WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminum tolerance exudation

  1. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  2. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon V

    2009-02-01

    Aluminum-activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in plant Al tolerance. This paper characterizes AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al-tolerance genes, shown here to encode an Al-activated citrate transporter in Arabidopsis. Together with the previously characterized Al-activated malate transporter, AtALMT1, this discovery allowed us to examine the relationship in the same species between members of the two gene families for which Al-tolerance genes have been identified. AtMATE is expressed primarily in roots and is induced by Al. An AtMATE T-DNA knockdown line exhibited very low AtMATE expression and Al-activated root citrate exudation was abolished. The AtALMT1 AtMATE double mutant lacked both Al-activated root malate and citrate exudation and showed greater Al sensitivity than the AtALMT1 mutant. Therefore, although AtALMT1 is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance, AtMATE also makes a significant but smaller contribution. The expression patterns of AtALMT1 and AtMATE and the profiles of Al-activated root citrate and malate exudation are not affected by the presence or absence of the other gene. These results suggest that AtALMT1-mediated malate exudation and AtMATE-mediated citrate exudation evolved independently to confer Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. However, a link between regulation of expression of the two transporters in response to Al was identified through work on STOP1, a transcription factor that was previously shown to be necessary for AtALMT1 expression. Here we show that STOP1 is also required for AtMATE expression and Al-activated citrate exudation.

  3. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  4. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  5. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum (Al) cation Al(3) (+) is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al(3) (+) conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al(3) (+) from root cells (exclusion mechanisms) and those that enable plants to tolerate Al(3) (+) once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms). The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al(3) (+) exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al(3) (+) adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  6. Aluminum tolerance association mapping in triticale

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    Niedziela Agnieszka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crop production practices and industrialization processes result in increasing acidification of arable soils. At lower pH levels (below 5.0, aluminum (Al remains in a cationic form that is toxic to plants, reducing growth and yield. The effect of aluminum on agronomic performance is particularly important in cereals like wheat, which has promoted the development of programs directed towards selection of tolerant forms. Even in intermediately tolerant cereals (i.e., triticale, the decrease in yield may be significant. In triticale, Al tolerance seems to be influenced by both wheat and rye genomes. However, little is known about the precise chromosomal location of tolerance-related genes, and whether wheat or rye genomes are crucial for the expression of that trait in the hybrid. Results A mapping population consisting of 232 advanced breeding triticale forms was developed and phenotyped for Al tolerance using physiological tests. AFLP, SSR and DArT marker platforms were applied to obtain a sufficiently large set of molecular markers (over 3000. Associations between the markers and the trait were tested using General (GLM and Multiple (MLM Linear Models, as well as the Statistical Machine Learning (SML approach. The chromosomal locations of candidate markers were verified based on known assignments of SSRs and DArTs or by using genetic maps of rye and triticale. Two candidate markers on chromosome 3R and 9, 15 and 11 on chromosomes 4R, 6R and 7R, respectively, were identified. The r2 values were between 0.066 and 0.220 in most cases, indicating a good fit of the data, with better results obtained with the GML than the MLM approach. Several QTLs on rye chromosomes appeared to be involved in the phenotypic expression of the trait, suggesting that rye genome factors are predominantly responsible for Al tolerance in triticale. Conclusions The Diversity Arrays Technology was applied successfully to association mapping studies

  7. Overexpression of BdMATE Gene Improves Aluminum Tolerance in Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots. In sorghum, a membrane transporter gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family was identified and characterized as an aluminum-activated citrate transporter gene responsible for Al tolerance in this crop. Setaria viridis is an emerging model for C4 species and it is an important model to validate some genes for further C4 crops transformation, such as sugarcane, maize, and wheat. In the present work, Setaria viridis was used as a model plant to overexpress a newly identified MATE gene from Brachypodium distachyon (BdMATE, closely related to SbMATE, for aluminum tolerance assays. Transgenic S. viridis plants overexpressing a BdMATE presented an improved Al tolerance phenotype, characterized by sustained root growth and exclusion of aluminum from the root apex in transgenic plants, as confirmed by hematoxylin assay. In addition, transgenic plants showed higher root citrate exudation into the rhizosphere, suggesting that Al tolerance improvement in these plants could be related to the chelation of the metal by the organic acid anion. These results suggest that BdMATE gene can be used to transform C4 crops of economic importance with improved aluminum tolerance.

  8. Wheat genotypes differing in aluminum tolerance differ in their growth response to CO2 enrichment in acid soils

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Gao, Yan; Bai, Wenming; Ge, Feng; Ma, Yibing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. Elevated atmospheric CO2 [CO2] enhances plant growth. However, there is no report on the effect of elevated [CO2] on growth of plant genotypes differing in Al tolerance grown in acid soils. We investigated the effect of short-term elevated [CO2] on growth of Al-tolerant (ET8) and Al-sensitive (ES8) wheat plants and malate exudation from root apices by growing them in acid soils under ambient [CO2] and elevated [CO2]...

  9. Identification and characterization of acidity-tolerant and aluminum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An acidity-tolerant, aluminum resistant bacterium was isolated from tea soils in Kagoshima Experimental Station (Japan). Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the bacterium was identified as Bacillus sp. An 3 (DQ234657) in Bacillus cereus ...

  10. Role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the regulation of organic acid exudation under aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; Kan, Qi; Zhang, Jiarong; Zeng, Bingjie; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are 2 major limiting factors for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Organic acids exuded from roots have been generally regarded as a major resistance mechanism to Al toxicity and P deficiency. The exudation of organic acids is mediated by membrane-localized OA transporters, such as ALMT (Al-activated malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion). Beside on up-regulation expression of organic acids transporter gene, transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase are also involved in organic acid release process under Al toxicity and P deficiency. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge about this field of study on the role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in organic acid exudation under Al toxicity and P deficiency conditions. PMID:26713714

  11. Role of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in the regulation of organic acid exudation under aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; Kan, Qi; Zhang, Jiarong; Zeng, Bingjie; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are 2 major limiting factors for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Organic acids exuded from roots have been generally regarded as a major resistance mechanism to Al toxicity and P deficiency. The exudation of organic acids is mediated by membrane-localized OA transporters, such as ALMT (Al-activated malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion). Beside on up-regulation expression of organic acids transporter gene, transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase are also involved in organic acid release process under Al toxicity and P deficiency. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge about this field of study on the role of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in organic acid exudation under Al toxicity and P deficiency conditions.

  12. 40 CFR 180.415 - Aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate); tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate... Tolerances § 180.415 Aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate); tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the fungicide aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate) in or on the following food...

  13. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocking, P J; Randall, P J; Delhaize, E [CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra (Australia); Keerthisinghe, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-01

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al{sup 3+} form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al{sup 3+} stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al{sup 3+} to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al{sup 3+} activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  14. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, P.J.; Randall, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Keerthisinghe, G.

    2000-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al 3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al 3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al 3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al 3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  15. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

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    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  16. Association and linkage analysis of aluminum tolerance genes in maize.

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    Allison M Krill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major worldwide constraint to crop productivity on acidic soils. Al becomes soluble at low pH, inhibiting root growth and severely reducing yields. Maize is an important staple food and commodity crop in acidic soil regions, especially in South America and Africa where these soils are very common. Al exclusion and intracellular tolerance have been suggested as two important mechanisms for Al tolerance in maize, but little is known about the underlying genetics. METHODOLOGY: An association panel of 282 diverse maize inbred lines and three F2 linkage populations with approximately 200 individuals each were used to study genetic variation in this complex trait. Al tolerance was measured as net root growth in nutrient solution under Al stress, which exhibited a wide range of variation between lines. Comparative and physiological genomics-based approaches were used to select 21 candidate genes for evaluation by association analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Six candidate genes had significant results from association analysis, but only four were confirmed by linkage analysis as putatively contributing to Al tolerance: Zea mays AltSB like (ZmASL, Zea mays aluminum-activated malate transporter2 (ALMT2, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteinase (SAHH, and Malic Enzyme (ME. These four candidate genes are high priority subjects for follow-up biochemical and physiological studies on the mechanisms of Al tolerance in maize. Immediately, elite haplotype-specific molecular markers can be developed for these four genes and used for efficient marker-assisted selection of superior alleles in Al tolerance maize breeding programs.

  17. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

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    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  18. Cadmium spiked soil modulates root organic acids exudation and ionic contents of two differentially Cd tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Akram, M Sohail; Tanwir, Kashif; Javed Chaudhary, Hassan; Ali, Qasim; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars [cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μmol/kg soil. The root and shoot Cd contents increased, while Mg, Ca and Fe contents mainly decreased at higher Cd levels, and preferentially in the sensitive cultivar. Interestingly, the K contents increased in roots of cv. 3062 at low Cd treatments. The Cd stress caused acidosis of the maize root exudates predominantly in cv. 3062. The concentration of various organic acids was significantly increased in the root exudates of cv. 3062 with applied Cd levels. This effect was diminished in cv. 31P41 at higher Cd levels. Cd exposure increased the relative membrane permeability, anthocyanin (only in cv. 3062), proline contents and the activities of peroxidases (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The only exception was the catalase activity, which was diminished in both cultivars. Root Cd contents were positively correlated with the secretion of acetic acid, oxalic acid, glutamic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid. The antioxidants like POD and SOD exhibited a positive correlation with the organic acids under Cd stress. It is likly that a high exudation of dicarboxylic organic acids improves nutrient uptake and activities of antioxidants, which enables the tolerant cultivar to acclimatize in Cd polluted environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid screening for aluminum tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.

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    Carlos Daniel Giaveno

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant decrease in maize grain yield due to aluminum toxicity is considered to be one of the most important agricultural problems for tropical regions. Genetic improvement is a useful approach to increase maize yield in acid soils, but this requires a rapid and reliable method to discriminate between genotypes. In our work we investigated the feasibility of using hematoxylin staining (HS to detect Al-tolerant plants at the seedling stage. The original population along with two populations obtained after one cycle of divergent selection were evaluated by net root growth (NRG and HS after 7 days in nutrient solution. Results showed a negative correlation between NRG and HS in all populations, in which sensitive plants, characterized by low NRG, exhibited more intense staining than tolerant plants. These results indicate that HS is a useful procedure for selecting Al-tolerant maize seedlings.A importante diminuição nos rendimentos de milho causados pela toxidez produzida pelo alumínio é considerada um dos mais importantes problemas nas regiões tropicais. O melhoramento genético é uma metodologia útil para aumentar os rendimentos do milho em solos ácidos, requerendo um método rápido e seguro que permita diferenciar os diferentes genótipos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar a técnica da coloração com hematoxilina (HS na detecção de plântulas tolerantes ao alumínio. Duas populações obtidas de um ciclo de seleção divergente e a original, foram avaliadas depois de sete dias em solução nutritiva utilizando os parâmetros NRG (crescimento líquido da raiz principal e HS. Os resultados apresentaram uma correlação negativa entre NRG e HS em todas as populações devido ao fato de que as plântulas suscetíveis, caracterizadas por um baixo NRG, apresentaram uma coloração mais intensa do que as tolerantes. Nossos resultados permitem concluir que a técnica de coloração com hematoxilina

  20. Physiological and molecular analysis of selected Kenyan maize lines for aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to maize production in many tropical and sub-tropical acid soil areas. The aim of this study was to survey the variation in Al tolerance in a panel of maize lines adapted for Kenya and look for novel sources of Al tolerance. 112 Kenyan maize accessio...

  1. Induced genetic variation for aluminum and salt tolerance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Yoshida, S.; Vegara, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: MNH applied to fertilized egg cells of 'Taichung 65' led to an increase in genetic variation in the progenies. Of a M 2 population of 15,000 seedlings, 2.3% were scored tolerant to salt. Tolerant plants showed less shoot and root growth inhibition. 50 variants expressed different degrees of tolerance to Al, even up to 30 ppm. The tolerance was related to longer root development. (author)

  2. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on cell wall polysaccharides and aluminum tolerance of trichosanthes kirilowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.; Liu, D.; Xio, Y.; Liu, P.; Gao, P. P.; Cao, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on root length, relative aluminum content in the apical cell wall, acid phosphatase (APA) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity, root pectin, hemicellulose 1(HC1), and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) contents of Anguo Trichosanthes kirilowii (Al-tolerant genotype) and Pujiang T. kirilowii (Al-sensitive genotype) under 800 micro mol/L of aluminum stress. The results showed that the growth of Al-tolerant Anguo T. kirilowii and Al-sensitive Pujiang T. kirilowii was inhibited when exposed to 800 micro mol/L of aluminum solution. APA and PME activities were also enhanced for both genotypes. The contents of relative aluminum, pectin, HC1, and HC2, as well as Al accumulation in the root tips were increased under aluminum toxicity. Pujiang T. kirilowii showed higher enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide contents than Anguo T. kirilowii. In addition, the root cell wall pectin, HC1, and HC2 contents of Pujiang T. kirilowii were increased by a large margin, showing its greater sensitivity to aluminum toxicity. Root length is an important indicator of aluminum toxicity, and has an important relationship with cell wall polysaccharide content. Aluminum toxicity led to the accumulation of pectin and high PME activity, and also increased the number of free carboxyl groups, which have more aluminum binding sites. Membrane skim increased extensively with the increase in APA activity, damaging membrane structure and function. Different SA concentrations can decrease enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide content to some extent. With the addition of different SA concentrations, the root relative aluminum content, cell wall polysaccharide content, APA and PME activities decreased. Aluminum toxicity to both genotypes of T. kirilowii was relieved in different degrees as exogenous SA concentration increased. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to examine the genetic distance

  3. Polyphenol-aluminum complex formation: Implications for aluminum tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural polyphenols may play an important role in aluminum detoxification in some plants. We examined the interaction between Al3+ and the purified high molecular weight polyphenols pentagalloyl glucose (940 Da) and oenothein B (1568 Da), and the related compound methyl gallate (184 Da) at pH 4 and ...

  4. Comparison of tolerance to soil acidity among crop plants. II. Tolerance to high levels of aluminum and manganese. Comparative plant nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Hayakawa, Y

    1975-01-01

    Research was conducted by growing various species of plants in solutions containing high concentrations of manganese or aluminum. A comparison was made of the tolerance of these plants to low pH and to the manganese and aluminum. In addition, the element content of the plants was compared. Plants high in calcium were found to have an intermediate tolerance to high concentrations of manganese and aluminum. Gramineae had a high tolerance to these elements and to low pH. They also accumulated high levels of these elements. Legumes had a high tolerance to manganese and aluminum and to low pH. However, they also accumulated high levels of these elements. Legumes had a high tolerance to manganese and aluminum and to low pH. However, they also accumulated high levels of these elements. Cruciferae had a low tolerance to the elements and to low pH. They contained low levels of manganese and aluminum. Chenopodiaceae had a low tolerance to the elements as well as low element contents. However, they were highly tolerant to low pH.

  5. Tolerance of physic nut plants to aluminum activity in nutrient solution

    OpenAIRE

    Lana, Maria do Carmo; Steiner, Fábio [UNESP; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Fey, Rubens; Frandoloso, Jucenei Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Plants have different levels of tolerance to phytotoxic effects of aluminum and the exploitation of this characteristic is of significant importance to the use of acid soils. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of aluminum activity in nutrient solution on growth of physic nut young plant. After seven days of adaptation, plants were submitted to Al concentrations of 0; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1,000 μmol L-1, corresponding to Al3+ activity solution, of: 14.5, 21.4; 46.6; 75.6; 108.3 e 144...

  6. Proteomic analysis of a high aluminum tolerant yeast Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 in response to aluminum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Chang Yi; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Chen, Rong Fu; Lan, Ping; Shen, Ren Fang

    2013-10-01

    Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 is a high-aluminum (Al)-tolerant yeast that can survive in Al concentrations up to 200mM. The mechanisms for the high Al tolerance of R. taiwanensis RS1 are not well understood. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Al tolerance and toxicity in R. taiwanensis RS1, Al toxicity-induced changes in the total soluble protein profile were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 33 differentially expressed proteins responding to Al stress were identified from approximately 850 reproducibly detected proteins. Among them, the abundance of 29 proteins decreased and 4 increased. In the presence of 100mM Al, the abundance of proteins involved in DNA transcription, protein translation, DNA defense, Golgi functions and glucose metabolism was decreased. By contrast, Al treatment led to increased abundance of malate dehydrogenase, which correlated with increased malate dehydrogenase activity and the accumulation of intracellular citrate, suggesting that Al-induced intracellular citrate could play an important role in detoxification of Al in R. taiwanensis RS1. © 2013.

  7. Damage Tolerance Behavior of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of various aerospace structures. Self-reacting and conventional friction stir welding are variations of the friction stir weld process employed in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks which are classified as pressurized structure in many spaceflight vehicle architectures. In order to address damage tolerance behavior associated with friction stir welds in these safety critical structures, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data describing fracture behavior, residual strength capability, and cyclic mission life capability of friction stir welds at ambient and cryogenic temperatures have been generated and will be presented in this paper. Fracture behavior will include fracture toughness and tearing (R-curve) response of the friction stir welds. Residual strength behavior will include an evaluation of the effects of lack of penetration on conventional friction stir welds, the effects of internal defects (wormholes) on self-reacting friction stir welds, and an evaluation of the effects of fatigue cycled surface cracks on both conventional and selfreacting welds. Cyclic mission life capability will demonstrate the effects of surface crack defects on service load cycle capability. The fracture data will be used to evaluate nondestructive inspection and proof test requirements for the welds.

  8. Nuclear Radiation Tolerance of Single Crystal Aluminum Nitride Ultrasonic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Brian; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Suprock, Andrew

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models, (Rempe et al., 2011; Kazys et al., 2005). These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The irradiation is also supported by a multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET ASI) program. The results from this irradiation, which started in February 2014, offer the potential to enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. Hence, results from this irradiation offer the potential to bridge the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the

  9. Toxicity and tolerance of aluminum in plants: tailoring plants to suit to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Hemalatha; Meriga, Balaji; Surapu, Varalakshmi; Gadi, Jogeswar; Sunita, M S L; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) stress is one of the serious limiting factors in plant productivity in acidic soils, which constitute about 50 % of the world's potentially arable lands and causes anywhere between 25 and 80 % of yield losses depending upon the species. The mechanism of Al toxicity and tolerance has been examined in plants, which is vital for crop improvement and enhanced food production in the future. Two mechanisms that facilitate Al tolerance in plants are Al exclusion from the roots and the ability to tolerate Al in the symplast or both. Although efforts have been made to unravel Al-resistant factors, many aspects remain unclear. Certain gene families such as MATE, ALMT, ASR, and ABC transporters have been implicated in some plants for resistance to Al which would enhance the opportunities for creating crop plants suitable to grow in acidic soils. Though QTLs have been identified related to Al-tolerance, no crop plant that is tolerant to Al has been evolved so far using breeding or molecular approaches. The remarkable changes that plants experience at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level under Al stress, the vast array of genes involved in Al toxicity-tolerance, the underlying signaling events and the holistic image of the molecular regulation, and the possibility of creating transgenics for Al tolerance are discussed in this review.

  10. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Jay Prakash; Saha, Bedabrata; Regon, Preetom; Sahoo, Smita; Chowra, Umakanta; Pradhan, Amit; Roy, Anupam; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check) were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root) of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM) toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR) protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h irrespective of the dose used in the study.

  11. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Awasthi

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH <5. Acidic soil significantly limits crop production mainly due to Al3+ toxicity worldwide, impacting approximately 50% of the world's arable land (in North-Eastern India 80% soil are acidic. Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h

  12. A molecular, genetic and physiological analysis of plant aluminum tolerance (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineros, M.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important agronomic trait, limiting crop production on acid soils that comprise up to 50% of the world's potentially arable lands. A significant genetic variation in Al tolerance exists in both crop plants and Arabidopsis. The exploitation of this genetic variation to breed crops with increased Al tolerance has been a productive and active area of research, however, the underlying molecular, genetic and physiological bases are still not well understood. Only very recently was the first Al tolerance gene, ALMT1, isolated in wheat and shown to be a novel Al-activated malate transporter. Work in our laboratory has focused on using integrated genomic (gene and protein expression profiling), molecular genetic and physiological approaches to identify novel Al tolerance genes and the physiological mechanisms they control in the cereal crops maize and sorghum, and also in arabidopsis. In sorghum we had previously shown that Al tolerance is the result of a single locus, Alt/sub SB/ which maps to the top of sorghum chromosome 3 in a region totally distinct from where the major Al tolerance maps in wheat and other related members of the Triticeae. Very recently, we have used map-based cloning techniques in sorghum to clone Alt/sub SB/ and have found it is a novel Al tolerance gene. Here we will present a molecular characterization of the Alt/sub SB/ gene and also the physiological mechanism of sorghum Al tolerance it controls. In arabidopsis, we have previously shown that Al tolerance is a quantitative trait and have identified two major Al tolerance QTL on chromosomes 1 and 5. These genes function to confer tolerance via Al via activated root malate release. We found that a member of the arabidopsis gene family that is a close homolog to wheat ALMT1 maps near the largest tolerance QTL on chromosome 1 and have also found this gene encodes the Al-activated malate transport involved in arabidopsis Al tolerance. However, we have clear molecular

  13. Natural variation underlies alterations in NRAT1 expression and function that play a key role in rice aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for crop production on acid soils which comprise approximately 40% of arable land in the tropics and subtropics. Rice is the most Al tolerant cereal crop, and offers a good model for identifying Al tolerance genes and mechanisms. Here we investigated natu...

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  15. Searching for RFLP markers to identify genes for aluminum tolerance in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, E.; Lopes, M.A.; Parentoni, S.N.; Martins, P.R.; Torres, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) that control aluminum (Al) tolerance in maize. The strategy used was bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and the genetic materials utilized were the F 2 , F 3 and F 4 populations derived from a cross between the Al-susceptible inbred line L53 and Al-tolerant inbred line L1327. The populations were evaluated in a nutrient solution containing a toxic concentration of Al (6 ppm) and relative seminal root length (RSRL) was used as a phenotypic measure of tolerance. Seedlings of the F 2 population with the highest and lowest RSRL values were transplanted to the field and subsequently selfed to obtain F 3 and F 4 families. The efficiency of the phenotypic index for selection was found to be greater when mean values were used instead of individual RSRL values. F 3 and F 4 families were then evaluated in nutrient solution to identify those that were not segregating. One hundred and thirteen probes, with an average interval of 30 cM, covering the 10 maize chromosomes were tested for their ability to discriminate the parental lines. Fifty four of these probes were polymorphic with 46 showing codominance. These probes were hybridized with DNA from two F 3 contrasting, bulks and three probes on chromosome 8 were found to be able distinguish the F 3 contrasting bulks on the basis of band position and intensity. DNA of families from the F 3 bulks hybridized with these probes showed the presence of heterozygous individuals. These three selected probes were also hybridized with DNA from F 2 individuals. Two of them showed a significant regression coefficient with the character. However, each of these probes explained only about 10% of the phenotypic variance observed in 70 F 2 individuals. One of the probes UMC 103 was hybridized with DNA from 168 F 4 families and the regression analysis of RFLP data showed a significant regression coefficient

  16. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  17. Chromium toxicity tolerance of Solanum nigrum L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. plants with reference to ion pattern, antioxidation activity and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    UdDin, Islam; Bano, Asghari; Masood, Sajid

    2015-03-01

    Chromium (Cr), being a highly toxic metal, adversely affects the mineral uptake and metabolic processes in plants when present in excess. The current study was aimed at investigating the Cr accumulation in various plant tissues and its relation to the antioxidation activity and root exudation. Plants were grown in soil spiked with different concentrations of Cr for three weeks in pots and analysed for different growth, antioxidants and ion attributes. Furthermore, plants treated with different concentrations of Cr in pots were shifted to rhizobox-like system for 48h and organic acids were monitored in the mucilage dissolved from the plant root surface, mirroring rhizospheric solution. The results revealed that the Cr application at 1mM increased the shoot fresh and dry weight and root dry weight of Solanum nigrum, whereas the opposite was observed for Parthenium hysterophorus when compared with lower levels of Cr (0.5mM) or control treatment. In both plant species, Cr and Cl concentrations were increased while Ca, Mg and K concentrations in root, shoot and root exudates were decreased with increasing levels of Cr. Higher levels of Cr treatments enhanced the activities of SOD, POD and proline content in leaves of S. nigrum, whereas lower levels of Cr treatment were found to have stimulatory effects in P. hysterophorus. P. hysterophorus exhibited highest exudation of organic acid contents. With increasing levels of Cr treatments, citric acid concentration in root exudates increased by 35% and 44% in S. nigrum, whereas 20% and 76% in P. hysterophorus. Cr toxicity was responsible for the shoot growth reduction of S. nigrum and P. hysterophorus, however, shoot growth response was different at different levels of applied Cr. Consequently, Cr stress negatively altered the plant physiology and biochemistry. However, the enhanced antioxidant production, Cl uptake and root exudation are the physiological and biochemical indicators for the plant adaptations in biotic systems

  18. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Jinfang; Qi, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Gongle; Li, Mingyue; Li, Xingsheng; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104) was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent catio...

  19. Damage Tolerance Assessment of Friction Pull Plug Welds in an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks. Self-reacting friction stir welding is one variation of the friction stir weld process being developed for manufacturing tanks. Friction pull plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential self-reacting friction stir weld. A friction plug weld placed in a self-reacting friction stir weld results in a non-homogenous weld joint where the initial weld, plug weld, their respective heat affected zones and the base metal all interact. The welded joint is a composite plastically deformed material system with a complex residual stress field. In order to address damage tolerance concerns associated with friction plug welds in safety critical structures, such as propellant tanks, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data relating residual strength capability to flaw size in an aluminum alloy friction plug weld will be presented.

  20. Rapid activation of catalase followed by citrate efflux effectively improves aluminum tolerance in the roots of chick pea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manorma; Sharma, Vinay; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the comparative response of two contrasting genotypes (aluminum (Al) tolerant and Al sensitive) of chick pea (Cicer arietinum) against Al stress. The Al-tolerant genotype (RSG 974) showed lesser inhibition of root growth as well as lower oxidative damages, measured in terms of the accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation compared to the Al-sensitive genotype (RSG 945). The accumulation of Al by roots of both genotypes was almost equal at 96 and 144 h after Al treatment; however, it was higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype at 48 h after Al treatment. Further, the Al-mediated induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was almost similar in both genotypes. Al treatment promptly activated catalase activity in Al-tolerant genotype, and it was remarkably higher than that of Al-sensitive genotype. As another important Al detoxification mechanism, citrate efflux was almost equal in both genotypes except at 1000 μM Al treatment for 96 and 144 h. Further, citrate carrier and anion channel inhibitor experiment confirmed the contribution of citrate efflux in conferring Al tolerance in Al-tolerant genotype. Based on the available data, the present study concludes that rapid activation of catalase (also SOD) activity followed by citrate efflux effectively improves Al tolerance in chick pea.

  1. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Mario; Diallo, Amadou Oury

    2008-08-27

    Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive) that differ in their response to Al were performed. Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate) needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  2. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Amadou

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive that differ in their response to Al were performed. Results Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. Conclusion In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  3. Genetic Architecture of Aluminum Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa) Determined through Genome-Wide Association Analysis and QTL Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famoso, Adam N.; Zhao, Keyan; Clark, Randy T.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Wright, Mark H.; Bustamante, Carlos; Kochian, Leon V.; McCouch, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limitation to crop productivity on acid soils, and rice has been demonstrated to be significantly more Al tolerant than other cereal crops. However, the mechanisms of rice Al tolerance are largely unknown, and no genes underlying natural variation have been reported. We screened 383 diverse rice accessions, conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study, and conducted QTL mapping in two bi-parental populations using three estimates of Al tolerance based on root growth. Subpopulation structure explained 57% of the phenotypic variation, and the mean Al tolerance in Japonica was twice that of Indica. Forty-eight regions associated with Al tolerance were identified by GWA analysis, most of which were subpopulation-specific. Four of these regions co-localized with a priori candidate genes, and two highly significant regions co-localized with previously identified QTLs. Three regions corresponding to induced Al-sensitive rice mutants (ART1, STAR2, Nrat1) were identified through bi-parental QTL mapping or GWA to be involved in natural variation for Al tolerance. Haplotype analysis around the Nrat1 gene identified susceptible and tolerant haplotypes explaining 40% of the Al tolerance variation within the aus subpopulation, and sequence analysis of Nrat1 identified a trio of non-synonymous mutations predictive of Al sensitivity in our diversity panel. GWA analysis discovered more phenotype–genotype associations and provided higher resolution, but QTL mapping identified critical rare and/or subpopulation-specific alleles not detected by GWA analysis. Mapping using Indica/Japonica populations identified QTLs associated with transgressive variation where alleles from a susceptible aus or indica parent enhanced Al tolerance in a tolerant Japonica background. This work supports the hypothesis that selectively introgressing alleles across subpopulations is an efficient approach for trait enhancement in plant breeding programs and

  4. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104 was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea. BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent cations lanthanum (La, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, or copper (Cu. Subcellular localization studies were performed in onion epidermal cells and revealed that BoALMT1 was localized at the plasma membrane. Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique was used to analyze H+ flux. Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing BoALMT1 excreted more H+ under Al treatment. Overexpressing BoALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Al tolerance and increased malate secretion. The results suggested that BoALMT1 functions as an Al-resistant gene and encodes a malate transporter. Expressing BoALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes or A. thaliana indicated that BoALMT1 could increase malate secretion and H+ efflux to resist Al tolerance.

