2O3 layers and ~2.7-nm-thick AZO layers. The devices were entirely composited by aluminiferous materials, that is, their gate and source/drain electrodes were respectively fabricated by aluminum neodymium alloy (Al:Nd and pure Al, with Al2O3/AZO multilayered channel and AlOx:Nd gate dielectric layer. As a result, the all-aluminum TFT with two Al2O3/AZO heterojunction units exhibited a mobility of 2.47 cm2/V·s and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. All processes were carried out at room temperature, which created new possibilities for green displays industry by allowing for the devices fabricated on plastic-like substrates or papers, mainly using no toxic/rare materials.

  3. Intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm 2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm 2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al (1-3)+ ) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89%. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were successively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm 2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration. (author)

  4. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  5. First-principles investigation of aluminum intercalation and diffusion in TiO2 materials: Anatase versus rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiqiang; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum-ion batteries, emerging as a promising post-lithium battery solution, have been a subject of increasing research interest. Yet, most existing aluminum-ion research has focused on electrode materials development and synthesis. There has been a lack of fundamental understanding of the electrode processes and thus theoretical guidelines for electrode materials selection and design. In this study, by using density functional theory, we for the first time report a first-principles investigation on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of aluminum intercalation into two common TiO2 polymorphs, i.e., anatase and rutile. After examining the aluminum intercalation sites, intercalation voltages, storage capacities and aluminum diffusion paths in both cases, we demonstrate that the stable aluminum intercalation site locates at the center of the O6 octahedral for TiO2 rutile and off center for TiO2 anatase. The maximum achievable Al/Ti ratios for rutile and anatase are 0.34375 and 0.36111, respectively. Although rutile is found to have an aluminum storage capacity slightly higher than anatase, the theoretical specific energy of rutile can reach 20.90 Wh kg-1, nearly twice as high as anatase (9.84 Wh kg-1). Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of aluminum ions in rutile is 10-9 cm2 s-1, significantly higher than that in anatase (10-20 cm2 s-1). In this regard, TiO2 rutile appears to be a better candidate than anatase as an electrode material for aluminum-ion batteries.

  6. FIB and TEM studies of damage mechanisms in DLC coatings sliding against aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng-Burany, X.; Alpas, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Material transfer and adhesion phenomena during sliding contact of non-hydrogenated diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings against an aluminum-silicon (319 Al) counterface tested in vacuum were studied using TEM investigations of the cross-sectional microstructures of the wear tracks. Site-specific focused ion beam (FIB) lift-out method was used to prepare the sections at the precise locations where aluminum pieces were adhered to the DLC surface. The dense amorphous structure of DLC coatings with nanocrystalline graphite platelets is confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The focused ion channeling contrast images obtained from the cross-sections of the wear track indicated that in some sections of DLC coatings considerable wear was inflicted by aluminum, reducing the coating thickness. The aluminum that was transferred on the DLC coatings' contact surfaces consisted of nanocrystalline grains of less than 100 nm. TEM examination of the contact surface of the 319 Al pin has revealed that the initial aluminum grain size was also reduced to the nanocrystalline scale and this was accompanied with a hardness increase. These observations revealed that local severe plastic deformation accompanied the aluminum adhesion process to DLC coating surfaces

  7. Direct current-induced electrogenerated chemiluminescence of hydrated and chelated Tb(III) at aluminum cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakansson, M.; Jiang, Q.; Spehar, A.-M.; Suomi, J.; Kotiranta, M.; Kulmala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cathodic DC polarization of oxide-covered aluminum produces electrogenerated chemiluminescence from hydrated and chelated Tb(III) ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. At the moment of cathodic voltage onset, a strong cathodic flash is observed, which is attributed to a tunnel emission of hot electrons into the aqueous electrolyte solution and the successive chemical reactions with the luminophores. However, within a few milliseconds the insulating oxide film is damaged and finally dissolved due to (i) indiffusion of protons or alkali metal ions into the thin oxide film, (ii) subsequent hydrogen evolution at the aluminum/oxide interface and (iii) alkalization of the electrode surface induced by hydrogen evolution reaction. When the alkalization of the electrode surface has proceeded sufficiently, chemiluminescence is generated with increasing intensity. Aluminum metal, short-lived Al(II), Al(I) or atomic hydrogen and its conjugated base form, hydrated electron, can act as highly reducing species in addition to the less energetic heterogeneously transferred electrons from the aluminum electrode. Tb(III) added as a hydrated ion in the solution probably luminesces in the form of Tb(OH) 3 or Tb(OH) 4 - by direct redox reactions of the central ion whereas multidentate aromatic ligand chelated Tb(III) probably luminesces by ligand sensitized chemiluminescence mechanism in which ligand is first excited by one-electron redox reactions, which is followed by intramolecular energy transfer to the central ion which finally emits light

  8. Aluminum coordination chemistry and the inhibition of phosphoryl-transferring enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumo, N.C.; Viola, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aluminium ion is a potent inhibitor of the enzymes hexokinase (K/sub i/ = 0.16 μM) and glycerokinase (K/sub i/ = 4.0 μM). It has been shown that aluminum forms a complex with ATP that is 80 times more stable than the magnesium complex with ATP which is the normal substrate for phosphoryl-transferring enzymes. Kinetic studies performed on several kinases at pH 7.0 have shown that Al-ATP is a competitive inhibitor vs. Mg-ATP with moderate K/sub i/ values (0.1-0.5 mM) for creatine kinase(CK) and myokinase(MK), and weakly competitive (K/sub i/ > 0.5 mM) with acetate, galactose, arginine and gluconate kinases. Equilibrium dialysis binding studies indicate no significant binding of aluminum ion by the enzymes, while the interaction of aluminum ion with ADP and ATP has been characterized by 13 C, 27 Al, and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. It appears that the inhibition by aluminum is as the Al-nucleotide complex rather than direct binding of free aluminum ion by the enzyme. Kinetic studies indicate that Al 3+ inhibition of CK and MK is pH dependent with decreased values of K/sub i/ at lower pH. At pH 6.1 K/sub i/ = 25 μM for MK (160 μM at pH 7.0) and 53 μM for CK (240 μM at pH 7.0). This may be due to an increased effective concentration of aluminum ion at lower pH

  9. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  10. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  11. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  12. Aluminum stress and its role in the phospholipid signaling pathway in plants and possible biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot-Poot, Wilberth; Hernandez-Sotomayor, Soledad M Teresa

    2011-10-01

    An early response of plants to environmental signals or abiotic stress suggests that the phospholipid signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in these mechanisms. The phospholipid signaling cascade is one of the main systems of cellular transduction and is related to other signal transduction mechanisms. These other mechanisms include the generation of second messengers and their interactions with various proteins, such as ion channels. This phospholipid signaling cascade is activated by changes in the environment, such as phosphate starvation, water, metals, saline stres, and plant-pathogen interactions. One important factor that impacts agricultural crops is metal-induced stress. Because aluminum has been considered to be a major toxic factor for agriculture conducted in acidic soils, many researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in plants. We have contributed the last fifteen years in this field by studying the effects of aluminum on phospholipid signaling in coffee, one of the Mexico's primary crops. We have focused our research on aluminum toxicity mechanisms in Coffea arabica suspension cells as a model for developing future contributions to the biotechnological transformation of coffee crops such that they can be made resistant to aluminum toxicity. We conclude that aluminum is able to not only generate a signal cascade in plants but also modulate other signal cascades generated by other types of stress in plants. The aim of this review is to discuss possible involvement of the phospholipid signaling pathway in the aluminum toxicity response of plant cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué, Kamal H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the first solid-state 27Al NMR study of three aluminum phthalocyanine dyes: aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, AlPcCl (1); aluminum-1,8,15,22-tetrakis(phenylthio)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine chloride, AlPc(SPh)4Cl (2); and aluminum-2,3-naphthalocyanine chloride, AlNcCl (3). Each of these compounds contains Al3+ ions coordinating to four nitrogen atoms and a chlorine atom. Solid-state 27Al NMR spectra, including multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) spectra and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra of stationary powdered samples have been acquired at multiple high magnetic field strengths (11.7, 14.1, and 21.1 T) to determine their composition and number of aluminum sites, which were analyzed to extract detailed information on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry parameters (η) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, and compared well with the results of quantum chemical calculations of these tensors. We also report the largest 27Al chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA), with a span of 120 ± 10 ppm, observed directly in a solid material. The combination of MQMAS and computational predictions are used to interpret the presence of multiple aluminum sites in two of the three samples.

  14. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  15. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  16. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam diode using gas puff plasma gun as ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Higashiyama, M.; Takata, S.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    A magnetically insulated ion diode with an active ion source of a gas puff plasma gun has been developed in order to generate a high-intensity pulsed heavy ion beam for the implantation process of semiconductors and the surface modification of materials. The nitrogen plasma produced by the plasma gun is injected into the acceleration gap of the diode with the external magnetic field system. The ion diode is operated at diode voltage approx. =200 kV, diode current approx. =2 kA and pulse duration approx. =150 ns. A new acceleration gap configuration for focusing ion beam has been designed in order to enhance the ion current density. The experimental results show that the ion current density is enhanced by a factor of 2 and the ion beam has the ion current density of 27 A/cm 2 . In addition, the coaxial type Marx generator with voltage 200 kV and current 15 kA has been developed and installed in the focus type ion diode. The ion beam of ion current density approx. =54 A/cm 2 is obtained. To produce metallic ion beams, an ion source by aluminum wire discharge has been developed and the aluminum plasma of ion current density ∼70 A/cm 2 is measured. (author)

  1. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  2. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  3. Nickel-aluminum diffusion: A study of evolution of microstructure and phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilía Kristín; Burrows, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Microstructural and phase evolution of an aluminum deposit on nickel, after heat treatment at 883 K, is studied by means of various microscopy techniques, i.e. energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, backscattered electron imaging, electron backscatter diffraction, ion channeling contrast imaging...

  4. Proteome modification in tomato plants upon long-term aluminum treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to identify the aluminum (Al)-induced proteomes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, “Micro-Tom”) after long-term exposure to the stress factor. Plants were treated in Magnavaca’s solution (pH 4.5) supplemented with 7.5 uM Al3+ ion activity over a 4 month period beginning at the emergen...