  5. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  6. Novel properties of the wheat aluminum tolerance organic acid transporter (TaALMT1) revealed by electrophysiological characterization in Xenopus Oocytes: functional and structural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Cançado, Geraldo M A; Kochian, Leon V

    2008-08-01

    Many plant species avoid the phytotoxic effects of aluminum (Al) by exuding dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids that chelate and immobilize Al(3+) at the root surface, thus preventing it from entering root cells. Several novel genes that encode membrane transporters from the ALMT and MATE families recently were cloned and implicated in mediating the organic acid transport underlying this Al tolerance response. Given our limited understanding of the functional properties of ALMTs, in this study a detailed characterization of the transport properties of TaALMT1 (formerly named ALMT1) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes was conducted. The electrophysiological findings are as follows. Although the activity of TaALMT1 is highly dependent on the presence of extracellular Al(3+) (K(m1/2) of approximately 5 microm Al(3+) activity), TaALMT1 is functionally active and can mediate ion transport in the absence of extracellular Al(3+). The lack of change in the reversal potential (E(rev)) upon exposure to Al(3+) suggests that the "enhancement" of TaALMT1 malate transport by Al is not due to alteration in the transporter's selectivity properties but is solely due to increases in its anion permeability. The consistent shift in the direction of the E(rev) as the intracellular malate activity increases indicates that TaALMT1 is selective for the transport of malate over other anions. The estimated permeability ratio between malate and chloride varied between 1 and 30. However, the complex behavior of the E(rev) as the extracellular Cl(-) activity was varied indicates that this estimate can only be used as a general guide to understanding the relative affinity of TaALMT1 for malate, representing only an approximation of those expected under physiologically relevant ionic conditions. TaALMT1 can also mediate a large anion influx (i.e. outward currents). TaALMT1 is permeable not only to malate but also to other physiologically relevant anions such as Cl

  7. Novel Properties of the Wheat Aluminum Tolerance Organic Acid Transporter (TaALMT1) Revealed by Electrophysiological Characterization in Xenopus Oocytes: Functional and Structural Implications1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A.; Cançado, Geraldo M.A.; Kochian, Leon V.

    2008-01-01

    Many plant species avoid the phytotoxic effects of aluminum (Al) by exuding dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids that chelate and immobilize Al3+ at the root surface, thus preventing it from entering root cells. Several novel genes that encode membrane transporters from the ALMT and MATE families recently were cloned and implicated in mediating the organic acid transport underlying this Al tolerance response. Given our limited understanding of the functional properties of ALMTs, in this study a detailed characterization of the transport properties of TaALMT1 (formerly named ALMT1) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes was conducted. The electrophysiological findings are as follows. Although the activity of TaALMT1 is highly dependent on the presence of extracellular Al3+ (Km1/2 of approximately 5 μm Al3+ activity), TaALMT1 is functionally active and can mediate ion transport in the absence of extracellular Al3+. The lack of change in the reversal potential (Erev) upon exposure to Al3+ suggests that the “enhancement” of TaALMT1 malate transport by Al is not due to alteration in the transporter's selectivity properties but is solely due to increases in its anion permeability. The consistent shift in the direction of the Erev as the intracellular malate activity increases indicates that TaALMT1 is selective for the transport of malate over other anions. The estimated permeability ratio between malate and chloride varied between 1 and 30. However, the complex behavior of the Erev as the extracellular Cl− activity was varied indicates that this estimate can only be used as a general guide to understanding the relative affinity of TaALMT1 for malate, representing only an approximation of those expected under physiologically relevant ionic conditions. TaALMT1 can also mediate a large anion influx (i.e. outward currents). TaALMT1 is permeable not only to malate but also to other physiologically relevant anions such as Cl−, NO3−, and

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the aluminum-tolerant fungus Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 and comparative analysis of Basidiomycota mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Qiang; Aizawa, Tomoko; Schneider, Jessica; Wang, Chao; Shen, Ren Fang; Sunairi, Michio

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1, an aluminum-tolerant Basidiomycota fungus, was determined and compared with the known mitochondrial genomes of 12 Basidiomycota species. The mitochondrial genome of R. taiwanensis RS1 is a circular DNA molecule of 40,392 bp and encodes the typical 15 mitochondrial proteins, 23 tRNAs, and small and large rRNAs as well as 10 intronic open reading frames. These genes are apparently transcribed in two directions and do not show syntenies in gene order with other investigated Basidiomycota species. The average G+C content (41%) of the mitochondrial genome of R. taiwanensis RS1 is the highest among the Basidiomycota species. Two introns were detected in the sequence of the atp9 gene of R. taiwanensis RS1, but not in that of other Basidiomycota species. Rhodotorula taiwanensis is the first species of the genus Rhodotorula whose full mitochondrial genome has been sequenced; and the data presented here supply valuable information for understanding the evolution of fungal mitochondrial genomes and researching the mechanism of aluminum tolerance in microorganisms. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Chen

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR. A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77 bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea.

  10. Associated mechanisms of aluminum tolerance in plants/ Mecanismos associados à tolerância ao alumínio em plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is one of the major limiting factor regarding plant development in acid soils. The use of liming for correcting soil pH is not viable for some of acid soil areas (technique or economic reasons, making the development of Al tolerant genotypes the best alternative. Thus, the tolerance mechanisms as well as the genetic basis of Al tolerance has deserved special attention in the scientific community. In the last years, a significant progress has been achieved towards these goals, as well as in developing cultivars adapted to acid soils. The Al tolerance mechanisms are divided basically in two classes: the exclusion mechanisms that act after absorption or blocking its entry in the root system and those involved in detoxification, complexing the Al in specific organelles, mainly in the vacuoles. In many species, physiological mechanisms have been reported as responsible for the activation of organic acids (mainly citrate and malate that act as Al quelating agents, however many process are not yet understood and cleared. Currently, the basis for the internal detoxification is becoming clear through organic acid complexes and there sequestering by the vacuoles. Other potential mechanisms are the target for discussions.A toxicidade do alumínio é um dos principais fatores limitantes do desenvolvimento das plantas em solos ácidos. Pelo fato da utilização de corretivos da acidez do solo não ser a estratégia mais viável em muitas situações com solos ácidos (por razões técnicas e econômicas, o desenvolvimento de genótipos tolerantes ao Al tem sido o caminho mais focado, assim a investigação dos mecanismos de tolerância bem como as bases genéticas da tolerância ao Al têm merecido atenção especial pela pesquisa científica. Nos últimos anos, foi gerado um significativo progresso no entendimento das bases dos mecanismos de tolerância ao Al, assim como no desenvolvimento de cultivares mais adaptados as condições de

  11. AtALMT1, which encodes a malate transporter, is identified as one of several genes critical for aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekenga, Owen A.; Maron, Lyza G.; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Cançado, Geraldo M. A.; Shaff, Jon; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ryan, Peter R.; Dong, Bei; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kochian, Leon V.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) tolerance in Arabidopsis is a genetically complex trait, yet it is mediated by a single physiological mechanism based on Al-activated root malate efflux. We investigated a possible molecular determinant for Al tolerance involving a homolog of the wheat Al-activated malate transporter, ALMT1. This gene, named AtALMT1 (At1g08430), was the best candidate from the 14-memberAtALMT family to be involved with Al tolerance based on expression patterns and genomic location. Physiological...

  12. Relative abundance of Delta(5)-sterols in plasma membrane lipids of root-tip cells correlates with aluminum tolerance of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Shahadat Hossain; Tawaraya, Keitarou; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Murayama, Tetsuya; Chuba, Masaru; Kambayashi, Mihoko; Shiono, Yoshihito; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Wagatsuma, Tadao

    2009-01-01

    We investigated variations in aluminum (Al) tolerance among rice plants, using ancestor cultivars from the family line of the Al-tolerant and widely cultivated Japonica cultivar, Sasanishiki. The cultivar Rikuu-20 was Al sensitive, whereas a closely related cultivar that is a descendant of Rikuu-20, Rikuu-132, was Al tolerant. These two cultivars were compared to determine mechanisms underlying variations in Al tolerance. The sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20 showed increased permeability of the plasma membrane (PM) and greater Al uptake within 1 h of Al treatment. This could not be explained by organic acid release. Lipid composition of the PM differed between these cultivars, and may account for the difference in Al tolerance. The tolerant cultivar Rikuu-132 had a lower ratio of phospholipids to Delta(5)-sterols than the sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20, suggesting that the PM of Rikuu-132 is less negatively charged and less permeabilized than that of Rikuu-20. We used inhibitors of Delta(5)-sterol synthesis to alter the ratio of phospholipids to Delta(5)-sterols in both cultivars. These inhibitors reduced Al tolerance in Rikuu-132 and its Al-tolerant ancestor cultivars Kamenoo and Kyoku. In addition, Rikuu-132 showed a similar level of Al sensitivity when the ratio of phospholipids to Delta(5)-sterols was increased to match that of Rikuu-20 after treatment with uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of obtusifoliol-14alpha-demethylase. These results indicate that PM lipid composition is a factor underlying variations in Al tolerance among rice cultivars.

  13. Cell wall pectin methyl-esterification and organic acids of root tips involve in aluminum tolerance in Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongqin; Shu, Zaifa; Ye, Xiaoli; Zhu, Jiaojiao; Pan, Junting; Wang, Weidong; Chang, Pinpin; Cui, Chuanlei; Shen, Jiazhi; Fang, Wanping; Zhu, Xujun; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-10-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (O.) Kuntze) can survive from high levels of aluminum (Al) in strongly acidic soils. However, the mechanism driving its tolerance to Al, the predominant factor limiting plant growth in acid condition, is still not fully understood. Here, two-year-old rooted cuttings of C. sinensis cultivar 'Longjingchangye' were used for Al resistance experiments. We found that the tea plants grew better in the presence of 0.4 mM Al than those grew under lower concentration of Al treatments (0 and 0.1 mM) as well as higher levels treatment (2 and 4 mM), confirming that appropriate Al increased tea plant growth. Hematoxylin staining assay showed that the apical region was the main accumulator in tea plant root. Subsequently, immunolocalization of pectins in the root tip cell wall showed a rise in low-methyl-ester pectin levels and a reduction of high-methyl-ester pectin content with the increasing Al concentration of treatments. Furthermore, we observed the increased expressions of C. sinensis pectin methylesterase (CsPME) genes along with the increasing de-esterified pectin levels during response to Al treatments. Additionally, the levels of organic acids increased steadily after treatment with 0.1, 0.4 or 2 mM Al, while they dropped after treatment with 4 mM Al. The organic acids secretion from root followed a similar trend. Similarly, a gradual increase in malate dehydrogenase (MDH), citrate synthase (CS) and glycolate oxidase (GO) enzyme activities and relevant metabolic genes expression were detected after the treatment of 0.1, 0.4 or 2 mM Al, while a sharp decrease was resulted from treatment with 4 mM Al. These results confirm that both pectin methylesterases and organic acids contribute to Al tolerance in C. sinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sızmaz, Selçuk; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; T Trese, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disease associated with visual loss, particularly in the pediatric group. Mutations in the NDP, FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12 genes have been shown to contribute to FEVR. FEVR has been reported to have X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive inheritances. However, both the genotypic and phenotypic features are variable. Novel mutations contributing to the disease have been reported. The earliest and the most prominent finding of the disease is avascularity in the peripheral retina. As the disease progresses, retinal neovascularization, subretinal exudation, partial and total retinal detachment may occur, which may be associated with certain mutations. With early diagnosis and prompt management visual loss can be prevented with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF injections. In case of retinal detachment, pars plana vitrectomy alone or combined with scleral buckling should be considered. Identifying asymptomatic family members with various degrees of insidious findings is of certain importance. Wide-field imaging with fluorescein angiography is crucial in the management of this disease. The differential diagnosis includes other pediatric vitreoretinopathies such as Norrie disease, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats' disease.

  15. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR is a hereditary disease associated with visual loss, particularly in the pediatric group. Mutations in the NDP, FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12 genes have been shown to contribute to FEVR. FEVR has been reported to have X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive inheritances. However, both the genotypic and phenotypic features are variable. Novel mutations contributing to the disease have been reported. The earliest and the most prominent finding of the disease is avascularity in the peripheral retina. As the disease progresses, retinal neovascularization, subretinal exudation, partial and total retinal detachment may occur, which may be associated with certain mutations. With early diagnosis and prompt management visual loss can be prevented with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF injections. In case of retinal detachment, pars plana vitrectomy alone or combined with scleral buckling should be considered. Identifying asymptomatic family members with various degrees of insidious findings is of certain importance. Wide-field imaging with fluorescein angiography is crucial in the management of this disease. The differential diagnosis includes other pediatric vitreoretinopathies such as Norrie disease, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats’ disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 164-168

  16. Tolerância ao alumínio em cultivares de aveia branca sob cultivo hidropônico Tolerance to the aluminum in oat cultivars under hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego do cultivo hidropônico para avaliar a tolerância à toxicidade pelo alumínio em genótipos de aveia pode ser feito por meio da medida da retomada do crescimento de raiz. Avaliaram-se 12 cultivares de aveia branca indicadas para o cultivo no Sul do Brasil com o intuito de caracterizar a tolerância ao alumínio, de maneira a ser estrategicamente recomendadas e/ou incluídas em blocos de cruzamento na obtenção de constituições genéticas de elevado potencial produtivo e tolerante ao íon metálico. Foram utilizadas doses de 10, 15 e 20 mg L-1 de alumínio na solução hidropônica e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com três repetições, seguindo o esquema fatorial (12 x 3. As doses empregadas são altamente eficientes na identificação de genótipos de aveia tolerantes e sensíveis ao alumínio tóxico. As cultivares UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 e UFRGS 17 expressam tolerância.The use of hidroponic culture to evaluate tolerance to aluminum toxicity in oat genotypes can be performed by measuring root regrowth, allowing phenotypically to discriminate tolerant genetic constitutions sensitivity. Twelve white oat cultivars indicated for cultivation in Southern Brazil were evaluated aiming at to characterize their aluminum tolerance, in order to use them as parents in crosses or to recommend them for in cultivation regions. Aluminum concentration of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were used in the hydroponic solution arranged in complete randomized blocks with three replications in 12 x 3 factorial designs. Concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were highly efficient for the identification of tolerant and sensitive oat genotypes. Cultivars UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 and UFRGS 17 showed aluminum.

  17. Boron Supply Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum by Interacting with Cell Wall Pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs of pea (Pisum sativum, to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs. The results show that B could rescue RBCs from Al-induced cell death by accumulating more Al in the cell wall, predominately in alkali-soluble pectin. Boron also promotes Al3+ adsorption and inhibits Al3+ desorption from alkali-soluble pectin. Thus, more Al3+ is immobilized within the alkali-soluble pectin fraction and less in the chelator-soluble pectin, rendering Al3+ less mobile. Boron induces an increase of RG-II (KDO,2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid content for forming more borate-RGII complexes, and the decrease of pectin methyl-esterification, thus creates more negative charges to immobilize Al3+ in cell wall pectin. The study provides evidence that abundant B supply enhances the immobilization of Al in alkali-soluble pectin, thus most likely reducing the entry of Al3+ into the symplast from the surroundings.

  18. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  19. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  20. Tolerância de cultivares de arroz a diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva Rice cultivars tolerance to different levels of aluminum in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1983-01-01

    relation to their tolerance to aluminum toxicity, at temperature of 25 ± 1°C and 30 ± 1°C using five different aluminum levels in 8.3 liter pots with 330 seedlings/pot, under controlled growth conditions. The tolerance was measured taking into account the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous aluminum treatment. With an excessive amount of Al3+, the primary roots did not grow at all and remained thickened at the tip, showing a typical aluminum injury. In nutrient solutions at a temperature of 25 ± 1°C the rice cultivars IAC-899 and IR-841 were sensitive to the Al3+ concentration of 10mg/l of Al3+; IR-43, IR-45 and IR-8 were sensitive to 20mg/l and the cultivars IR-42 and CICA-4 were sensitive to 40mg/l; IAC-435, IAC-164, Pérola, Batatais, Pratão Precoce, Blue Bonnet, IAC-120, IAC-47, IAC-1246, IAC-25, IAC-165, Pratão, Dou-ado Precoce and CICA-8 showed tolerance to 40mg/l. In nutrient solutions at a temperature of 30 ± 1°C all cultivars presented tolerance to the Al3+ concentrations of 5, 10 and 20mg/l of Al+3. The cultivars Dourado Precoce, CICA-4, IR-42, IR-43, IR-45, IR-8, IAC-899, IR-665-4-5-5 and IR-841 were sensitive to 40mg/l of Al3+. Under the same conditions the following cultivars were considered tolerant to aluminum concentration of 40mg/l: IAC-47, Blue Bonnet, IAC-1246, IAC-164, Pratão, Pratão Precoce, CICA-8, IAC-435, IAC-120, IAC-25, IAC-165, Pérola and Batatais. The rice cultivars under study were ranked into classes of aluminum tolerance: tolerant: IAC-435, IAC-120, IAC-47, IAC-1246, IAC-25, IAC-165, IAC-164, Pérola, Batatais, Pratão Precoce, Blue Bonnet; moderately tolerant: Pratão, Dourado Precoce and CICA-8; and sensitive: CICA-4, IR-42, IR-43, IR-45, IR-8, IAC-899, IR-665-4-5-5 and IR-841.

  1. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  3. Tolerância de cultivares de trigo a diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva e no solo Tolerance op wheat cultivars to different levels of aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo cinco diferentes níveis de alumínio tóxico. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após um período prévio de 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Os cultivares Siete Cerros e Tobari-66 foram sensíveis, respectivamente, a 1 e 3 ppm de alumínio. 'Alondra-S-46', 'Alondra-S-45' e 'IAC-17' foram sensíveis a 6 ppm; 'BH-1146', 'IAC-5', 'IAC-18', 'IAC-13' e 'Londrina' foram tolerantes a 10 ppm, porém 'BH-1146', 'IAC-18' e 'IAC-13' foram mais tolerantes que 'IAC-5' e 'Londrina'. Os cultivares BH-1146, IAC-17, Alondra-S-46, Tobari-66 e Siete Cerros foram cultivados em vasos contendo solo ácido mostrando a presença de alumínio. Metade do número de vasos recebeu uma aplicação de calcário. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que o cultivar BH-1146 diferiu significativamente em produção de grãos por planta de 'Tobari-66', 'Alondra-S-46', 'IAC-17' e 'Siete Cerros'. Esse resultado confirmou a tolerância ao alumínio do cultivar BH-1146, observada quando se empregou solução nutritiva com a presença desse elemento.Ten wheat cultivars were studied to aluminum toxicity using five different levels of this element. The tolerance was measured taking into account the root growth in a aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous Al treatment. With toxic amounts of Al, the primary roots did not grow at all and remained thickned at the tip as a typical Al injury. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros and Tobari-66 were sensitive to 1 and 3 ppm of aluminum, respectively. The cultivars Alondra-S-46, Alondra-S-45 and IAC-17 were sensitive to 6 ppm. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5, IAC-18, IAC-13 and Londrina showed tolerance to 10 ppm but BH-1146, IAC-18 and IAC-13 were more tolerant than IAC-5 and Londrina. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-17, Alondra-S-46

  4. Phytohormones enabled endophytic fungal symbiosis improve aluminum phytoextraction in tolerant Solanum lycopersicum: An examples of Penicillium janthinellum LK5 and comparison with exogenous GA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hamayun, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-09-15

    This work investigates the potentials of fungal-endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 (PjLK5) and its inherent gibberellic acid (GA3) as reference to enhance aluminum (Al) induced toxicity in tolerant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Initial screening showed significantly higher uptake of Al by PjLK5. Aluminum stress (100 μM) significantly retarted plant growth in control plants. Conversely PjLK5 and GA3 application significantly increased morphological attributes of Al-tolerant tomato plants with or without Al-stress. PjLK5 inoculation with and without Al-stress maintained the plant growth whilst extracting and translocating higher Al in shoot (∼ 1 92 mg/kg) and root (∼ 296 mg/kg). This was almost similar in GA3 treatments as well. In addition, PjLK5 inoculation extended protective effects to tomato plants by maintaining reduced cellular superoxide anions in Al stress. Al-induced oxidative stress was further reduced due to significantly higher activity of metal-responsive reduced glutathione. The functional membrane was less damaged in PjLK5 and GA3 treatments because the plants synthesized reduced levels of malondialdhyde, lenolenic and linoleic acids. Defense-related endogenous phytohormone salicylic acid was significantly up-regulated to counteract the adverse effects of Al-stress. In conclusion, the PjLK5 possess a similar bio-prospective potential as of GA3. Application of such biochemically active endophyte could increase metal phytoextraction whilst maintaining crop physiological homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association Mapping of Ferrous, Zinc, and Aluminum Tolerance at the Seedling Stage in Indica Rice using MAGIC Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of metal are toxic and severely affect plant growth and development. Understanding the genetic control of metal tolerance is crucial to improve rice resistance to Fe, Zn, and Al toxicity. The multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC populations were genotyped using a 55 K rice SNP array and screened at the seedling stage for Fe, Zn, and Al toxicity using a hydroponics system. Association analysis was conducted by implementing a mixed linear model (MLM for each of the five MAGIC populations double cross DC1 (founders were SAGC-08, HHZ5-SAL9-Y3-Y1, BP1976B-2-3-7-TB-1-1, PR33282-B-8-1-1-1-1-1, double cross DC2 (founders of double cross were FFZ1, CT 16658-5-2-2SR-2-3-6MP, IR 68, IR 02A127, eight parents population 8way (founders were SAGC-08, HHZ5-SAL9-Y3-Y1, BP1976B-2-3-7-TB-1-1, PR33282-B-8-1-1-1-1-1, FFZ1, CT 16658-5-2-2SR-2-3-6MP, IR 68, IR 02A127, DC12 (DC1+DC2 and rice multi-parent recombinant inbred line population RMPRIL (DC1+DC2+8way. A total of 21, 30, and 21 QTL were identified for Fe, Zn, and Al toxicity tolerance, respectively. For multi tolerance (MT as Fe, Zn, and Al tolerance-related traits, three genomic regions, MT1.1 (chr.1: 35.4–36.3 Mb, MT1.2 (chr.1: 35.4–36.3 Mb, and MT3.2 (chr.3: 35.4-36.2 Mb harbored QTL. The chromosomal regions MT2.1 (chr.2: 2.4–2.8 Mb, MT2.2 (chr.2: 24.5–25.8 Mb, MT4 (chr.4: 1.2 Mb Mb, MT8.1 (chr.8: 0.7–0.9 Mb, and MT8.2 (chr.8: 2.2–2.4 Mb harbored QTL for Fe and Zn tolerance, while MT2.3 (chr.2: 30.5–31.6 Mb, MT3.1 (chr.3: 12.5–12.8 Mb, and MT6 (chr.6: 2.0–3.0 Mb possessed QTL for Al and Zn tolerance. The chromosomal region MT9.1 (chr.9: 14.2–14.7 Mb possessed QTL for Fe and Al tolerance. A total of 11 QTL were detected across different MAGIC populations and 12 clustered regions were detected under different metal conditions, suggesting that these genomic regions might constitute valuable regions for further marker-assisted selection (MAS in breeding

  6. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, M.Y.; Yada, T.; Matey, V.; McCormick, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4??gl-1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11??gl-1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42??gl-1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56??gl-1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl- channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose that when smolts are

  7. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, Michelle Y.; Yada, Takashi; Matey, Victoria; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4 μg l -1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11 μg l -1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42 μg l -1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56 μg l -1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24 h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl - channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose

  8. Regulation of galactolipid biosynthesis by overexpression of the rice MGD gene contributes to enhanced aluminum tolerance in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane lipid alterations affect Al tolerance in plants, but little is known about the regulation of membrane lipid metabolism in response to Al stress. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing rice monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG synthase (OsMGD gene and wild-type tobacco plants were exposed to AlCl3, and the impact of Al toxicity on root growth, Al accumulation, plasma membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation and membrane lipid composition were investigated. Compared with the wild type, the transgenic plants exhibited rapid regrowth of roots after removal of Al and less damage to membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation under Al stress, meanwhile, the Al accumulation showed no difference between wild-type and transgenic plants. Lipid analysis showed that Al treatment dramatically decreased the content of MGDG and the ratio of MGDG to digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG in wild-type plants, while it was unchanged in transgenic plants. The stable of MGDG level and the ratio of MGDG/DGDG contribute to maintain the membrane stability and permeability. Moreover, Al caused a significant increase in phospholipids in wild-type plants, resulting in a high proportion of phospholipids and low proportion of galactolipids, but these proportions were unaffected in transgenic plants. The high proportion of phospholipids could contribute to a higher rate of Al3+ binding in the membrane and thereby leads to more membrane perturbation and damage. These results show that the regulation of galactolipid biosynthesis could play an important role in maintaining membrane structure and function under Al stress.

  9. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  10. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, Michelle Y., E-mail: michelle.monette@yale.edu [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States); Yada, Takashi [Freshwater Fisheries Research Department, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Nikko (Japan); Matey, Victoria [Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); McCormick, Stephen D. [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24 h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl{sup -} channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time

  11. SELECTION FOR ALUMINUM TOLERANCE IN TROPICAL SOYBEANS SELEÇÃO PARA TOLERÂNCIA AO ALUMÍNIO EM SOJA TROPICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Soil acidity is a limiting factor for most of the cultivated plants in the Brazilian Savannah. Toxicity caused by aluminum (Al is especially serious in the acid subsurface, which remains acidic after soil has been amended, by hindering root growth and causing drought susceptibility and nutritional unbalance. This research aimed at selecting soybean with increased tolerance to Al through association of hydroponics and field experiments. Crosses including savannah adapted genotypes were obtained. Seeds of contrasting individuals, selected in hydroponics at F2 generation for root growth, were obtained for progeny evaluation at F3, in the field, and at F4 in hydroponics. Grain production and total dry matter of selected progenies were superior to the parentals, in the acid soil experiment. These results were confirmed by performance in hydroponics, indicating the method may be successfully employed in breeding programs for crop adaptation to subsurface acid soil conditions.

    KEY-WORDS: Subsurface acidity; Glycine max; Al stress; plant breeding.

    A acidez do solo é fator limitante para a maioria das plantas cultivadas no Cerrado Brasileiro. A toxidez causada por alumínio (Al é especialmente séria na subsuperfície, que permanece ácida após o uso de corretivos, por impedir o crescimento radicular e causar suscetibilidade à seca e desbalanceamento nutricional. Aqui objetivou-se a seleção de genótipos de soja com maior tolerância ao Al, pela associação de experimentos em hidroponia e no campo. Cruzamentos incluindo genótipos selecionados no Cerrado foram realizados. Sementes de indivíduos contrastantes, selecionados em hidroponia na geração F2 pelo crescimento radicular, foram obtidas para avaliação de progênies em F3, no campo, e em F4, novamente em hidroponia

  12. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  13. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

    2009-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

  14. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  15. [Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

    2003-01-01

    Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. ... Resources (2 links) GeneReview: Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy, Autosomal Dominant GeneReview: NDP-Related Retinopathies General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  17. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  18. Machine learning approach to automatic exudate detection in retinal images from diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Dailey, Matthew N.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Tom; Thet Nwe, Khine; Aye Moe, Yin

    2010-01-01

    Exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Early detection of exudates could improve patients' chances to avoid blindness. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using naive Bayes and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. We first fit the naive Bayes model to a training set consisting of 15 features extracted from each of 115,867 positive examples of exudate pixels and an equal number of negative examples. We then perform feature selection on the naive Bayes model, repeatedly removing features from the classifier, one by one, until classification performance stops improving. To find the best SVM, we begin with the best feature set from the naive Bayes classifier, and repeatedly add the previously-removed features to the classifier. For each combination of features, we perform a grid search to determine the best combination of hyperparameters ν (tolerance for training errors) and γ (radial basis function width). We compare the best naive Bayes and SVM classifiers to a baseline nearest neighbour (NN) classifier using the best feature sets from both classifiers. We find that the naive Bayes and SVM classifiers perform better than the NN classifier. The overall best sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy are 92.28%, 98.52%, 53.05%, and 98.41%, respectively.

  19. Action of plant root exudates in bioremediations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dundek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a summary of literature dealing with the use of plant root exudates in bioremediations. Bioremediation using plants (phytoremediation or rhizoremediation and associate rhizosphere to decontaminate polluted soil is a method based on the catabolic potential of root-associated microorganisms, which are supported by the organic substrates released from roots. These substrates are called “root exudates”. Root exudates support metabolism of pollutants-decomposing microorganisms in the rhizosphere, and affect sorption / desorption of pollutants. Awareness of exudation rates is necessary for testing soil decontamination. Commonly, water-soluble root exudates of different plants are studied for their qualitative composition which should be related to total carbon of exuded water-soluble compounds. This paper presents the determined rate of plant root exudation and the amount of root exudates carbon used to form artificial rhizosphere.

  20. Differential response of plants to aluminum. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia R, Rubén A; Ligarreto M, Gustavo A

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major limiting factor to the growth and development of plants in acidic soils worldwide, occurring in 40% of arable soils. The root seems to be the object of aluminum toxicity, particularly the apex, producing a rapid inhibition of cell division and elongation of the root. Fortunately, plants differ in their ability to tolerate aluminum and grow in acidic soils. Tolerance mechanisms have commonly been defined in genetic and physiological terms, however, tolerance mechan...

  1. Clinical case of exudative pleuritis in stallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanukov, D.; Petkov, P.; Stoyanchev, K.

    2001-01-01

    A casual exudative pleuritis in 2 years old stallion, Holsteiner breed, has been outlined. The disease is extremely rare in this country. Comprehensive examinations have been made during the period of hospitalization: daily clinical examinations, double renthgenography; regular haematological and biochemical tests; microbiological culture tests with an antibioticogram; laboratory tests of punctate and periodical ultrasound tests. The examinations and tests have been carried out at the Internal Noncontagious Disease Clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of the Thracian University in Stara Zagora

  2. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    . Understanding the mechanisms developed by these plants which allow them to tolerate and remediate metal-contaminated sediments is important to potentiate their use in phytoremediation purpose. This work provides new knowledge regarding the H. portulacoides and P. australis ability to exude ALMWOAs in response to metal contamination.

  3. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Alan D; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A; Williams, Graeme J; Olson, John A; Sharp, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  4. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alan D.; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A.; Williams, Graeme J.; Olson, John A.; Sharp, Peter F.

    2007-12-01

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  6. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem.

  7. A review on exudates detection methods for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shilpa; Karule, P T

    2018-01-01

    The presence of exudates on the retina is the most characteristic symptom of diabetic retinopathy. As exudates are among early clinical signs of DR, their detection would be an essential asset to the mass screening task and serve as an important step towards automatic grading and monitoring of the disease. Reliable identification and classification of exudates are of inherent interest in an automated diabetic retinopathy screening system. Here we review the numerous early studies that used for automatic exudates detection with the aim of providing decision support in addition to reducing the workload of an ophthalmologist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  10. Seleção de genótipos de Brachiaria Ruziziensis quanto ao alumínio em solução nutritiva: II: Avaliação da tolerância ao alumínio Brachiaria Ruziziensis genotypes selection: II: Evaluation of the aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Balbino Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O alumínio, em solos ácidos, é um dos principais responsáveis pela baixa produtividade de culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética da Brachiaria ruziziensis para a tolerância ao alumínio. Foram utilizados 10 genótipos da espécie referida, crescidas em vasos com 0, 30 e 60 mg/L de alumínio em solução nutritiva. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial, com seis repetições e parcelas de uma planta por vaso. Foram avaliados: a produção de massa verde da parte aérea e raízes (MVPA e MVR, a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes (MSPA e MSR, o incremento no crescimento da parte aérea e das raízes (IPA e IR, expresso pela diferença entre o crescimento final e o inicial, e o incremento no número de perfilhos (INP. O aumento nas concentrações de alumínio provocou decréscimos para as médias de todas as características avaliadas, excetuando o IR. A ausência de diferenças do genótipo 8 para seis das sete características analisadas, com exceção da MVPA, demonstra ser ela a mais promissora para estudos posteriores em melhoramento, visando maior produtividade em solos ácidos. Os resultados evidenciaram a existência de variabilidade genética entre os genótipos avaliados para a tolerância ao alumínio tóxico, sendo possível identificar materiais mais produtivos na presença desse metal.In acid soils, the aluminum is responsible for the low cultures productivity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Brachiaria ruziziensis genetic variability for the aluminum tolerance.10 genotypes of that species were used, grown in vases with 0, 30 and 60 mg/L of aluminum in nutritious solution. A completely randomized design under 10 x 3 factorial, with six replicates. The following variables were evaluated: the green mass production of the aerial part and roots (MVPA and MVR, the dry matter production of the aerial part and roots (MSPA and MSR

  11. Root Exudate Effect on Germination and Mycelial Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of some root exudates on the germination and mycelial growth of sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. was studied. Root exudates of 5 – 10 days old seedlings from five plants viz: - tomato (Lycopersicum esculenta) maize (Zea mays), garden egg (Solanum melongena), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and pepper ...

  12. Nature and role of root exudates: Efficacy in bioremediation | Shukla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root exudate is one of the ways for plant communication to the neighboring plant and adjoining of microorganisms present in the rhizosphere of the root. The chemicals ingredients of the root exudates are specific to a particular plant species and also depend on the nearby biotic and abiotic environment. The chemical ...

  13. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  14. THE SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF EXUDATE FLAVONOIDS IN AEONIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; HART, HT; WOLLENWEBER, E

    Leaf exudates of 32 species of Aeonium were examined for the presence of flavonoids. Thirty two flavonoids were detected in exudates of half of the species. The flavonoids were identified as methyl ethers of kaempferol, 6-hydroxykaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and scutellarein. The distribution of

  15. Recurrent Exudative Pleural Effusion with Flare up of Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe herein a young male patient who presented with exudative pleural effusion that appeared with flare up of chronic HBV infection and spontaneously recovered with the clinical and biochemical improvement of the hepatitis on two occasions five months apart. Other causes of hepatitis and exudative pleural ...

  16. Seleção de populações de Lotus corniculatus L. com maior tolerância ao alumínio em solução nutritiva Selection of populations of Lotus corniculatus L. with increased tolerance to aluminum in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Janke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar genótipos de Lotus corniculatus L. (Draco, São Gabriel e UFRGS mais tolerantes ao alumínio, utilizando-se a técnica de seleção em solução nutritiva. A solução continha 200 µmol/L de cálcio (CaCl2, 100 µmol/L de alumínio (AlCl3 e pH controlado na faixa de 4,1 a 4,3. Realizaram-se dois ciclos de seleção, nos quais as plântulas foram selecionadas pelo comprimento final das radículas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se o ganho genético alcançado nos ciclos de seleção, tanto nas populações originais como nas melhoradas, em um experimento com solução nutritiva com quatro concentrações de alumínio (0, 50, 100 e 150 µmol/L (AlCl3, por meio do crescimento radicular líquido. O uso de solução nutritiva foi eficiente na seleção de plântulas de cornichão tolerantes ao alumínio. Os materiais analisados apresentam diferenças em relação a esta característica, destacando-se o genótipo UFRGS F2, proveniente de dois ciclos de seleção, como o material com maior tolerância ao alumínio.The experiment was carried out to select genotypes of Lotus corniculatus L. (Draco, São Gabriel and UFRGS more tolerant to aluminum, using the technique of selection in nutrient solution. The solution contained 200 µmol/L calcium (CaCl2 and 100 µmol/L aluminum (AlCl3 and a pH controlled in the range from 4.1 to 4.3. It was performed two cycles of selection, in which the seedlings were selected by the root final length. Subsequently, the genetic gain achieved in the cycles of selection was tested, in original and improved populations in an experiment in nutrient solution with four concentrations of aluminum (0, 50, 100 and 150 µmol/L (AlCl3, by liquid root growth. Use of nutritional solution was efficient in the selection of seedlings of birdsfoot trefoil tolerant to aluminum. The materials analyzed differ for this characteristic, with the genotype UFRGS F2, being the most tolerant.

  17. Do microbial exudates control EH electrode measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelova, E.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Redox electrodes are widely used as simple, inexpensive monitoring devices to rapidly measure redox potentials (EH) of waterlogged soils, sediments, and aquifers. While a variety of physicochemical and biogeochemical factors have been involved to explain measured EH values, the role of microorganisms remains comparatively understudied and uncertain. Besides catalyzing many inorganic redox reactions (e.g., nitrate reduction), microorganisms produce a variety of redox-active organic compounds (e.g., NAD+/NADH, GSSG/2GSH, FAD/FADH2), which can be released into the surrounding environment via active secretion, passive diffusion, or cell lysis. To isolate different microbial effects on EH measurements, we performed batch experiments using S. oneidensis MR-I as a model heterotrophic microorganism and flavins as example microbial exudates [1]. We monitored EH and pH along with flavin production (fluorescence measurements) during dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Dissolved flavins increased to 0.2 mM (riboflavin equivalent) under anoxic conditions during complete consumption of 1 mM nitrate by DNRA at pH 7.4 and 30 °C over 80 hours. The observed redox cascade from +255 to -250 mV did not follow the EH predicted for the reduction of NO3- to NO2- and NO2- to NH4+ by the Nernst equation. However, a set of separate abiotic experiments on the photoreduction of synthetic flavins (LMC, RF, FMN, and FAD, Sigma Aldrich) under the same conditions indicated that measured EH values are buffered at +270 ± 20 mV and -230 ± 50 mV when oxidized and reduced flavin species dominate, respectively. Moreover, based on the temporal changes in EH, we speculate that NO3- reduction by S. oneidensis consumes reduced flavins (i.e., NO3- accepts electrons from reduced flavins) and generates oxidized flavins, thus buffering EH at +255 mV. By contrast, NO2- reduction to NH4+ is independent of flavin speciation, which leads to the accumulation of reduced flavins in the solution and

  18. DMSP synthesis and exudation in phytoplankton : a modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laroche, D; Vézina, A.F; Levasseur, M; Gosselin, M; Stefels, J.; Keller, M.D; Matrai, P.A; Kwint, R.L J

    1999-01-01

    In the marine environment, phytoplankton are the fundamental producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climatically active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMSP is released by exudation, cell autolysis, and zooplankton grazing during phytoplankton blooms. In this study, we

  19. How Plant Root Exudates Shape the Nitrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Shi, Weiming; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2017-08-01

    Although the global nitrogen (N) cycle is largely driven by soil microbes, plant root exudates can profoundly modify soil microbial communities and influence their N transformations. A detailed understanding is now beginning to emerge regarding the control that root exudates exert over two major soil N processes - nitrification and N 2 fixation. We discuss recent breakthroughs in this area, including the identification of root exudates as nitrification inhibitors and as signaling compounds facilitating N-acquisition symbioses. We indicate gaps in current knowledge, including questions of how root exudates affect newly discovered microbial players and N-cycle components. A better understanding of these processes is urgent given the widespread inefficiencies in agricultural N use and their links to N pollution and climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Root Exudation in Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Figala, J.; Hohnová, Barbora; Moravcová, Dana; Lvončík, S.; Lojková, L.; Formánek, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2016), s. 1034-1037 ISSN 2278-1862 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : ambrosia artemisiifolia * root exudates * amino acids * aliphatic organic acids * allelopathy Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  1. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ... Conclusion: Essential oil from the exudates of D. aromatica contains ..... industries.

  2. Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor quality images. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using the support vector machine classifiers. The retinal images are segmented following key preprocessing steps, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. On data sets of poor quality images, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 94.46%, 89.52% and 92.14%, respectively.

  3. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in

  4. Foveal Exudative Macroaneurysm Treated with Intravitreal Ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Menezes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of a foveal macroaneurysm with long-standing macular edema in a rare location, successfully treated with intravitreal ranibizumab. Methods: We report the case of a 52-year-old man with left eye long-term visual loss due to macular edema caused by a retinal macroaneurysm, localized about 400 μm from the center of the fovea, and its response to 6 monthly ranibizumab intravitreal injections. His best-corrected visual acuity and morphological data evaluated by optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography are presented. Results: His best-corrected visual acuity improved from 1/10 to 3/10 after the 3rd injection, and from 1/10 to 4/10 after the 6th one. The central retinal thickness was evaluated by optical coherence tomography and improved from 310 to 233 μm, with the resolution of both the associated serous detachments and the cystoid macular edema; an almost complete reabsorption of the hard exudates at the end of the treatment was also observed. The macroaneurysm lumen almost obliterated after the 3rd injection and completely collapsed at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Intravitreal ranibizumab may be effective in the treatment of long-standing macular edema associated with foveal macroaneurysms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a retinal macroaneurysm located so close to the foveal avascular zone.

  5. Clinical presentation of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchod, Tushar M; Ho, Lawrence Y; Drenser, Kimberly A; Capone, Antonio; Trese, Michael T

    2011-10-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, staging and presentation of patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in our clinical practice over the last 25 years. Case series, retrospective review. We included 273 eyes of 145 patients. Data collected from charts included gender, gestational age at birth, birthweight, age at presentation, referring diagnosis, family history, prior ocular surgery, and clinical presentation in each eye. Eyes with invasive posterior segment procedures before initial presentation were excluded. Demographics on presentation and clinical staging. Patients were slightly male predominant (57%) with a mean birthweight of 2.80 kg (range, 740 g-4.76 kg), mean gestational age of 37.8 weeks (range, 25-42), and mean age at presentation of almost 6 years (range, presentation, gestational age, and birthweight. Although a positive family history on presentation may support the diagnosis of FEVR, a negative family history is of little help. The majority of retinal folds extended radially in the temporal quadrants, but radial folds were seen in almost all quadrants. Fellow eyes demonstrated a wide variation in symmetry. The presentation of FEVR may mimic the presentation of other pediatric and adult vitreoretinal disorders, and careful examination is often crucial in making the diagnosis of FEVR. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological...... interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction...

  7. Trigo duro: tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em soluções nutritivas Durum wheat: tolerance to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities in nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento diferencial de 23 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L. em compraração com os seguintes cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L.: IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros e IAC-60, quanto aos níveis de Al3+ (0;0,2;0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0 mg/L, de Mn2+ (0,11; 300; 600 c 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56; 5; 10 e 20 mg/L em solução nutritiva. Os cultivares de trigo Siete Cerros (sensível à toxicidade de Al3+, BH-1146, IAC-60 e IAC-24 (tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exibiram crescimento das raízes na presença de 1 mg/L de Al3+, e todas as linhagens de trigo duro avaliadas foram totalmente sensíveis a 0,4 mg/L de Al3+, com paralisação irreversível do crescimento das raízes. O aumento das concentrações de Mn2+(0,11 a 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56 a 20 mg/L nas soluções causou uma redução significativa no comprimento das raízes dos genótipos em estudo. As linhagens de trigo duro I (Avetoro "S" x Anhinga "S" - Purcell "S"/D.67.2, 2 (Cando - Yavaros "S", 6 (Chen "S" e 8 (Carcomum "S" apresentaram-se muito tolerantes à toxicidade de Mn2+ em relação ao controle 'Siete Cerros'. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens de trigo duro 1, 6, 12 (CI 14955 x Yavaros "S"- Gediz "S"/Tropic Bird, 16 e 21 (Swan "S" c 20 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane/Ganso//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/ Memo "S" exibiram tolerância à presença de elevadas quantidades de Fe2+ nas soluções nutritivas.Twenty three durum wheat inbred lines were evaluated with four bread wheat cultivars (IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros and IAC-60 in three experiments, using nutrient solutions. In the first experiment, the following levels of Al3+ were used: 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L; in the second experiment, the following levels of Mn2+ were used: 0.11; 300; 600 and 1.200 mg/L; and in the third experiment, Fe2+ was used at: 0.56; 5; 10 and 1.200 mg/L. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros (sensitive to Al3+ toxicity and BH-1146, IAC-24 and IAC-60 (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity

  8. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

    2016-06-01

    Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  10. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  11. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  12. Methods of plant root exudates analysis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dundek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on methods being used to determine individual compounds and properties of water-soluble plant root exudates. These compounds include amino acids, organic acids and simple sugars, as well as polysaccharides, proteins and organic substances. Qualitative composition of water-soluble root exudates and exudation rate are commonly measured with the aim of consequent synthetic preparation of plant root exudates to be supplied to soil to create artificial rhizosphere for different experimental purposes. Root exudates collection usually requires consequent filtration or centrifugation to remove solids, root detritus and microbial cell debris, and consequent concentration using an evaporator, lyophilizator or ultrafiltration. Methods used for analysis of total groups of compounds (total proteins and total carbohydrates and total organic carbon are simple. On the other hand, HPLC or GS/MS are commonly used to analyse individual low molecular weight organic molecules (sugars, organic acids and amino acids with separation using different columns. Other properties such as pH, conductivity or activity of different enzymes as well as gel electrophoresis of proteins are sometimes assessed. All of these methods are discussed in this work.

  13. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  15. Differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion : MR appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kang, Ho Yeong; Kim, Soo Rhan; Yang, Sang Kyu; Shin, So Young; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether MR images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA can differentiate exudative and transudative pleural effusion. We studied 18 patients with ten exudative and eight transudative pleural effusions diagnosed clinically and by thoracentesis. We analysed the relationship between T1 value(normalized to fat) and the ratio of effusion/serum protein of pleural effusion. We also assessed the contrast enhancement of exudative and transudative pleural effusion on T1 weighted SE images taken at 15 and 30minutes after administration of Gd-DTPA. The relationship between the effusion/serum protein ratio and T1 value(normalized to fat) was statistically not significant(r=0.27, P=0.381). On precontrast spin-echo T1WI, mean signal intensity of the transudate was 0.18(±0.04) and that of the exudate was 0.24(±0.07), values which were not significant differences(P>0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensities of transudates at 15 and 30 were 0.20±0.06 and 0.26±0.08, respectively, values which were not significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensity values of exudative pleural effusions at 15 and 30 minutes(0.32±0.06 and 0.39±0.06, respectively) were, on the other hand, significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast T1-weighted SE images at 15 and 30 minutes can be helpful in the differentiation of transudative and exudative pleural effusion

  16. [Surgical treatment of patients with exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, N S; Mileshina, N A

    2003-01-01

    The article concerns peculiarities of surgery for chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). The significance of miringotomy, tympanostomy, tympanotomy and tympanoantrotomy is demonstrated. The experience of the authors in surgical treatment and postoperative management of CEOM is reviewed. Of primary importance is valid selection of patients for each operation and choice of ventilatory tubes depending on the disease stage. Incidence rate and causes of recurrences in respect to the patients' age are presented and the role of follow-up in prevention of CEOM recurrences is shown. Use of temporal bone computed tomography in CEOM is specified. Key words: exudative otitis media, tympanostomy, ventilation tubes, CT of the temporal bone.

  17. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60 Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

  18. Estabelecimento de critérios para selecionar porta-enxertos de macieira tolerantes ao alumínio em solução nutritiva Establishment of criteria to select apple tree rootstocks tolerant to the aluminum in nutritious solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Stolf

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre todas as fruteiras de clima temperado, a macieira é a que mais atenção tem recebido no sentido de se obterem porta-enxertos com características de boa adaptação, resistência ou sanidade. O desenvolvimento de um método eficiente para caracterizar genótipos com tolerância ao alumínio é o primeiro passo para a realização de estudos de mecanismos genéticos envolvidos na herança desse caráter. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a tolerância ao alumínio dos porta-enxertos de macieira M.9 e Marubakaido em cinco concentrações (0; 50;150; 250 e 350 µM L-1 em solução nutritiva. As estacas de Marubakaido, na concentração intermediária de alumínio apresentaram menor crescimento radicular e aéreo. O M.9 mostrou menor crescimento radicular nas concentrações de 250 e 350 mM de alumínio. As características de crescimento avaliadas permitiram discriminar o porta-enxerto Marubakaido como mais tolerante que o M.9, e a concentração de 350 µM L-1 é a mais eficiente para a discriminação da tolerância ao alumínio aos 15 dias de cultivo em solução nutritiva.Among all of the temperate fruit trees, the apple tree is the one that has attracted more attention when it comes to obtaining rootstocks with characteristics of good adaptation, resistance or sanity. The development of an efficient method to characterize genotypes with tolerance to the aluminum is the first step for the accomplishment of genetic mechanisms studies involved in the inheritance of this character. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the tolerance to aluminum of the apple tree rootstocks M.9 and Marubakaido in five concentrations (0, 50, 150, 250 and 350 µM L-1 in nutritious solution. The cuttings of Marubakaido, in the intermediate concentration of aluminum presented smaller root and aerial growth. M.9 showed smaller root growth in the concentrations of 250 and 350 µM of aluminum. The evaluated growth characteristics permitted

  19. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  20. Reduction of Exudates (Browning) in Sugarcane Micro Propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of this variety, ascorbic acid and citric acid was added as constituent of the media using MS and stock at different concentrations. The browning was reduced drastically at the addition of 0.1g/litre ascorbic acid and 0.15g/litre citric acid. Keywords: reduction, exudates browning, micro propagation, sugarcane. Nig J. Biotech.

  1. Zoospore exudates from Phytophthora nicotianae affect immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; McDowell, John M; Hong, Chuanxue

    2017-01-01

    Zoospore exudates play important roles in promoting zoospore communication, homing and germination during plant infection by Phytophthora. However, it is not clear whether exudates affect plant immunity. Zoospore-free fluid (ZFF) and zoospores of P. nicotianae were investigated comparatively for effects on resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and mutants that affect signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA): eds16 (enhanced disease susceptibility16), pad4 (phytoalexin deficient4), and npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1). Col-0 attracted more zoospores and had severe tissue damage when flooded with a zoospore suspension in ZFF. Mutants treated with ZFF alone developed disease symptoms similar to those inoculated with zoospores and requirements of EDS16 and PAD4 for plant responses to zoospores and the exudates was apparent. Zoospore and ZFFs also induced expression of the PR1 and PDF1.2 marker genes for defense regulated by SA and JA, respectively. However, ZFF affected more JA defense signaling, down regulating PR1 when SA signaling or synthesis is deficient, which may be responsible for Arabidopsis mutant plants more susceptible to infection by high concentration of P. nicotianae zoospores. These results suggest that zoospore exudates can function as virulence factors and inducers of plant immune responses during plant infection by Phytophthora.

  2. Antioxidant activity of the exudate from Aloe barbadensis leaves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the exudate of Aloe barbadensis leaves on oxidative stress and some antioxidant status of streptozotocin induced - diabetic rats were studied. There was significant reduction in scavenging enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significant increase in signs of oxidative tissue damage, such as ...

  3. Classification of visualization exudates fundus images results using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kernel function settings; linear, polynomial, quadratic and RBF have an effect on the classification results. For SVM1, the best parameter in classifying pixels is linear kernel function. The visualization results using CAC and radar chart are classified using ts accuracy. It has proven to discriminated exudates and non ...

  4. Anti-Atherogenicity Following Administration of Exudate from Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Atherogenicity Following Administration of Exudate from Aloe barbadensis Leaves in Diabetic Rats. HU Nwanjo, GO Oze. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  5. Zoospore exudates from Phytophthora nicotianae affect immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Kong

    Full Text Available Zoospore exudates play important roles in promoting zoospore communication, homing and germination during plant infection by Phytophthora. However, it is not clear whether exudates affect plant immunity. Zoospore-free fluid (ZFF and zoospores of P. nicotianae were investigated comparatively for effects on resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and mutants that affect signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA: eds16 (enhanced disease susceptibility16, pad4 (phytoalexin deficient4, and npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1. Col-0 attracted more zoospores and had severe tissue damage when flooded with a zoospore suspension in ZFF. Mutants treated with ZFF alone developed disease symptoms similar to those inoculated with zoospores and requirements of EDS16 and PAD4 for plant responses to zoospores and the exudates was apparent. Zoospore and ZFFs also induced expression of the PR1 and PDF1.2 marker genes for defense regulated by SA and JA, respectively. However, ZFF affected more JA defense signaling, down regulating PR1 when SA signaling or synthesis is deficient, which may be responsible for Arabidopsis mutant plants more susceptible to infection by high concentration of P. nicotianae zoospores. These results suggest that zoospore exudates can function as virulence factors and inducers of plant immune responses during plant infection by Phytophthora.

  6. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  7. A case of apathetic hyperthyroidism with exudative low SAAG ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masood Tabib

    2009-12-01

    In this case report, we present a 73-year-old man who was referred to us with anorexia, severe weight loss, anemia, lower limbs pitting edema, and also exudative, low SAAG ascites. Extensive work up revealed that these constellation of signs & symptoms were consequent to decompensation of his chronic right-sided heart failure resulting from apathetic hyperthyroidism.

  8. New phenolic esters from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Francesca; Labbé, Cecilia; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús M; Silva, Lucía; Delle Monache, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Two new phenolic esters 9-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-alpha-terpineol (1) and 7-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-taedol (2), both endowed with free radical scavenger activity and cleroda-3,13 (E)-dien-15,18-diol (3) for which a cis stereochemistry at the decalin junction was found, were isolated from the resinous exudate from Haplopappus taeda upper parts.

  9. 14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Ahuja, Sumedha; Pandey, Renu; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14 C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14 CO 2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14 C release by the roots was compared against the 14 C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14 C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  10. Pleural mesothelioma in differential diagnostics of a tubercular exudative pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Raznatovskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Difficulties of differential diagnostics of exudative pleuritis due to pleura mesothelioma and such one of tubercular etiology can take a long time that is the reason of delayed well-timed and correct treatment order. Etiological diagnostics of exudative pleuritis has to be based on an integrated approach taking into account the data of clinical inspection of a patient, a laboratory research of pleural exudate, radial, instrumental, pathomorphological and surgical methods. The aim of our study is to establish the features of diagnosis of exudative pleuritis due to pleura mesothelioma by determining of informativeness and value of applied diagnostic methods for further use for differential diagnostics with exudative pleuritis of tubercular etiology on the cases of own clinical observations. Materials and methods. Four clinical cases of diagnostics of pleura mesothelioma in the patients with exudative pleuritis at Municipal Institution “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary” were analyzed. Results. Four cases of pleura mesothelioma were diagnosed at Municipal Institution “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary” within differential diagnostics of exudative pleuritis of obscure origin. In all cases the following similar features of pleura mesothelioma were observed: patients were male; patients complained about dyspnoea at exercise stress, thorax pain (on the side of mesothelioma localization, general weakness, periodic cough; the patients denied tuberculosis contact; the general blood test revealed only lymphopenia against the background of the accelerated ESR; micobacteria of tuberculosis were not revealed at all; steady accumulation of an exudate, despite its systematic evacuation; cytologic research of pleural liquid was characterized by a moderate turbidity, serous (serous and hemorrhagic character, with the specific weight of 1015–1016, rising of protein to 33–66 g/l, positive

  11. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  12. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  13. Heliotropium huascoense resin exudate: chemical constituents and defensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, L; Torres, R; Urzúa, A; Reina, M; Cabrera, R; González-Coloma, A

    2001-09-01

    From the resinous exudate of Heliotropium huascoense a new compound, rel-(8R,9R)-carrizaloic acid, (1) (3-[rel-(8R,9R-9-hydroxy-9,13,13-trimethyl-12-oxo-10-cyclohexenyl)methyl]-4-methoxybenzoic acid), and three known flavonoids, [3-methylgalangin, 3,7-dimethylgalangin, and (-)-alpinone] have been isolated. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral and chemical methods. Several plant defensive properties of 1 (insecticidal and antifungal) have been evaluated.

  14. Diagnostic yield of pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, K C; Chokhani, R; Gautam, S

    2014-09-01

    To know the diagnostic role of pleural biopsy in determining underlying etiological causes of exudative pleural effusion. A total of 47 patients, aged 16-104 years with mean age of 47.36 years, of either sex, with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4-6 biopsy specimens were obtained from each patient, which were sent for histopathological examination. In this study, 47 cases of exudative pleural effusion were included, among them 26 (55.31%) cases were male and 21 (44.69%) were female with mean age 47.36 years. Cough was reported by 42 (89.36%) cases, expectoration 28 (59.57%), hemoptysis 3 (6.38%), breathlessness 27 (57.44%), wheezing 3 (6.38%), chest pain 38 (80.85%) and fever by 30 (63.82%) cases. Out of 47 cases, 28 (59.57%) cases had a positive yield, whereas in 19 (40.43%) cases the result was nonspecific inflammation. Out of 28 (59.57%) cases with positive yield 21 (44.68%) were found to have granulomatous inflammation and 10 (21.28%) cases were malignant. Among malignant pleural effusion, 4 cases were squamous cell carcinoma; 3 small cell carcinoma; 1 case adenocarcinoma and 1 case found to have mesothelioma. Tuberculosis and malignancy are the two most common causes of exudative pleural effusion in our set up. Pleural biopsy is a safe, simple and well validated diagnostic tool that helps us to differentiate between malignancy and tuberculosis.

  15. Ultrasound guided pleural biopsy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion patients

    OpenAIRE

    Adel S. Ahmed; Mostafa I. Ragab; Alaa eldin M. Elgazaar; Nagwan A. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pleural biopsy for pathological confirmation is the standard diagnostic procedure for pleural diseases, transthoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has evolved as an important imaging tool for diagnosing pleural and pulmonary conditions. Aim of the study: To assess the diagnostic yield of TUS guided pleural biopsy versus both CT guided and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Patients and methods: The study was conducted at chest...

  16. Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion with pleural biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Jaffery, A.H.; Khar, Hamama-tul-Bushra; Malik, M.F.; Javed, S.; Burki, U.F.; Khan, B.A.; Ali, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion by histopathological examination of pleural biopsy in patients with suspected tuberculous or malignant pleural effusion. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Pulmonology Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi for two years 1999-2000. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 patients with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4 biopsy specimens were obtained in each patient which were examined histopathologically. Patients in whom a definite diagnosis was not possible were further investigated with repeat pleural biopsy, sputum examinations, bronchoscopy etc. Results definite histopathological diagnosis with pleural biopsy was possible in 59 (49.16% patients, including 13 diagnosed on repeat pleural biopsy. Two commonest diagnoses made were tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma, 64.40% and 13.55% respectively. Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation of pleural biopsy specimens can lead to diagnosis in 49.16% patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. (author)

  17. The meaning of living with malodorous exuding ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Norberg, Astrid; Söderberg, Anna

    2007-03-01

    This study illuminates the meaning of living with malodorous, exuding ulcers. Difficulties for patients with chronic ulcers and the ulcers' impact on patients' daily life are described in the literature. Suffering and consolation are also addressed in the literature as important issues in nursing care. The first author interviewed seven women and two men, aged 41-95, with various diagnoses. We interpreted the transcribed interviews using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. Two processes were identified: 'being struck down'- themes: feeling dirty, being trapped, losing confidence, losing hope, becoming frustrated and protecting oneself; and 'finding consolation'- themes: experiencing kinship, encountering genuineness and gaining control. The meaning of living with malodorous and exuding ulcers can be understood as being trapped in a debilitating process that slowly strikes one down. There is a longing for purity and wholeness and for one's life to improve. When people with malodorous, exuding ulcers encounter genuineness and feel loved, regarded and respected as fully human despite their ulcers, they feel purified. The contaminated body no longer contaminates their self-image and self-esteem and they feel restored and fully human again. Only when they feel fully human can they regain control and see life beyond their ulcers. Although nurses cannot make ulcers or smell disappear, they can contribute significantly to improve the patients' life. Finding consolation makes patients feel purified despite their contaminated body. This study points to the importance of seeing the human being beyond the ulcer and considering not only the body but the whole person.

  18. A multiscale optimization approach to detect exudates in the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Carla; Murray, Victor; Yu, Honggang; Wigdahl, Jeffrey; Pattichis, Marios; Nemeth, Sheila; Barriga, E Simon; Soliz, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Pathologies that occur on or near the fovea, such as clinically significant macular edema (CSME), represent high risk for vision loss. The presence of exudates, lipid residues of serous leakage from damaged capillaries, has been associated with CSME, in particular if they are located one optic disc-diameter away from the fovea. In this paper, we present an automatic system to detect exudates in the macula. Our approach uses optimal thresholding of instantaneous amplitude (IA) components that are extracted from multiple frequency scales to generate candidate exudate regions. For each candidate region, we extract color, shape, and texture features that are used for classification. Classification is performed using partial least squares (PLS). We tested the performance of the system on two different databases of 652 and 400 images. The system achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 for the combination of both databases and an AUC of 0.97 for each of them when they were evaluated independently.