  5. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  6. Ecotoxicology of aluminum to fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.; Campbell, P.G.C.; Yokel, Robert A.; Golub, Mari S.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminum has been studied extensively in fish, less so in invertebrates, amphibians, and birds, and not at all in reptiles and free-ranging mammals. For aquatic organisms, Al bioavailability and toxicity are intimately related to ambient pH; changes in ambient acidity may affect Al solubility, dissolved Al speciation, and organism sensitivity to Al. At moderate acidity (pH 5.5 to 7.0), fish and invertebrates may be stressed due to Al adsorption onto gill surfaces and subsequent asphyxiation. At pH 4.5 to 5.5, Al can impair ion regulation and augment the toxicity of H+. At lower pH, elevated Al can temporarily ameliorate the toxic effects of acidity by competing for binding sites with H+. Aluminum toxicity in aquatic environments is further affected by the concentration of ligands such as dissolved organic matter, fluoride, or sulfate, and of other cations such as Ca and Mg which compete for cellular binding sites. Although risk of Al toxicity is often based on a model of free-ion (Al3+) activity, recent evidence suggests that factors determining Al toxicity may be more complex. In general, aquatic invertebrates are less sensitive to Al toxicity and acidity than fish; thus acidified, Al-rich waters may actually reduce predation pressure. Fish may be affected by asphyxiation at moderate acidic conditions or electrolyte imbalances at lower pH. In amphibians, embryos and young larvae are typically more sensitive than older larvae. Early breeding amphibians, which lay eggs in ephemeral ponds and streams subject to spring runoff, are most at risk from Al and acidification; those that breed later in the year in lakes or rivers are least vulnerable. Birds and mammals are most likely exposed through dietary ingestion of soil or Al-contaminated foods. Concentrations > 1000 mg.kg-1 in food may be toxic to young birds and mammals. Clinical signs in these animals are consistent with rickets because Al precipitates with P in the gut. Suggestions for additional

  7. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Oona, H.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Engelhardt, L.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-beam injector is being designed and built at Los Alamos for the US Heavy Ion Fusion Program. As part of this program, development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is being carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values

  8. Angular dependence of preferential sputtering and composition in aluminum--copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudeck, P.J.; Harper, J.M.E.; Fryer, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The copper concentration in aluminum--copper alloys can be altered by ion bombardment during film deposition. We have measured the sputtering yields of aluminum and copper in Al--Cu alloys as a function of the Cu concentration (5--13 at. %) and the angle of ion incidence (0--40 0 from normal). During deposition, the films were partially resputtered by 500-eV Ar + ion bombardment from a Kaufman ion source. We found that the Cu sputtering yield decreases by up to a factor of 10 in the alloy, relative to elemental Cu. The Al sputtering yield remains close to the elemental value. The net effect is a strong preferential sputtering of Al relative to Cu, which enhances the Cu concentration in an ion bombarded film. The Al/Cu sputtering yield ratio for normal incidence ion bombardment ranges from 3 to 5 as a function of Cu concentration. This ratio decreases with increasing angle of incidence to as low as 2 for 40 0 incident ions. However, since a higher fraction of the film is resputtered from a sloping surface, a higher Cu concentration is found on a sloping surface relative to a flat surface. These results show that in multicomponent film deposition under ion bombardment, the film composition will vary as a function of the surface topography. We will also show how the level of argon left trapped in the films varies inversely with respect to the ion flux

  9. Study the properties of activated carbon and oxyhydroxide aluminum as sorbents for removal humic substances from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyan, L N; Machekhina, K I; Gryaznova, E N

    2016-01-01

    The present work relates to the problem of high-quality drinking water supply using processes of adsorption on activated carbon and aluminum oxyhydroxide for removal humic- type organic substances. Also the paper reports on sorbtion properties of the activeted carbon Norit SA UF and oxyhydroxide aluminum for removal humic substances. It was found out that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon to organic substances is equal to 0.25 mg/mg and aluminum oxyhydroxide is equal to 0.3 mg/mg. It is shown that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon Norit SA UF to iron (III) ions is equal to 0.0045 mg/mg and to silicon ions is equal to 0.024 mg/mg. Consequently, the aluminum oxyhydroxide has better adsorption characteristics in comparison with the activated carbon for removal of humic substances, iron and silicon ions. It is associated with the fact that activated carbon has a large adsorption surface, and this is due to its porous structure, but not all molecules can enter into these pores. Therefore, the fibrous structure of aluminum oxyhydroxide promotes better sorption capacity. The presented results suggest that activated carbon Norit SA UF and aluminum oxyhydroxide can be used as sorbents for removal humic substances or other organic substances from groundwater and natural waters. (paper)

  10. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Reheem, A. M., E-mail: amreheem2009@yahoo.com [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.N.13759, Cairo (Egypt); Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.

  11. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  12. Ortho-vanadates K3RE(VO4)2 (RE = La, Pr, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) for near UV-converted phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lin; Wei, Dong-Lei; Huang, Yanlin; Qin, Chuanxiang; Cai, Peiqing; Kim, Sun-Il; Seo, Hyo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The orthovanadate poly-crystals K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = La, Pr, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) were synthesized via the solid-state reaction route. The crystal phase formation was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and was performed by structural refinements. The optical properties were also investigated in detail. K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) phosphors present different luminescence behaviors: the profiles of excitation and emission spectra, the spectra shift, the luminescence decay lifetimes, the absolute quantum efficiency (QE), and the CIE color coordinates are very different. The luminescence of K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = La, Gd, Y, Pr) presents yellow or yellowish green color, while, K 3 Dy(VO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Eu(VO 4 ) 2 show white and red luminescence, respectively. This was discussed on the base of the different micro-structure, activator centers, and the charge transfer transitions from [VO 4 ] 3− groups in the lattices. K 3 Y(VO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Eu(VO 4 ) 2 show higher QE values of 47.0% and 45.0% at room temperature, respectively. All the phosphors have efficient absorption in the region of near-UV wavelengths or blue wavelength region. This can well match with the light from UV-LED (360–400 nm) or blue LED chips (450–480 nm) based on GaN semiconductor. K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 could be suggested to be a potential candidate to give further investigations for the application on near-UV excited white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: A series of orthovanadates K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) have been developed to be new phosphors with rich luminescence colors; there are efficiency excitation in the near UV wavelength region. Compared with the reported vanadate phosphors K 3 R(VO 4 ) 2 has rich luminescence color, rich color, no concentration quenching, and comparable luminescence QE. - Highlights: • A new phosphor of non-doped of K 3 R(VO 4 ) 2 (R = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) were developed by solid-state reaction route. • The phosphor

  13. Z/sub 1/ dependence of ion-induced electron emission from aluminum. [H/sup +/,H/sub 2//sup +/,D/sup +/,D/sub 2//sup +/,He/sup +/,B/sup +/,C/sup +/,N/sup +/,N/sub 2//sup +/,O/sup +/,O/sub 2//sup +/,F/sup +/,Ne/sup +/,S/sup +/,Cl/sup +/,Ar/sup +/,Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/, 1. 2-50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1980-07-01

    We have measured the electron emission yields ..gamma.. of clean aluminum under bombardment with H/sup +/, H/sub 2/ /sup +/, D/sup +/, D/sub 2/ /sup +/, He/sup +/, B/sup +/, C/sup +/, N/sup +/, N/sub 2/ /sup +/, O/sup +/, O/sub 2/ /sup +/, F/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, S/sup +/, Cl/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ in the energy range 1.2--50 keV. The clean surfaces were prepared by in situ evaporation of high-purity Al under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. It is found that kinetic electron emission yields ..gamma../sub k/, obtained after subtracting from the measured ..gamma.. a contribution due to potential emission, are roughly proportional to the electronic stopping powers, for projectiles lighter than Al. For heavier projectiles there is a sizable contribution to electron emission from collisions involving rapidly recoiling target atoms, which increases with the mass of the projectile, and which dominates the threshold and near-threshold behavior of kinetic emission. The results, together with recently reported data on Auger electron emission from ion-bombarded Al show that the mechanism proposed by Parilis and Kishinevskii of inner-shell excitation and subsequent Auger decay is negligible for light ions and probably small for heavy ions on Al and in our energy range. We thus conclude that kinetic electron emission under bombardment by low-energy ions results mainly from the escape of excited valence electrons.

  14. Aluminum access to the brain: A role for transferrin and its receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskams, A.J.; Connor, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminum in plant and animal cell biology is well established, although poorly understood. Several recent studies have identified aluminum as a potential, although highly controversial, contributory factor in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dialysis dementia. For example, aluminum has been found in high concentrations in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which occur in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, a mechanism for the entry of aluminum (Al 3+ ) into the cells of the central nervous system (CNS) has yet to be found. Here the authors describe a possible route of entry for aluminum into the cells of the CNS via the same high-affinity receptor-ligand system that has been postulated for iron (Fe 3 ) aluminum is able to gain access to the central nervous system under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the interaction between transferrin and its receptor may function as a general metal ion regulatory system in the CNS, extending beyond its postulated role in iron regulation

  15. Improved measurement of aluminum in irradiated fuel reprocessed at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III.

    1991-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), irradiated fuel from research reactor operators or their contract fuel service companies is reprocessed in the H-Canyon Separations Facility. Final processing costs are based on analytical measurements of the amount of total metal dissolved. Shipper estimates for uranium and uranium-235 and measured values at SRS have historically agreed very well. There have occasionally been significant differences between shipper estimates for aluminum and the aluminum content determined at SRS. To minimize analytical error that might contribute to poor shipper-receiver agreement for the reprocessing of off-site fuel, a new analytical method to measure aluminum was developed by SRS Analytical Laboratories at the Central Laboratory Facilities. An EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) titration method, subject to dissolver matrix interferences, was previously used at SRS to measure aluminum in H-Canyon dissolver during the reprocessing of offsite fuel. The new method combines rapid ion exchange technology with direct current argon plasma spectrometry to enhance the reliability of aluminum measurements for off-site fuel. The technique rapidly removes spectral interferences such as uranium and significantly lowers gamma levels due to fission products. Aluminium is separated quantitatively by using an anion exchange technique that employs oxalate complexing, small particle size resin and rapid flow rates. The new method, which has eliminated matrix interference problems with these analyses and improved the quality of aluminum measurements, has improved the overall agreement between shipper-receiver values for offsite fuel processed SRS

  16. Recommended atomic data for collisional-radiative model of Li-like ions and gain calculation for Li-like Al ions in the recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, T.; Kawachi, T.; Nishihara, K.; Fujimoto, T.