  19. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21–47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  20. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  2. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G W; Medve, R J

    1984-09-01

    Cenococcum graniforme, Suillus luteus, Thelephora terrestris, and three isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius were cultured on modified Melin-Norkrans medium at pH 3.4 and adjusted to 0 to 500 ppm (0 to 500 mug/ml) of aluminum or manganese sulfate. Except for T. terrestris, which was intolerant of aluminum at 150 and 250 to 500 ppm, and P. tinctorius isolate 250, which was intolerant of aluminum at 450 ppm, all fungi showed some growth at all concentrations of aluminum. S. luteus was the most tolerant to aluminum. Manganese was less fungitoxic than aluminum, with all fungi showing at least 65% growth at 500 ppm as compared with the control. C. graniforme was not inhibited at any concentration of manganese, and S. luteus was only affected at 500 ppm. P. tinctorius isolate 230 showed no significant variation in growth when subjected to various concentrations of three forms of manganese salts. Significant differences in growth were detected in response to three aluminum salts, but no detectable pattern was apparent. Genotypic responses to aluminum and manganese were evident for P. tinctorius. Isolates 210 and 230 were more tolerant to manganese than was isolate 250. Aluminum tolerance was in the order of isolate 230 > 210 > 250. Results of in vitro studies concerning tolerance responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum and manganese were not consistent with field observations of the successional sequence of these fungi on acid coal spoils.

  3. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.W.; Medve, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    Cenococcum graniforme, Suillus luteus, Thelephora terrestris, and three isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius were cultured on modified Melin-Norkrans medium at pH 3.4 and adjusted to 0 to 500 ppm (0 to 500 ..mu..g/ml) of aluminum or manganese sulfate. Except for T. terrestris, which was intolerant of aluminum at 150 and 250 to 500 ppm, and P. tinctorius isolate 250, which was intolerant of aluminum at 450 ppm, all fungi showed some growth at all concentrations of aluminum. S. luteus was the most tolerant to aluminum. Manganese was less fungitoxic than aluminum, with all fungi showing at least 65% growth at 500 ppm as compared with the control. C graniforme was not inhibited at any concentration of manganese, and S. luteus was only affected at 500 ppm. P. tinctorius isolate 230 showed no significant variation in growth when subjected to various concentrations of three forms of manganese salts. Significant differences in growth were detected in response to three aluminum salts, but no detectable pattern was apparent. Genotypic responses to aluminum and manganese were evident for P. tinctorius. Isolates 210 and 230 were more tolerant to manganese than was isolate 250. Aluminum tolerance was in the order of isolate 230 > 210 > 250. Results of in vitro studies concerning tolerance responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum and manganese were not consistent with field observations of the successional sequence of these fungi on acid coal spoils. 43 references, 3 tables.

  4. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  5. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENSPIRIDE USAGE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mezentseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytological investigation of exudates, obtained during tympanostomies, showed the predomination of inflammatory-regenerative cytograms types when using Fenspiride (Eurespal in treatment of secretory stage of chronic exudative otitis media. Received data confirm, that treatment with this drug shortens the course of exudative otitis media and contributes to more rapid change from destructive to reparative stage of inflammation, which prevents the development of adhesive process in the middle ear.

  6. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENSPIRIDE USAGE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    O. Yu. Mezentseva; F. N. Zavjyalov; A. A. Vorobjeva; L. P. Popova; M. V. Rodionova

    2012-01-01

    The cytological investigation of exudates, obtained during tympanostomies, showed the predomination of inflammatory-regenerative cytograms types when using Fenspiride (Eurespal) in treatment of secretory stage of chronic exudative otitis media. Received data confirm, that treatment with this drug shortens the course of exudative otitis media and contributes to more rapid change from destructive to reparative stage of inflammation, which prevents the development of adhesive process in the midd...

  7. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by "1H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  8. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  9. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  10. Exudative Retinal Detachment Treatment in a Patient with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Sampo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, without associated hypertension, successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of TTP presented with unilateral exudative retinal detachment. Biological and radiological assessment eliminated other causes of exudative retinal detachment, including hypertension. Plasma exchange was performed, followed by a rapid improvement in visual acuity and total disappearance of serous detachment. Conclusion: Exudative unilateral retinal detachment is a rare complication of TTP and can be successfully treated by plasma exchange.

  11. Transudative vs exudative pleural effusions: differentiation using Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frola, C.; Cantoni, S.; Turtulici, I.; Leoni, C.; Loria, F.; Gaeta, M.; Derchi, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. An MRI examination was performed on 22 patients with different types of pleural effusion (10 transudative and 12 exudative effusions). T1-weighted SE images were obtained before and 20 min after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). The degree of enhancement of pleural effusions was evaluated both by visual assessement and by quantitative analysis of images. None of 10 transudative effusions showed significative enhancement, whereas 10 of 12 exudative effusions showed enhancement (sensitivity 83 %, specificity 100 %, positive predictive value 100 %). The postcontrast signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of exudates were significantly higher than corresponding precontrast ratios (P = 0.0109) and the postcontrast SIRs of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates (P = 0.0300). Exudative pleural effusions show a significant enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA. We presume that this may be caused by increased pleural permeability and more rapid passage of a large amount of Gd-DTPA from the blood into the pleural fluid in case of exudative effusions. In our limited group of patients, signal enhancement proved the presence of an exudative effusion. Absence of signal enhancement suggests a transudate, but does not exclude an exudate. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2005-02-25

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

  13. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (200 μM), ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O (100 μM), CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (25 μM), and CdCl 2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R 2 values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  14. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  15. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  16. Yield of abrams needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.N.; Zaman, M.; Khan, N.; Jadoon, H.; Ahmed, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pleural effusion is the abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space resulting from excessive fluid production or decreased absorption and it is one of the most common clinical conditions that we come across in pulmonology clinics and in hospitals. The objective of prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of Abrams Needle Biopsy in Exudative Pleural Effusion The study was performed at the Department of Pulmonology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad over a period of 1 year, i.e., January 2008 to December 2008. Sixty-three patients of either sex and all ages with exudative pleural effusion, on whom Abrams Needle Biopsy was performed were included in the study. Minimum of four specimens from each patient were taken and histopathology done. Out of 63 patients, histopathology revealed the cause in 60 (95%) cases. Tuberculosis, malignancy and rheumatoid pleurisy were confirmed in 34, 24, and 2 cases respectively. Specimens of 3 patients did not reveal any result and showed non-specific inflammation and were further investigated accordingly. The diagnostic yield of Biopsy was 95%. Pleural biopsy is still a reliable and valuable investigation in diagnosing pleural effusion, provided that adequate pleural specimen is taken. (author)

  17. Benzoxazinoids in root exudates of maize attract Pseudomonas putida to the rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Neal

    Full Text Available Benzoxazinoids, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA, are secondary metabolites in grasses. In addition to their function in plant defence against pests and diseases above-ground, benzoxazinoids (BXs have also been implicated in defence below-ground, where they can exert allelochemical or antimicrobial activities. We have studied the impact of BXs on the interaction between maize and Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a competitive coloniser of the maize rhizosphere with plant-beneficial traits. Chromatographic analyses revealed that DIMBOA is the main BX compound in root exudates of maize. In vitro analysis of DIMBOA stability indicated that KT2440 tolerance of DIMBOA is based on metabolism-dependent breakdown of this BX compound. Transcriptome analysis of DIMBOA-exposed P. putida identified increased transcription of genes controlling benzoate catabolism and chemotaxis. Chemotaxis assays confirmed motility of P. putida towards DIMBOA. Moreover, colonisation essays in soil with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP-expressing P. putida showed that DIMBOA-producing roots of wild-type maize attract significantly higher numbers of P. putida cells than roots of the DIMBOA-deficient bx1 mutant. Our results demonstrate a central role for DIMBOA as a below-ground semiochemical for recruitment of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria during the relatively young and vulnerable growth stages of maize.

  18. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, L.R.; Bassham, J.A.; Calvin, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14 C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H 2 O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

  19. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  1. Effect of Sugar Maple Root Exudate on Seedlings of Northern Conifer Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1976-01-01

    It has been shows that a root exudate of sugar maple reduces the growth of yellow birch. A laboratory test indicated that the growth of northern conifers is also reduced in sugar maple root exudate. Allelopathy may play an important role in survival of species on sites where sugar maple is abundant.

  2. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  3. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  4. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  5. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  6. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  7. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S....... chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had...... an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654...

  8. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed η CGOX /η CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  9. X linked exudative vitreoretinopathy: clinical features and genetic linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, P; Jones, J; Bundey, S; Dudgeon, J; Fielder, A R; Kilpatrick, M W

    1993-03-01

    A four generation family in which familial exudative vitreoretinopathy is inherited as an X linked condition is described. Essentially the condition is one of abnormal vascularisation and signs at birth are those of a retinopathy superficially resembling retinopathy of prematurity, retinal folds, or, in advanced cases, enophthalmos or even phthisis. Prognosis depends on the progression of the retinal changes. The family members, including seven affected males and five obligate carrier females, have been types for 20 DNA markers, and linkage analysis suggests a gene locus either at Xq21.3 or at Xp11. As the latter region includes the locus for the gene for Norrie disease, it is possible that this and X linked vitreoretinopathy are allelic. We can further speculate that the differences in severity of the clinical manifestations are dependent only upon the timing of the insult.

  10. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  11. X-ray thickness measurement of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of x-ray thickness gauging is extended to reveal the conditions under which a fixed anode voltage is ideal. A mathematical model of an alloy and computations reveal that two voltages can be used to measure the aluminum alloys with an error of roughly 1 percent, determined by the tolerance on manganese content rather than the large errors ordinarily a consequence of the tolerances on copper and zinc content. Implementation is discussed

  12. Crescimento em vasos, de cultivares de soja e de trigo em função da saturação de alumínio Tolerance of soybean and wheat varieties in sub-soil high in exchangeable aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.A. Mascarenhas

    1995-08-01

    parameter measured (height of the plant, number of nodes, lenght of internodes, number of trifoliate leaves, dry matter weights of shoots and roots there were no significant differences within each variety for the concentration of aluminum saturation, showing that the three varieties were tolerant to Al. These results were confirmed with two wheat varieties BH-1146 (tolerant to Al and Siete Cerros (susceptible which were sown in the same pots. The variety BH-1146 did no show root lenght differences for the Al saturation treaments confirming its tolerance. On the other hand the cultivar Siete Cerros showed increase hi root lenght as the Al saturation was reduced, showing its suscebility.

  13. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  15. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Viant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  16. Automatic detection of retinal exudates in fundus images of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Partovi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and can lead to several retinal abnormalities including microaneurysms, exudates, dot and blot hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots. Automated early detection of these abnormalities could limit the severity of the disease and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. Segmentation of retinal image features provides the basis for automated assessment. In this study, exudates lesion on retinopathy retinal images was segmented by different image processing techniques. The objective of this study is detection of the exudates regions on retinal images of retinopathy patients by different image processing techniques. Methods: A total of 30 color images from retinopathy patients were selected for this study. The images were taken by Topcon TRC-50 IX mydriatic camera and saves with TIFF format with a resolution of 500 × 752 pixels. The morphological function was applied on intensity components of hue saturation intensity (HSI space. To detect the exudates regions, thresholding was performed on all images and the exudates region was segmented. To optimize the detection efficiency, the binary morphological functions were applied. Finally, the exudates regions were quantified and evaluated for further statistical purposes. Results: The average of sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 97% was obtained. Conclusion: The results showed that our approach can identify the exudate regions in retinopathy images.

  17. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsher, Alan W; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments.

  18. Influence of Root Exudates and Soil on Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Timper, Patricia; Ji, Pingsheng; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Joseph, Soumi

    2017-09-01

    The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.). Endospores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second-stage juveniles (J2) and subsequently sterilize infected females. When encumbered by large numbers of spores, juveniles are less mobile and their ability to infect roots is reduced. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria . Pretreatment of J2 with root exudates of eggplant ( Solanum melongena cv. Black beauty) reduced spore attachment compared with pretreatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), suggesting that the nematode surface coat was altered or the spore recognition domains on the nematode surface were blocked. Spore attachment was equally reduced following exposure to root exudates from both host and nonhost plants for M. arenaria , indicating a common signal that affects spore attachment. Although phytohormones have been shown to influence the lipophilicity of the nematode surface coat, auxins and kinetins did not affect spore attachment compared with PBS. Root exudates reduced spore attachment more in sterilized soil than in natural soil. Sterilization may have eliminated microbes that consume root exudates, or altered the chemical components of the soil solution or root exudates. Root exudates caused a greater decrease in spore attachment in loamy sand than in a sandy loam soil. The sandy loam had higher clay content than the loamy sand, which may have resulted in more adsorption of compounds in the root exudates that affect spore attachment. The components of the root exudates could have also been modified by soil type. The results of this study demonstrate that root exudates can decrease the attachment of P. penetrans endospores to root-knot nematodes, indicating that when these nematodes enter the root zone their susceptibility to spore attachment may decrease.

  19. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  20. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  1. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  2. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-01-01

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  3. EXPERIENCE OF TREATMENT WITH FENSPIRIDE IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AFTER TYMPANOSTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Toropova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial presents the analysis of factors predisposing to exudative otitis media development in 709 children, needing regular audiologist’s check-up. It was shown that dominating risk factor of auditory tube’s function disorders is hypertrophy of palatine tonsil (it was detected in 69% of children. Besides, doctors from children’s out-patient clinics often use conservative treatment in children with chronic exudative otitis media. Analysis of data obtained at the time of treatment of 180 hospitalized children under the age 1–17 years old with exudative otitis media showed that combination of tympanostomy with fenspiride (Erespal allows achieving of more significant decrease (1.3 times low audibility threshold of different oscillations than in children from control (treated without fenspiride.Key words: children, exudative otitis media, timpanostomy, fenspiride.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(4:102-105

  4. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Exudate Detection between Machine Learning and Traditional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Thomas

    To prevent blindness from diabetic retinopathy, periodic screening and early diagnosis are neccessary. Due to lack of expert ophthalmologists in rural area, automated early exudate (one of visible sign of diabetic retinopathy) detection could help to reduce the number of blindness in diabetic patients. Traditional automatic exudate detection methods are based on specific parameter configuration, while the machine learning approaches which seems more flexible may be computationally high cost. A comparative analysis of traditional and machine learning of exudates detection, namely, mathematical morphology, fuzzy c-means clustering, naive Bayesian classifier, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbor classifier are presented. Detected exudates are validated with expert ophthalmologists' hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and time complexity of each method are also compared.

  5. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed...... wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic...... chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  6. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005......–08) and national statistics for 28 countries, we assess both individual and contextual aspects that influence an individual's perception of different social groupings. Using a social tolerance index that captures personal attitudes toward these groupings, we present an institutional theory of social tolerance. Our...

  7. Partial resistance of carrot to Alternaria dauci correlates with in vitro cultured carrot cell resistance to fungal exudates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Lecomte

    Full Text Available Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci-carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts. The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance.

  8. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  9. EXPERIENCE OF TREATMENT WITH FENSPIRIDE IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AFTER TYMPANOSTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Toropova; T.V. Zhuikova; N.I. Marysheva; A.I. Nikolaeva; Yu.S. Maiorova

    2009-01-01

    The trial presents the analysis of factors predisposing to exudative otitis media development in 709 children, needing regular audiologist’s check-up. It was shown that dominating risk factor of auditory tube’s function disorders is hypertrophy of palatine tonsil (it was detected in 69% of children). Besides, doctors from children’s out-patient clinics often use conservative treatment in children with chronic exudative otitis media. Analysis of data obtained at the time of treatment of 180 ho...

  10. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  11. DESIGN AND DEVELOP A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN FOR AUTOMATIC EXUDATES DETECTION FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. SATHIYAMOORTHY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease which can lead to blindness. One of the main symptoms for vision loss is Exudates and it could be prevented by applying an early screening process. In the Existing systems, a Fuzzy C-Means Clustering technique is used for detecting the exudates for analyzation. The main objective of this paper is, to improve the efficiency of the Exudates detection in diabetic retinopathy images. To do this, a three Stage – [TS] approach is introduced for detecting and extracting the exudates automatically from the retinal images for screening the Diabetic retinopathy. TS functions on the image in three levels such as Pre-processing the image, enhancing the image and detecting the Exudates accurately. After successful detection, the detected exudates are classified using GLCM method for finding the accuracy. The TS approach is experimented using MATLAB software and the performance evaluation can be proved by comparing the results with the existing approach’s result and with the hand-drawn ground truths images from the expert ophthalmologist.

  12. Studies on photosynthate distribution and root exudates of cinesische by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junwei; Ni Zhuru; Liu Zhihong; Fu Zhijian

    1994-01-01

    Cinesische (Cunninghamia sinesis R. Br.) plants grown in nutrient solution were exposed to 14 CO 2 for 24 hours to study the photosynthate distribution and root exudates. One day after feeding 14 CO 2 , the majority of 14 C assimilate was remained in leaves, only 27.38% of 14 C assimilate was translocated into new shoots, main branches, lateral branches and roots. 3 days after feeding 14 CO 2 , the distribution rate of 14 C photosynthate in leaves was still the highest, but the percentage decreased and it correspondingly increased in other plant parts. 22 days after feeding 14 CO 2 , the distribution rate in new shoots became the highest, roots ranked the second, main branches were the third, leaves and lateral branches were the lowest. The photosynthate in the root could rapidly convert into root exudates. The amount of root exudates reached a peak after 4 days of feeding 14 CO 2 , afterward the amount of 14 C root exudates decreased rapidly. The amount of sugar was the highest among all kinds of root exudates, the amount of organic acid was the second, the content of amino acid was much lower than that of the other two root exudates

  13. Fagopyrum esculentum Alters Its Root Exudation after Amaranthus retroflexus Recognition and Suppresses Weed Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Glauser, Gaétan; Etter, Clément; Signarbieux, Constant; Wirth, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Weed control by crops through growth suppressive root exudates is a promising alternative to herbicides. Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is known for its weed suppression and redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) control is probably partly due to allelopathic root exudates. This work studies whether other weeds are also suppressed by buckwheat and if the presence of weeds is necessary to induce growth repression. Buckwheat and different weeds were co-cultivated in soil, separating roots by a mesh allowing to study effects due to diffusion. Buckwheat suppressed growth of pigweed, goosefoot and barnyard grass by 53, 42, and 77% respectively without physical root interactions, probably through allelopathic compounds. Root exudates were obtained from sand cultures of buckwheat (BK), pigweed (P), and a buckwheat/pigweed mixed culture (BK-P). BK-P root exudates inhibited pigweed root growth by 49%. Characterization of root exudates by UHPLC-HRMS and principal component analysis revealed that BK and BK-P had a different metabolic profile suggesting that buckwheat changes its root exudation in the presence of pigweed indicating heterospecific recognition. Among the 15 different markers, which were more abundant in BK-P, tryptophan was identified and four others were tentatively identified. Our findings might contribute to the selection of crops with weed suppressive effects.

  14. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  15. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S + I - surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  16. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  17. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  18. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  19. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  20. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  1. A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2012-03-01

    The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

  2. Hagfish slime exudate stabilization and its effect on slime formation and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, L J; Zurflüh, R; Widmer, M; Fischer, P; Windhab, E J; Rühs, P A; Kuster, S

    2017-07-15

    Hagfish produce vast amounts of slime when under attack. The slime is the most dilute hydrogel known to date, and is a highly interesting material for biomaterial research. It forms from a glandular secrete, called exudate, which deploys upon contact with seawater. To study slime formation ex vivo and to characterize its material properties, stabilization of the sensitive slime exudate is crucial. In this study, we compared the two main stabilization methods, dispersion in high osmolarity citrate/PIPES (CP) buffer and immersion in oil, and tested the influence of time, temperature and pH on the stability of the exudate and functionality of the slime. Using water retention measurements to assess slime functionality, we found that CP buffer and oil preserved the exudate within the first 5 hours without loss of functionality. For longer storage times, slime functionality decreased for both stabilization methods, for which the breakdown mechanisms differed. Stabilization in oil likely favored temperature-sensitive osmotic-driven swelling and rupture of the mucin vesicles, causing the exudate to gel and clump. Extended storage in CP buffer resulted in an inhibited unraveling of skeins. We suggest that a water soluble protein glue, which mediates skein unraveling in functional skeins, denatures and gradually becomes insoluble during storage in CP buffer. The breakdown was accentuated when the pH of the CP buffer was raised from pH 6.7 to pH 8.5, probably caused by increased denaturation of the protein glue or by inferior vesicle stabilization. However, when fresh exudate was mixed into seawater or phosphate buffer at pH 6-9, slime functionality was not affected, showing pH insensitivity of the slime formation around a neutral pH. These insights on hagfish exudate stabilization mechanisms will support hagfish slime research at a fundamental level, and contribute to resolve the complex mechanisms of skein unraveling and slime formation. © 2017. Published by The Company

  3. Allelopathy of root exudates from different resistant eggplants to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three eggplant cultivars were inoculated with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. to assess their resistance to Verticillium wilt. Solanum tor was resistant, “Liyuanziqie” was tolerant, and “Xi'anlvqie” susceptible. The disease incidence and disease index of Verticillium wilt and the amount of V. dahliae in rhizospheric soil, variation of ...

  4. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  5. Aluminum Corrosion and Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum corrosion and turbidity formation in reactors correlate with fuel sheath temperature. To further substantiate this correlation, discharged fuel elements from R-3, P-2 and K-2 cycles were examined for extent of corrosion and evidence of breaking off of the oxide film. This report discusses this study

  6. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  7. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  8. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  9. Root exudate as major player on soil-water retention dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, A. A.; Sweet, J. R.; Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Plant roots and soil microbes release 5-60% of the entirety of photosynthetically fixed carbon in to the soil as exudates to adapt to their surrounding. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these exudates play a major role in altering the of the soil water retention properties. In this study, we used a uniformly sized (40 μm) glass beads and various concentrations (0, 2, 10, 20 and 29 g/L) of polygalacutronic acid (PGA) to mimic sandy soil and the organic exudates from plant roots, respectively. The samples were subjected to periods of drying and subsequent equilibration. At each stage, the water potential was measured using WP4C Dewpoint PotentiaMeter. The effect of root exudates on soil water retention can be attributed t at least two factors. The most widely speculated effect is through enhanced of soil aggregation. This effect is primarily due to capillary adhesion in fine pores within aggregates and is consistent was visual observation of pronounced aggregation in many rhizosphere soils. The second factor is related to osmotic effect of the exudate solution. Our observations show that the capillary effect is mostly to higher water potential regime (> -1 bar suction). Whereas the osmotic effect dominates in plant-soil relations.

  10. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  11. Low Light Availability Alters Root Exudation and Reduces Putative Beneficial Microorganisms in Seagrass Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda C. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass roots host a diverse microbiome that is critical for plant growth and health. Composition of microbial communities can be regulated in part by root exudates, but the specifics of these interactions in seagrass rhizospheres are still largely unknown. As light availability controls primary productivity, reduced light may impact root exudation and consequently the composition of the root microbiome. Hence, we analyzed the influence of light availability on root exudation and community structure of the root microbiome of three co-occurring seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Cymodocea serrulata. Plants were grown under four light treatments in mesocosms for 2 weeks; control (100% surface irradiance (SI, medium (40% SI, low (20% SI and fluctuating light (10 days 20% and 4 days 100%. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing revealed that microbial diversity, composition and predicted function were strongly influenced by the presence of seagrass roots, such that root microbiomes were unique to each seagrass species. Reduced light availability altered seagrass root exudation, as characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, and altered the composition of seagrass root microbiomes with a reduction in abundance of potentially beneficial microorganisms. Overall, this study highlights the potential for above-ground light reduction to invoke a cascade of changes from alterations in root exudation to a reduction in putative beneficial microorganisms and, ultimately, confirms the importance of the seagrass root environment – a critical, but often overlooked space.

  12. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  13. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Samia Eltayeb

    1999-04-01

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  14. Melhoramento do trigo: XXX. Avaliação de linhagens com tolerância a toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em condições de campo Wheat breeding: XXX. Evaluation of inbred lines tolerant to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 23 linhagens tolerantes, ao mesmo tempo, à toxicidade de Al3+ Mn2+ e Fe2+, provindas do cruzamento entre 'BH-1146' (tolerante à toxicidade de A1(3+ e sensível à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e 'Siete Cerros' (sensível à toxicidade de A1(3+ e tolerante à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e os dois cultivares utilizados como pais em quatro ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Itararé (1990-92 e de Capão Bonito (1992, em solos ácidos, e em cinco ensaios realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas (1990-92 e na Fazenda Santa Lúcia (1990-91, município de Cruzália, em solos corrigidos, analisando os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. Em solos ácidos, vinte linhagens e o 'BH-1146' mostraram maior rendimento de grãos em relação ao 'Siete Cerros' indicando que a toxicidade de alumínio foi um dos principais fatores limitantes à produção. Em solos corrigidos, não se verificaram diferenças significativas entre os genótipos estudados quanto ao rendimento de grãos, mostrando não haver urna associação entre baixa produtividade e tolerância ao A1(3+ nessas condições. A linhagem 21 foi moderadamente resistente ao agente causal de oídio em condições naturais de infecção. Todos os genótipos avaliados revelaram suscetibilidade aos agentes causais das manchas foliares. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens 3 a 12 apresentaram porte baixo associado à menor porcentagem de acamamento; as 13, 14 e 23 mostraram espigas compridas; a 12, maior número de espiguetas e grãos por espiga, e a 17, grãos mais pesados, representando fontes genéticas de valor para essas características.Twenty three inbred lines showing at the same time tolerance to A1(3+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, originated from the cross between 'BH-1146' (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity and sensitive to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities and 'Siete Cerros' (sensitive to Al3+ and tolerant to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, and the two

  15. Dietary intake of aluminum in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this study was to analyze the aluminum content in foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the Canary Island population to determine the dietary intake of this metal throughout the Canary Islands as a whole and in each of the seven islands (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro). Four hundred and forty samples were analyzed by ICP-OES. Estimated total intake of aluminum for the Canary population was 10.171 mg/day, slightly higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI; 10 mg/day for a person weighing 70 kg). Aluminum intake by age and sex of the Canary Island population was also determined and compared values from other populations, both national and international.

  16. Preferential flow in the vadose zone and interface dynamics: Impact of microbial exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biting; Pales, Ashley R.; Clifford, Heather M.; Kupis, Shyla; Hennessy, Sarah; Liang, Wei-Zhen; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; Finneran, Kevin T.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2018-03-01

    In the hydrological cycle, the infiltration process is a critical component in the distribution of water into the soil and in the groundwater system. The nonlinear dynamics of the soil infiltration process yield preferential flow which affects the water distribution in soil. Preferential flow is influenced by the interactions between water, soil, plants, and microorganisms. Although the relationship among the plant roots, their rhizodeposits and water transport in soil has been the subject of extensive study, the effect of microbial exudates has been studied in only a few cases. Here the authors investigated the influence of two artificial microbial exudates-catechol and riboflavin-on the infiltration process, particularly unstable fingered flow, one form of preferential flow. Flow experiments investigating the effects of types and concentrations of microbial exudates on unstable fingered flow were conducted in a two-dimensional tank that was filled with ASTM

  17. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.

    2016-01-01

    describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds...... that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms....... Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude...

  18. Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Rubiales, Diego; Motta, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Orobanche crenata is a major threat to grain legume production. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual legume that has been shown to effectively reduce O. crenata infection when intercropped with grain legumes. In this paper, we point that this can be attributed to allelopathy, through inhibition of the germination of O. crenata by fenugreek root exudates. The main inhibitory metabolite was isolated and characterized. Allelopathy was demonstrated in different bioassays, by inhibition of O. crenata seeds germination both by growing fenugreek and pea plants together (intercropped), and by application of fenugreek root exudates. Fenugreek root exudates were extracted with organic solvent and fractionated giving several fractions, two of which showed moderate (27%) and strong (54%) inhibition of O. crenata seed germination, respectively. The most active metabolite is a new monosubstituted trioxazonane, characterized by spectroscopic methods as the 2-butyl-[1,4,7,2]trioxazonane and named trigoxazonane.

  19. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  20. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Won Ki

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates. Materials and methods Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All patients were treated with monthly scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections for 6 months. Changes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity, amount of hard exudates on fundus photography, and macular edema detected by central subfield thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography after six serial injections, were assessed. The amount of hard exudates at each visit was evaluated as pixels in fundus photography, using an Adobe Photoshop program. Results Ten of 11 patients completed follow-up. The mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity was 59.9±5.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) at baseline evaluation. The best corrected visual acuity exhibited no significant difference at month 6 compared with at baseline (57.9±6.0 letters or 20/70 at month 6; P=0.085). At month 6, mean central subfield thickness decreased from 370.4±56.5 to 334.6±65.0 μm (P=0.009). The mean amount of hard exudates increased from 4467.1±2736.1 to 6592.4±2498.3 pixels at month 6 (P=0.022). No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Continuous intravitreal bevacizumab was found to have no benefit in visual acuity and amount of hard exudates, despite the improvement of macular edema at 6 months. PMID:25143708

  1. Recognition of root exudates by seeds of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, M.; Flores, F.; Rubiales, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The long co-existence of broomrapes and their hosts within the same environment has culminated in a strong adaptation and effective parasitism. As a first step of specialization in the parasitic process, seed receptors of parasitic plant species vary in their ability to recognize compounds released by their hosts. This work aims to investigate potential patterns for the reception requirements needed to activate germination within Orobanche and Phelipanche species. Methods Induction of the germination of seeds of nine Orobanche and Pheliphanche species by root exudates of 41 plant species was studied and subjected to biplot multivariate analysis. Key Results A high level of specialization in root exudate recognition was found in Orobanche densiflora, O. gracilis and O. hederae, which germinated almost exclusively in contact with root exudates from the plants they infect in nature. At the opposite extreme, Phelipanche aegyptiaca, P. ramosa and O. minor were highly generalist, germinating when in contact with the root exudates of most plant species. Orobanche crenata, O. cumana and O. foetida showed intermediate behaviour. Conclusions A universal germination stimulant for all broomrape species has not being identified to date. The synthetic stimulant GR24 is active against most of the weedy broomrape species, but fails with the non-weedy species tested in this study and with the very recent weedy species O. foetida. In addition, germination behaviour of broomrape species depends on the crop plant tested. Weedy broomrapes with a broad host spectrum respond better to the different exudates released by a wide range of crops and wild species than do non-weedy broomrapes, which have a narrow host spectrum and are more restricted to their host range. Root exudates of many plant species were active in stimulating germination of seeds of Orobanche and Phelipanche species for which they are not described as hosts, representing interesting examples of

  2. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality

  3. Intolerant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  4. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  5. Metabolomes of Potato Root Exudates: Compounds That Stimulate Resting Spore Germination of the Soil-Borne Pathogen Spongospora subterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendres, Mark A; Nichols, David S; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2016-10-12

    Root exudation has importance in soil chemical ecology influencing rhizosphere microbiota. Prior studies reported root exudates from host and nonhost plants stimulated resting spore germination of Spongospora subterranea, the powdery scab pathogen of potato, but the identities of stimulatory compounds were unknown. This study showed that potato root exudates stimulated S. subterranea resting spore germination, releasing more zoospores at an earlier time than the control. We detected 24 low molecular weight organic compounds within potato root exudates and identified specific amino acids, sugars, organic acids, and other compounds that were stimulatory to S. subterranea resting spore germination. Given that several stimulatory compounds are commonly found in exudates of diverse plant species, we support observations of nonhost-specific stimulation. We provide knowledge of S. subterranea resting spore biology and chemical ecology that may be useful in formulating new disease management strategies.

  6. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  7. Influence of root exudates on attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that root exudates would influence the spore attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria). An experiment was carried out using a factorial arrangement of two single spore (SS) lines cultured from P. penetrans and three single egg mass(SEM)lines cult...

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds...

  9. Use of hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A.; Dargis, V.; Thomsen, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    was conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 months. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time or wound area reduction...

  10. Antioxidant capacity of flavonoids and a new arylphenol of the resinous exudate from Heliotropium sinuatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Torres, René; Lissi, Eduardo; delle Monache, Franco

    2003-12-01

    From the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum (family Boraginaceae), a new compound: 4-(3',5'-dihydroxynonadecyl)phenol 1, together with eight previously described flavonoids, were isolated and their antioxidant activities were assessed by quenching measurements with ABTS and DPPH cation radicals.

  11. Organic anion exudation by ectomycorrhizal fungi and Pinus sylvestris in response to nutrient deficiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2006-01-01

    Low molecular weight organic anions (LMWOA) can enhance weathering of mineral grains. We tested the hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi and tree seedlings increase their exudation of LMWOA when supply of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus is low to enhance the mobilization of Mg, K and P

  12. The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alan D; Goatman, Keith A; Philip, Sam; Williams, Graeme J; Prescott, Gordon J; Scotland, Graham S; McNamee, Paul; Leese, Graham P; Wykes, William N; Sharp, Peter F; Olson, John A

    2010-06-01

    Automated grading has the potential to improve the efficiency of diabetic retinopathy screening services. While disease/no disease grading can be performed using only microaneurysm detection and image-quality assessment, automated recognition of other types of lesions may be advantageous. This study investigated whether inclusion of automated recognition of exudates and haemorrhages improves the detection of observable/referable diabetic retinopathy. Images from 1253 patients with observable/referable retinopathy and 6333 patients with non-referable retinopathy were obtained from three grading centres. All images were reference-graded, and automated disease/no disease assessments were made based on microaneurysm detection and combined microaneurysm, exudate and haemorrhage detection. Introduction of algorithms for exudates and haemorrhages resulted in a statistically significant increase in the sensitivity for detection of observable/referable retinopathy from 94.9% (95% CI 93.5 to 96.0) to 96.6% (95.4 to 97.4) without affecting manual grading workload. Automated detection of exudates and haemorrhages improved the detection of observable/referable retinopathy.

  13. Exudate detection in color retinal images for mass screening of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiwei; Thibault, Guillaume; Decencière, Etienne; Marcotegui, Beatriz; Laÿ, Bruno; Danno, Ronan; Cazuguel, Guy; Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Massin, Pascale; Chabouis, Agnès; Victor, Zeynep; Erginay, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of exudates in color eye fundus images is an important task in applications such as diabetic retinopathy screening. The presented work has been undertaken in the framework of the TeleOphta project, whose main objective is to automatically detect normal exams in a tele-ophthalmology network, thus reducing the burden on the readers. A new clinical database, e-ophtha EX, containing precisely manually contoured exudates, is introduced. As opposed to previously available databases, e-ophtha EX is very heterogeneous. It contains images gathered within the OPHDIAT telemedicine network for diabetic retinopathy screening. Image definition, quality, as well as patients condition or the retinograph used for the acquisition, for example, are subject to important changes between different examinations. The proposed exudate detection method has been designed for this complex situation. We propose new preprocessing methods, which perform not only normalization and denoising tasks, but also detect reflections and artifacts in the image. A new candidates segmentation method, based on mathematical morphology, is proposed. These candidates are characterized using classical features, but also novel contextual features. Finally, a random forest algorithm is used to detect the exudates among the candidates. The method has been validated on the e-ophtha EX database, obtaining an AUC of 0.95. It has been also validated on other databases, obtaining an AUC between 0.93 and 0.95, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.

    1972-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root

  17. THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION OF JOINT EXUDATES IN RHEUMATIC FEVER AND OTHER FORMS OF ARTHRITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, R H; Cullen, G E

    1922-09-30

    1. The hydrogen ion concentration of joint exudates aspirated from patients ill with acute rheumatic fever, arthritis of undetermined origin, and bacterial arthritis was determined. The hydrogen ion concentrations of the joint exudates from patients with acute rheumatic fever approximated the normal reaction of blood, varying from pH 7.27 to 7.42. Exudates from patients with arthritis of undetermined origin varied in pH from 7.33 to 7.47. The pH of a joint effusion occurring in a patient with myocardial insufficiency was 7.34. Bacteriologically, all of these fluids were sterile by ordinary means of cultivation. An exudate aspirated from a knee infected with Staphylococcus aureus had a pH of 6.69, while that from a patient having an arthritis due to Streptococcus hoemolyticus was also acid, having a pH of 6.19. 2. Since a definitely acid medium is necessary for the liberation of free salicylic acid and since all of the joint fluids from patients with acute rheumatic fever were slightly alkaline, no free salicylic acid could possibly exist in such joint fluids following the administration of salicylates.

  18. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  19. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  20. Trichoderma spp. Improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, osmolite production, and Na⁺ elimination through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

    2014-06-01

    Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na⁺ through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress.

  1. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...... electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  2. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  3. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  4. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  5. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  6. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan eAkhter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp alone at application rate of 20 % (v/v, and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips or green waste biochar (GWB, made from garden waste residues at application rate of 3 % (v/v, and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest under in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi.

  7. Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

    2003-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.

  8. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ling

    Full Text Available Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON, but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

  9. Prognostic value of pro-inflammatory cytokine and pro-angiogenesis factor in differentiating malignant from benign exudative effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhefny, Radwa Ahmed; Shaban, Marwa Moawad; Shaker, Olfat Gamil

    2017-01-01

    The precise mechanism of pathogenesis in exudation of effusions is uncertain. Released factors in inflammation and malignancy of pleura are related to incremented permeability of the micro-pleural vessels. Angiopoietins (Ang) take part in development of angiogenesis and pleural inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) influences proliferation and tumor angiogenesis and it is expressed in cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between inflammation, angiogenesis and etiologies of exudative effusions, and to evaluate the diagnostic value in differentiating malignant from benign. The study includes 49 pleural fluid (PF) samples. Ang-2 and IL-8 in PF and serum were estimated. Ten patients were transudative and 39 patients were exudative fluid, subdivided into 16 benign and 23 malignant effusion. Ang-2 and IL-8 either fluid level or ratio were in significantly high in exudative more than in transudative fluid (P = 0.002). Ang-2 and IL-8 in PF were in high level than in serum of exudative and transudative. Ang-2 fluid level and ratio were significantly high in benign exudative effusion (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, respectively), while IL-8 level was significantly high in malignant exudative effusion (P = 0.04). Cut-off points for PF Ang-2 and IL-8 in differentiating malignant from benign exudative were 15.67 ng/mL, 325.54 pg/mL, respectively. Our results support the evidence that angiogenesis and inflammatory pathways are linked, and that inflammation and vascular permeability of pleura constitutes the pathogenic basis of the majority of exudative effusion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. III. The leucocytic origin of endogenous pyrogen in acute inflammatory exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KING, M K; WOOD, W B

    1958-02-01

    The evolution of an acute inflammatory exudate produced in rabbits by the intraperitoneal injection of saline has been described. Evidence has been presented that polymorphonuclear leucocytes release endogenous pyrogen into the cell-free fluid of the exudate. Leucocytes from such exudates have also been shown to release pyrogen into the surrounding medium during incubation in vitro at 37 degrees C. The results of parallel cytological studies have provided evidence which suggests that the leucocytes give up their pyrogen while functionally intact. These observations add further support to the hypothesis that polymorphonuclear leucocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of fever.

  11. Infectious Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, ...

  12. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  13. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  14. Comparative effectiveness of the methods adenoidectomy in cнildren with exudative otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakov A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Actuality: A thorough sanation of the nasopharynx is essential for successful treatment of the exudative otitis media (EOM. The literature describes in detail the state of the nasopharynx after different types of adenoidectomy. The classifications of the location of the remnants of lymphoid tissue and the extent of scarring in the nasopharynx are given.The subject of this work is to trace the relationship of postoperative nasopharyngeal changes with recurrent EOM. Objective: To study the immediate and long-term results of different methods of surgical treatment of hypertrophy of the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue in children with exudative otitis media. Materials and Methods: This paper presents information on the results of treatment of 62 children of 5–7 years suffering from exudative otitis media. Observations were carried out in two groups of patients. The first group included 28 children previously undergone adenoidectomy, with the signs of recurrent exudative otitis. The second group included 34 children with exudative otitis previously untreated surgically. The task of the investigation is to study the effectiveness of endonasal and extranasal methods of surgical removal of nasopharengeal lymphoid tissue with a minimum probability of scar obliteration of the mouth of the Eustachian tube. Results and discussion: The priority method in nasopharengeal surgery in children is extranasal access with shaver technology in conjunction with cold plasma surgery. The using of these methods gives a clear visualization of the operating field under conditions of moderately bleeding wound. On the other hand, endonasal approach is associated with traumatization of the nasal mucosa with incomplete volume visualization of the surgical field. This combination can result in a longer healing of the surgical wound, the formation of adhesions of the nasal cavity and scarring in the nasopharynx. Complete visualization of the operating field significantly

  15. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  16. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  17. Total antioxidant potential of resinous exudates from Heliotropium species, and a comparison of the ABTS and DPPH methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissi, E A; Modak, B; Torres, R; Escobar, J; Urzua, A

    1999-06-01

    Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of resinous exudates from Heliotropium species was evaluated by measuring the bleaching of stable free radicals. The antioxidant capacity of the resinous exudates in Trolox equivalents, evaluated from the bleaching of ABTS derived radical cations, ranged from 2.0 M (H. huascoense) to 5.2 M (H. stenophyllum), indicating a very high concentration of phenolic compounds. Considerably smaller values were obtained by measuring the bleaching of DPPH radicals. The ratio between the values obtained employing ABTS derived radicals and DPPH, ranged from 37 (H. megalanthum) to 4.5 (H. chenopodiaceum variety typica). The magnitude of the difference can be considered as an indication of the relative reactivity of the antioxidants present in the exudates. Similar ratios were observed when stoichiometric coefficients were evaluated for representative purified flavonoids obtained from the resinous exudates.

  18. ZNF408 is mutated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and is crucial for the development of zebrafish retinal vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, R.W.J.; Nikopoulos, K.; Dona, M.A.; Gilissen, C.F.H.A.; Hoischen, A.; Boonstra, F.N.; Poulter, J.A.; Kondo, H.; Berger, W.; Toomes, C.; Tahira, T.; Mohn, L.R.; Blokland, E.A.W.; Hetterschijt, L.; Ali, M.; Groothuismink, J.M.; Duijkers, L.E.M.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Sollfrank, L.; Strom, T.M.; Uchio, E.; Nouhuys, C.E. van; Kremer, H.; Veltman, J.A.; Wijk, E. van; Cremers, F.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina, which can result in retinal detachment and severe visual impairment. In a large Dutch FEVR family, we performed linkage analysis, exome sequencing,

  19. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  20. New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

    2013-11-06

    Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 μM reduced the activity, and application of 100 μM inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction.

  1. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    allergic patients with nickel challenge in the chamber medium showed a time-dependent increase of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils and a concomitant decrease of polymorphonuclear granulocytes, characteristic of a combined specific and unspecific inflammation. The morphology of the exudate...... in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers...

  2. Packaging material and aluminum. Hoso zairyo to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T [Mitsubishi Aluminum Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    The present paper introduces aluminum foil packaging materials among the relation between packing materials and aluminum. The characteristics of aluminum foil in the packaging area are in its barrier performance, non-toxicity, tastelessness and odorlessness. Its excellent functions and processibility suit best as functional materials for food, medicine and industrial material packaging. While an aluminum foil may be used as a single packing material as in foils used in homes, many of it as a packaging material are used in combination with adhesives, papers or plastic films, or coated or printed. It is used as composite materials laminated or coated with other materials according to their use for the purpose of complementing the aluminum foil as the base material. Representative method to laminate aluminum foils include the wet lamination, dry lamination, thermally dissolved lamination and extruded lamination. The most important quality requirement in lamination is the adhesion strength, which requires a close attention in selecting the kinds of adhesive, laminating conditions, and aging conditions. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Exudate Chemical Profiles Derived from Lespedeza and Other Tallgrass Prairie Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Chemical Profiles Derived from Lespedeza and Other Tall- grass Prairie Plant Species. ERDC TN-17-1. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Re- search and...200-1-52. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Headquarters, Civil Works. https://www.wbdg.org/ffc/army-coe/public-works-technical-bulletins...ERDC TN-17-1 May 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Exudate Chemical Profiles Derived from Lespedeza and Other

  4. Neurogenic plasma exudation mediates grain dust-induced tissue injury in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P; Von Essen, S; Rubinstein, I

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust (GDE) elicits neurogenic plasma exudation in the oral mucosa in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we found that GDE elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and an increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass 70 kDa) from the hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust elicits immediate oral mucosa inflammation in vivo.

  5. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Kissel,Cassiana; Soares,Adriana Lourenço; Rossa,Alessandro; Shimokomaki,Massami

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and co...

  6. Influence of cadmium stress on root exudates of high cadmium accumulating rice line (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huijie; Yu, Haiying; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou

    2018-04-15

    A hydroponic experiment with two different cadmium (Cd) accumulating rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) was carried out to explore the links among Cd stress, root exudates and Cd accumulation. The results showed that (1) Cd stress increased quantities of organic acids, but had no effect on composition in root exudates of the two rice lines. In Cd treatments, the contents of every detected organic acid in root exudates of Lu527-8 were 1.76-2.43 times higher than those of Lu527-4. Significant positive correlations between organic acids contents and Cd contents in plants were observed in both rice lines, except that malic acid was only highly relevant to Lu527-8, but not to Lu527-4. (2) Both composition and quantities of amino acids in root exudates changed a lot under Cd stress and this change differed in two rice lines. In control, four amino acids (glutamic acid, glycine, tyrosine and histidine) were detected in two rice lines. Under Cd stress, eight amino acids in Lu527-8 and seven amino acids in Lu527-4 could be detected, among which phenylalanine was only secreted by Lu527-8 and alanine, methionine and lysine were secreted by both rice lines. The contents of those four newly secreted amino acids from Lu527-8 increased significantly with the increase of Cd dose and each had a high-positive correlation with Cd contents, but the same change did not appear in Lu527-4. The difference between two rice lines in secretion of organic acids and amino acids may be related to their different Cd uptake properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2015), s. 821-831 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA ČR GAP504/10/0132 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : giant hogweed * root exudates * UHPLC–TOF-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2015

  8. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  9. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  10. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  11. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartacci, Mike F.; Irtelli, Barbara; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  12. Role of blind closed pleural biopsy in the managment of pleural exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; San-José, Esther; Ferreiro, Lucía; Golpe, Antonio; Antúnez, José; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Abdulkader, Ihab; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M; Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Valdés, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The performance of blind closed pleural biopsy (BCPB) in the study of pleural exudates is controversial. To assess the diagnostic yield of BCPB in clinical practice and its role in the study of pleural exudates. Data were retrospectively collected on all patients who underwent BCPB performed between January 1999 and December 2011. A total of 658 BCPBs were performed on 575 patients. Pleural tissue was obtained in 590 (89.7%) of the biopsies. A malignant pleural effusion was found in 35% of patients. The cytology and the BCPB were positive in 69.2% and 59.2% of the patients, respectively. Of the patients with negative cytology, 21 had a positive BCPB (diagnostic improvement, 15%), which would have avoided one pleuroscopy for every seven BCPBs that were performed. Of the 113 patients with a tuberculous effusion, granulomas were observed in 87 and the Lowenstein culture was positive in an additional 17 (sensitivity 92%). The overall sensitivity was 33.9%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 71%. Complications were recorded in 14.4% of patients (pneumothorax 9.4%; chest pain 5.6%; vasovagal reaction, 4.1%; biopsy of another organ 0.5%). BCPB still has a significant role in the study of a pleural exudate. If an image-guided technique is unavailable, it seems reasonable to perform BCPB before resorting to a pleuroscopy. These results support BCPB as a relatively safe technique.

  13. ACUTE EXUDATIVE PARANEOPLASTIC POLYMORPHOUS VITELLIFORM MACULOPATHY DURING VEMURAFENIB AND PEMBROLIZUMAB TREATMENT FOR METASTATIC MELANOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpal S; Kolomeyer, Anton M; Lau, Marisa K; Shields, Carol L; Schuchter, Lynn M; Nichols, Charles W; Aleman, Tomas S

    2017-06-13

    To describe a patient with BRAF mutation-positive cutaneous melanoma who developed acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy during vemurafenib and pembrolizumab treatment for metastatic melanoma. Retrospective case report documented with wide-field fundus imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. A 55-year-old woman with bilateral ductal breast carcinoma and BRAF mutation-positive metastatic cutaneous melanoma complained of bilateral blurred vision within 5 days of starting vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor). She had been on pembrolizumab (program death receptor antibody) and intermittently on dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor), and had a normal ophthalmologic examination. On presentation three weeks after the introduction of vemurafenib, her visual acuity had declined to 20/40 in both eyes. Her examination showed diffuse elevation of the fovea with multifocal yellow-white, crescent-shaped subretinal deposits within the macula of both eyes and bilateral neurosensory retinal detachments by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Discontinuation of vemurafenib and introduction of difluprednate and dorzolamide led to a gradual resolution (over four months) of the neurosensory detachments with recovery of vision. This case report suggests that acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy may be directly associated with the use of BRAF inhibitors as treatment for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, or indirectly by triggering autoimmune-paraneoplastic processes. Future identification of similar associations is required to unequivocally link vemurafenib and/or pembrolizumab to acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy in metastatic melanoma.

  14. Dehydrocostus lactone is exuded from sunflower roots and stimulates germination of the root parasite Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daniel M; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Steffens, John C

    2011-05-01

    The germination of the obligate root parasites of the Orobanchaceae depends on the perception of chemical stimuli from host roots. Several compounds, collectively termed strigolactones, stimulate the germination of the various Orobanche species, but do not significantly elicit germination of Orobanche cumana, a specific parasite of sunflower. Phosphate starvation markedly decreased the stimulatory activity of sunflower root exudates toward O. cumana, and fluridone - an inhibitor of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway - did not inhibit the production of the germination stimulant in both shoots and roots of young sunflower plants, indicating that the stimulant is not a strigolactone. We identified the natural germination stimulant from sunflower root exudates by bioassay-driven purification. Its chemical structure was elucidated as the guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (DCL). Low DCL concentrations effectively stimulate the germination of O. cumana seeds but not of Phelipanche aegyptiaca (syn. Orobanche aegyptiaca). DCL and other sesquiterpene lactones were found in various plant organs, but were previously not known to be exuded to the rhizosphere where they can interact with other organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome of ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage in exudative pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranantawat, Nantaka; Sungsiri, Jitpreedee; Geater, Sarayut L

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the outcome and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of exudative pleural effusion. The present study was a retrospective analysis of 412 pleural effusions from 373 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage in exudative pleural effusions between 2004 and 2009. The two most common causes for drainage were parapneumonic effusion or empyema (52.2%) and malignant effusion (30.3%), while the remains were trauma, iatrogenic, and others. Overall clinical success rate was 76.5%. The success rate was lower among malignant pleural effusion (p = 0.003). Causes of effusion were the only independent predictors related to success. Only five (1.2%) patients developed complication during the procedure. Seventy-five of 412 effusions (15.8%) developed complication during the period of drainage; the majority were drain blockage (9%) and accidental dislodgment (4.1%). Ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage was a safe and efficient procedure for exudative pleural effusions.

  16. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Olorunsola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG. The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.

  17. Phytochemical screening of the exudate of Aloe otallensis and its effect on Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tesfaye Nigusse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.1230 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563. The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the exudates of A. otallensis has a good antileishmaniasis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.

  18. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  19. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  20. Effect of microcystins on root growth, oxidative response, and exudation of rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Rediske, Richard R; Yao, Lei; Xie, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    A 30 days indoor hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of microcystins (MCs) on rice root morphology and exudation, as well as bioaccumulation of MCs in rice. MCs were bioaccumulated in rice with the greatest concentrations being observed in the leaves (113.68μgg -1 Fresh weight (FW)) when exposed to 500μgL -1 MCs. Root activity at 500μgL -1 decreased 37%, compared to the control. MCs also induced disruption of the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in rice roots. Root growth was significantly inhibited by MCs. Root weight, length; surface area and volume were significantly decreased, as well as crown root number and lateral root number. After 30 days exposure to MCs, an increase was found in tartaric acid and malic acid while the other organic acids were not affected. Glycine, tyrosine, and glutamate were the only amino acids stimulated at MCs concentrations of 500μgL -1 . Similarly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbohydrate at 50 and 500μgL -1 treatments were significantly increased. The increase of DOC and carbohydrate in root exudates was due to rice root membrane permeability changes induced by MCs. Overall, this study indicated that MCs significantly inhibited rice root growth and affected root exudation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  2. Disentangling the rhizosphere effect on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers: insight into the role of root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Texier, S; Hallet, S; Bru, D; Dambreville, C; Chèneby, D; Bizouard, F; Germon, J C; Philippot, L

    2008-11-01

    To determine to which extent root-derived carbon contributes to the effects of plants on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers, four solutions containing different proportions of sugar, organic acids and amino acids mimicking maize root exudates were added daily to soil microcosms at a concentration of 150 microg C g(-1) of soil. Water-amended soils were used as controls. After 1 month, the size and structure of the nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities were analysed using the narG and napA, and the nirK, nirS and nosZ genes as molecular markers respectively. Addition of artificial root exudates (ARE) did not strongly affect the structure or the density of nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities whereas potential nitrate reductase and denitrification activities were stimulated by the addition of root exudates. An effect of ARE composition was also observed on N(2)O production with an N(2)O:(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio of 0.3 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 80% of sugar and of 1 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 40% of sugar. Our study indicated that ARE stimulated nitrate reduction or denitrification activity with increases in the range of those observed with the whole plant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the composition of the ARE affected the nature of the end-product of denitrification and could thus have a putative impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Retreatment of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration after Loading 3-Monthly Intravitreal Ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Sakurada, Yoichi; Honda, Shigeru; Miki, Akiko; Matsumiya, Wataru; Yoneyama, Seigo; Kikushima, Wataru; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical implications of required retreatment after 3-monthly intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections followed by as-needed reinjections up to 5 years in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 165 treatment-naïve eyes from 165 patients with exudative AMD. Visual changes were investigated in terms of the required retreatments. Retreatment-free proportions were 37.0, 23.7, 16.6, 12.1, and 10.5% at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Visual changes were significantly better in eyes which did not require retreatment at every yearly checkpoint within the 5 years. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that requirement of additional IVR treatments in the first 12-24 months was associated with the T allele (risk allele) of ARMS2 A69S (p = 0.010 and 0.015, respectively). Cox regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.046) and the T allele of ARMS2 A69S (p = 0.036) were associated with required retreatment within the 5-year follow-up period. Age and the T allele of ARMS2 A69S are the risk factors requiring retreatments, leading to poor visual change in eyes with exudative AMD following the initial 3-monthly IVR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  5. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  6. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  7. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  8. Roles of abiotic losses, microbes, plant roots, and root exudates on phytoremediation of PAHs in a barren soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-Ran; Cang, Long; Wang, Quan-Ying; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Cheng, Jie-Min; Xu, Hui

    2010-04-15

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of phytoremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene in a typical low organic matter soil (3.75 g kg(-1)), and the contribution proportions of abiotic losses, microbes, plant roots, and root exudates were ascertained during the PAHs dissipation. The results indicated that contribution of abiotic losses from this soil was high both for phenanthrene (83.4%) and pyrene (57.2%). The contributions of root-exudates-enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene (15.5%) and pyrene (21.3%) were higher than those of indigenous microbial degradation. The role of root exudates on dissipation of phenanthrene and pyrene was evident in this experiment. By the way, with the increasing of ring numbers in PAHs structures, the root-exudates-enhanced degradation became more and more important. BIOLOG-ECO plate analysis indicated that microbial community structure of the soil receiving root exudates had changed. The removal efficiency and substrate utilization rate in the treatment with plant roots were lower than the treatment only with root exudates, which suggested that possible competition between roots and microbes for nutrients had occurred in a low organic matter soil. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  10. Affects N fertilization intensity and composition of root exudation from two plant species differing in their exploitation strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Petr; Kastovska, Eva

    2017-04-01

    The rhizosphere represents one of the most important hotspots of microbial activity in soil. As such, it controls soil element cycling and significantly contributes to important ecosystem processes like C and N sequestration. The close plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere are mediated by the input of labile exudates into the surroundings of plant roots. Thus microbial performance is constrained by the intensity and composition of root exudation. However, it is poorly understood how closely root exudation corresponds with the plant metabolome and how it is related to plant traits and changing environmental conditions. To fill this gap, we determined the composition of the root metabolic pool and root exudates in two plant species differing in their exploitation type (conservative Carex acuta versus competitive Glyceria maxima) grown for two months in controlled conditions and treated weekly by two levels of foliar N fertilization. Based on previous studies, we knew that Glyceria has, compared to Carex, a lower tissue C:N ratio, higher photosynthetic rate, higher allocation belowground and also larger investment to exudation. Prior to extraction, the roots were cleaned by water and immediately frozen in liquid N2. The root exudates were collected from carefully cleaned roots of living plants encased in glass vials with water and subsequently lyophilised. Both sample types were silylated and analysed for their metabolic profiles using GC-MS/MS. Our results revealed that the metabolite content in root tissue (DW basis) of Glyceria was on average lower compared to Carex, but increased with fertilization, while the root tissue of Carex was characterized by significantly higher metabolite content in the low intensity fertilization treatment compared to both the control and high N fertilization intensity. In contrast, the amount of exuded compounds was much higher in Glyceria compared to Carex in the control plants, but decreased for Glyceria and increased

  11. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  12. Measurement of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wound healing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, G; Moore, Z; O'Connor, T

    2017-07-02

    To assess the potential of measurements of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wounds to predict healing outcomes and to identify the methods that are employed to measure them. A systematic review based on the outcomes of a search strategy of quantitative primary research published in the English language was conducted. Inclusion criteria limited studies to those involving in vivo and human participants with an existing or intentionally provoked wound, defined as 'a break in the epithelial integrity of the skin', and excluded in vitro and animal studies. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using structured narrative summaries of each included study arranged by concept, pH, exudate composition and temperature. The Evidence Based Literature (EBL) Critical Appraisal Checklist was implemented to appraise the quality of the included studies. A total of 23 studies, three for pH (mean quality score 54.48%), 12 for exudate composition (mean quality score 46.54%) and eight for temperature (mean quality score 36.66%), were assessed as eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings suggest that reduced pH levels in wounds, from alkaline towards acidic, are associated with improvements in wound condition. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), neutrophil elastase (NE) and albumin, in descending order, were the most frequently measured analytes in wounds. MMP-9 emerged as the analyte which offers the most potential as a biomarker of wound healing, with elevated levels observed in acute or non-healing wounds and decreasing levels in wounds progressing in healing. Combined measures of different exudate components, such as MMP/TIMP ratios, also appeared to offer substantial potential to indicate wound healing. Finally, temperature measurements are highest in non-healing, worsening or acute wounds and decrease as wounds progress towards healing. Methods used to measure pH, exudate composition and

  13. Hard exudates segmentation based on learned initial seeds and iterative graph cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakunniran, Worapan; Wu, Qiang; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Zhang, Jian

    2018-05-01

    (Background and Objective): The occurrence of hard exudates is one of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy which is one of the leading causes of the blindness. Many patients with diabetic retinopathy lose their vision because of the late detection of the disease. Thus, this paper is to propose a novel method of hard exudates segmentation in retinal images in an automatic way. (Methods): The existing methods are based on either supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. In addition, the learned segmentation models may often cause miss-detection and/or fault-detection of hard exudates, due to the lack of rich characteristics, the intra-variations, and the similarity with other components in the retinal image. Thus, in this paper, the supervised learning based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is only used to identify initial seeds with high confidences to be hard exudates. Then, the segmentation is finalized by unsupervised learning based on the iterative graph cut (GC) using clusters of initial seeds. Also, in order to reduce color intra-variations of hard exudates in different retinal images, the color transfer (CT) is applied to normalize their color information, in the pre-processing step. (Results): The experiments and comparisons with the other existing methods are based on the two well-known datasets, e_ophtha EX and DIARETDB1. It can be seen that the proposed method outperforms the other existing methods in the literature, with the sensitivity in the pixel-level of 0.891 for the DIARETDB1 dataset and 0.564 for the e_ophtha EX dataset. The cross datasets validation where the training process is performed on one dataset and the testing process is performed on another dataset is also evaluated in this paper, in order to illustrate the robustness of the proposed method. (Conclusions): This newly proposed method integrates the supervised learning and unsupervised learning based techniques. It achieves the improved performance, when compared with the

  14. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened if consult......Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened...... a substantial effect on the substance of laws – shows that there is a great difference in the amenability of different branches of government but that, in general, authorities do not listen much despite a very strong consultation institution and tradition. A suggestion for an explanation could be pointing...... to an administrative culture of repressive tolerance of organised interests: authorities listen but only reacts in a very limited sense. This bears in it the risk of jeopardising the knowledge transfer from societal actors to administrative ditto thus harming the consultation institutions’ potential for strengthening...