    1995-09-01

    We have assessed atomic data for lithium-like ions for the purpose of constructing a reliable collisional-radiative model. We show several examples of the atomic data for aluminum and oxygen ions, and comparison of data from several sources is done in detail. For ions with nuclear charge z, the scaling formulas and fitting parameters, which are based on the data of oxygen ions, are presented. By use of these data, we have constructed two collisional-radiative models: the one for aluminum ions and the one for ions according to the scaling for z. The population inversion and the amplification gain of the soft x-ray laser lines in the recombining aluminum plasma are calculated for several electron temperatures. We also examine the effects of ion collisions for Δn=0 transitions on the excited level populations

  17. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  18. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  19. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  20. The effect of different aluminum alloy surface compositions on barrier anodic film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have grown barrier anodic coatings on samples of aluminum alloy with different elemental surface compositions. In one series of experiments, they characterized the surface composition present on 6061 aluminum alloy samples after different chemical treatments including a detergent-water and methyl-ethyl ketone solvent clean, a 50% nitric acid-water etch, and a concentrated nitric acid-ammonium bifluoride etch. They anodized samples which were prepared similarly to those analyzed to evaluate the practical effects of the three different surface compositions. The anodization voltage rise time to 950V at constant current was used as a figure of merit. The solvent cleaned and the 50% nitric acid etched samples required, respectively, 113% and 41% more time to reach 950V than the concentrated nitric acidammonium bifloride etched samples. In a second series of experiments, they alternately anodized groups of either 6061 or 1100 (commercially pure) aluminum alloy, observed rise times to 950V, and measured chloride ion concentrations in the electrolyte. Longer rise times and higher chloride ion concentrations were observed for the 1100 samples. It was observed that the chloride ion concentration fell from initially high levels when 6061 samples were anodized. The results of both series of experiments augment the results of other investigators, who report that the surface species initially present on aluminum have a significant effect on anodic film formation

  1. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Fang, Youxing; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, M Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2016-01-28

    A novel hybrid battery utilizing an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. The hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  2. A visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of vanadate garnet AgCa{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuting; Chen, Luyang; Li, Yuze; Huang, Yanlin [Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (China); Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Pukyong National University, Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A visible-light-driven photocatalyst of nanosized vanadate garnet AgCa{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 12} was prepared by a modified Pechini method. The nanoparticles were characterized with the measurements such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and structural refinements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and UV–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectrum. The sample has an efficient absorption in the UV–Vis light region with a narrow band-gap energy of 2.16 eV and an indirect allowed electronic transition. Besides, the photocatalysis of AgCa{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanoparticles was evaluated by photo-degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation, which shows excellent photocatalytic activity. The effective photocatalytic activity was discussed on the base of the garnet crystal structure such as the activated optical centers of Ni–O octahedron and V–O tetrahedral, highly distorted Ag–O dodecahedra, and long V–V distance in the lattices.

  3. A visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of vanadate garnet AgCa2Ni2V3O12 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuting; Chen, Luyang; Li, Yuze; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-01-01

    A visible-light-driven photocatalyst of nanosized vanadate garnet AgCa 2 Ni 2 V 3 O 12 was prepared by a modified Pechini method. The nanoparticles were characterized with the measurements such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and structural refinements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and UV–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectrum. The sample has an efficient absorption in the UV–Vis light region with a narrow band-gap energy of 2.16 eV and an indirect allowed electronic transition. Besides, the photocatalysis of AgCa 2 Ni 2 V 3 O 12 nanoparticles was evaluated by photo-degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation, which shows excellent photocatalytic activity. The effective photocatalytic activity was discussed on the base of the garnet crystal structure such as the activated optical centers of Ni–O octahedron and V–O tetrahedral, highly distorted Ag–O dodecahedra, and long V–V distance in the lattices

  4. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

    2016-06-01

    Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  6. Separation of rubidium from irradiated aluminum-encapsulated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schmitz, F.J.; Rokop, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure was developed for separating rubidium from irradiated aluminum encapsulated uranium. The separations procedure produces a final ultra-high purity RbCl product for subsequent high performance mass spectrometric analysis. The procedure involves first removing most of the macro-components and fission products by strong base anion exchange using, first, concentrated HCl, then oxalic acid media and second, selectively separating rubidium from alkaline-earth ions and other alkali-metal ions, including cesium, using Bio-Rex-40 cation-exchange resin. The resultant RbCl is then put through a final vacuum sublimation step. Ultra-pure reagents and specially clean glassware are used throughout the procedure to minimize contamination by naturally-occurring rubidium

  7. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  8. Modeling of ion beam surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, R W [Quantum Manufacturing Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maenchen, J E; Renk, T J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Struve, K W [Mission Research Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Campbell, M M [PASTDCO, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The use of intense pulsed ion beams is providing a new capability for surface engineering based on rapid thermal processing of the top few microns of metal, ceramic, and glass surfaces. The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) process has been shown to produce enhancements in the hardness, corrosion, wear, and fatigue properties of surfaces by rapid melt and re-solidification. A new code called IBMOD was created, enabling the modeling of intense ion beam deposition and the resulting rapid thermal cycling of surfaces. This code was used to model the effect of treatment of aluminum, iron, and titanium using different ion species and pulse durations. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs.

  9. The Substitution of IVD (Ion Vapor Deposition) Aluminum for Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    thus lose the anvantages the substitution nay offer suco as improveu perfornance arc/or the elimination of hazaruous waste production. This report...various processe-s are snown in Tlaole 31. The lVU alumiinum capitai cost includes the cooTter arc ucoicoted equipmient suco as a grit olaster ano glass

  10. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  11. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.; Fletcher, L.; Pak, A.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Galtier, E.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; Hastings, J.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Turnbull, D.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; Döppner, T.

    2014-05-01

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ~3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4k=4Å-1. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  12. Ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, Erhard; Melchert, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Collisions between ions belong to the elementary processes occurring in all types of plasmas. In this article we give a short overview about collisions involving one-electron systems. For collisions involving multiply-charged ions we limit the discussion to one specific quasi-one-electron system. (author)

  13. Fabrication of high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) on low purity aluminum—A comparative study with the AAO produced on high purity aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Norek, Małgorzata; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Budner, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous alumina was fabricated by anodization in sulfuric acid solution with glycol. • The AAO manufacturing on low- and high-purity Al was compared. • The pores size was ranging between 30 and 50 nm. • No difference in the quality of the AAO fabricated on both Al types was observed. • The current vs. anodization time curves were recorded. -- Abstract: In this work the quality, arrangement, composition, and regularity of nanoporous AAO formed on the low-purity (AA1050) and high-purity aluminum during two-step anodization in a mixture of sulfuric acid solution (0.3 M), water and glycol (3:2, v/v), at various voltages (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 V) and at temperature of −1 °C, are investigated. The electrochemical conditions have allowed to obtain pores with the size ranging from 30 to 50 nm, which are much larger than those usually obtained by anodization in a pure sulfuric acid solution (<20 nm). The mechanism of the AAO growth is discussed. It was found that with the increase of applied anodizing voltage a number of incorporated sulfate ions in the aluminum oxide matrix increases, which was connected with the appearance of an unusual area in the current vs. time curves. On the surface of anodizing low- and high-purity aluminum, the formation of hillocks was observed, which was associated with the sulfate ions incorporation. The sulfate ions are replacing the oxygen atom/atoms in the AAO amorphous crystal structure and, consequently, the AAO template swells, the oxide cracks and uplifts causing the formation of hillocks. The same mechanism occurs for both low- and high-purity aluminum. Nanoporous AAO characterized by a very high regularity, not registered previously for low purity aluminum, was obtained. Furthermore, no significant difference in the regularity ratio between the AAO obtained on low- and high-purity aluminum, was observed. The electrochemical conditions applied in this study can be, thus, used for the fabrication of high quality

  14. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  15. The thermal power of aluminum nitride at temperatures between 1350 and 1650 deg C in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Ph.D. Thesis - Rhine-Westphalia High School at Aachen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W. A.; Schuh, B.

    1978-01-01

    The test apparatus for measuring the thermal voltage of aluminum nitride for temperature differences of up to + or - 60 C between 1350 and 1650 C is described. The thermal power and its homogeneous proportion are determined and the heat transfer of the migration ions resulting from the homogeneous thermal power is calculated. The conduction mechanism in aluminum nitride is discussed.

  16. Electrochemical behaviour of aluminum alloy containing various stanum concentration tested in tropical seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Muhamad Daud; Mohd Shariff Satar

    2004-01-01

    A study has been carried out to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of sacrificial anodes with different Sh concentration in tropical seawater environment. In this work, samples of Aluminum alloy with the addition of Sn in a range of 1. 0% - 1. 7% were tested in tropical seawater at room temperature. Tafel technique was used to produce a graph of the measured current versus potential for each different Sh concentration of aluminum alloy. The results show that the variation in alloy compositions affected the values of corrosion rate, corrosion current density and potential compared to alloy without Sn content. Furthermore, it was found that small addition of Sn successfully increased aluminum ion dissolution into seawater by producing a higher value of corrosion current density and corrosion rate. (Author)

  17. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  18. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  19. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  20. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  1. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  2. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  3. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  4. Environmental Screening of Electrode Materials for a Rechargeable Aluminum Battery with an AlCl3/EMIMCl Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rechargeable aluminum batteries have received much attention due to their low cost, easy operation, and high safety. As the research into rechargeable aluminum batteries with a room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte is relatively new, research efforts have focused on finding suitable electrode materials. An understanding of the environmental aspects of electrode materials is essential to make informed and conscious decisions in aluminum battery development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative environmental performance of electrode material candidates for rechargeable aluminum batteries with an AlCl3/EMIMCl (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte. To this end, we used a lifecycle environmental screening framework to evaluate 12 candidate electrode materials. We found that all of the studied materials are associated with one or more drawbacks and therefore do not represent a “silver bullet” for the aluminum battery. Even so, some materials appeared more promising than others did. We also found that aluminum battery technology is likely to face some of the same environmental challenges as Li-ion technology but also offers an opportunity to avoid others. The insights provided here can aid aluminum battery development in an environmentally sustainable direction.

  5. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part II: Influence of In addition on the electrochemical characteristics of Al-Zn alloy in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jun; Choi, Seok-Ryul; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    Effects of Zn and In additions on the aluminum anode for Al-air battery in alkaline solution are examined by the self-corrosion rate, cell voltage, current-voltage characteristics, anodic polarization, discharge performance and AC impedance measurements. The passivation behavior of Zn-added anode during anodic polarization decreases the discharge performance of Al-air battery. The addition of In to Al-Zn anode reduces the formation of Zn passivation film by repeated adsorption and desorption behavior of In ion onto anode surface. The attenuated Zn passive layer by In ion attack leads to the improvement of discharge performance of Al-air battery.