  15. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

  16. Finite Element Analysis and Die Design of Non-specific Engineering Structure of Aluminum Alloy during Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.-C.; Lu, Y.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extension applies to industrial structure, light load, framework rolls and conveyer system platform. Many factors must be controlled in processing the non-specific engineering structure (hollow shape) of the aluminum alloy during extrusion, to obtain the required plastic strain and desired tolerance values. The major factors include the forming angle of the die and temperature of billet and various materials. This paper employs rigid-plastic finite element (FE) DEFORM 3D software to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of an aluminum alloy (A6061, A5052, A3003) workpiece during extrusion for the engineering structure of the aluminum alloy. This work analyzes effective strain, effective stress, damage and die radius load distribution of the billet under various conditions. The analytical results confirm the suitability of the current finite element software for the non-specific engineering structure of aluminum alloy extrusion.

  17. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  18. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  19. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Nelson, Jim A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C) to soil - primarily via root exudates- are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands) were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ∼3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ∼46 and ∼41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function compared to site/land cover specific factors. Supporting the finding that exudate effects were minor, we found that an absence of LMW-C elicited the greatest difference in function compared to those treatments receiving any LMW-C. Additionally, exudate treatments did not alter microbial community composition and observable differences were instead due to land cover. These results confirm the strong effects of land cover/site legacies on soil microbial communities. In contrast, short-term changes in exudate composition, at meaningful concentrations, may have little impact on microbial function and composition.

  20. Phosphorus acquisition by citrate- and phytase-exuding Nicotiana tabacum plant mixtures depends on soil phosphorus availability and root intermingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Richardson, Alan E; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Mezeli, Malika M; Brown, Lawrie K; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin Sa; Shand, Charles A; Stutter, Marc I; Wendler, Renate; Cooper, Patricia; Lumsdon, David G; Wearing, Catherine; Zhang, Hao; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2018-03-02

    Citrate and phytase root exudates contribute to improved phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) when both exudates are produced in a P deficient soil. To test the importance of root intermingling in the interaction of citrate and phytase exudates, Nicotiana tabacum plant-lines with constitutive expression of heterologous citrate (Cit) or fungal phytase (Phy) exudation traits were grown under two root treatments (roots separated or intermingled) and in two soils with contrasting soil P availability. Complementarity of plant mixtures varying in citrate efflux rate and mobility of the expressed phytase in soil was determined based on plant biomass and P accumulation. Soil P composition was evaluated using solution 31 P NMR spectroscopy. In the soil with limited available P, positive complementarity occurred in Cit+Phy mixtures with roots intermingled. Root separation eliminated positive interactions in mixtures expressing the less mobile phytase (Aspergillus niger PhyA) whereas positive complementarity persisted in mixtures that expressed the more mobile phytase (Peniophora lycii PhyA). Soils from Cit+Phy mixtures contained less inorganic P and more organic P compared to monocultures. Exudate-specific strategies for the acquisition of soil P were most effective in P-limited soil and depended on citrate efflux rate and the relative mobility of the expressed phytase in soil. Plant growth and soil P utilization in plant systems with complementary exudation strategies are expected to be greatest where exudates persist in soil and are expressed synchronously in space and time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  2. Investigation of aluminum content of imported candies and snack foods in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Candies, chewing gums, dried fruits, jellies, chocolate, and shredded squid pieces imported from 17 countries were surveyed for their aluminum content. The samples were bought from candy shops, supermarkets, and convenience stores, and through online shopping. Sample selection focused on imported candies and snacks. A total of 67 samples, including five chewing gums, seven dried fruits, 13 chocolates, two jellies, two dried squid pieces, and 38 candies, were analyzed. The content of aluminum was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES. The limit of quantitation for aluminum was 1.53 mg/kg. The content of aluminum ranged from not detected (ND to 828.9 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of aluminum in chewing gums, dried fruits, chocolate, jellies, dried squid pieces, and candies were 36.62 mg/kg, 300.06 mg/kg, 9.1 mg/kg, 2.3 mg/kg, 7.8 mg/kg, and 24.26 mg/kg, respectively. Some samples had relatively high aluminum content. The highest aluminum content of 828.9 mg/kg was found in dried papaya threads imported from Thailand. Candies imported from Thailand and Vietnam had aluminum contents of 265.7 mg/kg and 333.1 mg/kg, respectively. Exposure risk assessment based on data from the Taiwan National Food Consumption Database was employed to calculate the percent provisional tolerable weekly intake (%PTWI. The percent provisional tolerable weekly intake of aluminum for adults (19–50 years and children (3–6 years based on the consumption rate of the total population showed that candies and snacks did not contribute greatly to aluminum exposure. By contrast, in the exposure assessment based on the consumers-only consumption rate, the estimated values of weekly exposure to aluminum from dried papaya threads in adults (19–50 years and children (3–6 years were 4.18 mg/kg body weight (bw/wk and 7.93 mg/kg bw/wk, respectively, for 50th percentile consumers, and 6.26 mg/kg bw/wk and 12.88 mg/kg bw

  3. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  4. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  5. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  6. Genetic Determinism of Sensitivity to Corynespora cassiicola Exudates in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Minh; Clément-Demange, André; Déon, Marine; Garcia, Dominique; Le Guen, Vincent; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Soumahoro, Mouman; Masson, Aurélien; Label, Philippe; Le, Mau Tuy; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP. The test was found to be quantitative, with the EL% response proportional to toxin concentration. For eight clones tested with two aggressive isolates, the EL% response to the filtrates positively correlated to the response induced by conidial inoculation. The toxicity test applied to 18 clones using 13 toxinic treatments evidenced an important variability among clones and treatments, with a significant additional clone x treatment interaction effect. A genetic linkage map was built using 306 microsatellite markers, from the F1 population of the PB260 x RRIM600 family. Phenotyping of the population for sensitivity to the purified Cas1 effector and to culture filtrates from seven C. cassiicola isolates revealed a polygenic determinism, with six QTL detected on five chromosomes and percentages of explained phenotypic variance varying from 11 to 17%. Two common QTL were identified for the CCP filtrate and the purified cassiicolin, suggesting that Cas1 may be the main effector of CCP filtrate toxicity. The CCP filtrate clearly contrasted with all other filtrates. The toxicity test based on Electrolyte Leakage Measurement offers the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of rubber genotypes to C. cassiicola exudates or purified effectors for genetic investigations and early selection, without risk of spreading the fungus in plantations. However, the power of this test for predicting field susceptibility of rubber clones to CLF will have

  7. Can Wound Exudate from Venous Leg Ulcers Measure Wound Pain Status?: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Goto

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations between the self-evaluated pain status and two pain biomarker candidates, nerve growth factor and S100A8/A9, in exudate from venous leg ulcer to finally develop an objective pain evaluation method. Patients with venous leg ulcer participated in this cross-sectional observational study conducted between April and October 2014 at two medical facilities. During routine wound care, each participant self-evaluated their pain status at each examination using the 10-point numerical rating scale (present pain intensity and the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (continuous pain, intermittent pain, neuropathic pain, affective descriptors, and total score. Venous leg ulcer exudate sample was collected after wound cleansing. The nerve growth factor and S100A8/A9 concentrations in the venous leg ulcer exudate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and standardized according to the wound area. The association between each pain status and the two standardized protein concentrations was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. In 30 sample collected from 13 participants, the standardized nerve growth factor concentration was negatively correlated with continuous pain (ρ = -0.47, P = 0.01, intermittent pain (ρ = -0.48, P = 0.01, neuropathic pain (ρ = -0.51, P = 0.01, and total score (ρ = -0.46, P = 0.01. The standardized S100A8/A9 concentration was positively correlated with present pain intensity (ρ = 0.46, P = 0.03 and continuous pain (ρ = 0.48, P = 0.03. Thus, these two proteins may be useful for objective evaluation of wound pain in venous leg ulcer patients.

  8. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  9. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Böni

    Full Text Available Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food

  10. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Bulut, T.; Dusak, A.; Dogan, M.; Goekirmak, M.; Kalkan, S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm 2 ) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42±0.76 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18±1.82 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic yield and safety of closed needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajawat, Govind Singh; Batra, Supreet; Takhar, Rajendra Prasad; Rathi, Lalit; Bhandari, Chand; Gupta, Manohar Lal

    2017-01-01

    Closed pleural biopsy was previously considered a procedure of choice in cases of undiagnosed pleural effusion with good efficacy. Currently, the closed pleural biopsy has been replaced by thoracoscopic biopsy but not easily available in resource-limited setups. The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic yield and safety of closed needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion and assessment of patients' characteristics with the yield of pleural biopsy. This was a cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at Institute of Respiratory Diseases, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, a tertiary care center of West India. A total of 250 cases of pleural effusion were evaluated with complete pleural fluid biochemical, microbiological, and cytological examination. Out of these 250 patients, 59 were excluded from the study as the diagnosis could be established on initial pleural fluid examination. The remaining (191) patients were considered for closed pleural biopsy with Abrams pleural biopsy needle. The main outcome measure was diagnostic yield in the form of confirming diagnosis. Out of the 191 patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion, 123 (64.40%) were diagnosed on the first pleural biopsy. Among the remaining 68 patients, 22 patients had repeat pleural biopsy with a diagnostic yield of 59.9%. The overall pleural biopsy could establish the diagnosis in 136 (71.20%) patients with pleural effusion. The most common diagnosis on pleural biopsy was malignancy followed by tuberculosis. Closed pleural biopsy provides diagnostic yield nearly comparative to thoracoscopy in properly selected patients of pleural effusions. In view of good yield, low cost, easy availability, and very low complication rate, it should be used routinely in all cases of undiagnosed exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. There was no comparison with a similar group undergoing thoracoscopic pleural biopsy.

  13. Effects of Selected Root Exudate Components on Nitrogen Removal and Development of Denitrifying Bacteria in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates, particularly low molecular weight carbon (LMWC substrates, are major drivers of bacterial diversity and activity in the rhizosphere environment. However, it is not well understood how specific LMWC compounds—such as organic acids, soluble sugars, and amino acids—influence the community structures of denitrifying bacteria or if there are specific functions of LMWC substrates that preferentially respond to nitrogen (N removal in constructed wetlands (CWs. To address these knowledge gaps, we added mixtures of artificial exudates to CW microcosms containing N pollutant. N removal efficiency was observed over a 48-h experimental period, and at the end of the experiment, DNA was extracted from microbial samples for assessment of the bacterial community. The removal efficiencies of TN for the exudates treatments were higher than for control groups by 47.1–58.67%. Organic acid and soluble sugar treatments increased N removal, while amino acids were negative to N removal. The microbial community was changed when artificial exudates were added, but there were no significant relationships between LMWC compounds and bacterial community composition. These results indicate that although the responses of community structures of denitrifying bacteria to LMWC additions are still uncertain, there is evidence for N removal in response to exudate additions across LMWC types.

  14. Risk factors for exudative age-related macular degeneration in a large French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbib, Jennyfer; Delcourt, Cécile; Puche, Nathalie; Querques, Giuseppe; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Le Goff, Mélanie; Souied, Eric H

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the CAP (Creteil AMD PHRC-funded) Study was to analyze risk factors of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large French case-control population. One thousand and twenty-four patients with exudative AMD and 275 controls were recruited. Information about lifestyle, medical history, and dietary intake were collected. Associations of risk factors were estimated using logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms were associated with very high risk for exudative AMD (OR = 6.21 and OR = 11.7, respectively, p cooking oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids was significantly associated with a reduced risk of exudative AMD (OR = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.36-0.84, p = 0.006), as well as a high consumption of fruits (OR = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.37-0.98, p = 0.04), but not the consumption of fish, vegetables or oils rich in omega 6. High waist circumference was associated with increased risk for exudative AMD (OR = 2.53, p cooking oils harboring a beneficial omega-3 fatty acid profile.

  15. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance.

  16. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran. The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6% males and 155 (47.4% females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%, 48 (14.7%, and 45 (13.8% cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4% of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2% patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years cases (P=0.16. The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE occurring in young people.

  17. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  18. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  19. MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHNUKI, T.; OZAKI, T.; YOSHIDA, T.; NANKAWA, T.; KOZAI, N.; SAKAMOTO, F.; SUZUKI, Y.; FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed

  20. Microbial impacts on the migration of actinides. Effects of exudates on adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Takuo; Nakawa, Takuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Suzuki, Yosinori; Yoshida, Takahiro; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. We have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate with insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed. (author)

  1. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Contreras, M Leonor; González-Nilo, Fernando; Torres, René

    2005-01-17

    Relationships between the structural characteristics of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum and their antioxidant activity were studied. Radical formation energies, DeltaH of dehydrogenation and spin densities were calculated using DFT methods (B3LYP/6-31G*). Results show that studied flavonoids can be divided into two sets according to their activity. It has been found that antioxidant activity depends both on substitution pattern of hydroxyl groups of the flavonoid skeleton and the presence of an unsaturation at the C2-C3 bond. A good tendency between DeltaH of dehydrogenation and antioxidant activity was established.

  2. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel T Ba′arah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Function in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pertl

    Full Text Available High-density lipoproteins (HDL have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported with regard to the associations of AMD with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study is the first to assess HDL composition and metrics of HDL function in patients with exudative AMD and control patients.Blood samples were collected from 29 patients with exudative AMD and 26 age-matched control patients. Major HDL associated apolipoproteins were determined in apoB-depleted serum by immunoturbidimetry or ELISA, HDL-associated lipids were quantified enzymatically. To get an integrated measure of HDL quantity and quality, we assessed several metrics of HDL function, including cholesterol efflux capacity, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities using apoB-depleted serum from study participants.In our study, we observed that the HDL associated acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA was significantly increased in AMD patients (p<0.01, whereas all other assessed apolipoproteins including ApoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-II, apoC-III and apoE as well as major HDL associated lipids were not altered. HDL efflux capacity, anti-oxidative capacity and arylesterase activity were not different in AMD patients when compared with the control group. The ability of apoB-depleted serum to inhibit monocyte NF-κB expression was significantly improved in AMD patients (mean difference (MD -5.6, p<0.01. Moreover, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, a marker of vascular inflammation, was decreased in AMD subjects (MD -24.1, p<0.01.The investigated metrics of HDL composition and HDL function were not associated with exudative AMD in this study, despite an increased content of HDL associated SAA in AMD patients. Unexpectedly, anti-inflammatory activity of apoB-depleted serum was even increased in our study. Our data suggest that the investigated parameters of serum HDL function showed no

  4. The Wnt signaling pathway in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Scott M; Andreoli, Christopher M; Mukai, Shizuo

    2007-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved among species and has an important role in many cell biological processes throughout the body. This signaling cascade is involved in regulating ocular growth and development, and recent findings indicate that this is particularly true in the retina. Mutations involving different aspects of the Wnt signaling pathway are being linked to several diseases of retinal development. The aim of this article is to first review the Wnt signaling pathway. We will then describe two conditions, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), which have been shown to be caused in part by defects in the Wnt signaling cascade.

  5. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  6. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  7. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  8. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  13. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  14. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  15. Low velocity impact of 6082-T6 aluminum plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocian, Oana Alexandra; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Sandu, Marin; Sorohan, Ştefan

    2018-02-01

    The low velocity domain covers vehicle impacts, ship collisions and even accidentally tool drops. Even though more and more research is needed into these fields, most of the papers concerning impact problems focus on impact at medium and high velocities. Understanding the behavior of structures subjected to low velocity impact is of major importance when referring to impact resistance and damage tolerance. The paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the low velocity behavior of 6082-T6 aluminum plates. Impact tests were performed using an Instron Ceast 9340 drop-weight testing machine. In the experimental procedure, square plates were mounted on a circular support, fixed with a pneumatic clamping system and impacted with a hemispherical steel projectile. Specimens were impacted at constant weight and different impact velocities. The effect of different impact energies was investigated. The impact event was then simulated using the nonlinear finite element code LS_DYNA in order to determine the effect of strain rate upon the mechanical behavior of the aluminum plates. Moreover, in order to capture the exact behavior of the material, a special attention has been given to the selection of the correct material model and its parameters, which, in large extent, depend on the observed behavior of the aluminum plate during the test and the actual response of the plate under simulation. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental observations and the applicability of the numerical model for further researches is analyzed.

  16. Mechanical properties and dual atmosphere tolerance of Ag-Al based braze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Scott Weil, K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the effects of aluminum on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and high temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of silver and silver-copper oxide filler metals were investigated. It was found that joints brazed with binary Ag-Al braze foils containing more than 2 at% Al retained a metallic form of aluminum within the metallic braze filler matrix after brazing at 1000 C in air. The bend strengths of these joints decreased with increasing aluminum content due to the formation of interfacial aluminum oxide. However, the existence of metallic aluminum in the braze filler matrix appeared to enhance the high-temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of the silver-based braze filler, which displayed measurably less porosity after 1000h of exposure at 800 C in a dual reducing/oxidizing atmosphere environment than unalloyed silver. A series of binary and ternary braze pastes based on the Ag-Al(-Cu) system were also formulated as potential pSOFC (planar solid oxide fuel cell) sealants. Model alumina joints brazed with these pastes exhibited an increase in bend strength with increasing copper content. However, unlike the binary Ag-Al filler metals, the ternary compositions often retained no protective metallic aluminum after brazing. Thus, while the addition of copper improves filler metal wettability and, therefore, joint strength in the Ag-Al alloys, it appears to reduce the dual atmosphere tolerance of these filler metals. (author)

  17. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérandour, Julien; Reynaud, Stéphane; Willison, John; Patouraux, Joëlle; Gaude, Thierry; Ravanel, Patrick; Lempérière, Guy; Raveton, Muriel

    2008-10-08

    Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine) were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of cephem antibiotics in exudate of pelvic retroperitoneal space after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Hayasaki, M; Tamaya, T

    1990-01-01

    Many cephalosporin antibiotics have recently been invented and attempts have been made to use them clinically. The choice of which of these drugs should be used has been difficult in gynecology. The efficacies of these drugs depend on their antibacterial spectra, potencies, and concentrations in tissues. This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of various cephem antibiotics in the exudate of the retroperitoneal space that is formed after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. These cephem antibiotics were cefoxitin, cefotiam, cefotetan, cefpiramide, cefminox, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cefoperazone, cefmenoxime, cefbuperazone, ceftazidime, cefpimizole, flomoxef, and cefuzonam. The maximum concentrations after administration of a 1-g dose in the exudate of the pelvic retroperitoneal space were 37.9 micrograms/ml with cefminox, 30.3 micrograms/ml with cefpimizole, 21.6 micrograms/ml with flomoxef, 21.5 micrograms/ml with ceftazidime, and 17.6 micrograms/ml with cefbuperazone, which were relatively high. When selecting antibiotics for prophylactic use against infections in the retroperitoneal space after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, on the basis of drug transfer, flomoxef, cefminox, cefbuperazone, ceftazidime, and cefpimizole were considered to be the drugs of first choice at a dose of 1 g. PMID:2393276

  19. In vitro antibacterial effect of tobacco leaf exudates against two bacterial plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Karina Capdesuñer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are an alternative to control microorganisms that cause diseases in crops. This work aimed to evaluate different solvents for obtaining crude extracts from tobacco leaf exudates and to determine in vitro effect of these extracts against two phytopathogenic bacteria: Xanthomonas campestris(Xc and Pectobacterium carotovorum(Pc. Crude extracts from ten tobacco lines using solvents with polarities between 3.1 and 6.2 (dichloromethane, n-butanol, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol 90% were obtained. Ethanol 90% was selected as the best solvent for obtaining extracts from tobacco leaf exudates and as a substitute of dichloromethane due to the best yield. The chemical composition diversity of the ethanolic extracts was revealed by thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disk diffusion method recording the inhibition zones. Growth inhibition was observed for all extracts against Xc, and the better activity corresponded to the lines Nic 1061"TI 1738" and Nic 1016 "Incekara" until a minimal amount of 5 µg/ disc, with higher yield in case of the line Nic1061 . Only the extract of the line Nic 1015 was able to inhibit the growth of Pc until a minimal inhibitory concentration of 5 µg/disc. These results suggest a potential use of crude extracts from lines Nic 1061 and Nic 1015 "TI 1341" as an effective agent for the crop protection against Xc and Pc respectively.

  20. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Computed tomography of the temporal bone in diagnosis of chronic exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikovich, E I

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone was made in 37 patients aged 2 to 55 years with chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). In 21 of them the pathology was bilateral. The analysis of 58 CT images has identified CT signs of chronic exudative otitis media. They include partial (17 temporary bones) or complete (38 temporal bones) block of the bone opening of the auditory tube, pneumatic defects of the tympanic cavity (58 temporal bones), pneumatic defects of the mastoid process and antrum (47 temporal bones), pathologic retraction of the tympanic membrane. The examination of the temporal bone detected both CT-signs of CEOM and other causes of hearing disorders in 14 patients (26 temporal bones) with CEOM symptoms and inadequately high hypoacusis. Among these causes were malformation of the auditory ossicula (n=5), malformation of the labynthine window (n=2), malformation of the middle and internal ear (n=4), a wide aqueduct of the vestibule, labyrinthine anomaly of Mondini's type (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=4), stenosis of the internal acoustic meatuses (n=2). Sclerotic fibrous dysplasia was suggested in 2 temporal bones (by CT data). CT was repeated after surgical treatment of 10 patients (14 temporal bones) and visual assessment of tympanostomy results was made.

  2. Fundus Image Features Extraction for Exudate Mining in Coordination with Content Based Image Retrieval: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, C.; Jayadevappa, D.; Tunga, Satish

    2018-06-01

    Medical field has seen a phenomenal improvement over the previous years. The invention of computers with appropriate increase in the processing and internet speed has changed the face of the medical technology. However there is still scope for improvement of the technologies in use today. One of the many such technologies of medical aid is the detection of afflictions of the eye. Although a repertoire of research has been accomplished in this field, most of them fail to address how to take the detection forward to a stage where it will be beneficial to the society at large. An automated system that can predict the current medical condition of a patient after taking the fundus image of his eye is yet to see the light of the day. Such a system is explored in this paper by summarizing a number of techniques for fundus image features extraction, predominantly hard exudate mining, coupled with Content Based Image Retrieval to develop an automation tool. The knowledge of the same would bring about worthy changes in the domain of exudates extraction of the eye. This is essential in cases where the patients may not have access to the best of technologies. This paper attempts at a comprehensive summary of the techniques for Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) or fundus features image extraction, and few choice methods of both, and an exploration which aims to find ways to combine these two attractive features, and combine them so that it is beneficial to all.

  3. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-01-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and 13C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of 13CO2-exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly 13C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of 13C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. PMID:25382456

  4. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  5. Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B S; Hejtmancik, J F; Plager, D A; Hartzer, M K; Trese, M T

    1995-05-20

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Zmax = 2.1, theta max = 0) and DXS228 (Zmax = 0.5, theta max = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Zmax = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie's disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient.

  6. Flavonoids from Heliotropium subulatum exudate and their evaluation for antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Sahu, Pooran M; Sharma, Ram A

    2017-02-01

    The flavonoids are the largest group of phenolic compounds isolated from a wide range of higher plants. These compounds work as antimicrobials, anti-insect agents and protect plants from other types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Various researchers have suggested that flavonoids possessed antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities. The main objective of this study was to test dichloromethane fraction of resinous exudate of Heliotropium subulatum for their antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities, as well as to search new antioxidant and antineoplastic agents for pharmaceutical formulations. Five flavonoids were isolated from resinous exudate of this plant species and screened for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant models (DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide anion scavenging, metal chelating scavenging systems, catalase and lipid peroxidation), antineoplastic (Sarcoma 180), and cytotoxic (Chinese hamster V79 cells) activities. Tricetin demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems while galangin exhibited maximum inhibition (78.35%) at a dose of 10 µg/kg/day against Sarcoma 180. Similarly, it was found that galangin also showed highest activity (21.1 ± 0.15%) at a concentration of 70 µg/ml to Chinese hamster V79 cells. The observed results suggest that tricetin has a potential to scavenge free radicals in both in vitro and in vivo models while the galangin could be considered as antitumor and cytotoxic agent.

  7. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  8. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  9. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Louarn

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana.

  10. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana.

  11. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Active learning approach for detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and drusen in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Clara I.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Kockelkorn, Thessa; Abràmoff, Michael D.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2009-02-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automatic identification of abnormalities in retinal images are gaining importance in diabetic retinopathy screening programs. A huge amount of retinal images are collected during these programs and they provide a starting point for the design of machine learning algorithms. However, manual annotations of retinal images are scarce and expensive to obtain. This paper proposes a dynamic CAD system based on active learning for the automatic identification of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen in retinal images. An uncertainty sampling method is applied to select samples that need to be labeled by an expert from an unlabeled set of 4000 retinal images. It reduces the number of training samples needed to obtain an optimum accuracy by dynamically selecting the most informative samples. Results show that the proposed method increases the classification accuracy compared to alternative techniques, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.78 for the detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen, respectively.

  13. Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Ferula narthex Boiss. (Apiaceae is widely used in the Indian subcontinent as a spice and because of its health effects. Six sesquiterpene coumarins have been isolated from this exudate: feselol, ligupersin A, asacoumarin A, 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A, 10′R-karatavacinol and 10′R-acetyl-karatavacinol. Based on its use in infectious and diabetic conditions, the isolated constituents were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Some compounds showed activity against protozoal parasites, asacoumarin A being the most active one against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM. With regard to antiglycation activity, in the BSA-glucose test, ligupersin A displayed the highest activity (IC50 0.41 mM, being more active than the positive control aminiguanidine (IC50 1.75 mM. In the BSA-MGO assay, the highest activity was shown by 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A (IC50 1.03 mM, being less active than aminoguanidine (IC50 0.15 mM. Hence, the antiglycation activity of the isolated constituents was due to both oxidative and non-oxidative modes of inhibition.

  14. Fundus Image Features Extraction for Exudate Mining in Coordination with Content Based Image Retrieval: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, C.; Jayadevappa, D.; Tunga, Satish

    2018-02-01

    Medical field has seen a phenomenal improvement over the previous years. The invention of computers with appropriate increase in the processing and internet speed has changed the face of the medical technology. However there is still scope for improvement of the technologies in use today. One of the many such technologies of medical aid is the detection of afflictions of the eye. Although a repertoire of research has been accomplished in this field, most of them fail to address how to take the detection forward to a stage where it will be beneficial to the society at large. An automated system that can predict the current medical condition of a patient after taking the fundus image of his eye is yet to see the light of the day. Such a system is explored in this paper by summarizing a number of techniques for fundus image features extraction, predominantly hard exudate mining, coupled with Content Based Image Retrieval to develop an automation tool. The knowledge of the same would bring about worthy changes in the domain of exudates extraction of the eye. This is essential in cases where the patients may not have access to the best of technologies. This paper attempts at a comprehensive summary of the techniques for Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) or fundus features image extraction, and few choice methods of both, and an exploration which aims to find ways to combine these two attractive features, and combine them so that it is beneficial to all.

  15. Clinical performance of a new silver dressing, Contreet Foam, for chronic exuding venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T; Agerslev, R H; Bendz, S H

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of a new sustained silver-releasing dressing, Contreet Foam (Coloplast A/S), in the treatment of moderately to highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers in which healing is delayed due to the presence of bacteria. METHOD: The clini......OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of a new sustained silver-releasing dressing, Contreet Foam (Coloplast A/S), in the treatment of moderately to highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers in which healing is delayed due to the presence of bacteria. METHOD......'s effect on the peri-ulcer area. Blood samples were analysed for silver content. RESULTS: Twenty-three out of 25 patients completed the study. One ulcer healed and no wound infections occurred during the study period. A mean 56% reduction in ulcer area (from 15.6 to 6.9 cm2) was recorded during the four...... weeks, and there was a mean 25% reduction in granulation tissue from dull to healthy after one week. Wound odour reduced significantly after one week. Mean dressing wear time was 3.1 days, and there were only minimal incidences of leakage. Serum silver levels did not exceed reference values. CONCLUSION...

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  17. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CLINICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION AFTER INTRAVITREAL ZIV-AFLIBERCEPT FOR EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; de Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Kniggendorf, Vinicius Ferreira; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Maia, André; Meyer, Carsten; Watanabe, Sung Eun Song; Farah, Michel Eid; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the 6-month safety and efficacy of ziv-aflibercept intravitreal injections for treating exudative age-related macular degeneration. Fifteen patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration were enrolled. The best-corrected visual acuity was measured and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed at baseline and monthly. Full-field electroretinography and multifocal electroretinography were obtained at baseline and 4, 13, and 26 weeks after the first injection. All patients received three monthly intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg) followed by as-needed treatment. Between baseline and 26 weeks, the mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved (P = 0.00408) from 0.93 ± 0.4 (20/200) to 0.82 ± 0.5 (20/160) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, respectively; the central retinal thickness decreased significantly (P = 0.0007) from 490.3 ± 155.1 microns to 327.9 ± 101.5 microns; the mean total macular volume decreased significantly (P macular responses within the first central 15° showed significantly (P macular volume from baseline to 26 weeks. No retinal toxicity on full-field electroretinography or adverse events occurred during the follow-up period.

  19. MACULAR CHOROIDAL VOLUME CHANGES AFTER INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB FOR EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Stefan; Seidel, Gerald; Pertl, Laura; Malle, Eva M; Hausberger, Silke; Makk, Johanna; Singer, Christoph; Osterholt, Julia; Herzog, Sereina A; Haas, Anton; Weger, Martin

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on the macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness in treatment naïve eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. After a screening examination, each patient received 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. One month after the third injection was a final assessment. Forty-seven patients with a mean age of 80 ± 6.4 years were included. The macular choroidal volume decreased significantly from median 4.1 mm (interquartile range 3.4-5.9) to median 3.9 mm (interquartile range 3.1-5.6) between the baseline and final examination (difference -0.46 mm, 95% confidence interval: -0.57 to 0.35, P macular choroidal volume at baseline and subfoveal choroidal thickness at baseline were not associated with the response to treatment. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased significantly after 3 monthly bevacizumab injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentration in Chronic Subdural Hematoma Fluid Is Related to Computed Tomography Appearance and Exudation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Hohenstein, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is characterized by a net increase of volume over time. Major underlying mechanisms appear to be hemorrhagic episodes and a continuous exudation, which may be studied using labeled proteins to yield an exudation rate in a given patient. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hematoma fluid correlates with the rate of exudation. Concentration of VEGF was determined in 51 consecutive patients with CSH by the sandwich immune enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Mean values were correlated with exudation rates taken from the literature according to the appearance of CSH on computed tomography (CT) images. The CT appearance of each CSH was classified as hypodense, isodense, hyperdense, or mixed density. Mean VEGF concentration was highest in mixed-density hematomas (22,403±4173 pg/mL; mean±standard error of the mean; n=27), followed by isodense (9715±1287 pg/mL; n=9) and hypodense (5955±610 pg/mL; n=18) hematomas. Only 1 patient with hyperdense hematoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the concentration of VEGF found in this patient was 24,200 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant correlation between VEGF concentrations and exudation rates in the four classes of CT appearance (r=0.98). The current report is the first to suggest a pathophysiological link between the VEGF concentration and the exudation rate underlying the steady increase of hematoma volume and CT appearance.With this finding, the current report adds another piece of evidence in favor of the pathophysiological role of VEGF in the development of CSH, including mechanisms contributing to hematoma growth and CT appearance. PMID:24245657

  1. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Liu Junfeng; Yu Jiuru; Ju Ping; Ke Caiming

    2003-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (P Ft ) to serum ferritin (S Ft ) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and P Ft and P Ft /S Ft were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of P Ft and P Ft /S Ft in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P 0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 μg/L and P Ft /S Ft ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of P Ft and P Ft /S Ft in exudates are higher than 100 μg/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. P Ft and P Ft /S Ft have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  2. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  3. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard V. Nekrasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway

  4. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates

  5. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  6. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  7. Teaching Tolerance? Associational Diversity and Tolerance Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Freitag, Markus

    2015-01-01

    , a closer look is taken at how associational diversity relates to the formation of tolerance and the importance of associations as schools of tolerance are evaluated. The main theoretical argument follows contact theory, wherein regular and enduring contact in diverse settings reduces prejudice and thereby...

  8. Cytokine concentration in aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Tao, Yong; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    To measure the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The clinical interventional study included a study group of 18 patients with exudative AMD and a control group of 20 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Age did not vary significantly (p = 0.36) between study group (80.8 ± 6.4 years) and control group (77.0 ± 9.9 years), nor did gender (p = 0.75). During the interventions, aqueous humour samples were obtained, in which the concentration of cytokines was measured using a solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Macular thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the study group as compared to the control group, significantly higher concentrations were measured for epithelial growth factor (EGF) (p = 0.017), human growth factor (HGF) (p= 0.048), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) (p = 0.028), interleukin 12p40 (IL12p40) (p = 0.009), interleukin 1a2 (IL1a2) (p = 0.01), interleukin 3 (IL3) (p = 0.02), interleukin 6 (IL6) (p = 0.006), interleukin 8 (IL8) (p = 0.02), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.048), monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) (p = 0.016), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) (p = 0.004) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) (p = 0.006). Macular thickness was significantly associated with the concentrations of EGF (p = 0.001), HGF (p = 0.02), ICAM1 (p = 0.001), interleukin 12p40 (p = 0.006), IL 1a2 (p = 0.002), MIG (p = 0.001), MMP9 (p < 0.001) and PAI1 (p = 0.01). Interleukin 6 and MCP-1 showed significant associations with the height of retinal pigment epithelium detachment. Numerous cytokines are associated with the presence and the amount of exudative AMD. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  9. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  10. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  11. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  12. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  13. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  14. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  15. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum...

  16. Autologous Translocation of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Choroid in the Treatment of Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J.M. Maaijwee (Kristel Johanna Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most important cause of irreversible legal blindness in elderly persons in industrialized countries. AMD has two forms: atrophic (dry) and exudative (wet). In the wet form, abnormal blood vessels, arising from the choriocapillaris (choroidal

  17. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-02

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

  18. Complex genetics of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related pediatric retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary vitreoretinal disorder that can cause various types of retinal detachments. The abnormalities in eyes with FEVR are caused by poor vascularization in the peripheral retina. The genetics of FEVR is highly heterogeneous, and mutations in the genes for Wnt signaling and a transcription factor have been reported to be responsible for FEVR. These factors have been shown to be the regulators of the pathophysiological pathways of retinal vascular development. Studies conducted to identify the causative genes of FEVR have uncovered a diverse and complex relationship between FEVR and other diseases; for example, Norrie disease, a Mendelian-inherited disease; retinopathy of prematurity, a multifactorial genetic disease; and Coats disease, a nongenetic disease, associated with pediatric retinal detachments. PMID:29018668

  19. A mutation in the Norrie disease gene (NDP) associated with X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Battinelli, E M; Fielder, A; Bundey, S; Sims, K; Breakefield, X O; Craig, I W

    1993-10-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder characterized by an abnormality of the peripheral retina. Both autosomal dominant (adFEVR) and X-linked (XLFEVR) forms have been described, but the biochemical defect(s) underlying the symptoms are unknown. Molecular analysis of the Norrie gene locus (NDP) in a four generation FEVR family (shown previously to exhibit linkage to the X-chromosome markers DXS228 and MAOA (Xp11.4-p11.3)) reveals a missense mutation in the highly conserved region of the NDP gene, which caused a neutral amino acid substitution (Leu124Phe), was detected in all of the affected males, but not in the unaffected family members, nor in normal controls. The observations suggest that phenotypes of both XLFEVR and Norrie disease can result from mutations in the same gene.

  20. Flavonoids and Strigolactones in Root Exudates as Signals in Symbiotic and Pathogenic Plant-Fungus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Vierheilig

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant compounds are important signals in several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. The present review is limited to two groups of secondary plant compounds, flavonoids and strigolactones, which have been reported in root exudates. Data on flavonoids as signaling compounds are available from several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, whereas only recently initial data on the role of strigolactones as plant signals in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis have been reported. Data from other plant-microbe interactions and strigolactones are not available yet. In the present article we are focusing on flavonoids in plant-fungalinteractions such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM association and the signaling between different Fusarium species and plants. Moreover the role of strigolactones in the AM association is discussed and new data on the effect of strigolactones on fungi, apart from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, are provided.

  1. Exudation of fluorescent beta-carbolines from Oxalis tuberosa L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Harsh Pal; Park, Sang-Wook; Stermitz, Frank R; Halligan, Kathleen M; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2002-11-01

    Root fluorescence is a phenomenon in which roots of seedlings fluoresce when irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Soybean (Glycine max) and rye grass (Elymus glaucus) are the only plant species that have been reported to exhibit this occurrence in germinating seedling roots. The trait has been useful as a marker in genetic, tissue culture and diversity studies, and has facilitated selection of plants for breeding purposes. However, the biological significance of this occurrence in plants and other organisms is unknown. Here we report that the Andean tuber crop species Oxalis tuberosa, known as oca in the highlands of South America, secretes a fluorescent compound as part of its root exudates. The main fluorescent compounds were characterized as harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-beta-carboline) and harmaline (3, 4-dihydroharmine). We also detected endogenous root fluorescence in other plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Phytolacca americana, a possible indication that this phenomenon is widespread within the plant kingdom.

  2. Proteogenomics data for deciphering Frankia coriariae interactions with root exudates from three host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Miotello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frankia coriariae BMG5.1 cells were incubated with root exudates derived from compatible (Coriaria myrtifolia, incompatible (Alnus glutinosa and non-actinorhizal (Cucumis melo host plants. Bacteria cells and their exoproteomes were analyzed by high-throughput proteomics using a Q-Exactive HF high resolution tandem mass spectrometer incorporating an ultra-high-field orbitrap analyzer. MS/MS spectra were assigned with two protein sequence databases derived from the closely-related genomes from strains BMG5.1 andDg1, the Frankia symbiont of Datisca glomerata. The tandem mass spectrometry data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis (Ktari et al., 2017, doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00720 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD005979 (whole cell proteomes and PXD005980 (exoproteome data.

  3. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high...... of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated...... that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G′, G″ or η∗ values of the various gums...

  4. Antioxidant activity of a new aromatic geranyl derivative of the resinous exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Rojas, Macarena; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús; Luebert, Federico

    2007-05-21

    Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae) is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2)-7'-methyl-3'-hydroxymethyl-2',6'-octadienyl] phenol (1) and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3) and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) were isolated and their structures were determined. Their antioxidant activity were evaluated using the bleaching of ABTS and DPPH derived cation radical methods and expressed in terms of FRE (fast reacting equivalents) and TRE (total reacting equivalents), where FRE is a good measure of the quick protection of a given compound against oxidants and TRE measures the degree of long-term protection of the antioxidant, or how effective it is against a strong oxidative stress.

  5. Bacteria from wheat and cucurbit plant roots metabolize PAHs and aromatic root exudates: Implications for rhizodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F

    2017-10-03

    The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits; however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds-morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid-appear to be linked to bacterial degradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in the rhizosphere.

  6. Root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants of pakistan exhibit allelopathic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Ahmed, Z.I.; Razzaq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants commonly used in Pakistan by plant box and sandwich methods, respectively. In sandwich method, lettuce seedlings were grown with the dry leaf leachates of the selected plant species in a growing media at the rate of 5, 10 and 50 mg dish-1 in a completely randomized design with three replications. Their effects on hypocotyl and radicle growth of the lettuce were recorded as a percentage of untreated control. Data was subjected for analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by Tukey's HSD test at p<0.05. Results indicated that allelopathic effects of the leaf leachates of all selected plant species on the hypocotyl and radicle elongations of the lettuce varied significantly in all concentrations used in experiments. The hypocotyl growth of the lettuce seedlings was affected from promotion (6.71% inhibition) caused by Phlaris minor to inhibition (78.40%) by Withania somnifera. Both species suppressed the radicle length from 33.69-93.30%. Leachates of W. somnifera and Sarcococca saligna exhibited strong inhibitory results in a concentration dependant manner. After the growth period of 50 days, root exudates of S. saligna appeared most detrimental (78.00% inhibition) to radicle growth of the lettuce seedling followed by W. somnifera (75.00%) when tested by plant box method. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further joint research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature and in the development of new and potent bioherbicides to combat environmental risk. (author)

  7. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, S R; Sams, A R

    1998-01-01

    Development of rigor mortis at elevated post-mortem temperatures may contribute to turkey meat characteristics that are similar to those found in pale, soft, exudative pork. To evaluate this effect, 36 Nicholas tom turkeys were processed at 19 wk of age and placed in water at 40, 20, and 0 C immediately after evisceration. Pectoralis muscle samples were taken at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h post-mortem and analyzed for R-value (an indirect measure of adenosine triphosphate), glycogen, pH, color, and sarcomere length. At 4 h, the remaining intact Pectoralis muscle was harvested, and aged on ice 23 h, and analyzed for drip loss, cook loss, shear values, and sarcomere length. By 15 min post-mortem, the 40 C treatment had higher R-values, which persisted through 4 h. By 1 h, the 40 C treatment pH and glycogen levels were lower than the 0 C treatment; however, they did not differ from those of the 20 C treatment. Increased L* values indicated that color became more pale by 2 h post-mortem in the 40 C treatment when compared to the 20 and 0 C treatments. Drip loss, cook loss, and shear value were increased whereas sarcomere lengths were decreased as a result of the 40 C treatment. These findings suggested that elevated post-mortem temperatures during processing resulted in acceleration of rigor mortis and biochemical changes in the muscle that produced pale, exudative meat characteristics in turkey.

  8. Clinical Features and Course of Patients with Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cebeci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients who were followed in our clinic with the diagnosis of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHC. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 12 patients who were diagnosed with PEHC in İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology between July 2006 and June 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: This study included 21 eyes of 12 patients. Four (33.3% of the patients were male and 8 (66.7% were female and ages ranged between 73 and 89 years. Eight (66.7% of the patients were referred to us with the diagnosis of choroidal mass. Unilateral involvement was found in 3 and bilateral involvement in 9 patients. Temporal quadrants were involved in all eyes. Fifteen eyes (71.4% had subretinal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic/serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment, 11 (52.4% had lipid exudation, 5 (23.8% had chronic retinal pigment epithelium alterations, 2 (9.5% had subretinal fibrosis and 1 (4.8% had vitreous hemorrhage. PEHC lesions were accompanied by drusen in 11 eyes (52.4%, geographic atrophy in 2 eyes (9.5%, and choroidal neovascularization scar in 2 eyes (9.5%. Treatment was done in both eyes of a patient for lesions which threatened the macula, in a patient with bilateral macular edema and in a patient with vitreous hemorrhage. The remaining eyes were followed-up without any treatment because the lesions did not threaten the macula and they showed no progression during follow-up. Conclusion: PEHC is a degenerative disease of peripheral retina that is seen in older patients, and signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD may accompany this pathology. Especially in patients with AMD findings, the peripheral retina must be evaluated carefully for existing PEHC lesions.

  9. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  10. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ΔG° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  11. Superior cervical gangliectomy induces non-exudative age-related macular degeneration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán H. Dieguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent cause of blindness, is a progressive and degenerative disease characterized by alterations in Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and photoreceptors exclusively localized in the macula. Although experimental murine models exist, the vast majority take a long time to develop retinal alterations and, in general, these alterations are ubiquitous, with many resulting from non-eye-specific genetic manipulations; additionally, most do not always reproduce the hallmarks of human age-related macular degeneration. Choroid vessels receive sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion, which, together with the parasympathetic system, regulates blood flow into the choroid. Choroid blood flow changes have been involved in age-related macular degeneration development and progression. At present, no experimental models take this factor into account. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of superior cervical gangliectomy (also known as ganglionectomy on the choroid, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Adult male C57BL/6J mice underwent unilateral superior cervical gangliectomy and a contralateral sham procedure. Although superior cervical gangliectomy induced ubiquitous choroid and choriocapillaris changes, it induced Bruch's membrane thickening, loss of retinal pigment epithelium melanin content and retinoid isomerohydrolase, the appearance of drusen-like deposits, and retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor atrophy, exclusively localized in the temporal side. Moreover, superior cervical gangliectomy provoked a localized increase in retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor apoptosis, and a decline in photoreceptor electroretinographic function. Therefore, superior cervical gangliectomy recapitulated the main features of human non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, and could become a new experimental model of dry age

  12. Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C

    2013-12-01

    The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  14. Superior cervical gangliectomy induces non-exudative age-related macular degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Hernán H; Romeo, Horacio E; González Fleitas, María F; Aranda, Marcos L; Milne, Georgia A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Dorfman, Damián

    2018-02-07

    Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent cause of blindness, is a progressive and degenerative disease characterized by alterations in Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and photoreceptors exclusively localized in the macula. Although experimental murine models exist, the vast majority take a long time to develop retinal alterations and, in general, these alterations are ubiquitous, with many resulting from non-eye-specific genetic manipulations; additionally, most do not always reproduce the hallmarks of human age-related macular degeneration. Choroid vessels receive sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion, which, together with the parasympathetic system, regulates blood flow into the choroid. Choroid blood flow changes have been involved in age-related macular degeneration development and progression. At present, no experimental models take this factor into account. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of superior cervical gangliectomy (also known as ganglionectomy) on the choroid, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Adult male C57BL/6J mice underwent unilateral superior cervical gangliectomy and a contralateral sham procedure. Although superior cervical gangliectomy induced ubiquitous choroid and choriocapillaris changes, it induced Bruch's membrane thickening, loss of retinal pigment epithelium melanin content and retinoid isomerohydrolase, the appearance of drusen-like deposits, and retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor atrophy, exclusively localized in the temporal side. Moreover, superior cervical gangliectomy provoked a localized increase in retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor apoptosis, and a decline in photoreceptor electroretinographic function. Therefore, superior cervical gangliectomy recapitulated the main features of human non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, and could become a new experimental model of dry age-related macular degeneration, and

  15. Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattusamy, Loganathan; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Jain, Deepali; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Arava, Sudheer; Khilnani, Gopi C; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 ± 14.1 years (range: 17-78 years). Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%)], tuberculosis (TB) [10 (20.83%) patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%)]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5%) patients and TB in 2 (4.17%) patients. Fourteen (29.17%) patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17%) patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7%) patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative

  16. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  17. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  18. Association of exudative age-related macular degeneration with matrix metalloproteinases-2 (-1306 C/T rs243865 gene polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Liutkeviciene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a disease of the macula that significantly affects eyesight and leads to irreversible central vision loss. Recent studies have demonstrated that angiogenesis is the most important mechanism of AMD development. It is associated with extracellular remodeling involving different proteolytic systems, among them matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which play an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of AMD. The main objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between exudative AMD and MMP-2 (-1306 C/T rs243865 polymorphism. Methods: The study enrolled 267 patients with exudative AMD and 318 controls. DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood leukocytes by commercial kits. Genotyping of MMP-2 (-1306 C/T rs243865 was carried out using real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results: The analysis of MMP-2 (-1306 C/T polymorphism did not reveal any differences in the distribution of CC, CT, and TT genotypes between the exudative AMD and control groups: 58.8%, 31.5% and 9.7% vs. 59.75%, 33.96% and 6.29%, respectively, P = 0.287. When the study population was subdivided into age groups, MMP-2 (-1306 C/T rs243865 CT genotype showed 5.7-fold increased the risk of exudative AMD development compared to CC and TT genotypes together in younger (<65 years males group (P = 0.05. Conclusion: MMP-2 (-1306 C/T polymorphism is associated with exudative AMD development in younger males.

  19. Differential exudation of two benzoxazinoids--one of the determining factors for seedling allelopathy of Triticeae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Hurle, Karl

    2005-01-26

    Benzoxazinoids (Bx) are natural phytotoxins that function as chemical defense compounds in several species. The release of Bx by intact plant roots associated these compounds with root allelopathy in Triticeae species; however, the significance of exudate concentrations of Bx for plant-plant interactions is still a controversial question. A biological screening of 146 cultivars of four Triticeae species (Triticum aestivum L., Triticum durum Desf., Triticum spelta L., and Secale cereale L.) demonstrated a high cultivar dependence to suppress the root growth of Sinapis alba L. by root allelopathy in a dose-response bioassay. Only a few cultivars possessed a marked high or low allelopathic activity, whereby high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis of root exudates revealed that these cultivars differed considerably in their ability to exude the two Bx aglucones, DIBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one] and DIMBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one]. The total amount of DIBOA and DIMBOA exuded showed a significant correlation to the growth inhibition in bioassay with a statistically estimated contribution to the overall allelopathic effect of 48-72%. In a bioassay with pure phytotoxins, Bx concentrations consistent with the amounts quantified in the screening bioassay caused detrimental effects on S. alba and almost reproduced the statistically estimated contribution. The observed causal association between the allelopathic activity under laboratory conditions and the exudate concentrations of Bx suggests that this association might have implications for the interference of Triticeae species in natural plant communities.

  20. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

  1. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  2. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  3. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  4. Melhoramento do trigo: X. Estimativas da herdabilidade e correlações entre tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio e produção de grãos com outros caracteres agronômicos em trigo Wheat breeding: X. Heritability estimates and associations of tolerance to aluminum toxicity and grain yield with other agronomic characteristics in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando estimar a herdabilidade para várias características da planta de trigo (tolerância ao Al3+, altura, produção de grãos, número de espigas, número de espiguetas e de grãos por espiga, número de grãos por espigueta, peso de cem grãos e comprimento da espiga, bem como as correlações entre produção de grãos com sete caracteres agronômicos e aquelas entre tolerância ao alumínio com produção de grãos, altura das plantas e número de grãos por espigueta (fertilidade da espiga, foram efetuados cruzamentos entre o cultivar de porte semi-anão Alondra S-46, e os de porte alto 'IAC-5', 'BH-1146' e 'C-3'. Plântulas representando os pais, as gerações F1 e F2 e os retrocruzamentos para ambos os pais foram testados para a reação a 6mg/litro de Al3+ em solução nutritiva. As plantas, devidamente identificadas, foram transplantadas em número de quatro por vaso, empregando-se no total 500 vasos dispostos em quatro blocos ao acaso. Os dados referentes à produção de grãos e a outros caracteres agronômicos foram obtidos de plantas individuais. Os valores da herdabilidade no sentido restrito para comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga, peso de cem grãos e altura da planta foram 0,885; 0,748; 0,760 e 0,720 respectivamente, e de 0,413 e 0,588 para número de espigas por planta e de espiguetas por espiga. Para os demais caracteres estudados, os valores estimados foram baixos, variando de 0,072 a 0,224. Esses resultados indicaram que grande parte da variabilidade genética total para comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga, peso de cem grãos e altura das plantas está associada a uma ação aditiva dos genes. Nas populações estudadas, a característica produção de grãos foi correlacionada significativamente com todos os caracteres agronômicos estudados com exceção do caráter número de espiguetas por espiga. Nessas populações, a tolerância ao alumínio não foi associada com altura das

  5. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  6. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  7. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  8. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-02-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Impact of Microcystis aeruginosa Exudate on the Formation and Reactivity of Iron Oxide Particles Following Fe(II) and Fe(III) Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Wang, Kai; Waite, T David

    2017-05-16

    Impact of the organic exudate secreted by a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa on the formation, aggregation, and reactivity of iron oxides that are formed on addition of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts to a solution of the exudate is investigated in this study. The exudate has a stabilizing effect on the particles formed with decreased aggregation rate and increased critical coagulant concentration required for diffusion-limited aggregation to occur. These results suggest that the presence of algal exudates from Microcystis aeruginosa may significantly influence particle aggregation both in natural water bodies where Fe(II) oxidation results in oxide formation and in water treatment where Fe(III) salts are commonly added to aid particle growth and contaminant capture. The exudate also affects the reactivity of iron oxide particles formed with exudate coated particles undergoing faster dissolution than bare iron oxide particles. This has implications to iron availability, especially where algae procure iron via dissolution of iron oxide particles as a result of either reaction with reducing moieties, light-mediated ligand to metal charge transfer and/or reaction with siderophores. The increased reactivity of exudate coated particles is attributed, for the most part, to the smaller size of these particles, higher surface area and increased accessibility of surface sites.

  10. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  11. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  12. [Influence of aluminum and manganese on the growth, nutrient uptake and the efflux by ectomycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yuan, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Al3+ and Mn2+ limit forest growth and vegetation restoration in strongly acidic soils and mining areas of aluminum and manganese. The knowledge on the influence of these two elements on ectomycorrhizal fungi can provide theoretical and technical supports for the selection of powerful ectomycorrhizal fungal strains and the bioremediation of contaminated soil. Three ectomycorrhizal fungal strains, namely Suillus luteus 13 (Sl 13), Cenococcum geophilum 04 (Cg 04) and Pisolithus tinctorius 715 (Pt 715), were grown in liquid culture mediums with Al3+ and Mn2+ added alone and together to investigate fungal growth, nutrient uptake and organic acid efflux. The results showed that the biomass of Sl 13, Cg 04 and Pt 715 was decreased by 70.35%, 52.44% and 18.55%, respectively, under Mn2+ stress. Al3 also decreased the biomass of Sl 13 by 50.74% but increased that of Cg 04. The growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi was further inhibited when grown in culture solutions with addition of both Mn2+ and Al3 and the least growth inhibition was found with Pt 715. Cg 04 might thus have a strong resistance to Al3+ stress and Pt 715 to both Al3+ and Mn2+ compared to the others. Al3+ and Mn2+ decreased the nutrient uptake by the fungi, particularly by Sl 13 which showed more obvious reduction than Pt 715 and Cg 04. However, Al3+ and Mn2+ increased the efflux of oxalic acid and protons by ectomycorrhizal fungi. An additional oxalic acid exudation by Cg 04 was observed in the coexistence of Al3+ and Mn2+ and Pt 715 exuded not only oxalic acid but also succinic acid. Therefore, ectomycorrhizal fungi resistant to Mn2+ and Al3+ could effuse more organic acids than the sensitive ones in order to alleviate the harmfulness through complexation under the stress.

  13. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  14. Crescimento, morfologia radicular e liberação de compostos orgânicos por plântulas de soja em função da atividade de alumínio na solução do solo de campo natural Growth, root morphology and organic compounds released by soybean seedlings as a function of aluminum activity in a field soil solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Nolla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade do alumínio em solos é considerada uma das maiores limitações para a produção das culturas. No entanto, algumas plantas são capazes de tolerar altas concentrações de alumínio por sua complexação com ácidos orgânicos exsudados pelas raízes. No intuito de estudar os efeitos concomitantes de faixas pH e de alumínio no desenvolvimento radicular de plântulas de soja, desenvolveu-se um trabalho na solução de um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico de campo natural. Cultivou-se, em câmara de crescimento, plântulas pré-germinadas de soja durante três dias dentro de tubos de ensaio aerados contendo 40ml da solução do solo (4,2µmol de Al L-1, submetidos a quatro concentrações de alumínio (0,0; 0,3; 0,6 e 1,2µmol L-1 e três níveis de pH (4,0; 5,0 e 6,0. O crescimento radicular e da parte aérea da soja foi menor em condições mais ácidas (pH 4,0. Em condições de acidez intermediária (pH H2O 5,0, o crescimento radicular foi menos afetado pelas espécies rizotóxicas de alumínio, mesmo quando submetidas a elevadas concentrações de alumínio na solução do solo.Aluminum toxicity in soils is considered one of the major limitations to crop production. However, some plants are able to tolerate high aluminum concentrations due to its complexation with root organic acids exudates. The simultaneous effect of pH ranges and aluminum concentration in soil solution on soybean seedlings root development was studied in a Rhodic Paleudult soil solution under natural grasses vegetation. Soybean seedlings were grown in growth chamber for three days in aerated test tubes containing 40ml soil solution (4.2µmol Al L-1, submmited to four aluminum concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2mmol L-1 and three pH levels (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0. Root and aerial growth decreased under more acidic conditions (pH 4.0. Root growth was less affected by rhyzotoxic aluminum species at pH 5.0, even when submitted to high concentration of

  15. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  16. Tolerance in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2009-01-01

    The set of genes that underlie ethanol tolerance (inducible resistance) are likely to overlap with the set of genes responsible for ethanol addiction. Whereas addiction is difficult to recognize in simple model systems, behavioral tolerance is readily identifiable and can be induced in large populations of animals. Thus, tolerance lends itself to analysis in model systems with powerful genetics. Drosophila melanogaster has been used by a variety of laboratories for the identification of genes...

  17. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  18. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  19. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  20. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  1. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  2. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  3. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  4. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  5. Norrie disease and exudative vitreoretinopathy in families with affected female carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B S; Hiraoka, M; Trese, D C; Trese, M T

    1999-01-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness, which is often associated with sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder characterized by an abnormality of the peripheral retina and is not associated with systemic diseases. X-linked recessive disorders generally do not affect females. Here we show that female carriers can be associated with manifestation of an X-linked disorder. A four-generation family with an affected female, and a history of congenital blindness and hearing loss, was identified through the pro-band. A second family, with a full-term female infant, was evaluated through ophthalmic examinations and found to exhibit ocular features, such as retinal folds, retinal detachment and peripheral exudates. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from several affected and unaffected family members. DNA was extracted and analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the exons of the Norrie disease gene. The amplified products were sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. In an X-linked four-generation family, a novel missense (A118D) mutation in the third exon of the Norrie disease gene, was identified. The mutation was transmitted through three generations and cosegregated with the disease. The affected maternal grandmother and the unaffected mother carried the same mutation in one of their alleles. In an unrelated sporadic family, a heterozygous missense mutation (C96Y) was identified in the third exon of the Norrie disease gene in an affected individual. Analysis of exon-1 and 2 of the Norrie disease gene did not reveal any additional sequence alterations in these families. The mutations were not detected in the unaffected family members and the 116 normal unrelated controls, suggesting that they are likely to be the pathogenic mutations

  6. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  7. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  8. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  9. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  10. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  11. The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yuanmei; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2004-01-01

    The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14 C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 μm nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

  12. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary...... a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway...... for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N...

  13. Diversity and function of the microbial community on anodes of sediment microbial fuel cells fueled by root exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas da Rosa, Angela

    2010-11-26

    Anode microbial communities are essential for current production in microbial fuel cells. Anode reducing bacteria are capable of using the anode as final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain. The electrons delivered to the anode travel through a circuit to the cathode where they reduce oxygen to water generating an electric current. A novel type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) harvest energy from photosynthetically derived compounds released through the roots. Nothing is known about anode microbial communities of this type of microbial fuel cell. This work consists of three parts. The first part focuses on the study of bacterial and archaeal community compositions on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudates. By using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a profiling technique, and cloning / sequencing of 16S rRNA, we determined that the support type used for the plant (vermiculite, potting soil or rice field soil) is an important factor determining the composition of the microbial community. Finally, by comparing microbial communities of current producing anodes and non-current producing controls we determined that Desulfobulbus- and Geobacter-related populations were probably most important for current production in potting soil and rice field soil SMFCs, respectively. However, {delta}-proteobacterial Anaeromyxobacter spp., unclassified {delta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae were also part of the anode biofilm in rice field soil SMFCs and these populations might also play a role in current production. Moreover, distinct clusters of Geobacter and Anaeromyxobacter populations were stimulated by rice root exudates. Regarding Archaea, uncultured Euryarchaea were abundant on anodes of potting soil SMFCs indicating a potential role in current production. In both, rice field soil and potting soil SMFCs, a decrease of Methanosaeta, an acetotrophic methanogen, was detected on current producing anodes. In the second part we focused

  14. [The assessment of the effectiveness of fenspiride (erespal) for the combined treatment of the patients presenting with exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'chinskiĭ, A N; Vasilenko, D Iu; Kiseleva, G V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness and safety of combined anti-inflammatory therapy of exudative otitis media with the use of fenspiride (erespal). The study included 75 patients of whom 35 (group 1) were given standard therapy supplemented by erespal (80 mg thrice daily); the remaining patients receiving standard therapy alone formed group 2 (control). The patients treated with erespal reported the subjective improvement of hearing and reduced congestion on days 7 - 8. Similar changes in group 2 occurred on day 10. It is concluded that the use of erespal for the combined treatment of the patients presenting with exudative otitis media reduces the duration of hospital stay, accelerates recovery, and promotes rapid normalization of hearing.