  6. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  7. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  8. High definition aperture probes for near-field optical microscopy fabricated by focused ion beam milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Otter, A.M.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    We have improved the optical characteristics of aluminum-coated fiber probes used in near-field scanning optical microscopy by milling with a focused ion beam. This treatment produces a flat-end face free of aluminum grains, containing a well- defined circularly-symmetric aperture with controllable

  9. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  10. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravin Jugdaohsingh

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7 we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP. Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2 g(-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  11. High-Aluminum-Affinity Silica Is a Nanoparticle That Seeds Secondary Aluminosilicate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m2 g-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates. PMID:24349573

  12. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ATPase domain of human TAP in nucleotide-free and ADP-, vanadate- and azide-complexed forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Sita R.; Gangwar, Shanti P.; Saxena, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    The ATPase domain of human TAP in nucleotide free, ADP, vanadate and azide complexed forms were purified and crystallized. The X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for all crystals in the resolution range of 2.8–3.0 Å. The human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) protein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and is formed by the heterodimerization of TAP1 and TAP2 subunits. TAP selectively pumps cytosolic peptides into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum in an ATP-dependent manner. The catalytic cycle of the ATPase domain of TAP is not understood at the molecular level. The structures of catalytic intermediates of the ATPase domain of TAP will contribute to the understanding of the chemical mechanism of ATP hydrolysis. In order to understand this mechanism, the ATPase domain of human TAP1 (NBD1) was expressed and purified, crystallized in nucleotide-free and transition-state complex forms and X-ray crystallographic studies were performed. The NBD1 protein was crystallized (i) in the nucleotide-free apo form; (ii) in complex with ADP–Mg 2+ , mimicking the product-bound state; (iii) in complex with vanadate–ADP–Mg 2+ , mimicking the ATP-bound state; and (iv) in complex with azide–ADP–Mg 2+ , also mimicking the ATP-bound state. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for apo and complexed NBD1 using an in-house X-ray diffraction facility at a wavelength of 1.5418 Å. The apo and complexed NBD1 crystals belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P6 2 , with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Here, the crystallization, data collection and preliminary crystallographic analysis of apo and complexed NBD1 are reported

  14. Effect of LiNO3 on corrosion prevention of aluminum wastes after their land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Masami; Hironaga, Michihiko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    After their land disposal, LiNO 3 added to cement solidified miscellaneous wastes inhibits hydrogen gas generation due to alkaline corrosion of aluminum contained in the wastes. We considered the presence of an Li-Al preservation film prevents hydrogen gas generation, and then, we assumed a scenario in which the amount of LiNO 3 included in the waste packages is lowered by underground water penetration, resulting in dissolution of the Li-Al preservation film. This dissolution allows the alkaline underground water to reach and corrode the aluminum materials. The loss of Na 2 O and K 2 O in cement by underground water penetration lowers the pH, so that the aluminum corrosion in the waste packages with LiNO 3 , expected when the Li-Al preservation film dissolves, is less than that without LiNO 3 . To test this scenario, we measured solubility of the Li-Al preservation film, Li + ion concentration, pH variation by underground water penetration, and aluminum corrosion when the Li-Al preservation film had dissolved. The measured solubility of the Li-Al preservation film was 3x10 -4 M at 283 K. At that time, pH was lowered from 12.9-13.0 to 12.2-12.3. As a result, with LiNO 3 addition the aluminum corrosion amount was reduced to 10% of that without LiNO 3 addition, because of the pH decrease. (author)

  15. A comprehensive review on recent progress in aluminum–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aluminum–air battery is considered to be an attractive candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs because of its high theoretical energy density (8100 Wh kg−1, which is significantly greater than that of the state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. However, some technical and scientific problems preventing the large-scale development of Al–air batteries have not yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and the recent advances in Al–air battery technology from aluminum anode, air cathode and electrocatalysts to electrolytes and inhibitors. Firstly, the alloying of aluminum with transition metal elements is reviewed and shown to reduce the self-corrosion of Al and improve battery performance. Additionally for the cathode, extensive studies of electrocatalytic materials for oxygen reduction/evolution including Pt and Pt alloys, nonprecious metal catalysts, and carbonaceous materials at the air cathode are highlighted. Moreover, for the electrolyte, the application of aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes in Al–air batteries are discussed. Meanwhile, the addition of inhibitors to the electrolyte to enhance electrochemical performance is also explored. Finally, the challenges and future research directions are proposed for the further development of Al–air batteries. Keywords: Aluminum–air battery, Aluminum anode, Air cathode, Oxygen reduction reaction, Electrolytes

  16. Solid State Structure-Reactivity Studies on Bixbyites, Fluorites and Perovskites Belonging to the Vanadate, Titanate and Cerate Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid P.

    This thesis primarily focuses on the systematic understanding of structure-reactivity relationships in two representative systems: bixbyite and related structures as well as indium doped CeO2. Topotactic reaction routes have gained significant attention over the past two decades due to their potential to access kinetically controlled metastable materials. This has contributed substantially to the understanding of solid state reaction pathways and provided first insights into mechanisms. Contrary to the widely used ex-situ methods, in-situ techniques including powder x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis have been employed extensively throughout this work in order to follow the reaction pathways in real time. Detailed analysis of the AVO3 (A = In, Sc) bixbyite reactivity under oxidative conditions has been carried out and a variety of novel metastable oxygen defect phases have been identified and characterized. The novel metastable materials have oxygen deficient fluorite structures and consequently are potential ion conductors. Structural aspects of the topotactic vs. reconstructive transformations are illustrated with this model system. The structure-reactivity study of AVO3 phases was extended to AVO3 perovskite family. Based on the research methodologies and results from AVO3 bixbyite reactivity studies a generalized mechanistic oxidation pathway has been established with a non-vanadium phase, ScTiO3 bixbyite. However, there is stark contrast in terms of structural stability and features beyond this stability limit during AVO3 and ScTiO3 bixbyite reaction pathways. A series of complex reaction sequences including phase separation and phase transitions were identified during the investigation of ScTiO3 reactivity. The two-step formation pathway for the fluorite-type oxide ion conductor Ce1-xInxO2-delta (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) is being reported. The formation of the BaCe1-xInxO 3-delta perovskites and the subsequent CO2-capture reaction

  17. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The application of synthetic inorganic ion exchangers to analytical chemistry, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuo

    1974-01-01

    Regarding acidic salts, description is made on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals and each of zirconium salts, titanium salts, stannic salts, cerium salts, thorium salts, chromium salts, and others. On heteropolyacid salts, ammonium 12-molybdophosphated and phosphorus wolframate are described. On insoluble ferrocyanides, the behaviour of various complex salts is explained. In the discussion on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals, the ideality of ion exchange, the stability and solubility of the acidic salts, thermal stability and radiation resistance, the ion sieving effect of various acidic salts, and the selectivity of the acidic salts are stated. Zirconium gives a number of acidic salts, such as zirconium phosphate, crystalline zirconium phosphate, zirconium phrophosphate, various polyphosphates of zirconium, zirconium phosphate-silicate, zirconium arsenate, zirconium antimonate, zirconium molybdate, zirconium tungstate, etc. Useful titanium salts for ion exchange are titanium phosphate, titanium aresenate, titanium antimonate, titanium tungstate, titanium molybdate, titanium vanadate, and titanium selenate. The distribution coefficients of metal ions, inorganic-separation of various inorganic ion exchangers, the exchange characteristics of various elements on various ion exchangers, and the selectivity of various inorganic ion-exchangers are tabulated. (Fukutomi, T.)

  19. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  20. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  1. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Ion, Laura [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Murariu, Manuela; Habasescu, Laura [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2014-10-06

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1–3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloid-β peptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals.

  2. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  3. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  4. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  5. Probing Surface Electric Field Noise with a Single Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    potentials is housed inside a Faraday cage providing more than 40 dB of attenuation for electromagnetic fields in the range of frequencies between 200...and measuring the ion quantum state [16]. Thus, by measuring the effect of electric field noise on the motional quantum state of the ion, one can probe...understand these effects . In summary, we have probed the electric field noise near an aluminum-copper surface at room temperature using a single trapped ion

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on conformation states and metal ion exchange properties of vanadium bromoperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, E.; Boon, K.; Wever, R.

    1988-01-01

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study was carried out to examine structural aspects of vanadium-containing bromoperoxidase from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. At high pH, the reduced form of bromoperoxidase showed an apparently axially symmetric EPR signal with 16 hyperfine lines. When the pH was lowered, a new EPR spectrum was formed. When EPR spectra of the reduced enzyme were recorded in the pH range from 4.2 to 8.4, it appeared that these changes were linked to a functional group with an apparent pK/sub a/ of about 5.4. In D 2 O this value for the pK/sub a/ was 5.3. It is suggested that these effects arise from protonation of histidine or aspartate/glutamate residues near the metal ion. The values for the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of the reduced enzyme at both high and low pH are also consistent with a ligand field containing nitrogen and/or oxygen donor atoms. When reduced bromoperoxidase was dissolved in D 2 O or H 2 17 O instead of H 2 16 O, vanadium (IV) hyperfine line widths were markedly affected, demonstrating that water is a ligand of the metal ion. Together with previous work these findings suggest that vanadium (IV) is not involved in catalytic turnover and confirm the model in which the vanadium (V) ion of the native enzyme only serves to bind both hydrogen peroxide and bromide. After excess vanadate was added to a homogeneous preparation of purified bromoperoxidase, the extent of vanadium bound to the protein increased from 0.5 to 1.1, with a concomitant enhancement of enzymic activity. Finally, it is demonstrated that both vanadate (VO 4 3- ) and molybdate (MoO 4 2- ) compete for the same site on apobromoperoxidase

  7. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  8. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  9. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  10. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  11. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  12. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Corrosion mechanisms of aluminum alloys in waters of low conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Roberto E; Lanazani, Liliana; Rodriguez, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    After completing their burn cycle, nuclear fuels in experimental reactors made with aluminum alloys have to remain for long periods in distilled water, in interim storage. While aluminum alloys are resistant to corrosion in pure water, severe deterioration occurs in elements that have been immersed for periods of up to 30 years. Pitting-like surface alterations can even occur in nuclear quality waters (conductivity below 5 μS/cm and dissolved ions content below detection thresholds) in time periods of less than one year. An important factor that could become a potential promoter of this phenomena is the presence of dust particles and others, that could settle on the metallic surface, generating a locally aggressive medium. A simple immersion experiment demonstrates that these points can become initiation sites for pitting with very low concentrations of chlorides (under 10 ppm), especially if the electrochemical potential is increased by contact with another metallic material, even staying below the pitting potential in this medium. There are several corrosion mechanisms acting simultaneously, depending on the nature of the deposits. Pitting under glass particles has been detected, which may be related to a simple crevice corrosion process. In the case of iron oxides, however, the results depend on the type of oxide. Pits more than 100 microns deep have been obtained in 7 day immersion tests, so in spent fuel storage sites these mechanisms could easily cause penetration of the 500 micron aluminum plates during the time covering the interim storage under water, which could be decades, with similar chemical conditions (CW)

  14. Glow discharge processing vs bakeout for aluminum storage ring vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, N.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Palrang, M.T.; Walker, B.G.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were carried out on laboratory and prototype scale systems in order to establish the feasibility of argon discharge processing the PEP storage ring aluminum vacuum chambers. Electron-induced desorption rates showed significant reductions following bakeout and/or argon glow discharge treatment (>10 19 ions cm -1 ). Data are presented and discussed in relation to advantages and problems associated with: water removal, argon trapping and subsequent release, electron energy dependence, discharge distribution, and surface plasma chemical effects

  15. Recurrent thermo-luminescence phenomenon in yttrium-aluminum garnet crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamov, A.Kh.; Nuritdinov, I.; Esanov, Z.U.; Eshchanov, B.Kh.; Khayitov, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The crystals of yttrium-aluminum garnet Y 2 Al 2 O 1 2 activated by cerium and praseodymium ions by their thermal and chemical durability as well as fast response are perspective scintillation materials. In this work the capture centres formed by action of the ionizing radiation on pure and doped by praseodymium and cerium crystals were investigated. The samples were grown using Chokhralsky method

  16. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  17. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum (Al) cation Al(3) (+) is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al(3) (+) conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al(3) (+) from root cells (exclusion mechanisms) and those that enable plants to tolerate Al(3) (+) once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms). The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al(3) (+) exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al(3) (+) adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  18. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2014 to 29-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Oxidation Products of Aluminum ...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT

  19. 40 CFR 63.5753 - How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? 63.5753... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5753 How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum...

  20. Electron-beam welding of aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, Marcel; de Bony, Yves

    1980-08-15

    The objective of this article is to describe the status of the application of electron-beam welding to aluminum alloys. These alloys are widely employed in the aeronautics, space and nuclear industries.

  1. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining

  2. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  3. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  4. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  5. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  6. Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)

  7. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  8. Corrosion of aluminum components and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.; Khalique, A.; Malik, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum has versatile physical properties, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and is used in special applications like aerospace, automobiles and other strategic industries. The outdoor exposed structural components of aluminum have very good corrosion resistance due to the thick oxide layer (0.2 -0.4 micro). This study involves the corrosion of aluminum based components, though aluminum is protected by an oxide layer but due to extreme weather and environmental conditions the oxide layer was damaged. The corroded product was removed, pits or cavities formed due to the material removal were filled with epoxy resins and acrylic-based compounds containing fibreglass as reinforcement. Optimum results were obtained with epoxy resins incorporated with 5% glass fibers. The inner surface of the components was provided further protection with a cellulose nitrate compound. (author)

  9. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  10. Development of exploding wire ion source for intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Murata, T.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2012-01-01

    A Novel exploding wire type ion source device is proposed as a metallic ion source of intense pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) accelerator. In the device multiple shot operations is realized without breaking the vacuum. The basic characteristics of the device are evaluated experimentally with an aluminum wire of diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 mm. Capacitor bank of capacitance 3 μF, charging voltage 30 kV was used and the wire was successfully exploded by a discharge current of 15 kA, rise time 5.3 μs. Plasma flux of ion current density around 70 A/cm 2 was obtained at 150 mm downstream from the device. The drift velocity of ions evaluated by a time-of-flight method was 2.7x10 4 m/sec, which corresponds to the kinetic energy of 100 eV for aluminum ions. From the measurement of ion current density distribution ion flow is found to be concentrated to the direction where ion acceleration gap is placed. From the experiment the device is found to be acceptable for applying PHIB accelerator. (author)

  11. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  12. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  13. Anodizing of aluminum with improved corrosion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, P.; Khan, I.U.

    2010-01-01

    Anodizing of aluminum was studied in sulphuric/oxalic/boric acid electroiyte system. The corrosion resistance of the anodic oxide coating of aluminum was determined by potentiodynamic polarization test and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology before and after corrosion test. It was found that the oxide coating obtained by this method showed better corrosion resistance with no significant difference in surface morphology. (author)

  14. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  15. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  16. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononchuk Olga

    2017-01-01

    of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  17. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  18. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  19. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Mokshin, A. V.; Galimzyanov, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state is calculated by using the relaxation time approach and structural factor of ions obtained by molecular dynamics simulation. Resistivity witin the Ziman-Evans approach is also considered to be higher than in the approach with previously calculated conductivity via the relaxation time. Calculations based on the construction of the ion structural factor through the classical molecular dynamics and kinetic equation for electrons are more economical in terms of computing resources and give results close to the Kubo-Greenwood with the quantum molecular dynamics calculations.

  20. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ohashi, H; Nagai, H; Kakimi, S; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, Y; Ishii, K

    1993-12-31

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer`s disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer`s disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author).

  2. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  3. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Analysis of “Favorable Growth Element” Based on Rare Earth-aluminum Composite Mechanism of Compound Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Baohong; Zeng, Qihui; Zhao, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Under the background that failure resulted in by high temperature once only aluminum oxide is used as the gasoline additive. This paper, with the purpose to solve this problem, is to synthesize AcAl oxide for gasoline additive. In order to get the rare-earth-aluminum oxide, first, a complex model of rare earth oxide based on theories about ion coordination is established. Then, by the complex model, the type of “compound growth unit” when rare earth elements join the hydrothermal conditions and the inclination that “diversification” might probably happen are deduced. Depending on the results got by complex model, this paper introduces the type of compound and its existence conditions of “Compound growth unit” owned by stable rare-earth-aluminum oxide. By adjusting the compositions of modifier, compound materials of rare earth-aluminum oxide used for gasoline additive is made. By XRD test, aperture test, adsorption test and desorption test, the theoretical deduction is proved to be right. From the experiment, it is concluded that: a dense environment is the pre-condition to form rare-earth-aluminum polymer, which is also an essential condition for the polymer to update to a favorable growth unit and produce mesoporous rare-earth-aluminum oxide with high activity.

  5. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  6. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  7. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Brandon C., E-mail: terry13@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sippel, Travis R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pfeil, Mark A. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I{sub SP}). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I{sub SP} by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  8. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Brandon C.; Sippel, Travis R.; Pfeil, Mark A.; Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I_S_P). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I_S_P by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  9. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far

  10. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  11. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C; McCall, S K; Ott, R T

    2017-09-05

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems for melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.

  12. The effects of beam energy and substrate temperature on the tribological properties of hard-carbon films on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, R.; Wilbur, P.J.; Erdemir, A.; Kustas, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Hard-carbon films were applied on flat 6061-T6 aluminum substrates using a broad-beam ion source operating on methane and producing carbonaceous ions with energies that varied from 250 to 1050 eV. Films were evaluated using a reciprocating alumina ball-on-flat sliding wear tester operating in an ambient air test environment. The films facilitated substantial reductions in friction coefficients to 0.08-0.2 from 0.4-0.7 for uncoated aluminum. At a sufficiently high normal load, the films failed and friction coefficients increased to the higher range. The best film caused this critical normal load to increase from less than 0.1 N for untreated aluminum to greater than 30 N. A near-optimal beam ion energy (450 eV) was identified for good quality films. At lower energies (e.g. 250 eV) films were discontinuous, while at higher energies (e.g. 1050 eV) high sputter rates limited film growth. When an aluminum flat was held at low temperature during processing, the films were smooth and adhered well, but they became rougher and adhered poorly as the temperature was increased above approximately 300degC. (orig.)

  13. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  14. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  16. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, K-T; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Y-L

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment

  17. Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Asphaltene Separation from Crude Oil Using Ceramic Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezakazemi Mashallah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on the removal of asphaltenes from an Iranian crude oil (Soroush using a ceramic membrane with pore size of 0.2 µm were investigated. In order to achieve superior asphaltene separation by ultrafiltration, it is essential to make some changes for destabilizing asphaltene in crude oil. The asphaltene destabilization was done using crude oil contact with an acid containing dissolved metal ions. Metal oxide nanoparticles adsorbed asphaltene molecules and increased their molecular size. The nanoparticle of aluminum oxide was applied to alter precipitation and peptization properties of asphaltenes. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS was used to measurement of the asphaltene molecular size dissolved in toluene. Raman spectroscopy and the Tuinstra equation were used to determine the aromatic sheet diameter (La via the integrated intensities of the G and D1 modes. This revealed that the asphaltene particles react with nano aluminum oxide and the average molecular size of asphaltene was raised from 512.754 to 2949.557 nm and La from 5.482 to 13.787. The obtained results showed that using nano aluminum oxides, asphaltene separation increased from 60–85 wt% to 90–97 wt% based on the asphaltene content of crude oil.

  18. Comparison of four methods for determining aluminum in highly radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.

    1976-06-01

    Four methods for the accurate determination of aluminum in highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions were developed and the results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. The solutions of interest contain aluminum in concentrations of 0.5 to 3.5 M and the hydroxide (OH - ) concentrations were greater than 1.0 M. The normal atomic absorption determination was highly inaccurate for these samples so citrate was used as a complexant to improve the results. A fluoride titration was carried out in an ethanol-water matrix using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. A thermometric titration proved successful in determining both the OH - and aluminum concentrations of the samples. Finally, a titrimetric method using a pH electrode to determine OH - d aluminum was checked and compared with the other methods. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and the agreement of the results was very good. For all four methods the accuracy was around 100 percent and the precision varied from approximately +-2 percent for the fluoride electrode determination to approximately +-10 percent for the atomic absorption determination. On the basis of the work performed, conclusions were drawn about the strengths and weaknesses of each method and whether or not the method was suitable for routine use in analytical laboratories

  19. Porous aluminum room temperature anodizing process in a fluorinated-oxalic acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, S.; Fazio, E.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-08-01

    Anodizing of aluminum is used for producing porous insulating films suitable for different applications in electronics and microelectronics. Porous-type aluminum films are most simply realized by galvanostatic anodizing in aqueous acidic solutions. The improvement in application of anodizing technique is associated with a substantial reduction of the anodizing voltage at appropriate current densities as well as to the possibility to carry out the synthesis process at room temperature in order to obtain a self-planarizing dielectric material incorporated in array of super-narrow metal lines. In this work, the anodizing of aluminum to obtain porous oxide was carried out, at room temperature, on three different substrates (glass, stainless steel and aluminum), using an oxalic acid-based electrolyte with the addition of a relatively low amount of 0.4 % of HF. Different surface morphologies, from nearly spherical to larger porous nanostructures with smooth edges, were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. These evidences are explained by considering the formation, transport and adsorption of the fluorine species which react with the Al3+ ions. The behavior is also influenced by the nature of the original substrate.

  20. Dissimilar friction welding of 6061-T6 aluminum and AISI 1018 steel: Properties and microstructural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taban, Emel; Gould, Jerry E.; Lippold, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials is of increasing interest for a wide range of industrial applications. The automotive industry, in particular, views dissimilar materials joining as a gateway for the implementation of lightweight materials. Specifically, the introduction of aluminum alloy parts into a steel car body requires the development of reliable, efficient and economic joining processes. Since aluminum and steel demonstrate different physical, mechanical and metallurgical properties, identification of proper welding processes and practices can be problematic. In this work, inertia friction welding has been used to create joints between a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and a AISI 1018 steel using various parameters. The joints were evaluated by mechanical testing and metallurgical analysis. Microstructural analyses were done using metallography, microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray elemental mapping, focused ion beam (FIB) with ultra high resolution SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in TEM and STEM modes. Results of these analysis first suggested that joint strengths on the order of 250 MPa could be achieved. In addition, failures were seen in the plasticized layer on the aluminum side of the joint. Further, bond lines were characterized by a thin layer of formed Al-Fe intermetallic. This intermetallic layer averaged roughly 250 nm thick and compositionally appears related to the FeAl and Fe 2 Al 5 phases.

  1. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  2. Determination of aluminum by four analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.; Smetana, K.M.

    1975-11-01

    Four procedures have been developed for determining the aluminum concentration in basic matrices. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was the routine method of analysis. Citrate was required to complex the aluminum and eliminate matrix effects. AAS was the least accurate of the four methods studied and was adversely affected by high aluminum concentrations. The Fluoride Electrode Method was the most accurate and precise of the four methods. A Gran's Plot determination was used to determine the end point and average standard recovery was 100% +- 2%. The Thermometric Titration Method was the fastest method for determining aluminum and could also determine hydroxide concentration at the same time. Standard recoveries were 100% +- 5%. The pH Electrode Method also measures aluminum and hydroxide content simultaneously, but is less accurate and more time consuming that the thermal titration. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. On the basis of these comparisons, conclusions were drawn concerning the application of each method to our laboratory needs

  3. Cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Zhang, Yuwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D transient thermal analysis of a pouch Li-ion cell has been carried out. • Using pin fin heat sink improves the temperature reduction at low pumping powers. • Using pin fin heat sink enhances the temperature uniformity at low air flow rates. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins improves temperature reduction. • Porous aluminum foam insertion with pin fins enhances temperature uniformity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module was carried out to investigate cumulative effects of using pin fin heat sink and porous metal foam on thermal management of a Li-ion (lithium-ion) battery pack. Five different cases were designed as Case 1: flow channel without any pin fin or porous metal foam insertion, Case 2: flow channel with aluminum pin fins, Case 3: flow channel with porous aluminum foam pin fins, Case 4: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam, and Case 5: fully inserted flow channel with porous aluminum foam and aluminum pin fins. The effects of porous aluminum insertions, pin fin types, air flow inlet temperature, and air flow inlet velocity on the temperature uniformity and maximum temperature inside the battery pack were systematically investigated. The results showed that using pin fin heat sink (Case 2) is appropriate only for low air flow velocities. In addition, the use of porous aluminum pin fins or embedding porous aluminum foam inside the air flow channel (Cases 3 and 4) are not beneficial for thermal management improvement. The combination of aluminum pin fins and porous aluminum foam insertion inside the air flow channel (Case 5) is a proper option that improves both temperature reduction and temperature uniformity inside the battery cell.

  4. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations. The principal focus of our research was to maintain the fluidity of aluminum- or silicon-containing suspensions and solutions during transport, whether by preventing particle formation, stabilizing colloidal particles in suspension, or by combining partial dissolution with particle stabilization. We have found that all of these can be effected in aluminum-containing solutions using the simple organic, citric acid. Silicon-containing solutions were found to be less tractable, but we have strong indications that chemistries similar to the citric acid/aluminum suspensions can be effective in maintaining silicon suspensions at high alkalinities. In the first phase of our study, we focused on the use of simple organics to raise the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in high alkaline aqueous solvents. In a limited survey of common organic acids, we determined that citric acid had the highest potential to achieve our goal. However, our subsequent investigation revealed that the citric acid appeared to play two roles in the solutions: first, raising the concentration of aluminum in highly alkaline solutions by breaking up or inhibiting 'seed' polycations and thereby delaying the nucleation and growth of particles; and second, stabilizing nanometer-sized particles in suspension when nucleation did occur. The second phase of our work involved the solvation of silicon, again in solutions of high alkalinity. Here, the use of polyols was determined to be effective in

  5. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  6. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  7. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  8. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-01-01

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  9. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  10. Study of aluminum-doped silicon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Shichang; Li Baoxing; Yang Jiansong

    2007-01-01

    Using full-muffin-tin-orbital molecular-dynamics (FP-LMTO-MD) method, we have investigated the effect of aluminum heteroatoms on the geometric structures and bond characteristics of Si n (n=5-10) clusters in detail. It is found that the geometric framework of the ground state structures for Si n (n=5-10) clusters change to some extent upon the substitution of Al atoms in some Si atoms. The effect of aluminum doping on the silicon clusters depends on the geometric structures of Si n (n=5-10) clusters. In particular, the calculations suggest that the aluminum doping would improve the bond strength of some Si-Si bonds in the mixed Si n - m Al m clusters

  11. Study on Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Now, the aluminum alloy is often used as auto parts, for example, body, engine. For example, there are the body, a cylinder block, a piston, a connecting rod, interior, exterior parts, etc. These are practical used the characteristic of a light and strong aluminum alloy efficiently. However, although an aluminum alloy is lighter than steel, the elongation is smaller than that. Therefore, in press forming, some problems often occur. We have proposed use of explosive forming, in order to solve this problem. In the explosive forming, since a blank is formed at high speed, a strain rate effect becomes large and it can be made the elongation is larger. Then, in order to clarify this feature, we carried out experimental research and numerical analysis. In this paper, these contents will be discussed.

  12. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  13. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering in sintered beryllium and sintered aluminum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to find materials with microstructures which minimize the formation of blisters. A promising class of materials appears to be sintered metal powder with small average grain sizes and low atomic number Z. Studies of the surface erosion of sintered aluminum powder (SAP 895) and of aluminum held at 400 0 C due to blistering by 100 keV helium ions have been conducted and the results are compared to those obtained earlier for room temperature irradiation. A significant reduction of the erosion rate in SAP 895 in comparison to annealed aluminum and SAP 930 is observed. In addition results on the blistering of sintered beryllium powder (type I) irradiated at room temperature and 600 0 C by 100 keV helium ions are given. These results will be compared with those reported recently for vacuum cast beryllium foil and a foil of sintered beryllium powder (type II) which was fabricated differently, than type I. For room temperature irradiation only a few blisters could be observed in sintered beryllium powder type I and type II and they are smaller in size and in number than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 600 0 C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but much less exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder, type I, and type II. The results show a reduction in erosion rate cast beryllium, for both room temperature and 600 0 C

  14. Oxidation of nano-sized aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, A.B.; Lerner, M.; Rodkevich, N.; Nie, H.; Abraham, A.; Schoenitz, M.; Dreizin, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Weight gain measured in TG oxidation experiments was split between particles of different sizes. • Reaction kinetics obtained by isoconversion explicitly accounting for the effect of size distribution. • Activation energy is obtained as a function of oxide thickness for growth of amorphous alumina. • Oxidation mechanism for nanopowders remains the same as for coarser aluminum powders. - Abstract: Oxidation of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electro-exploded wires is studied. Particle size distributions are obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiments are complemented by TEM and XRD studies of partially oxidized particles. Qualitatively, oxidation follows the mechanism developed for coarser aluminum powder and resulting in formation of hollow oxide shells. Sintering of particles is also observed. The TG results are processed to account explicitly for the particle size distribution and spherical shapes, so that oxidation of particles of different sizes is characterized. The apparent activation energy is obtained as a function of the reaction progress using model-free isoconversion processing of experimental data. A complete phenomenological oxidation model is then proposed assuming a spherically symmetric geometry. The oxidation kinetics of aluminum powder is shown to be unaffected by particle sizes reduced down to tens of nm. The apparent activation energy describing growth of amorphous alumina is increasing at the very early stages of oxidation. The higher activation energy is likely associated with an increasing homogeneity in the growing amorphous oxide layer, initially containing multiple defects and imperfections. The trends describing changes in both activation energy and pre-exponent of the growing amorphous oxide are useful for predicting ignition delays of aluminum particles. The kinetic trends describing activation energies and pre-exponents in a broader range of the oxide

  15. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  16. Vanade meeste suvi / Kristjan Port

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Port, Kristjan

    2007-01-01

    Ilu ja inetuse pärilikust edasikandumisest järeltulijatele. Meeste ja naiste ilu erinevusest. Praeguse inimpõlve DNAd on kujundanud kaks korda rohkem naisi kui mehi, sest umbes 80 protsenti naisi on viljakad, võrreldes 40 protsendi meestega. Konfliktialtim ja eluohtlikum töö, varajasem surm ja sage lapsetus reedavad plaani muuta mehed sotsiaal-bioloogiliseks kulumaterjaliks

  17. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  18. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Radi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the existence of aluminum in human diet as a food contaminant has attracted the concerns of many researchers. It seems that the cooking pans are common sources of aluminum exposure through foodstuffs in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration of aluminum from cooking containers into foodstuffs. For this purpose, solutions with different concentrations of citric acid, sodium chloride, fat, protein and sugar were prepared and migration of aluminum into these solutions was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that salt and citric acid concentrations could enhance aluminum migration; whereas, acid concentration was more effective than salt due to its corrosive effect. The intensity of heat processing and the duration of heat treatment had direct relation with aluminum migration. The aluminum content of cooked foods in aluminum cooking pans was also significantly more than control samples.

  19. Low Mass, Aluminum NOFBX Combustion Chamber Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our team proposes to define a diffusion bonding process for aluminum as an enabling step to ultimately develop an innovative, lightweight, long life, aluminum...

  20. Exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (LM6/TIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum ... ABAQUS/CAE software has been successfully employed for Modeling and ... Experimental results show that, many mechanical properties are improved and ...

  1. Effect of the aluminum flow pattern on the bonding of aluminum to oxidized Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Lambert, J.P.

    1965-04-01

    The bonds produced when hot aluminum is allowed to flow smoothly from an extrusion die to the oxidized surface of a heated tube of Zircaloy-2 are consistently inferior to those produced with back-extruded flow. The difference is believed to be due to the reduction in, or elimination of, the oxide layer on the aluminum that comes in contact with the surface of the Zircaloy-2. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 1965. (author)

  2. Transition of hydrated oxide layer for aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Choong-Soo; Jeong, Yongsoo; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Gu; Lee, Jun-Hee; Jang, Kyung-Wook; Oh, Han-Jun

    2007-01-01

    A hydrous oxide film for the application as dielectric film is synthesized by immersion of pure aluminum in hot water. From a Rutherford backscattering analysis, the ratio of aluminum to oxygen atoms was found to be 3:2 in the anodized aluminum oxide film, and 2:1 in the hydrous oxide layer. Anodization of the hydrous oxide layer was more effective for the transition of amorphous anodic oxides to the crystalline aluminum oxides

  3. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Morgan, Kenneth; Slack, Glen A; Rao, Shailaja P.; Gibb, Shawn Robert

    2017-09-26

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density.ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  4. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Tribological Evaluation of New Generation Materials for Aluminum Cold Rolling Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present concept of being globally “green” puts additional demands on lubricants. They are to be biodegradable and ecofriendly. Therefore, in a search for alternate lubricants meeting the above demands, we have synthesized biodegradable new generation esters using alcohols such as 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propane diol and 2,2-diethyl-1,3-propane diol and fatty acids like caproic and 2-ethyl caproic in presence of indigenous ion exchange resin catalyst. The synthesized esters were analyzed and characterized for their physico chemical properties. In addition, with a view to finding out the possibility of using these esters as aluminum cold rolling oils, their lubricity characteristics, biodegradability and toxicity were also investigated. The products were found to have good potential for use in biodegradable aluminum cold rolling oils meeting IS: 14385-2002 specification.

  6. Hydrogen uptake in alumina thin films synthesized from an aluminum plasma stream in an oxygen ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.M.; Anders, A.; Hjoervarsson, B.; Petrov, I.; Macak, K.; Helmersson, U.; Sundgren, J.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the hydrogen uptake during the synthesis of alumina films from H 2 O present in the high vacuum gas background. The hydrogen concentration in the films was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear resonance reaction. Furthermore, we show the presence of hydrogen ions in the plasma stream by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The hydrogen content increased in both the film and the plasma stream, as the oxygen partial pressure was increased. On the basis of these measurements and thermodynamic considerations, we suggest that an aluminum oxide hydroxide compound is formed, both on the cathode surface as well as in the film. The large scatter in the data reported in the literature for refractive index and chemical stability of alumina thin films can be explained on the basis of the suggested aluminum oxide hydroxide formation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent.

  8. Electrochemical Impedance Study of Zinc Yellow Polypropylene-Coated Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of zinc yellow polypropylene-coated aluminum alloy 7B04 during accelerated degradation test is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been found that the zinc yellow polypropylene paint has few flaw and acts as a pure capacitance before accelerated test. After 336-hour exposure to the test, the impedance spectroscopy shows two time constants, and water has reached to the aluminum alloy/paint interface and forms corrosive microcell. For the scratched samples, the reaction of metal corrosion and the hydrolysis of zinc yellow ion can occur simultaneously. The impedance spectroscopy indicates inductance after 1008-hour exposure to the test, but the inductance disappears after 1344-hour exposure and the passivation film has pitting corrosion.

  9. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  10. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  11. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  12. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  13. Passivation of aluminum with alkyl phosphonic acids for biochip applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attavar, Sachin; Diwekar, Mohit; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Mark A.; Blair, Steve

    2010-09-01

    Self-assembly of decylphosphonic acid (DPA) and octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) was studied on aluminum films using XPS, ToF-SIMS and surface wettability. Modified aluminum films were tested for passivation against silanization and subsequent oligonucleotide attachment. Passivation ratios of at least 450:1 compared to unprotected aluminum were obtained, as quantified by attachment of radio-labeled oligos.

  14. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white, odorless...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining a...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  18. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  19. Towards rare-earth-ion-doped Al2O3 active integrated optical devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ay, F.; Bradley, J.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum oxide planar waveguides with low loss (0.11 dB/cm at 1523 nm) are fabricated. Channel waveguides are obtained by reactive ion etching. Erbium-doped layers show no upconversion luminescence, a hint that ion clustering is small.

  20. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  1. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P; Henning, W; Kienlin, A v; Meier, J; Truebenbacher, V [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.) Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik; Azgui, F [CDTN, Algiers (Algeria); Shepard, K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-01-01

    Status and first test results are reported for a project to develop calorimetric cryodetectors for heavy ions. The special conditions for the detection of energetic heavy ions are discussed. Presently the investigations are focussed on semiconductor bolometers and aluminium-strip superconducting phase-transition thermometers that are cooled with liquid {sup 4}He and operate in the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K. For a germanium bolometer the temperature dependence of the resistance, voltage-current curves, the time response to heating by voltage pulses and the response to ionizing {alpha}-radiation are reported. First tests on phase transition thermometers using thin aluminum strips yield a transition width of {Delta}T=8.6 mK at T{sub c}=1.467 K. (orig.).

  3. Electrochemical and Corrosion Properties of Aluminum Brass in Seawater Desalination Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and mechanism of aluminum brass (HAl77-2 in seawater desalination plant were investigated using electrochemical measurement, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The electrochemical results revealed that the corrosion of HAl77-2 in the desalination artificial seawater depended on chloride ion concentrations, displaying a maximum with a chloride ion concentration of 2.3 wt.%. Corrosion rate of HAl77-2 initial increased and subsequently decreased with the increasing of chloride ion concentration. Moreover, corrosion of HAl77-2 becomes more severe when temperature rises. The above results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests were in a good agreement. The results of SEM and EDX methods showed selective localized corrosion appeared remarkably on the surface of HAl77-2.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.17170

  4. Bearing capacity check of aluminum profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Grigoraşenco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of suspended ceiling options to be customizable they are the choice for implementation in spaces like offices buildings, schools, hospitals and commercial premises. Recent problems with suspended gypsum ceilings falling in some commercial premises led to verification by tensile test and flexural bearing capacity of 5 types of aluminum elements used to suspend the ceilings.

  5. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  6. Chemical Reduction Synthesis of Iron Aluminum Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Méndez, N. N.; la Torre, G. Carbajal-De; Ballesteros-Almanza, L.; Villagómez-Galindo, M.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Espinosa-Medina, M. A.

    In this study, a chemical reduction synthesis method of iron aluminum (FeAl) nano-dimensional intermetallic powders is described. The process has two stages: a salt reduction and solvent evaporation by a heat treatment at 1100°C. The precursors of the synthesis are ferric chloride, aluminum foil chips, a mix of Toluene/THF in a 75/25 volume relationship, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as initiator of the reaction. The reaction time was 20 days, the product obtained was dried at 60 °C for 2 h and calcined at 400, 800, and 1100 °C for 4 h each. To characterize and confirm the obtained synthesis products, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results of morphology and chemical characterization of nano-dimensional powders obtained showed a formation of agglomerated particles of a size range of approximately 150 nm to 1.0 μm. Composition of powders was identified as corundum (Al2O3), iron aluminide (FeAl3), and iron-aluminum oxides (Fe0. 53Al0. 47)2O3 phases. The oxide phases formation were associated with the reaction of atmospheric concentration-free oxygen during synthesis and sintering steps, reducing the concentration of the iron aluminum phase.

  7. Corrosion of Graphite Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    cathodic protection of G/AI MMCs resulted in overprotection 13. Overprotection resulted from a local increase in pH near cathodic sites during...34Cathodic Overprotection of SiC/6061-T6 and G/6061- T6 Aluminum Alloy Metal Matrix Composites," Scripta Metallurgica, 22 (1988) 413-418. 14. R

  8. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-matrix fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J.L.; Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; McPheeters, C.C.; Laidler, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment process described in this paper builds on our experience in treating spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). The work is also to some degree, a spin-off from applying electrometallurgical treatment to spent fuel from the Hanford single pass reactors (SPRs) and fuel and flush salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in treating EBR-II fuel, we recover the actinides from a uranium-zirconium fuel by electrorefining the uranium out of the chopped fuel. With SPR fuel, uranium is electrorefined out of the aluminum cladding. Both of these processes are conducted in a LiCl-KCl molten-salt electrolyte. In the case of the MSRE, which used a fluoride salt-based fuel, uranium in this salt is recovered through a series of electrochemical reductions. Recovering high-purity uranium from an aluminum-matrix fuel is more challenging than treating SPR or EBR-II fuel because the aluminum- matrix fuel is typically -90% (volume basis) aluminum

  9. Strong, corrosion-resistant aluminum tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.; Adams, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    When aluminum tubing having good corrosion resistance and postweld strength is needed, type 5083 alloy should be considered. Chemical composition is carefully controlled and can be drawn into thin-wall tubing with excellent mechanical properties. Uses of tubing are in aircraft, boats, docks, and process equipment.

  10. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.R.; Hochgreb, Simone; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer

  11. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.; Hochgreb, S.; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer a

  12. The use of aluminum dome tank roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovich, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the late 1970's the aluminum dome tank roof has gained wide usage for both new and retrofit applications. The increased application for the structure results from a need for maintenance reduction, environmental considerations, concern for product quality and economics. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has approved Standard API 650, Appendix G - Structurally Supported Aluminum Dome Roofs for publication. The aluminum dome was originally used as weather cover for retrofiting external floating roof tanks. The roof was considered for the reduction of maintenance related to draining water from the external floating roofs and problems resulting from freezing of drain lines and snow accumulation. This paper reports that environmental concerns have expanded the value of aluminum dome roofs. Rainwater bypassing the seals of an external floating roof became classified as a hazardous material requiring special and expensive disposal procedures. The marketing terminal facilities typically do not have the capacity for proper treatment of contaminated bottom water. With new fuel additives being water soluble, water contamination not only created a hazardous waste disposal problem, but resulted in reduced product quality

  13. Molybdate Coatings for Protecting Aluminum Against Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

    2005-01-01

    Conversion coatings that comprise mixtures of molybdates and several additives have been subjected to a variety of tests to evaluate their effectiveness in protecting aluminum and alloys of aluminum against corrosion. Molybdate conversion coatings are under consideration as replacements for chromate conversion coatings, which have been used for more than 70 years. The chromate coatings are highly effective in protecting aluminum and its alloys against corrosion but are also toxic and carcinogenic. Hexavalent molybdenum and, hence, molybdates containing hexavalent molybdenum, have received attention recently as replacements for chromates because molybdates mimic chromates in a variety of applications but exhibit significantly lower toxicity. The tests were performed on six proprietary formulations of molybdate conversion coatings, denoted formulations A through F, on panels of aluminum alloy 2024-T3. A bare alloy panel was also included in the tests. The tests included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), measurements of corrosion potentials, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  14. Radiation corrosion in aluminum alloy bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    Testing was carried out in which materials for vacuum devices (Al, Ti, Cu, SUS) are exposed to electron beams (50 MeV, average current 80 μA) to determine the changes in the quantity, partial pressure and composition of the gases released from the materials. The test appratus used are made of Al alloys alone. During the test, vacuum leak is found in the Al alloy bellows used in the drive device. The leak is found to result from corrosion caused by water. The surface structure is analyzed by SEM, EPMA, ESCA and IMA. It is confirmed that the Al alloy used as material for the bellows if highly resistant to corrosion. It is concluded that it is necessary to use high purity cooling water to prevent the cooling water from causing corrosion. It has been reported that high purity aluminum is very high in resistance to corrosion. Based on these measurements and considerations, it is suggested that when aluminum is to be used as material for vacuum devices in an accelerator, it is required to provide protection film on its surface to prevent corrosion or to use cooling water pipes cladded with pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy. In addition, the temperature of the cooling water should be set after adequately considering the environmental conditions in the room. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  16. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q

    2004-01-07

    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.

  17. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  18. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  19. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    , molluscs, and isopods seem to be tolerant. In Al-sensitive species, elevated levels (approximately 500 micrograms.L-1) affect ion regulation and respiratory efficiency. Toxicity tends to be greatest near a species` threshold of pH sensitivity. At lower pHs, Al may have a slight ameliorative effect by interfering with H+ transport across membranes. Aquatic invertebrates can accumulate very high levels of Al, but most of this appears to be through adsorption rather than assimilation. Aluminum concentrations may be as high as 5000 mg.kg-1 in insects and greater than 17,000 mg.kg-1 in other invertebrates.

  20. Preparation of aluminum nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite powder by the nitridation of aluminum silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itatani, K.; Tsukamoto, R.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Okada, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)-silicon carbide (SiC) nanocomposite powders were prepared by the nitridation of aluminum-silicon carbide (Al4SiC4) with the specific surface area of 15.5 m2·g-1. The powders nitrided at and above 1400°C for 3 h contained the 2H-phases which consisted of AlN-rich and SiC-rich

  1. Sodium ions as substitutes for protons in the gastric H,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvani, C.; Sachs, G.; Blostein, R.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the striking homology among various ion-translocating ATPases including Na,K-ATPase, Ca-ATPase, and H,K-ATPase, and the recent evidence that protons can replace cytoplasmic sodium as well as potassium in the reaction mechanism of the Na,K-ATPase (Polvani, C., and Blostein, R. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 16757-16763), we studied the role of sodium as a substitute for protons in the H,K-ATPase reaction. Using hog gastric H,K-ATPase-rich inside-out membrane vesicles we observed 22Na+ influx which was stimulated by intravesicular potassium ions (K+i) at pH 8.5 but not at pH 7.1. This sodium influx was observed in medium containing ATP and was inhibited by vanadate and SCH28080, a selective inhibitor of the gastric H,K-ATPase. At least 2-fold accumulation of sodium was observed at pH 8.5. Experiments aimed to determine the sidedness of the alkaline pH requirement for K+i-dependent sodium influx showed that K+i-activated sodium influx depends on pHout and is unaffected by changes in pHin. These results support the conclusion that sodium ions substitute for protons in the H,K-ATPase reaction mechanism and provide evidence for a similarity in ion selectivity and/or binding domains of the Na,K-ATPase and the gastric H,K-ATPase enzymes

  2. Investigation of Methods for Selectively Reinforcing Aluminum and Aluminum-Lithium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Alexa, Joel A.; Messick, Peter L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Wagner, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that selective reinforcement offers the potential to significantly improve the performance of metallic structures for aerospace applications. Applying high-strength, high-stiffness fibers to the high-stress regions of aluminum-based structures can increase the structural load-carrying capability and inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. This paper discusses an investigation into potential methods for applying reinforcing fibers onto the surface of aluminum and aluminum-lithium plate. Commercially-available alumina-fiber reinforced aluminum alloy tapes were used as the reinforcing material. Vacuum hot pressing was used to bond the reinforcing tape to aluminum alloy 2219 and aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 base plates. Static and cyclic three-point bend testing and metallurgical analysis were used to evaluate the enhancement of mechanical performance and the integrity of the bond between the tape and the base plate. The tests demonstrated an increase in specific bending stiffness. In addition, no issues with debonding of the reinforcing tape from the base plate during bend testing were observed. The increase in specific stiffness indicates that selectively-reinforced structures could be designed with the same performance capabilities as a conventional unreinforced structure but with lower mass.

  3. Method of melting and decontaminating radioactive contaminated aluminum material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo; Iba, Hajime.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the decontaminating efficiency upon melting decontamination of radioactive-contaminated aluminum materials. Method: This invention concerns an improvement for the method of melting decontamination by adding slug agent composed of organic compound to contaminated aluminum material and extracting the radioactive materials into the slug thereby decontaminating the aluminum material. Specifically metals effective for reducing the active amount of aluminum are added such that the content is greater than a predetermined value in the heat melting process. The metal comprises Mg, Cu or a mixture thereof and the content is more than 4 % including those previously contained in the aluminum material. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.; Gillam, J.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved

  5. Ion colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions (77Asb1, 81Bou1). The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  6. Ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  7. Aluminum as anode for energy storage and conversion: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    Aluminum has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer on the aluminum surface is however detrimental to the battery performance, contributing to failure to achieve the reversible potential and causing the delayed activation of the anode. By developing aluminum alloys as anodes and solution additives to electrolytes, a variety of aluminum batteries have been extensively investigated for various applications. From molten salt and other non-aqueous electrolytes, aluminum can be electrodeposited and therefore be suitable for developing rechargable batteries. Considerable efforts have been made to develop secondary aluminum batteries of high power density. In the present paper, these research activities are reviewed, including aqueous electrolyte primary batteries, aluminum-air batteries and molten salt secondary batteries.

  8. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Felker, Leslie Kevin [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  9. Environmental Remediation and Sorption of Metal Cations Using Aluminum Pillared Nano-Bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Rifai; Abou El Safa, Magda

    2015-04-01

    The release of heavy metal cations into the environment is a potential threat to water and soil quality. Some clay minerals play an important role, as physical and chemical barriers, for the isolation of metal-rich wastes and to adsorb heavy metals as well as to avoid their environmental dispersion. In the present study, the bentonitic clay (southeast El-Hammam City, Egypt) was subjected to pillaring using hydroxyl-aluminum solution. The XRD patterns of the Aluminum Pillared Nano-Bentonite (APNB) showed severe alteration of the crystal structure after pillaring. Poly metal solutions with different metal concentrations of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb (0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 moles), and pH (1, 2.5, 5 and 6) were subjected to treatment by the APNB. The removal process is very rapid and spontaneous and the contact time may be short (several minutes) for most adsorption to occur. The criterion for environmental remediation of APNB is less stringent and a short contact time is sufficient. The rate of Cu2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+sorption remained higher or equal to the CEC. The sorption of metal ions by APNB are complex and probably involve several mechanisms. In general, APNB can be used to immobilize Cu2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ to any extent. For each metal ion, the most effective immobilization occurs over a particular pH around 5. According to the experimental data obtained, the uptake amount of the studied cations by APNB increased with increasing solution pH, sorbent dose and contact time. The preference of the APNB adsorption for heavy metal ions that are through the cation exchange processes decreases in the order: Cu2+>Zn2+>Co2+>Cd2+ >Ni2+ >Pb2+. Keywords: Bentonitic clay, Egypt, Aluminum Pillared Nano-Bentonite, heavy metal, environmental remediation

  10. Vapor corrosion of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel materials in storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of vapor environments on the corrosion of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (A1 SNF) has been performed. Aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel alloys have been exposed to environments of air/water vapor/ionizing radiation and characterized for applications to degradation mode analysis for interim dry and repository storage systems. Models have been developed to allow predictions of the corrosion response under conditions of unlimited corrodant species. Threshold levels of water vapor under which corrosion does not occur have been identified through tests under conditions of limited corrodant species. Coupons of aluminum 1100, 5052, and 6061, the US equivalent of cladding alloys used to manufacture foreign research reactor fuels, and several aluminum-uranium alloys (aluminum-10, 18, and 33 wt% uranium) were exposed to various controlled vapor environments in air within the following ranges of conditions: Temperature -- 80 to 200 C; Relative Humidity -- 0 to 100% using atmospheric condensate water and using added nitric acid to simulate radiolysis effects; and Gamma Radiation -- none and 1.8 x 10 6 R/hr. The results of this work are part of the body of information needed for understanding the degradation of the A1 SNF waste form in a direct disposal system in the federal repository. It will provide the basis for data input to the ongoing performance assessment and criticality safety analyses. Additional testing of uranium-aluminum fuel materials at uranium contents typical of high enriched and low enriched fuels is being initiated to provide the data needed for the development of empirical models

  11. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  12. Study and utilization of ion beams created in the Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Garconnet, J.P.; Jolas, A.; Le Breton, J.P.; Mascureau, J. de.

    1982-06-01

    Ion beams created in a plasma focus electrical discharge are evidenced and measured from interaction with CD 2 and DLi targets. Aluminum targets are also used with observation of the radiation temperature and material expansion velocity. Comparison between experimental measurements and numerical computations allows to determine energy deposition in the aluminum foil as well as beams values. With the 200 kJ Actime facility 2 to 3 MJ/g deposition is obtained in aluminum on approximately one square centimeter. A fast valve gas injection has been developed on another facility and preliminary results are given [fr

  13. Temporal development of the plasma composition of a pulsed aluminum plasma stream in the presence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.M.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Hjoervarsson, B.; Hultman, L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the temporal development of the plasma composition of pulsed aluminum plasma streams at various oxygen pressures. The plasma was formed with a vacuum arc plasma source and the time resolved plasma composition was measured with time-of-flight charge-to-mass spectrometry. The temporal development of the plasma composition as well as the Al average ion charge state was found to be a strong function of the oxygen pressure. Oxygen and hydrogen concentrations of up to 0.36 and 0.32, respectively, were found in the first 50 μs of the pulse at oxygen pressures of ≥5x10 -5 Torr. The average charge state of aluminum ions was found to vary from +1.2 to +2.5 depending on the oxygen pressure and the time elapsed after ignition of the arc. These results are of fundamental importance for the understanding of the evolution of the composition (through the plasma composition) and microstructure (through the Al ion flux energy) of alumina thin films produced by pulsed, reactive aluminum plasmas. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Spectral-luminescence properties of trivalent titanium in aluminum-sodium phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, S.B.; Batyaev, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since development of the first crystal laser, Al 2 O 3 crystals remain the most widely used in quantum electronics. In the present work, the aluminum-sodium phosphate glass, Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 , was studied with different proportions of components. A luminescence medium is obtained based on phosphate glass doped by Ti 3+ ions with intense emission in the 700-900-nm spectral range. This glass is a promising lasing medium for tunable solid-state lasers. 12 refs., 2 figs

  15. Phases in lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lanthanum-nickel-aluminum (LANA) alloys will be used to pump, store and separate hydrogen isotopes in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF). The aluminum content (y) of the primary LaNi 5 -phase is controlled to produce the desired pressure-temperature behavior for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen. However, secondary phases cause decreased capacity and some may cause undesirable retention of tritium. Twenty-three alloys purchased from Ergenics, Inc. for development of RTF processes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to determine the distributions and compositions of constituent phases. This memorandum reports the results of these characterization studies. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of these alloys is a useful first step in selecting materials for specific process development tests and in interpreting results of those tests. Once this information is coupled with data on hydrogen plateau pressures, retention and capacity, secondary phase limits for RTF alloys can be specified

  16. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  17. Aluminum recycling—An integrated, industrywide approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh K.; Green, John A. S.; Kaufman, J. Gilbert; Emadi, Daryoush; Mahfoud, M.

    2010-02-01

    The aluminum industry is a leading proponent of global sustainability and strongly advocates the use of recycled metal. As the North American primary aluminum industry continues to move offshore to other geographic areas such as Iceland and the Middle East, where energy is more readily available at lower cost, the importance of the secondary (i.e., recycled metal) market in the U.S. will continue to increase. The purpose of this paper is to take an integrated, industry-wide look at the recovery of material from demolished buildings, shredded automobiles, and aging aircraft, as well as from traditional cans and other rigid containers. Attempts will be made to assess how the different alloys used in these separate markets can be recycled in the most energy-efficient manner.

  18. Generation and structural characterization of aluminum cyanoacetylide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Carlos; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L., E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 5, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo de Belén 7, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, Jean-Claude [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Cernicharo, José [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz N3 Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-14

    Combined spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations bring to light a first investigation of a metallic cyanoacetylide, AlC{sub 3}N, using laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. This molecule was synthesized in a supersonic expansion by the reaction of aluminum vapour with C{sub 3}N, produced from solid aluminum rods and BrCCCN in a newly constructed ablation-heating nozzle device. A set of accurate rotational and {sup 27}Al and {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of the rotational spectrum and compared with those predicted in a high-level ab initio study, conducting to the assignment of the observed species to linear AlCCCN. We have searched for this species towards the carbon-rich evolved star IRC + 10216 but only an upper limit to its abundance has been obtained.

  19. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  20. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...