  15. [Quantitive study of interleukin 1beta in periapical exudates of chronic periapical periodontitis in the course of root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei-fang; Liang, Jing-ping; Chen, Wei-min; Gu, Shen-sheng

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between IL-1beta and clinical findings of chronic apical periodontitis and to explore the function of IL-1beta during the endodontic interappointment flare-ups. Periapical exudates samples were obtained from 19 teeth suffering from endodontic flare-ups after root canal preparation and 20 teeth without any symptoms and signs at the second visit after root canal preparation. The levels of IL-1beta were determined by ELISA and the data was analyzed by SAS6.12 software package. Significantly higher levels of IL-1beta were found in periapical exudates from teeth suffering from endodontic flare-ups than that before canal preparation(Pendodontic therapy if there were no symptom at the second visit (Pendodontic interappointment flare-up.

  16. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  18. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types...

  19. Quantification and enzyme targets of fatty acid amides from duckweed root exudates involved in the stimulation of denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Lu, Yufang; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid amides from plant root exudates, such as oleamide and erucamide, have the ability to participate in strong plant-microbe interactions, stimulating nitrogen metabolism in rhizospheric bacteria. However, mechanisms of secretion of such fatty acid amides, and the nature of their stimulatory activities on microbial metabolism, have not been examined. In the present study, collection, pre-treatment, and determination methods of oleamide and erucamide in duckweed root exudates are compared. The detection limits of oleamide and erucamide by gas chromatography (GC) (10.3ngmL(-1) and 16.1ngmL(-1), respectively) are shown to be much lower than those by liquid chromatography (LC) (1.7 and 5.0μgmL(-1), respectively). Quantitative GC analysis yielded five times larger amounts of oleamide and erucamide in root exudates of Spirodela polyrrhiza when using a continuous collection method (50.20±4.32 and 76.79±13.92μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)), compared to static collection (10.88±0.66 and 15.27±0.58μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)). Furthermore, fatty acid amide secretion was significantly enhanced under elevated nitrogen conditions (>300mgL(-1)), and was negatively correlated with the relative growth rate of duckweed. Mechanistic assays were conducted to show that erucamide stimulates nitrogen removal by enhancing denitrification, targeting two key denitrifying enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases, in bacteria. Our findings significantly contribute to our understanding of the regulation of nitrogen dynamics by plant root exudates in natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Strickland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C to soil −primarily via root exudates− are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ~3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ~46 and ~41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function

  1. VARIATION IN RHIZOBIUM GROWTH DUE TO SEED AND ROOT EXUDATES RELEASED FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED GLYCINE MAX SEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMEL, H.A.; ASKER, M.M.S

    2008-01-01

    In this study, seeds of Glycine max Giza 122 were irradiated with gamma rays from 60 Co source at various doses (10 to 200 Gy), sterilized and soaked into an aerated solution of CaSO 4 (1 mmol and pH 6.5). The capacities of the released seed exudates (SEs) and root exudates (REs) to promote Rhizobium leguminosarum growth were investigated as well as biochemical analysis of the exudates was carried out. SE of both control and gamma irradiated seeds resulted in a higher Rhizobium population and polysaccharide production than RE. Relative to control, the highly effective doses in Rhizobium growth and polysaccharide production were 25 and 200 Gy; the former was a promoter while the later was an inhibitor. HPLC analysis of soluble carbohydrates revealed the presence of glucose (Glu), rhamnose (Rha) and fructose (Fru) in the SE and RE. Protein content in SE was lower than that in RE; the highest values were due to 10 Gy and 25 Gy in SE and RE, respectively. Free amino acids content in SE was increased up to 25 Gy then decreased while RE was increased by increasing gamma doses from 10 to 200 Gy

  2. Diagnosis of non-exudative (DRY) age related macular degeneration by non-invasive photon-correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz Ii; Ott, Maria; Munteanu, Mihnea

    2016-01-01

    Photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy) allows the non-invasively reveal of local dynamics and local heterogeneities of macromolecular systems. The capability of this technique to diagnose the retinal pathologies by in-vivo investigations of spatial anomalies of retinas displaying non-exudative senile macular degeneration was evaluated. Further, the potential use of the technique for the diagnosis of the macular degeneration was analyzed and displayed by the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC). The maculae and the peripheral retina of 73 normal eyes and of 26 eyes afflicted by an early stage of non-exudative senile macular degeneration were characterized by time-correlation functions and analyzed in terms of characteristic decay times and apparent size distributions. The characteristics of the obtained time-correlation functions of the eyes afflicted with nonexudative macular degeneration and of normal eyes differed significantly, which could be referred to a significant change of the nano- and microstructure of the investigated pathologic maculas. Photon-correlation spectroscopy is able to assess the macromolecular and microstructural aberrations in the macula afflicted by non-exudative, senile macular degeneration. It has been demonstrated that macromolecules of this disease show a characteristic abnormal behavior in the macula.

  3. [Balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, O V; Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Soldatsky, Yu L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media. A total of 15 children (22 ears) at the age from 3 to 16 years suffering from relapsing exudative otitis media over 18 months in duration were available for the examination. Neither conservative nor surgical treatment produced any stable beneficial effect in these patients. Acoustic impedancometry yielded type B tympanograms. All the children were treated with the use of balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube under endotracheal anesthesia. The follow-up examination carried out within 6--8 weeks after the treatment revealed the complete recovery of the function of the middle ear (type A tympanograms) in 11 (73.3%) children. Partial restoration of this function (as evidenced by type C tympanogram) was documented in 4 children. These patients underwent the second course of conservative therapy that resulted in the complete restoration of the function of the middle ear. It is concluded that balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media provides the efficient and safe approach to the management of this condition. Being a minimally invasive method, it has good prospects for the practical application and is worth further investigation.

  4. Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8 : 10.9 : 35.5 : 6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200 MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55 °C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity.

  5. Evaluation of putative allelochemicals in rice root exudates for their role in the suppression of arrowhead root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Alexa N; Haig, Terry; Pratley, James E

    2004-08-01

    In previous studies, 15 putative allelopathic compounds detected in rice root exudates were quantified by GC/MS/MS. In this study, multiple regression analysis on these compounds determined that five selected phenolics, namely caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids, from rice exudates were best correlated with the observed allelopathic effect on arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) root growth. Despite this positive association, determination of the phenolic acid dose-response curve established that the amount quantified in the exudates was much lower than the required threshold concentration for arrowhead inhibition. A similar dose-response curve resulted from a combination of all 15 quantified compounds. Significant differences between the amounts of trans-ferulic acid, abietic acid, and an indole also existed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice cultivars. The potential roles of these three compounds in rice allelopathy were examined by chemoassay. Overall, neither the addition of trans-ferulic acid nor 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid to the phenolic mix significantly contributed to phytotoxicity, although at higher concentrations, trans-ferulic acid appeared to act antagonistically to the phytotoxic effects of the phenolic mix. The addition of abietic acid also decreased the inhibitory effect of the phenolic mix. These studies indicate that the compounds quantified are not directly responsible for the observed allelopathic response. It is possible that the amount of phenolic acids may be indirectly related to the chemicals finally responsible for the observed allelopathic effect.

  6. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarossi, Giancarlo; Bertelli, Matteo; Maltese, Paolo Enrico; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Bruson, Alice; Benedetti, Sabrina; Volpetti, Sabrina; Catena, Gino; Buzzonetti, Luca; Ziccardi, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7-19 years) were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: FZD4 , LRP5 , TSPAN12 , and NDP . Clinical and genetic evaluations were extended to relatives of probands positive to genetic testing. Six out of eight probands (75%) showed a genetic variation probably related to the phenotype. We identified four novel genetic variants, one variant already described in association with Norrie disease and one previously described linked to autosomal dominant FEVR. Pedigree analysis of patients led to the classification of four autosomal dominant cases of FEVR (caused by FZD4 and TSPAN12 variants) and two X-linked FEVR probands ( NDP variants). None of the patients showed variants in the LRP5 gene. This study represents the largest cohort study in Italian FEVR patients. Our findings are in agreement with the previous literature confirming that FEVR is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder, even when it manifests in the same family.

  7. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  8. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100 were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2. pH and temperature (T values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS. The ultimate pH (pHu value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  10. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Properties of Flavonoids from Heliotropium subulatum Exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Ram A

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium subulatum is an erect or procumbent perennial herb; leaves contain foliar trichomes and its resinous exudate is used in traditional medicine. The anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated flavonoids was evaluated by using carrageenan and CFA-induced paw oedema models. Similarly, the disc diffusion and microdilution methods were used for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. Five isolated flavonoids were investigated for their antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Eriodictyol demonstrated maximum anti-inflammatory activity (53.09%) at 30.0 mg/kg dose on 6(th) h and similarly, it inhibited the CFA-induced arthritis swelling (41.84%) with 30.0 mg/kg dose on 8(th) day respectively. As per disc diffusion and microdilution methods used for antimicrobial activity determination, the pinocembrin was found to be most active against Staphylococcus aureus (IZ=27±0.7 mm, 08 μg/ml dose) and Candida albicans (IZ=17±0.9 mm; 12 μg/ml dose). These investigated results revealed that the eriodictyol and pinocembrin showed significant anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Further studies which aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of these isolated flavonoids in the treatment of inflammations and various types of infections have been initiated.

  12. Predictive Factors in OCT Analysis for Visual Outcome in Exudative AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Andreea Gamulescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable predictive factors for therapy outcome may enable treating physicians to counsel their patients more efficiently concerning probability of improvement or time point of discontinuation of a certain therapy. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 87 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration who received three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Visual acuity before initiation of intravitreal therapy and 4–6 weeks after last intravitreal injection was compared and related to the preoperative visualisation of continuity of the outer retinal layers as assessed by OCT: external limiting membrane (ELM, inner photoreceptor segments (IPS, junction between inner and outer segments (IS/OS, and outer photoreceptor segments (OPS. Results. Visual acuity increased in 40 of 87 (46.0% patients, it remained stable in 25 (28.7%, and 22 (25.3% patients had decreased visual acuity four to six weeks after triple intravitreal ranibizumab injections. No statistically significant predictive value could be demonstrated for grade of continuity of outer retinal layers concerning visual acuity development. Conclusions. In our series of AMD patients, grade of continuity of outer retinal layers was not a significant predictive value for visual acuity development after triple ranibizumab injections.

  13. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1→4)-linked β-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked α-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, β-Arap, β-Galp, and α-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of α-GlcpA O-3 linked at β-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, α-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated detection of exudates and macula for grading of diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, M Younus

    2014-04-01

    Medical systems based on state of the art image processing and pattern recognition techniques are very common now a day. These systems are of prime interest to provide basic health care facilities to patients and support to doctors. Diabetic macular edema is one of the retinal abnormalities in which diabetic patient suffers from severe vision loss due to affected macula. It affects the central vision of the person and causes total blindness in severe cases. In this article, we propose an intelligent system for detection and grading of macular edema to assist the ophthalmologists in early and automated detection of the disease. The proposed system consists of a novel method for accurate detection of macula using a detailed feature set and Gaussian mixtures model based classifier. We also present a new hybrid classifier as an ensemble of Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine for improved exudate detection even in the presence of other bright lesions which eventually leads to reliable classification of input retinal image in different stages of macular edema. The statistical analysis and comparative evaluation of proposed system with existing methods are performed on publicly available standard retinal image databases. The proposed system has achieved average value of 97.3%, 95.9% and 96.8% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy respectively on both databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on rheological properties of polysaccharides exuded by A. fluccosus and A. gossypinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Samira; Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, Iranian gum tragacanth (GT) exudates from Astragalus fluccosus (AFG) and Astragalus gossypinus (AGG) were irradiated at 3, 7, 10 and 15 kGy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data showed that irradiation did not induce changes in the chemical structure of either type of gum. Although particle size distribution and both steady shear and dynamic rheological properties were considerably affected by the irradiation process, the magnitude of the effect of irradiation on each of the rheological and size variables was different for the hydrocolloids. For instance, for AGG, increasing the irradiation dose from 3 to 10 kGy, the d(0.5) and D[3,2] values were reduced by one-sixth to one-eighth fold. Colour measurement revealed that the radiation process led to an increase in the yellow index and b* values for both types of GT in powder form, but it was more pronounced for AGG samples. Irradiation led to an approximate 13-fold increase in redness in AFG. Surface and shape changes of the gum crystals were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a smoother surface for irradiated samples was detected. The notable changes in functional properties of each variety of irradiated gum should be taken into consideration before using the radiation technology as a commercial tool for sterilisation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGiovannetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM germinated spore exudates (GSE, responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 h and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (acknowledged AM fungal signals and long chitin oligomers (as activators of pathogenic responses. This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 hours and a subsequent downregulation after 48 hours. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be upregulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long chitin oligomers activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

  18. Screening for NDP mutations in 44 unrelated patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy or Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiqin; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Guo, Xiangming; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2012-08-01

    To screen mutations in the norrin (NDP) gene in 44 unrelated Chinese patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR, 38 cases) or Norrie disease (6 cases) and to describe the associated phenotypes. Of the 44 patients, mutation in FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12 was excluded in 38 patients with FEVR in previous study. Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the 2 coding exons and their adjacent regions of NDP in the 44 patients. Clinical data were presented for patients with mutation. NDP variants in 5 of the 6 patients with Norrie disease were identified, including a novel missense mutation (c.164G>A, p.Cys55Phe) in one patient, two known missense mutations (c.122G>A, p.Arg41Lys; c.220C>T, p.Arg74Cys) in two patients, and a gross deletion encompassing the two coding exons in two patients. Of the 5 patients, 3 had a family history and 2 were singleton cases. No mutation in NDP was detected in the 38 patients with FEVR. NDP mutations are common cause of Norrie disease but might be rare cause for FEVR in Chinese.

  19. Mutations in the NDP gene: contribution to Norrie disease, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Joanne L; Sale, Michèle M; Passmore, Abraham; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Wheatley, Catherine M; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Carden, Susan M; Maclean, Hector; Mackey, David A

    2006-01-01

    To examine the contribution of mutations within the Norrie disease (NDP) gene to the clinically similar retinal diseases Norrie disease, X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), Coat's disease and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A dataset comprising 13 Norrie-FEVR, one Coat's disease, 31 ROP patients and 90 ex-premature babies of Norrie disease patients. Furthermore, a previously described 14-bp deletion located in the 5' unstranslated region of the NDP gene was detected in three cases of regressed ROP. A second heterozygotic 14-bp deletion was detected in an unaffected ex-premature girl. Only two of the 13 Norrie-FEVR index cases had the full features of Norrie disease with deafness and mental retardation. Two novel mutations within the coding region of the NDP gene were found, one associated with a severe disease phenotypes of Norrie disease and the other with FEVR. A deletion within the non-coding region was associated with only mild-regressed ROP, despite the presence of low birthweight, prematurity and exposure to oxygen. In full-term children with retinal detachment only 15% appear to have the full features of Norrie disease and this is important for counselling parents on the possible long-term outcome.

  20. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Iarossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7–19 years were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: FZD4, LRP5, TSPAN12, and NDP. Clinical and genetic evaluations were extended to relatives of probands positive to genetic testing. Six out of eight probands (75% showed a genetic variation probably related to the phenotype. We identified four novel genetic variants, one variant already described in association with Norrie disease and one previously described linked to autosomal dominant FEVR. Pedigree analysis of patients led to the classification of four autosomal dominant cases of FEVR (caused by FZD4 and TSPAN12 variants and two X-linked FEVR probands (NDP variants. None of the patients showed variants in the LRP5 gene. This study represents the largest cohort study in Italian FEVR patients. Our findings are in agreement with the previous literature confirming that FEVR is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder, even when it manifests in the same family.

  1. Tachyphylaxis after intravitreal bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T

    2009-06-01

    To describe tachyphylaxis to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 consecutive patients treated with IVB at the National Eye Institute over a 14-month period and identified cases demonstrating loss of treatment efficacy as revealed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We defined tachyphylaxis as a loss of therapeutic response to IVB 28 +/- 7 days after administration in an eye that had previously demonstrated a therapeutic response in the same time interval. Five patients (six eyes) were identified as developing tachyphylaxis after repeated treatment with IVB. High-dose IVB (2.50 mg) did not restore therapeutic response in these patients. Bilateral tachyphylaxis to IVB was seen after an episode of unilateral postinjection anterior uveitis. After the first treatment of IVB, the median time taken to develop tachyphylaxis was 100 weeks (range: 31-128 weeks), and the median number of IVB treatments to the development of tachyphylaxis was 8 treatments (range: 5-10 treatments). Tachyphylaxis can occur after long-term intravitreal use of bevacizumab in patients with AMD. The precise mechanism of tachyphylaxis is unclear, but both local and/or systemic factors may be involved.

  2. Tachyphylaxis Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To describe tachyphylaxis to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 consecutive patients treated with IVB at the National Eye Institute over a 14 month period, and identified cases demonstrating loss of treatment efficacy as revealed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We defined tachyphylaxis as a loss of therapeutic response to IVB 28±7 days after administration in an eye which had previously demonstrated a therapeutic response in the same time interval. Results Five patients (6 eyes) were identified as developing tachyphylaxis following repeated treatment with IVB. High-dose IVB (2.50mg) did not restore therapeutic response in these patients. Bilateral tachyphylaxis to IVB was seen following an episode of unilateral post-injection anterior uveitis. After the first treatment of IVB, the median time taken to develop tachyphylaxis was 100 weeks (range: 31-128 weeks), and the median number of IVB treatments to the development of tachyphylaxis was 8 treatments (range: 5-10). Conclusion Tachyphylaxis can occur following long-term intravitreal use of bevacizumab in patients with AMD. The precise mechanism of tachyphylaxis is unclear, but both local and/or systemic factors may be involved. PMID:19516114

  3. Antioxidant Activity of a New Aromatic Geranyl Derivative of the Resinous Exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Luebert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2-7’-methyl-3’-hydroxymethyl-2’,6’-octadienyl] phenol (1 and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3 and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4 were isolated and their structures were determined. Their antioxidant activity were evaluated using the bleaching of ABTS and DPPH derived cation radical methods and expressed in terms of FRE (fast reacting equivalents and TRE (total reacting equivalents, where FRE is a good measure of the quick protection of a given compound against oxidants and TRE measures the degree of long-term protection of the antioxidant, or how effective it is against a strong oxidative stress.

  4. Automated Fovea Detection in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scans of Exudative Macular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT volumes, detection of the foveal center is required for accurate and reproducible follow-up studies, structure function correlation, and measurement grid positioning. However, disease can cause severe obscuring or deformation of the fovea, thus presenting a major challenge in automated detection. We propose a fully automated fovea detection algorithm to extract the fovea position in SD-OCT volumes of eyes with exudative maculopathy. The fovea is classified into 3 main appearances to both specify the detection algorithm used and reduce computational complexity. Based on foveal type classification, the fovea position is computed based on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Mean absolute distance between system and clinical expert annotated fovea positions from a dataset comprised of 240 SD-OCT volumes was 162.3 µm in cystoid macular edema and 262 µm in nAMD. The presented method has cross-vendor functionality, while demonstrating accurate and reliable performance close to typical expert interobserver agreement. The automatically detected fovea positions may be used as landmarks for intra- and cross-patient registration and to create a joint reference frame for extraction of spatiotemporal features in “big data.” Furthermore, reliable analyses of retinal thickness, as well as retinal structure function correlation, may be facilitated.

  5. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature, justifi...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails...

  6. Tolerances in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Zhang, Yang; Islam, Aminul

    This paper describes a method for analysis of tolerances in micro manufacturing. It proposes a mapping oftolerances to dimensions and compares this with current available international standards. The analysisdocuments that tolerances are not scaled down as the absolute dimension. In practice...

  7. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  8. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...

  9. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  10. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv......This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history......, not by invoking a critique external to contemporary democratic theory, but by witnessing the history of tolerance paraliptically, with an eye to what it obscures and yet presupposes....

  11. Quantitative and qualitative effects of phosphorus on extracts and exudates of sudangrass roots in relation to vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, S M; Menge, J A; Leonard, R T

    1983-11-01

    A comparison was made of water-soluble root exudates and extracts of Sorghum vulgare Pers. grown under two levels of P nutrition. An increase in P nutrition significantly decreased the concentration of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids in exudates, and decreased the concentration of carboxylic acids in extracts. Higher P did not affect the relative proportions of specific carboxylic acids and had little effect on proportions of specific amino acids in both extracts and exudates. Phosphorus amendment resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of arabinose and a decrease in the proportion of fructose in exudates, but did not have a large effect on the proportion of individual sugars in extracts. The proportions of specific carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids varied between exudates and extracts. Therefore, the quantity and composition of root extracts may not be a reliable predictor of the availability of substrate for symbiotic vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Comparisons of the rate of leakage of compounds from roots with the growth rate of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggest that the fungus must either be capable of using a variety of organic substrates for growth, or be capable of inducing a much higher rate of movement of specific organic compounds across root cell membranes than occurs through passive exudation as measured in this study.

  12. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  13. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lucy, E-mail: Lucy.lewis@curtin.edu.au [Centre for Nursing Research, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Carson, Sharron [Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Bydder, Sean [Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia); Athifa, Mariyam [School of Nursing and Midwifery Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Williams, Anne M. [School of Nursing and Midwifery Curtin University, Perth (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Bremner, Alexandra [School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lucy; Carson, Sharron; Bydder, Sean; Athifa, Mariyam; Williams, Anne M.; Bremner, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had

  16. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  17. Analysis of intravitreal using of anti vegf-medications for diseases of fundus accompanied by exudation and neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zavgorodnya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, new methods of treatment of choroidal neovascularization are being actively developed and introduced in exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, complicated myopia, diabetic retinopathy and post-thrombotic retinopathy. Medications that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which is the main link in the pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization and hyperfiltration, have become widespread. It is known that damage of endothelial cells of retinal vessels occurs in consequence of oxidative stress that leads to the death of pericytes, hyperfiltration of plasma from the vascular bed, hemorrhages and retinal hypoxia. The intracellular concentration of specific protein that regulates the transcription of genes (HIF-1 increases in response to hypoxic damage in the cells of the retina, which leads to increased transcription of the VEGF gene, which acts directly on the epithelium providing regeneration, stimulating the proliferation and neovascularization. Considering this, anti-VEGF medications have found their application in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in clinical practice. Today, two preparations that block VEGF: selective (pegaptanib and non-selective (ranibizumab are used mostly common. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of anti-VEGF medications in patients with choroidal neovascularization of different genesis. The analysis presents the results of 50 patients (50 eyes treatment with choroidal neovascularization on the background of various diseases of the retina. Pegaptanib ("Macugen" was used for the treatment of 35 patients (35 eyes, the rest (15 eyes - ranibizumab ("Lucentis". According to fluorescein angiography the subretinal neovascular membrane was in the stage of activity in all eyes. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by visometry, ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Application of intravitreal injection of

  18. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  19. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  20. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  1. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  2. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be ...

  3. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  4. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  5. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  6. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  7. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  9. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy L277 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Cho, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties and improved damage tolerance. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate and a limited study on extrusions. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy L277 is typically aged at 290 F for 40 hours. In the study for plate, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a design of experiments study and the one step aging used as a control. Based on the earlier NASA studies on 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 220 F and 260 F. The second step aging temperatures was varied between 290 F and 310 F, which is in the range of the single-step aging temperature. For extrusions, two, single-step, and one two-step aging condition were evaluated. The results of the design of experiments used for the T8 temper as well as a smaller set of experiments for the T6 temper for plate and the results for extrusions will be presented.

  10. Identification of a fourth locus (EVR4) for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomes, Carmel; Downey, Louise M; Bottomley, Helen M; Scott, Sheila; Woodruff, Geoffrey; Trembath, Richard C; Inglehearn, Chris F

    2004-01-15

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited blinding disorder of the retinal vascular system. To date three loci have been mapped: EVR1 on chromosome 11q, EVR2 on chromosome Xp, and EVR3 on chromosome 11p. The gene underlying EVR3 remains unidentified whilst the EVR2 gene, which encodes the Norrie disease protein (NDP), was identified over a decade ago. More recently, FZD4, the gene that encodes the Wnt receptor Frizzled-4, was identified as the mutated gene at the EVR1 locus. The purpose of this study was to screen FZD4 in a large family previously proven to be linked to the EVR1 locus. PCR products were generated using genomic DNA from affected family members with primers designed to amplify the coding sequence of FZD4. The PCR products were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. Genotyping was performed in all available family members using fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers from chromosome 11q. Sequencing of the EVR1 gene, FZD4, in this family identified no mutation. To investigate this family further we performed high-resolution genotyping with markers spanning chromosome 11q. Haplotype analysis excluded FZD4 as the mutated gene in this family and identified a candidate region approximately 10 cM centromeric to EVR1. This new FEVR locus is flanked by markers D11S1368 (centromeric) and D11S937 (telomeric) and spans approximately 15 cM. High-resolution genotyping and haplotype analysis excluded FZD4 as the defective gene in a family previously linked to the EVR1 locus. The results indicate that the gene mutated in this family lies centromeric to the EVR1 gene, FZD4, and is also genetically distinct from the EVR3 locus. This new locus has been designated EVR4 and is the fourth FEVR locus to be described.

  11. Purification, characterization and cloning of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor from squash phloem exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeller, J T; Farley, P C; Ramsay, R J; Sullivan, P A; Laing, W A

    1998-05-15

    Phloem exudate from squash fruit contains heat-inactivated material which inhibits pepsin activity. This inhibitory activity was purified by mild acid treatment, chromatography on trypsin-agarose, Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC, resulting in the elution of three peaks with pepsin-inhibitory activity. N-terminal sequencing indicated a common sequence of MGPGPAIGEVIG and the presence of minor species with seven- or two-amino-acid N-terminal extensions beyond this point. Microheterogeneity in this end sequence was exhibited within and between two preparations. Internal sequencing of a major peak after a trypsin digestion gave the sequence FYNVVVLEK. The common N-terminal sequence was used to design a degenerate primer for 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of the inhibitor were obtained. The open reading frames of both cDNAs encoded proteins (96% identical) which contained the experimentally determined internal sequence. The amino acid content calculated from the predicted amino acid sequence was very similar to that measured by amino acid analysis of the purified inhibitor. The two predicted amino acid sequences (96 residues) had neither similarity to any other aspartic proteinase inhibitor nor similarity to any other protein. The inhibitors have a molecular mass of 10,552 Da, measured by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and approximately 10,000 Da by SDS/PAGE, and behave as dimers of approximately 21,000 Da during chromatography on Superdex G-75 gel-filtration medium. The calculated molecular masses from the predicted amino acid sequences were 10,551 Da and 10,527 Da. The inhibitor was capable of inhibiting pepsin (Ki = 2 nM) and a secreted aspartic proteinase from the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Ki = 20 nM). The inhibitor, which is stable over acid and neutral pH, has been named squash aspartic proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI).

  12. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M.; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. Methods To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Results Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. Conclusions We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling. PMID:28867931

  13. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A.; Evershed, Richard P.; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Goulding, Keith W.T.; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or ‘extracellular polymeric substance’ (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15N labelled KNO3. We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification. PMID:26635420

  14. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asa, Anie Day DC.; De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Baldos, Davison T.; Asaad, Celia O.

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm 2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  15. Novel mutations in Norrie disease gene in Japanese patients with Norrie disease and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyuki; Qin, Minghui; Kusaka, Shunji; Tahira, Tomoko; Hasebe, Haruyuki; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2007-03-01

    To search for mutations in the Norrie disease gene (NDP) in Japanese patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND) and to delineate the mutation-associated clinical features. Direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction of all exons of the NDP gene was performed on blood collected from 62 probands (31 familial and 31 simplex) with FEVR, from 3 probands with ND, and from some of their family members. The clinical symptoms and signs in the patients with mutations were assessed. X-inactivation in the female carriers was examined in three FEVR families by using leukocyte DNA. Four novel mutations-I18K, K54N, R115L, and IVS2-1G-->A-and one reported mutation, R97P, in the NDP gene were identified in six families. The severity of vitreoretinopathy varied among these patients. Three probands with either K54N or R115L had typical features of FEVR, whereas the proband with R97P had those of ND. Families with IVS2-1G-->A exhibited either ND or FEVR characteristics. A proband with I18K presented with significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the two eyes. In addition, affected female carriers in a family harboring the K54N mutation presented with different degrees of vascular abnormalities in the periphery of the retina. X-inactivation profiles indicated that the skewing was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women. These observations indicate that mutations of the NDP gene can cause ND and 6% of FEVR cases in the Japanese population. The X-inactivation assay with leukocytes may not be predictive of the presence of a mutation in affected female carriers.

  16. Results of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Karaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, we included forty-eight eyes of 43 age-related macular degeneration patients followed for at least twelve months. Mean age was 73.65±8.93 years and mean follow-up time was 14.2 months. All patients received three consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections and then were followed up with clinical examination and optic coherence tomography monthly. Re-injection was executed as needed. Re sults: Twenty patients were male (46.5% and twenty-three patients were female (53.5%. The average number of ranibizumab injection was 3.7 (3-7 per eye. Twenty-six lesions (54.2% were classic (predominantly and minimally and twenty-two (45.8% were occult. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 46.8 letters with ETDRS chart at the initial examination and 55.5 letters at twelfth month. Mean central foveal thickness decreased from 320 microns to 269 microns. There was a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and central foveal thickness. On the other hand, this improvement was not significant between lesion types. During follow-up, there were no systemic or serious ocular complications determined. Dis cus si on: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is safe and effective, both anatomically and functionally, for age-related macular degeneration. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 25-9

  17. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2014 to 29-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Oxidation Products of Aluminum ...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT

  18. 40 CFR 63.5753 - How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? 63.5753... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5753 How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum...

  19. Electron-beam welding of aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, Marcel; de Bony, Yves

    1980-08-15

    The objective of this article is to describe the status of the application of electron-beam welding to aluminum alloys. These alloys are widely employed in the aeronautics, space and nuclear industries.

  20. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining