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Sample records for aluminum stress signaling

  1. Aluminum stress and its role in the phospholipid signaling pathway in plants and possible biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot-Poot, Wilberth; Hernandez-Sotomayor, Soledad M Teresa

    2011-10-01

    An early response of plants to environmental signals or abiotic stress suggests that the phospholipid signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in these mechanisms. The phospholipid signaling cascade is one of the main systems of cellular transduction and is related to other signal transduction mechanisms. These other mechanisms include the generation of second messengers and their interactions with various proteins, such as ion channels. This phospholipid signaling cascade is activated by changes in the environment, such as phosphate starvation, water, metals, saline stres, and plant-pathogen interactions. One important factor that impacts agricultural crops is metal-induced stress. Because aluminum has been considered to be a major toxic factor for agriculture conducted in acidic soils, many researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in plants. We have contributed the last fifteen years in this field by studying the effects of aluminum on phospholipid signaling in coffee, one of the Mexico's primary crops. We have focused our research on aluminum toxicity mechanisms in Coffea arabica suspension cells as a model for developing future contributions to the biotechnological transformation of coffee crops such that they can be made resistant to aluminum toxicity. We conclude that aluminum is able to not only generate a signal cascade in plants but also modulate other signal cascades generated by other types of stress in plants. The aim of this review is to discuss possible involvement of the phospholipid signaling pathway in the aluminum toxicity response of plant cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  3. Stress corrosion in high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes results of stress-corrosion tests on aluminum alloys 7075, 7475, 7050, and 7049. Tests compare performance of original stress-corrosion-resistant (SCR) aluminum, 7075, with newer, higher-strength SCR alloys. Alloys 7050 and 7049 are found superior in short-transverse cross-corrosion resistance to older 7075 alloy; all alloys are subject to self-loading effect caused by wedging of corrosion products in cracks. Effect causes cracks to continue to grow, even at very-low externally applied loads.

  4. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is more beneficial than the one of single honeycomb sample with the same thickness if the two types of honeycomb samples are completely crushed. Then, the applicability of the existing theoretical model for single hexagonal honeycomb is discussed, and an area equivalent method is proposed to calculate the crushing stress for nearly regular hexagonal honeycombs. Furthermore, a semiempirical formula is proposed to calculate the inserting plateau stress of two stack-up CHAH, in which structural parameters and mechanics properties of base material are concerned. The results show that the predicted stresses of three kinds of two stack-up combined honeycombs are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on this study, stress-displacement curve of aluminum honeycombs can be designed in detail, which is very beneficial to optimize the energy-absorbing structures in engineering fields.

  5. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Cao, Guangqiu; Ding, Guochang; Lin, Sizu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+. PMID:27270726

  6. Structure/property relations of aluminum under varying rates and stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horstemeyer, Mark F [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Whittington, Wilburn R [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Solanki, Kiran N [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV.

    2010-11-19

    In this work we analyze the plasticity, damage, and fracture characteristics of three different processed aluminum alloys (rolled 5083-H13, cast A356-T6, and extruded 6061-T6) under varying stress states (tension, compression, and torsion) and strain rates (0.001/, 1/s., and 1000/s). The stress state difference had more of a flow stress effect than the applied strain rates for those given in this study (0.001/sec up to 1000/sec). The stress state and strain rate also had a profound effect on the damage evolution of each aluminum alloy. Tension and torsional straining gave much greater damage nucleation rates than compression. Although the damage of all three alloys was found to be void nucleation dominated, the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys incurred void damage via micron scale particles where the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy incurred void damage from two scales, micron-scale particles and nanoscale precipitates. Having two length scales of particles that participated in the damage evolution made the 6061-T6 incur a strain rate sensitive damage rate that was different than the other two aluminum alloys. Under tension, as the strain rate increased, the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy's void nucleation rate decreased, but the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys void nucleation rate increased.

  7. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  8. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  9. Cyclic Elastoplastic Performance of Aluminum 7075-T6 Under Strain- and Stress-Controlled Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dylan; Wallbrink, Chris; Kourousis, Kyriakos I.

    2017-12-01

    Elastoplastic investigations of aerospace aluminum are important in the development of an understanding of the possible cyclic transient effects and their contribution to the material performance under cyclic loading. Cyclic plasticity can occur in an aerospace aluminum component or structure depending on the loading conditions and the presence of external and internal discontinuities. Therefore, it is vital that the cyclic transient effects of aerospace aluminum are recognized and understood. This study investigates experimentally the cyclic elastoplastic performance of aluminum 7075-T6 loaded in symmetric strain control, and asymmetric stress and strain control. A combination of cyclic hardening and softening was noticed from high strain amplitude symmetric strain-controlled tests and at low stress amplitude asymmetric stress-controlled tests. From asymmetric strain control results, the extent of mean stress relaxation depended on the size of the strain amplitude. Additionally, saturation of the ratcheting strain (plastic shakedown) was also found to occur during asymmetric stress control tests. The experimental results were further analyzed using published microstructure research from the past two decades to provide added explanation of the micro-mechanism contribution to the cyclic transient behavior.

  10. Alternate immersion stress corrosion testing of 5083 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Dringman, M.R.; Hausburg, D.E.; Jackson, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of Type 5083 aluminum--magnesium alloy in plate form and press-formed shapes was determined in the short transverse direction. C-ring type specimens were exposed to alternate immersion in a sodium chloride solution. The test equipment and procedure, with several innovative features, are described in detail. Statistical test results are listed for seven thermomechanical conditions. A certain processing scheme was shown to yield a work-strengthened part that is not sensitized with respect to stress corrosion cracking

  11. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  12. Scanning electron-acoustic imaging of residual stress distributions in aluminum metal and ZrSiO4 multiphase ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.Y.; Jiang, F.M.; Shi, Y.; Yin, Q.R.; Qian, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The scanning electron-acoustic imaging technique has been used in the characterization of the residual stress field distributions existing in the subsurface in aluminum disks and 20 vol% SiC ( w)/ZrSiO 4 multiphase ceramics left by Vicker close-quote s indentation. The experimental results reveal that the distribution areas are the plastic-elastic interchange zones. The electron-acoustic signal generation mechanism in the samples are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of LD10 Aluminum Alloy in UDMH and N2O4 propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhong; Chang, Xinlong; Liu, Wanlei

    2018-03-01

    The LD10 aluminum alloy double cantilever beam specimens were corroded under the conditions of Unsymmetric Uimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH), Dinitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4), and 3.5% NaCl environment. The crack propagation behavior of the aluminum alloy in different corrosion environment was analyzed. The stress corrosion cracking behavior of aluminum alloy in N2O4 is relatively slight and there are not evident stress corrosion phenomenons founded in UDMH.

  15. The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Piñeros, Miguel A; Kochian, Leon V

    2014-03-01

    As researchers have gained a better understanding in recent years into the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis of how plants deal with aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics, it has become clear that an important component of these responses is the triggering and regulation of cellular pathways and processes by Al. In this review of plant Al signaling, we begin by summarizing the understanding of physiological mechanisms of Al resistance, which first led researchers to realize that Al stress induces gene expression and modifies protein function during the activation of Al resistance responses. Subsequently, an overview of Al resistance genes and their function provides verification that Al induction of gene expression plays a major role in Al resistance in many plant species. More recent research into the mechanistic basis for Al-induced transcriptional activation of resistance genes has led to the identification of several transcription factors as well as cis-elements in the promoters of Al resistance genes that play a role in greater Al-induced gene expression as well as higher constitutive expression of resistance genes in some plant species. Finally, the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of Al resistance proteins is addressed, where recent research has shown that Al can both directly bind to and alter activity of certain organic acid transporters, and also influence Al resistance proteins indirectly, via protein phosphorylation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  17. Experimental Study of Laser - enhanced 5A03 Aluminum Alloy and Its Stress Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guicheng; Chen, Jing; Pang, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Based on the study of improving the stress corrosion resistance of 5A03 aluminum alloy for ship, this paper mainly studied the tensile test, surface morphology and residual stress under laser shock, high temperature and stress corrosion. It is found that the residual compressive stress and the grain refinement on the surface of the material during the heat strengthening process increase the breaking strength of the sample in the stress corrosion environment. Appropriate high temperature maintenance helps to enhance the effect of deformation strengthening. In the 300°C environment insulation, due to recrystallization of the material, the performance decreased significantly. This study provides an experimental basis for effectively improving the stress corrosion resistance of 5A03 aluminum alloy.

  18. Stress Concentration Factor of Expanded Aluminum Tubes Using Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mhamdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of semi-empirical relations for the maximum stress concentration factor (SCF around circular holes embedded in aluminum tubes under various expansion ratios and mandrel angles. Finite element models were developed to study the expansion of a typical aluminum tube with embedded holes of various sizes. An elastic perfectly-plastic material behaviour was used to describe the structural response of the tubes under expansion. Various hole-diameter-to-tubewall- thickness ratios, tube expansion ratios, and mandrel angles were considered to determine the stress state around the hole at zero and 90 degree locations from which the maximum SCF was determined. Semi-empirical relations for the maximum SCF using the Lagrange interpolation formulation were developed. The developed relations were found to predict the SCFs accurately.

  19. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, Yinfei, E-mail: yyfgoat@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Li, Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui [Xi’an Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710000 (China)

    2015-09-17

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%.

  20. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yinfei; Li, Liang; Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of an aluminum alloy used in external fixation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartner, Jacob L; Haggard, Warren O; Ong, Joo L; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2008-08-01

    Treatment for compound and/or comminuted fractures is frequently accomplished via external fixation. To achieve stability, the compositions of external fixators generally include aluminum alloy components due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. These alloys are particularly susceptible to corrosion in chloride environments. There have been several clinical cases of fixator failure in which corrosion was cited as a potential mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological environments on the corrosion susceptibility of aluminum 7075-T6, since it is used in orthopedic external fixation devices. Electrochemical corrosion curves and alternate immersion stress corrosion cracking tests indicated aluminum 7075-T6 is susceptible to corrosive attack when placed in physiological environments. Pit initiated stress corrosion cracking was the primary form of alloy corrosion, and subsequent fracture, in this study. Anodization of the alloy provided a protective layer, but also caused a decrease in passivity ranges. These data suggest that once the anodization layer is disrupted, accelerated corrosion processes occur. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dropping the hammer: Examining impact ignition and combustion using pre-stressed aluminum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin J.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Levitas, Valery I.

    2017-09-01

    Pre-stressing aluminum (Al) particles by annealing and quenching Al powder alters particle mechanical properties and has also been linked to an increase in particle reactivity. Specifically, energy propagation in composites consisting of aluminum mixed with copper oxide (Al + CuO) exhibits a 24% increase in flame speed when using pre-stressed aluminum (PS Al) compared to Al of the same particle size. However, no data exist for the reactivity of PS Al powders under impact loading. In this study, a drop weight impact tester with pressure cell was designed and built to examine impact ignition sensitivity and combustion of PS Al when mixed with CuO. Both micron and nanometer scale powders (i.e., μAl and nAl, respectively) were pre-stressed, then combined with CuO and analyzed. Three types of ignition and combustion events were identified: ignition with complete combustion, ignition with incomplete combustion, and no ignition or combustion. The PS nAl + CuO demonstrated a lower impact ignition energy threshold for complete combustion, differing from nAl + CuO samples by more than 3.5 J/mg. The PS nAl + CuO also demonstrated significantly more complete combustion as evidenced by pressure history data during ignition and combustion. Additional material characterization provides insight on hot spot formation in the incomplete combustion samples. The most probable reasons for higher impact-induced reactivity of pre-stressed particles include (a) delayed but more intense fracture of the pre-stressed alumina shell due to release of energy of internal stresses during fracture and (b) detachment of the shell from the core during impact due to high tensile stresses in the Al core leading to much more pronounced fracture of unsupported shells and easy access of oxygen to the Al core. The μAl + CuO composites did not ignite, even under pre-stressed conditions.

  3. Aluminum inhibits phosphatidic acid formation by blocking the phospholipase C pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Díaz, A.; Brito-Argáez, L.; Munnik, T.; Hernández-Sotomayor, S.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum (Al(3+)) has been recognized as a main toxic factor in crop production in acid lands. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is emerging as an important lipid signaling molecule and has been implicated in various stress-signaling pathways in plants. In this paper, we focus on how PA generation is affected

  4. State of residual stress in laser-deposited ceramic composite coatings on aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadolkar, P. B.; Watkins, T. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Kooi, B. J.; Dahotre, N. B.

    The nature and magnitude of the residual stresses within laser-deposited titanium carbide (TiC) coatings on 2024 and 6061 aluminum (Al) alloys were investigated. Macro- and micro-stresses within the coatings were determined using an X-ray diffraction method. Owing to increased debonding between the

  5. State of residual stress in laser-deposited ceramic composite coatings on aluminum alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kadolkar, P. B.; Watkins, T. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Kooi, B. J.; Dahotre, N. B.

    2007-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of the residual stresses within laser-deposited titanium carbide (TiC) coatings on 2024 and 6061 aluminum (Al) alloys were investigated. Macro- and micro-stresses within the coatings were determined using an X-ray diffraction method. Owing to increased debonding between the coating and the substrate, the macro-stresses were found to be compressive and to decrease in magnitude with increasing processing speed. The origin of the macro- and micro-stresses is discussed. T...

  6. Effects of aluminum and extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on oxidative stress and memory in brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanxin; Zhang, Yanwen; Jia, Shujie; Liu, Junkang; Liu, Yanxia; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aluminum and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) on oxidative stress and memory of SPF Kunming mice. Sixty male SPF Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: control group, ELF-MF group (2 mT, 4 h/day), load aluminum group (200 mg aluminum/kg, 0.1 ml/10 g), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (2 mT, 4 h/day, 200 mg aluminum/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, the mice of three experiment groups (ELF-MF group, load aluminum group, and ELF-MF + aluminum group) exhibited firstly the learning memory impairment, appearing that the escaping latency to the platform was prolonged and percentage in the platform quadrant was reduced in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Secondly are the pathologic abnormalities including neuronal cell loss and overexpression of phosphorylated tau protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. On the other hand, the markers of oxidative stress were determined in mice brain and serum. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and increase in the levels of malondialdehyde in the ELF-MF group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), load aluminum group (P < 0.01), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (P < 0.01). However, the treatment with ELF-MF + aluminum induced no more damage than ELF-MF and aluminum did, respectively. In conclusion, both aluminum and ELF-MF could impact on learning memory and pro-oxidative function in Kunming mice. However, there was no evidence of any association between ELF-MF exposure with aluminum loading.

  7. Residual stress distribution of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under shear deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, C.; Figueroa, I.A.; Braham, C.; Cabrera, J.M.; Zanellato, O.; Baiz, S.; Gonzalez, G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information with regards to the friction effect in ECAPed aluminum alloys, even though it might substantially modify the deformation at the surface. In this work, the friction effect at the surface and the deformation heterogeneity in the ECAPed aluminum alloy 6061-T6 were characterized. X-Ray diffraction was used to determine residual stresses (RS) on the sample surface. The volumetric sections were characterized by Synchrotron diffraction at ESRF beamline ID15B (Grenoble, France). It was found that the microhardness mapping and residual stress results showed a good agreement with the finite element analysis for the first layer studied. Minor strain variation, Δd/d as a function of (hkl) planes, for the different analyzed sections was found. The study also showed that there was an incomplete symmetry in the residual stress near the surface, even at up to a depth of 400 µm. The regions with higher deformation were found to be at the top and bottom parts of the sample, while the central region showed stress variations of up to 50 MPa.

  8. Residual stress distribution of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under shear deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ruiz, C.; Figueroa, I.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Braham, C. [Laboratoire Procédés et Ingénierie Mécanique et Matériaux, CNRS UMR 8006, ENSAM-CNAM, 151, Bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB-Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnológic, Pl. de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Zanellato, O.; Baiz, S. [Laboratoire Procédés et Ingénierie Mécanique et Matériaux, CNRS UMR 8006, ENSAM-CNAM, 151, Bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Gonzalez, G., E-mail: joseggr@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-07-18

    There is a lack of information with regards to the friction effect in ECAPed aluminum alloys, even though it might substantially modify the deformation at the surface. In this work, the friction effect at the surface and the deformation heterogeneity in the ECAPed aluminum alloy 6061-T6 were characterized. X-Ray diffraction was used to determine residual stresses (RS) on the sample surface. The volumetric sections were characterized by Synchrotron diffraction at ESRF beamline ID15B (Grenoble, France). It was found that the microhardness mapping and residual stress results showed a good agreement with the finite element analysis for the first layer studied. Minor strain variation, Δd/d as a function of (hkl) planes, for the different analyzed sections was found. The study also showed that there was an incomplete symmetry in the residual stress near the surface, even at up to a depth of 400 µm. The regions with higher deformation were found to be at the top and bottom parts of the sample, while the central region showed stress variations of up to 50 MPa.

  9. An investigation of the residual stress characterization and relaxation in peened friction stir welded aluminum-lithium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Rivero, Iris V.; Swain, Shayla E.

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation the residual stresses generated from friction stir welded (FSW) 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy joints were characterized. The results derived from this research revealed significant levels of tensile residual stresses at the surface and throughout the thickness of the FSW samples. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation at the surface and throughout the thickness of the samples was assessed for laser peened friction stir welded aluminum-lithium joints. To do so the samples were cycled several times at a constant amplitude load. The results indicated that most of the relaxation for the surface residual stresses took place during the first cycle of loading. Also, residual stresses relaxation throughout the thickness of the welded region of unpeened samples significantly exceeded the relaxation exhibited by the laser peened samples.

  10. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-xun, E-mail: zhangyuxun198@163.com; Yi, You-ping, E-mail: yyp@csu.edu.cn; Huang, Shi-quan, E-mail: huangsqcsu@sina.com; Dong, Fei

    2016-09-30

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  11. Influence of quenching cooling rate on residual stress and tensile properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-xun; Yi, You-ping; Huang, Shi-quan; Dong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    To balance the quenching residual stress and the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, the influence of cooling rate on the residual stress and tensile properties was investigated by numerical simulation and quenching experiments. During the quenching experiments, 2A14 aluminum alloy samples were treated with different water temperatures (20 °C, 70 °C, 100 °C) and a step quenching process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the residual stress. Prior to them, the quenching sensitivity was studied. For this purpose, the time-temperature-properties (TTP) curves were measured and the alloy microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloys were mainly determined by the cooling rate within the quenching sensitive temperature range from 300 to 400 °C. Lower cooling rates reduced the tensile strength and yield strength due to a decrease amount of fine precipitates, and reduced the residual stress with the reduction of plastic strain and the degree of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. In addition, the residual stress changed faster than the tensile properties with decreasing cooling rate. Therefore, warm water (70 °C) was used to balance the residual stress and tensile properties of 140-mm-thick 2A14 aluminum alloy forgings, since it can achieve low cooling rates. Furthermore, by combining this characteristic and the material quenching sensitivity, step quenching produced similar tensile properties and lower residual stress, compared with the sample quenched in warm water (70 °C), by increasing cooling rate within quenching sensitivity range and reducing it in other ranges.

  12. Thermal Stress Behavior of Micro- and Nano-Size Aluminum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabusa, T.; Kusaka, K.; Nishida, M.

    2008-01-01

    In-situ observation of thermal stresses in thin films deposited on silicon substrate was made by X-ray and synchrotron radiation. Specimens prepared in this experiment were micro- and nano-size thin aluminum films with and without passivation film. The thickness of the film was 1 micrometer for micro-size films and 10, 20 and 50 nanometer for nano-size films. The stress measurement in micro-size films was made by X-ray radiation whereas the measurement of nano-size films was made by synchrotron radiation. Residual stress measurement revealed tensile stresses in all as-deposited films. Thermal stresses were measured in a series of heating- and cooling-stage. Thermal stress behavior of micro-size films revealed hysteresis loop during a heating and cooling process. The width of a hysteresis loop was larger in passivated film that unpassivated film. No hysteresis loops were observed in nano-size films with SiO 2 passivation. Strengthning mechanism in thin films was discussed on a passivation film and a film thickness

  13. ALUMINUM TOXICITY VS SALICYLIC ACID EFFECTS IN PEARL MILLET METHYLOME.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba Ngom; Edward Mamati; Ibrahima Sarr; Josphert Kimatu.

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is one of most distributed plant abiotic stress in the world, causing root inhibition and therefore crop losses. Plants continuously adapt its defense to abiotic stresses through different mechanisms including DNA methylation. The methylome variation is influenced by external cues from environment or by hormonal signals. Salicylic acid is one of the most important hormones in plants, directing growth and defense. Its application is seen having the capacity to elicit plant de...

  14. ELASTIC-PLASTIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF AN ALUMINUM DISC UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numan Behlül BEKTAŞ

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with elastic-plastic stress analysis of a thin aluminum disc under internal pressures. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying elastic-plastic stress-strain relations and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The Von-Mises Criterion is used as a yield criterion, and elastic perfectly plastic material is assumed. Elastic-plastic and residual stress distributions are obtained from inner radius to outer radius, and they are presented in tables and figures. All radial stress components, ?r, are compressive, and they are highest at the inner radius. All tangential stress components, ??, are tensile, and they are highest where the plastic deformation begins. Magnitude of the tangential residual stresses is higher than those the radial residual stresses.

  15. The Effect of Sensitization on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloy 5456

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    hydrolysis of the aluminum and magnesium produced by the reactions shown in Equations (6–7) can lead to acidification within the crack, and as a...addition of a residual compressive stress. There are several ways of adding residual compressive stresses by way of permanent plastic deformation to...was to propagate the initial crack outside of any plastic zone created by the cyclic loading at the higher ∆K. The fatigue crack propagation was

  16. Determination of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Aluminum-Lithium Alloy ML377

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Bryan C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications is currently being studied at NASA Langley Research Center's Metallic Materials Branch. The alloys in question will operate under stress in a corrosive environment. These conditions are ideal for the phenomena of Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) to occur. The test procedure for SCC calls for alternate immersion and breaking load tests. These tests were optimized for the lab equipment and materials available in the Light Alloy lab. Al-Li alloy ML377 specimens were then subjected to alternate immersion and breaking load tests to determine residual strength and resistance to SCC. Corrosion morphology and microstructure were examined under magnification. Data shows that ML377 is highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.

  17. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products

  18. Phylogenetic diversity of stress signalling pathways in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Ian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbes must sense environmental stresses, transduce these signals and mount protective responses to survive in hostile environments. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that fungal stress signalling pathways have evolved rapidly in a niche-specific fashion that is independent of phylogeny. To test this hypothesis we have compared the conservation of stress signalling molecules in diverse fungal species with their stress resistance. These fungi, which include ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and microsporidia, occupy highly divergent niches from saline environments to plant or mammalian hosts. Results The fungi displayed significant variation in their resistance to osmotic (NaCl and sorbitol, oxidative (H2O2 and menadione and cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red. There was no strict correlation between fungal phylogeny and stress resistance. Rather, the human pathogens tended to be more resistant to all three types of stress, an exception being the sensitivity of Candida albicans to the cell wall stress, Calcofluor White. In contrast, the plant pathogens were relatively sensitive to oxidative stress. The degree of conservation of osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress signalling pathways amongst the eighteen fungal species was examined. Putative orthologues of functionally defined signalling components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by performing reciprocal BLASTP searches, and the percent amino acid identities of these orthologues recorded. This revealed that in general, central components of the osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress signalling pathways are relatively well conserved, whereas the sensors lying upstream and transcriptional regulators lying downstream of these modules have diverged significantly. There was no obvious correlation between the degree of conservation of stress signalling pathways and the resistance of a particular fungus to the corresponding stress. Conclusion Our

  19. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy

  20. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  1. PIXE analysis of mineral composition of alfalfa root-tip exposed to low pH or aluminum stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Satoshi; Mae, Tadahiko; Ojima, Kunihiko; Ishii, Keizo.

    1994-01-01

    PIXE analysis was applied to study alteration of mineral composition (Al, P, K, and Cl) of alfalfa root-tip exposed to low pH or aluminum stress. These minerals were detectable using one or two pieces of root-tips. Short-term (within 4 h) decreases in K/P and Cl/P ratios were observed under low pH and aluminum stress conditions. However, degree of the decrease was not same. Differences in toxic effects of low pH and Al on the root-tip of alfalfa are discussed. (author)

  2. Investigation of the effects of aluminum stress on some macro and micro-nutrient contents of the seedlings of lycopersicon esculentum mill. by using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, G.; Catak, E.; Baykul, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned to see the affect of aluminum stress on plant nutrition and metabolism. The effects of aluminum stress on uptake level of some macro- and micro-nutrients from the nutrition solution into the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and on mobilization of some nutrient elements in the seedlings were examined at the level of epidermal cells. The elemental structure of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells were determined by Energy Dispersive Xray Microanalysis (EDX) performed in a local area 50 nm in diameter at the level of a single epidermal cell cytoplasm by using low vacuum (24 pascal ) Scanning Electron Microscope. EDX analysis revealed that aluminum content of the cells was increasing with the increased concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient solution and that aluminum largelyaccumulated in the roots. Aluminum concentration was much higher in the root epidermal cells of the seedlings incubated in aluminum containing media for 17 days without adding any nutrient solution; it was also true for the local EDX analysis of radicle epidermal cells from the same series. Aluminum stress was found to tend to modify the plant nutritional element content of the cells and this was particularly of critical importance in terms of some macro- and micro-nutrients. The assessments performed at the level of epidermal cells of young seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum suggest that aluminum stress leads to an absolute change in the plant nutritional element composition of the cells and in the mobilization of some nutritional elements in the seedlings. (author)

  3. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  4. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  5. Chemical effects in the Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    tances.II. Effect Of Pomegranate Juice And The Aqueous Extract Of Pomegranate Fruits And Tea leaves On The Corrosion Of Aluminum" The effect of the juices...T7651 tempers to exfoliation and stress- corrosion cracking . 1968-8 D.P. Doyle and H.P. Godard ,a) Tr. Mezhdunar. Kongr. Korroz. Metal, 4, 439-48, (1968...Tapper Brit. Corros. J., 3, 285-87, (1968) "Corrosion Of Aluminum" Summary of the literature of Al corrosion which includes stress- corrosion cracking

  6. Pattern formation under residual compressive stress in free sustained aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Senjiang; Ye Quanlin; Zhang Yongju; Cai Pinggen; Xu Xiaojun; Chen Jiangxing; Ye Gaoxiang

    2005-01-01

    A nearly free sustained aluminum (Al) film system has been successfully fabricated by vapor phase deposition of Al atoms on silicone oil surfaces and an unusual type of ordered patterns at the micrometer scale has been systematically studied. The ordered patterns are composed of a large number of parallel key-shaped domains and possess a sandwiched structure. The nucleation and growth of the patterns are very susceptible to the growth period, deposition rate, nominal film thickness and location of the film. The experiment shows that the ordered patterns are induced by the residual compressive stress in the film owing to contraction of the liquid surface after deposition. The appearance of these stress relief patterns generally represents the stress distribution in the nearly free sustained Al films, which mainly results from the characteristic boundary condition and the nearly zero adhesion of the solid-liquid interface

  7. [Process and mechanism of plants in overcoming acid soil aluminum stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Xie, Guang-Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Qiu, Lin-Quan; Wang, Na; Zhang, Su-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum (Al) stress is one of the most important factors affecting the plant growth on acid soil. Currently, global soil acidification further intensifies the Al stress. Plants can detoxify Al via the chelation of ionic Al and organic acids to store the ionic Al in vacuoles and extrude it from roots. The Al extrusion is mainly performed by the membrane-localized anion channel proteins Al(3+)-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE). The genes encoding ABC transporter and zinc-finger protein conferred plant Al tolerance have also been found. The identification of these Al-resistant genes makes it possible to increase the Al resistance of crop plants and enhance their production by the biological methods such as gene transformation and mark-associated breeding. The key problems needed to be solved and the possible directions in the researches of plant Al stress resistance were proposed.

  8. A study of aluminum-lithium alloy solidification using acoustic emission techniques. Ph.D. Thesis, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the solidification of an aluminum lithium alloy was characterized using acoustic emission (AE) techniques. It is shown that repeatable patterns of AE activity may be correlated to microstructural changes that occur during solidification. The influence of the experimental system on generated signals was examined in the time and frequency domains. The analysis was used to show how an AE signal from solidifying aluminum is changed by each component in the detection system to produce a complex waveform. Conventional AE analysis has shown that a period of high AE activity occurs in pure aluminum, an Al-Cu alloy, and the Al-Li alloy, as the last fraction of solid forms. A model attributes this to the internal stresses of grain boundary formation. An additional period of activity occurs as the last fraction of solid forms, but only in the two alloys. A model attributes this to the formation of interdendritic porosity which was not present in the pure aluminum. The AE waveforms were dominated by resonant effects of the waveguide and the transducer.

  9. Investigation of smooth specimen scc test procedures; variations in environment, specimen size, stressing frame, and stress state. [for high strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifka, B. W.; Sprowls, D. O.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The variables studied in the stress-corrosion cracking performance of high strength aluminum alloys were: (1) corrosiveness of the environment, (2) specimen size and stiffness of the stressing system, (3) interpretation of transgranular cracking, and (4) interaction of the state of stress and specimen orientation in a product with an anisotropic grain structure. It was shown that the probability of failure and time to fracture for a specimen loaded in direct tension are influenced by corrosion pattern, the stressing assembly stiffness, and the notch tensile strength of the alloy. Results demonstrate that the combination of a normal tension stress and a shear stress acting on the plane of maximum susceptibility in a product with a highly directional grain cause the greatest tendency for stress-corrosion cracking.

  10. Stress corrosion evaluation of powder metallurgy aluminum alloy 7091 with the breaking load test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of the P/M aluminum alloy 7091 is evaluated in two overaged heat treatment conditions, T7E69 and T7E70, using an accelerated test technique known as the breaking load test method. The breaking load data obtained in this study indicate that P/M 7091 alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion in both longitudinal and transverse orientations at stress levels up to 90 percent of the material yield strength. The reduction in mean breaking stress as a result of corrosive attack is smallest for the more overaged T7E70 condition. Details of the test procedure are included.

  11. Neutron and ultrasonic determination of residual stress in an aluminum ring-plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prask, H.J.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Clark, A.V.; Hehman, C.S.; Nguyen, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    Stress is a principal cause of material failure. This has been a well-recognized problem for decades, yet--in general--neutron diffraction remains the only way to measure sub-surface residual stresses without destroying the component. A field-portable ultrasonic strain-meter is being developed at NIST (Boulder) to determine residual stresses in engineering specimens, nondestructively. To test this and other techniques an array of stress-measurement standards are being prepared. These will be characterized by neutron diffraction and then used to evaluate, quantitatively, the potential of new methods. The first standard specimen produced for this purpose is a large shrink-fit ring-plug of 2024 aluminum (305 mm OD, 25.4 mm thick, 101.6 mm diameter plug). Because of large grain size, a sample-rotation averaging technique was developed to make reliable neutron measurements possible. A comparison of the neutron diffraction and ultrasonic results for this specimen will be presented, along with strain gauge results

  12. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant ...

  13. Reshock and release response of aluminum single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Asay, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Reshock and release experiments were performed on single crystal aluminum along three orientations and on polycrystalline 1050 aluminum with 50 μm grain size at shock stresses of 13 and 21 GPa to investigate the mechanisms for previously observed quasielastic recompression behavior. Particle velocity profiles obtained during reshocking both single crystals and polycrystalline aluminum from initial shock stresses of 13-21 GPa show similar quasielastic recompression behavior. Quasielastic release response is also observed in all single crystals, but the magnitude of the effect is crystal orientation dependent, with [111] and [110] exhibiting more ideal elastic-plastic release for unloading from the shocked state than for the [100] orientation and polycrystalline aluminum. The quasielastic response of 1050 aluminum is intermediate to that of the [100] and [111] orientations. Comparison of the wave profiles obtained for both unloading and reloading of single crystals and polycrystalline 1050 aluminum from shocked states suggests that the observed quasielastic response of polycrystalline aluminum results from the averaging response of single crystals for shock propagation along different orientations, and that the response of 1050 aluminum with large grain boundaries is not significantly different from the results obtained on single crystal aluminum. The yield strength of the single crystals and 1050 aluminum is found to increase with shock stress, which is consistent with previous results [H. Huang and I. R. Asay, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033524 (2005)

  14. 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved in the mechanisms of chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Shaoshan [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing 400016 (China); He, Qin [Department of Heptobiliary Surgery, 1st Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Hong; Hu, Xinyue; Luo, Ying; Yang, Yang; Kuang, Shengnan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Ma, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing 400016 (China); Yang, Junqing, E-mail: 1139627371@qq.com [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We previously confirmed that rats overloaded with aluminum exhibited hepatic function damage and increased susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. However, the mechanism of liver toxicity by chronic aluminum overload is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) signaling pathway and its effect on liver injury in aluminum-overloaded rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established via the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al{sup 3+} 200 mg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 20 weeks). The 5-LO inhibitor, caffeic acid (10 and 30 mg/kg), was intragastrically administered 1 h after aluminum administration. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. Immunochemistry and RT-PCR methods were used to detect 5-LO protein and mRNA expression in the liver, respectively. Caffeic acid administration protected livers against histopathological injury, decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and LTs levels, increased the reactive oxygen species content, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-LO in aluminum overloaded rats. Our results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is mechanistically involved in chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure and that the 5-LO signaling pathway, which associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potential therapeutic target for chronic non-infection liver diseases. - Highlights: • 5-LO signaling contributes to mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of aluminum overload. • Oxidative and inflammatory reaction involve in chonic aluminum hepatotoxicity. • 5-LO inhibitor has a protective effect on aluminum-overload liver injury. • 5-LO signaling is a potential therapeutic target for non-infection liver diseases.

  15. Abscisic Acid and abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-05-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis.

  16. Experimental and numerical determination of critical stress intensity factor of aluminum curved thin sheets under tensile stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarvand, Majid; Soltani, Naser; Hajializadeh, Farshid [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We determined the fracture toughness of aluminum curved thin sheets using tensile stress tests and finite element method. We applied Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and Feddersen procedure to evaluate stress intensity factor of the samples with central wire-cut cracks and fatigue cracks with different lengths to investigate the notch radius effect. Special fixture design was utilized to establish uniform stress distribution at the crack zone. Less than 9 % difference was found between the wire-cut and the fatigue cracked samples. Since generating central fatigue crack with different lengths required so much effort, wire-cut cracked samples were used to determine critical stress intensity factor. Finite element analysis was also performed on one-quarter of the specimen using both the singular Borsum elements and the regular isoparametric elements to further investigate fracture toughness of the samples. It was observed that the singular elements presented better results than the isoparametric ones. A slight difference was also found between the results obtained from finite element method using singular elements and the experimental results.

  17. Stress Sensors and Signal Transducers in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Dmitry A.; Zorina, Anna; Sinetova, Maria; Kryazhov, Sergey; Mironov, Kirill; Zinchenko, Vladislav V.

    2010-01-01

    In living cells, the perception of environmental stress and the subsequent transduction of stress signals are primary events in the acclimation to changes in the environment. Some molecular sensors and transducers of environmental stress cannot be identified by traditional and conventional methods. Based on genomic information, a systematic approach has been applied to the solution of this problem in cyanobacteria, involving mutagenesis of potential sensors and signal transducers in combination with DNA microarray analyses for the genome-wide expression of genes. Forty-five genes for the histidine kinases (Hiks), 12 genes for serine-threonine protein kinases (Spks), 42 genes for response regulators (Rres), seven genes for RNA polymerase sigma factors, and nearly 70 genes for transcription factors have been successfully inactivated by targeted mutagenesis in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Screening of mutant libraries by genome-wide DNA microarray analysis under various stress and non-stress conditions has allowed identification of proteins that perceive and transduce signals of environmental stress. Here we summarize recent progress in the identification of sensory and regulatory systems, including Hiks, Rres, Spks, sigma factors, transcription factors, and the role of genomic DNA supercoiling in the regulation of the responses of cyanobacterial cells to various types of stress. PMID:22294932

  18. Effects of Changing Stress Amplitude on the Rate of Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Two Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C. Michael; Hardrath, Herbert F.

    1961-01-01

    A series of fatigue tests with specimens subjected to constant amplitude and two-step axial loads were conducted on 12-inch-wide sheet specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy to study the effects of a change in stress level on fatigue-crack propagation. Comparison of the results of the tests in which the specimens were tested at first a high and then a low stress level with those of the constant-stress- amplitude tests indicated that crack propagation was generally delayed after the transition to the lower stress level. In the tests in which the specimens were tested at first a low and then a high stress level, crack propagation continued at the expected rate after the change in stress levels.

  19. The role of stress in self-ordered porous anodic oxide formation and corrosion of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraz, Omer Ozgur

    The phenomenon of plastic flow induced by electrochemical reactions near room temperature is significant in porous anodic oxide (PAO) films, charging of lithium batteries and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). As this phenomenon is poorly understood, fundamental insight into flow from our work may provide useful information for these problems. In-situ monitoring of the stress state allows direct correlation between stress and the current or potential, thus providing fundamental insight into technologically important deformation and failure mechanisms induced by electrochemical reactions. A phase-shifting curvature interferometry was designed to investigate the stress generation mechanisms on different systems. Resolution of our curvature interferometry was found to be ten times more powerful than that obtained by state-of-art multiple deflectometry technique and the curvature interferometry helps to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature. During this work, formation of surface patterns during both aqueous corrosion of aluminum and formation of PAO films were investigated. Interestingly, for both cases, stress induced plastic flow controls the formation of surface patterns. Pore formation mechanisms during anodizing of the porous aluminum oxide films was investigated . PAO films are formed by the electrochemical oxidation of metals such as aluminum and titanium in a solution where oxide is moderately soluble. They have been used extensively to design numerous devices for optical, catalytic, and biological and energy related applications, due to their vertically aligned-geometry, high-specific surface area and tunable geometry by adjusting process variables. These structures have developed empirically, in the absence of understanding the process mechanism. Previous experimental studies of anodizing-induced stress have extensively focused on the measurement of average stress, however the measurement of stress evolution during anodizing does not provide

  20. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminum 7050 peen forming processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2011-01-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin 2 ψ method. The results show that the formation of the curvature arc height is proportional to the shot peening pressure, of spheres size and inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample, and that stress concentration factor is larger for samples shot peened with small balls. On final of this paper presents an additional study on micro strain and average crystallite size, which can evaluate the profile of the samples after blasting. (author)

  1. Synergistic effect of aluminum and ionizing radiation upon ultrastructure, oxidative stress and apoptotic alterations in Paneth cells of rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahawy, N A; Elsonbaty, S M; Abunour, S; Zahran, W E

    2017-03-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to aluminum along with ionizing radiation results in serious health problems. This study was planned to investigate the impact of oxidative stress provoked by exposure to ionizing radiation with aluminum administration upon cellular ultra structure and apoptotic changes in Paneth cells of rat small intestine . Animals received daily aluminum chloride by gastric gavage at a dose 0.5 mg/Kg BW for 4 weeks. Whole body gamma irradiation was applied at a dose 2 Gy/week up to 8 Gy. Ileum malondialdehyde, advanced oxidative protein products, protein carbonyl and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and inflammation respectively along with superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities as enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, analyses of cell cycle division and apoptotic changes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intestinal cellular ultra structure was investigated using transmission electron microscope.Oxidative and inflammatory stresses assessment in the ileum of rats revealed that aluminum and ionizing radiation exposures exhibited a significant effect upon the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers along with the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor-α accompanied by a significant decreases in the antioxidant enzyme activities. Flow cytometric analyses showed significant alterations in the percentage of cells during cell cycle division phases along with significant increase in apoptotic cells. Ultra structurally, intestinal cellular alterations with marked injury in Paneth cells at the sites of bacterial translocation in the crypt of lumens were recorded. The results of this study have clearly showed that aluminum and ionizing radiation exposures induced apoptosis with oxidative and inflammatory disturbance in the Paneth cells of rat intestine, which appeared to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cellular damage. Furthermore, the

  2. Effects on residual stresses of aluminum alloy LC4 by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Lu, Jin-zhong; Kong, De-jun; Yao, Hui-xue; Yang, Chao-jun

    2007-12-01

    The influences of processing parameters on laser-induced shock waves in metal components are discussed and analyzed. The effects of different parameters of laser shock processing (LSP) on residual stress of aerospace aluminum alloy LC4 were investigated. LSP was performed by using an Nd: glass phosphate laser with 23 ns pulse width and up to ~45 J pulse energy at power densities above GW/mm -2. Special attention is paid to the residual stresses from laser shock processing. Modification of microstructure, surface morphology by laser shock processing is also discussed. Results to date indicate that laser shock processing has great potential as a means of improving the mechanical performance of components.

  3. Standard test method for determining susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of 2XXX and 7XXX Aluminum alloy products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for characterizing the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength aluminum alloy wrought products for the guidance of those who perform stress-corrosion tests, for those who prepare stress-corrosion specifications, and for materials engineers. 1.2 This test method covers method of sampling, type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility to SCC of 2XXX (with 1.8 to 7.0 % copper) and 7XXX (with 0.4 to 2.8 % copper) aluminum alloy products, particularly when stressed in the short-transverse direction relative to the grain structure. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and de...

  4. Traversing the Links between Heavy Metal Stress and Plant Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalmi, Siddhi K.; Bhagat, Prakash K.; Verma, Deepanjali; Noryang, Stanzin; Tayyeba, Sumaira; Singh, Kirti; Sharma, Deepika; Sinha, Alok K.

    2018-01-01

    Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms. This response shown by plants is the result of intricate signaling networks functioning in the cell in order to transmit the extracellular stimuli into an intracellular response. The crucial signaling components involved are calcium signaling, hormone signaling, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling that are discussed in this review. Apart from signaling components other regulators like microRNAs and transcription factors also have a major contribution in regulating heavy metal stress. This review demonstrates the key role of MAPKs in synchronously controlling the other signaling components and regulators in metal stress. Further, attempts have been made to focus on metal transporters and chelators that are regulated by MAPK signaling. PMID:29459874

  5. The relative stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of candidate aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    Stress corrosion tests of Al-Li-Cu powder metallurgy alloys are described. Alloys investigated were Al-2.6% Li-1.4% and Al-2.6% Li-1.4% Cu-1.6% Mg. The base properties of the alloys were characterized. Process, heat treatment, and size/orientational effects on the tensile and fracture behavior were investigated. Metallurgical and electrochemical conditions are identified which provide reproducible and controlled parameters for stress corrosion evaluation. Preliminary stress corrosion test results are reported. Both Al-Li-Cu alloys appear more susceptible to stress corrosion crack initiation than 7075-T6 aluminum, with the magnesium bearing alloy being the most susceptible. Tests to determine the threshold stress intensity for the base and magnesium bearing alloys are underway. Twelve each, bolt loaded DCB type specimens are under test (120 days) and limited crack growth in these precracked specimens has been observed. General corrosion in the aqueous sodium chloride environment is thought to be obscuring results through crack tip blunting.

  6. The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    As researchers have gained a better understanding in recent years into the physiological, molecular and genetic basis of how plants deal with aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics, it has become clear that an important component of these responses is the trigg...

  7. Fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum under tensile and transverse shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viz, Mark J.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of transverse shear stresses on the fatigue crack growth rate in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets is investigated experimentally. The tests are performed on double-edge cracked sheets in cyclic tensile and torsional loading. This loading generates crack tip stress intensity factors in the same ratio as the values computed for a crack lying along a lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage. The relevant fracture mechanics of cracks in thin plates along with the details of the geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses used for the test specimen calibration are developed and discussed. Preliminary fatigue crack growth data correlated using the fully coupled stress intensity factor calibration are presented and compared with fatigue crack growth data from pure delta K(sub I)fatigue tests.

  8. Multiaxial Fatigue Properties of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy Under Different Stress Amplitude Ratio Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ya-jun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multiaxial fatigue behavior of 2A12 aluminum alloy was studied with SDN100/1000 electro-hydraulic servo tension-torsion fatigue tester under different stress amplitude ratios, the fracture morphology and the fatigue loading curve were observed to study the failure mechanism. The results show that, under the one stage loading condition, the fatigue life prolongs with the stress amplitude ratio increasing. Under pure torsion loading, smooth and even area exists in the fracture surface. As the stress amplitude ratio increases, the number of scratch reduces, the fatigue striation and some special morphology such as the fishbone pattern, scale pattern and honeycomb pattern can be observed; under cumulative paths of different stress amplitude ratios, the variation of multiaxial fatigue life changes with first stage loading cycles; under cumulative paths of high-low stress amplitude ratio, the cycle hardening occurs obviously in the axial direction for the first stage high stress amplitude ratio loading and 2A12 alloy shows training effect.

  9. Surface mechanical property and residual stress of peened nickel-aluminum bronze determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Jiang, Chuanhai; Zhao, Yuantao; Chen, Ming; Ji, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most important surface strengthening method, shot peening is widely used to improve the fatigue and stress corrosion crack resistance of components by introducing the refined microstructure and compressive residual stress in the surface layer. However, the mechanical properties of this thin layer are different from the base metal and are difficult to be characterized by conventional techniques. In this work, a micro uniaxial tensile tester equipped with in-situ X-ray stress analyzer was employed to make it achievable on a nickel-aluminum bronze with shot peening treatment. According to the equivalent stress-strain relationship based on Von Mises stress criterion, the Young's modulus and yield strength of the peened layer were calculated. The results showed that the Young's modulus was the same as the bulk material, and the yield strength corresponding to the permanent plastic strain of 0.2% was increased by 21% after SP. But the fractographic analysis showed that the fracture feature of the surface layer was likely to transform from the dimple to the cleavage, indicating the improved strength might be attained at the expense of ductility. The monotonic and cyclic loading were also performed via the same combined set-up. In addition, the specific relaxation behavior of compressive residual stress was quantified by linear logarithm relationship between residual stress and cycle numbers. It was found that the compressive residual stress mainly relaxed in the first few cycles, and then reached steady state with further cycles. The relaxation rate and the stable value were chiefly depended on the stress amplitude and number of cycles. The retained residual stress kept in compressive under all given applied stress levels, suggesting that the shot peening could introduce a more stable surface layer of compressive residual stress other than the elevated strength of nickel-aluminum bronze alloy.

  10. Modification of Flow Stress Curves and Constitutive Equations During Hot Compression Deformation of 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Ping

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The flow stress behavior of 5083 aluminum alloy was investigated under hot compression deformation at 523-723K,strain rates of 0.01-10s-1 and true strains of 0-0.7 with Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. Based on the heat transfer effect on alloy deformation heat effect, the flow stress curves were corrected. The results show that influence of heat conduction can not be neglected and becomes more obvious with the increase of true strain. The corrected flow stress has little influence on the peak stress, but the steady flow stress softening trends to be diminished to some degree. The flow stress can be predicted by the Zener-Hollomon parameters in the constitutive equation. The corrected measured value exhibits a good agreement with the flow stress predicted by the constitutive equation, and the average relative error is only 5.21%.

  11. Investigation of Methods for Selectively Reinforcing Aluminum and Aluminum-Lithium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Alexa, Joel A.; Messick, Peter L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Wagner, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that selective reinforcement offers the potential to significantly improve the performance of metallic structures for aerospace applications. Applying high-strength, high-stiffness fibers to the high-stress regions of aluminum-based structures can increase the structural load-carrying capability and inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. This paper discusses an investigation into potential methods for applying reinforcing fibers onto the surface of aluminum and aluminum-lithium plate. Commercially-available alumina-fiber reinforced aluminum alloy tapes were used as the reinforcing material. Vacuum hot pressing was used to bond the reinforcing tape to aluminum alloy 2219 and aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 base plates. Static and cyclic three-point bend testing and metallurgical analysis were used to evaluate the enhancement of mechanical performance and the integrity of the bond between the tape and the base plate. The tests demonstrated an increase in specific bending stiffness. In addition, no issues with debonding of the reinforcing tape from the base plate during bend testing were observed. The increase in specific stiffness indicates that selectively-reinforced structures could be designed with the same performance capabilities as a conventional unreinforced structure but with lower mass.

  12. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  13. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  14. Hidden corrosion detection in aircraft aluminum structures using laser ultrasonics and wavelet transform signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M Z; Gouyon, R; Lepoutre, F

    2003-06-01

    Preliminary results of hidden corrosion detection in aircraft aluminum structures using a noncontact laser based ultrasonic technique are presented. A short laser pulse focused to a line spot is used as a broadband source of ultrasonic guided waves in an aluminum 2024 sample cut from an aircraft structure and prepared with artificially corroded circular areas on its back surface. The out of plane surface displacements produced by the propagating ultrasonic waves were detected with a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Time-frequency analysis of the signals using a continuous wavelet transform allowed the identification of the generated Lamb modes by comparison with the calculated dispersion curves. The presence of back surface corrosion was detected by noting the loss of the S(1) mode near its cutoff frequency. This method is applicable to fast scanning inspection techniques and it is particularly suited for early corrosion detection.

  15. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  16. Stress and piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films deposited onto metal electrodes by pulsed direct current reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Marc-Alexandre; Muralt, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited onto platinum, aluminum, and titanium electrodes by reactive magnetron sputtering in the pulsed direct current mode. The films exhibited all a columnar microstructure and a c-axis texture. The built-in stress and the piezoelectric properties of these films were studied as a function of both the processing conditions and the electrode material. Stress was found to be very much dependent on the growth conditions, and values ranging from strong compression to high tension were observed. The piezoelectric d 33,f coefficient was shown to rely on substrate quality and ionic bombardment: The nucleation surface must be stable with regard to the nitrogen plasma and present a hexagonal symmetry and, on the other hand, enough energy must be delivered to the growing film through ionic bombardment. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  18. Residual Stresses in DC cast Aluminum Billet: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Thermomechanical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drezet, J.-M.; Evans, A.; Pirling, T.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-induced residual stresses, generated during the industrial Direct Chill casting process of aluminum alloys, can cause both significant safety concerns as well as the formation of defects during down-stream processing. Although these thermally induced strains can be partially relieved by permanent deformation, cracks will be generated either during solidification (hot tears) or post-solidification cooling (cold cracks) when stresses exceed the deformation limit of the alloy. Furthermore, the thermally induced strains result in the presence of large internal stresses within the billet before further processing steps. Although numerical models have been previously developed to compute these residual stresses, most of the computations have been validated only against measured surface distortions. In the present work, the variation in residual elastic strains and stresses in the steady state regime of casting has been measured as a function of radial position using neutron diffraction in an AA6063 grain-refined cylindrical billet. These measurements have been carried out on the same billet section at Poldi at PSI-Villigen and at Salsa at ILL-Grenoble and compare favorably. The results are used to validate a thermo-mechanical finite element casting model and to assess the level of stored elastic energy within the billet.

  19. Different finite element techniques to predict welding residual stresses in aluminum alloy plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moein, Hadi; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    This study is a 3D thermomechanical finite element (FE) analysis of a single-pass and butt-welded work-hardened aluminum (Al) 5456 plates. It aims to validate the use of FE welding simulations to predict residual stress states in assessing the integrity of welded components. The predicted final residual stresses in the plate from the FE simulations are verified through comparison with experimental measurements. Three techniques are used to simulate the welding process. In the first two approaches, welding deposition is applied by using element birth and interaction techniques. In the third approach, the entire weld zone is simultaneously deposited. Results show a value at approximately the yield strength for longitudinal residual stresses of the welded center of the butt-welded Al alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm. Considering the application of a comprehensive heat source, along with heat loss modeling and the temperature dependent properties of the material, the approach without deposition predicts a reasonable distribution of residual stresses. However, the element birth and interaction techniques, compared with the no-deposit technique, provide more accurate results in calculating residual stresses. Furthermore, the element interaction technique, compared with the element birth technique, exhibits higher efficiency and flexibility in modeling the deposition of welded metals as well as less modeling cost.

  20. A novel cryogenic treatment for reduction of residual stresses in 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araghchi, M., E-mail: M.Araghchi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansouri, H.; Vafaei, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guo, Yina [Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2017-03-24

    Residual stresses induced during quenching of aluminum alloys cause distortion and have a negative effect on their properties. The purpose of this study is to reduce the residual stresses and improve mechanical properties by using a novel cryogenic treatment. Water quenched samples were cooled down by immersion in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C, following by rapid heating in hot oil at 180 °C and finally they were artificially aged. Residual stresses was measured by the hole drilling strain gauge method. The mechanical properties and microstructure of a heat treated samples were investigated by means of hardness measurements, tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that this treatment can relieve up to 71% of the residual stresses compared to 29% related to the traditional cryogenic treatment that used boiling water as the reheating medium. In addition, there is a considerable increase of about 75 MPa in the ultimate tensile strength in comparison to the T6 heat-treated alloy. TEM observations revealed that the S′ precipitates were fine and uniformly distributed in the microstructure due to deformation during reheating in hot oil.

  1. Low-temperature resistance of cyclically strained aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, H.R.; Richard, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of the resistance changes in high-purity, reinforced aluminum due to cyclic straining is presently underway. The purpose of this work is to determine the optimum purity of aluminum to be used as a stabilizing material for superconducting magnets used for energy storage. Since pure aluminum has a low yield strength, it is not capable of supporting the stress levels in an energized magnet. Therefore, it has been bonded to a high-strength material--in this case, 6061 aluminum alloy. This bonding permits pure aluminum to be strained cyclically beyond its elastic limit with recovery of large plastic strains upon release of the load. The resistance change in this composite material is less than that of pure, unreinforced aluminum

  2. Stress corrosion cracking behavior of Nd:YAG laser-treated aluminum alloy 7075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, T.M.; Yan, L.J.; Chan, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Nd-YAG laser surface treatment was conducted on 7075-T651 aluminum alloy with the aim of improving the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the alloy. Laser surface treatment was performed under two different gas environments, air and nitrogen. After the laser treatment, coarse constituent particles were removed and fine cellular/dendritic structures had formed. In addition, for the N 2 -treated specimen, an AlN phase was detected. The results of the stress corrosion test showed that after 30 days of immersion, the untreated specimen had been severely attacked by corrosion, with intergranular cracks having formed along the planar grain boundaries of the specimen. For the air-treated specimen, some relatively long stress corrosion cracks and a small number of relatively large corrosion pits were found. The cracks mainly followed the interdendritic boundaries; the fusion boundary was found to be acting as an arrestor to corrosion attacks. In contrast, only few short stress corrosion cracks appeared in the N 2 -treated specimen, indicating an improvement in corrosion initiation resistance. The superior corrosion resistance was attributed to the formation of the AlN phase in the surface of the laser-melted layer, which is an electrical insulator. The electrochemical impedance measurements taken during the stress corrosion test showed that the film resistance of the laser-treated specimens was always higher than that of the untreated specimen, with the N 2 -treated specimen showing the highest resistance

  3. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  4. Tolerance to drought and salt stress in plants: Unraveling the signaling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dortje eGolldack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance of plants to abiotic stressors such as drought and salinity is triggered by complex multicomponent signaling pathways to restore cellular homeostasis and promote survival. Major plant transcription factor families such as bZIP, NAC, AP2/ERF and MYB orchestrate regulatory networks underlying abiotic stress tolerance. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and MAPK pathways contribute to initiation of stress adaptive downstream responses and promote plant growth and development. As a convergent point of multiple abiotic cues, cellular effects of environmental stresses are not only imbalances of ionic and osmotic homeostasis but also impaired photosynthesis, cellular energy depletion, and redox imbalances. Recent evidence of regulatory systems that link sensing and signaling of environmental conditions and the intracellular redox status have shed light on interfaces of stress and energy signaling. ROS (reactive oxygen species cause severe cellular damage by peroxidation and de-esterification of membrane lipids, however, current models also define a pivotal signaling function of ROS in triggering tolerance against stress. Recent research advances suggest and support a regulatory role of ROS in the cross talks of stress triggered hormonal signaling such as the abscisic acid (ABA pathway and endogenously induced redox and metabolite signals. Here, we discuss and review the versatile molecular convergence in the abiotic stress responsive signaling networks in the context of ROS and lipid derived signals and the specific role of stomatal signaling.

  5. X-ray microbeam measurements of long-range internal stresses in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thien Q.; Lee, I-Fang; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Fox, Alan G.; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure long-range internal stresses (LRISs) in the grain/subgrain interiors of commercial-purity aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing for up to eight passes. The LRIS values at +4.9° off the axial (pressing) direction show only a slight increase with increasing numbers of passes. The normalized stress remains approximately constant at ∼0.10 of the flow stress

  6. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  7. The stress-corrosion cracking behavior of high-strength aluminum powder metallurgy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, J. R.; Christodoulou, L.

    1987-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of rapidly solidified (RS) aluminum powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys 7090 and 7091, mechanically alloyed aluminum P/M alloy IN* 9052, and ingot metallurgy (I/M) alloys of similar compositions was compared using bolt-loaded double cantilever beam specimens. In addition, the effects of aging, grain size, grain boundary segregation, pre-exposure embrittlement, and loading mode on the SCC of 7091 were independently assessed. Finally, the data generated were used to elucidate the mechanisms of SCC in the three P/M alloys. The IN 9052 had the lowest SCC susceptibility of all alloys tested in the peak-strength condition, although no SCC was observed in the two RS alloys in the overaged condition. The susceptibility of the RS alloys was greater in the underaged than the peak-aged temper. We detected no significant differences in susceptibility of 7091 with grain sizes varying from 2 to 300 μm. Most of the crack advance during SCC of 7091 was by hydrogen embrittlement (HE). Furthermore, both RS alloys were found to be susceptible to preexposure embrittlement—also indicative of HE. The P/M alloys were less susceptible to SCC than the I/M alloys in all but one test.

  8. Quantification of stress-induced damage and post-fire response of 5083 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Puplampu, S.B.; Summers, P.T.; Lattimer, B.Y.; Penumadu, D.; Case, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major concerns regarding the use of lightweight materials in ship construction is the response of those materials to fire scenarios, including the residual structural performance after a fire event. This paper presents a study on creep damage evolution in 5083 marine-grade aluminum alloy and its impact on residual mechanical behavior. Tests conducted at 400 °C and pre-selected tensile stress levels were interrupted at target amplitudes of accumulated engineering creep strains to investigate the stress-induced damage using ex-situ characterization. Two-dimensional optical and electron microscopy and three-dimensional X-ray tomography were utilized on samples extracted from these test specimens to characterize the external and internal creep damage. The stress-induced damage is primarily manifested as cavitation and dynamic microstructural evolution. Cavitation morphology, orientation and grain structure evolution were investigated on three perpendicular sample surfaces. A 3D examination of the damage state provided consistent damage information to that obtained from the 2D analysis. The post-fire mechanical properties were also evaluated and linked to the microstructural change. The competing processes of cavitation and grain structure evolution were investigated to develop an understanding of the stress-induced damage associated with high temperature creep

  9. Quantification of stress-induced damage and post-fire response of 5083 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y., E-mail: yanyun@vt.edu [Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Puplampu, S.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Summers, P.T.; Lattimer, B.Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Penumadu, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Case, S.W. [Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2015-08-12

    One of the major concerns regarding the use of lightweight materials in ship construction is the response of those materials to fire scenarios, including the residual structural performance after a fire event. This paper presents a study on creep damage evolution in 5083 marine-grade aluminum alloy and its impact on residual mechanical behavior. Tests conducted at 400 °C and pre-selected tensile stress levels were interrupted at target amplitudes of accumulated engineering creep strains to investigate the stress-induced damage using ex-situ characterization. Two-dimensional optical and electron microscopy and three-dimensional X-ray tomography were utilized on samples extracted from these test specimens to characterize the external and internal creep damage. The stress-induced damage is primarily manifested as cavitation and dynamic microstructural evolution. Cavitation morphology, orientation and grain structure evolution were investigated on three perpendicular sample surfaces. A 3D examination of the damage state provided consistent damage information to that obtained from the 2D analysis. The post-fire mechanical properties were also evaluated and linked to the microstructural change. The competing processes of cavitation and grain structure evolution were investigated to develop an understanding of the stress-induced damage associated with high temperature creep.

  10. The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    or kinematic hardening together with the metallurgical softening model were applied in order to give a first impression of the tendencies in residual stresses in friction stir welds when choosing different hardening and softening behaviors. Secondly, real friction stir butt welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3...

  11. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloy 7000 series after two-step aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of one step-and a new (short two-step aging on the resistance to stress corrosion cracking of an aluminum alloy 7000 series was investigated, using slow strain rate test and fracture mechanics method. Aging level in the tested alloy was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and measurements of electrical resistivity. It was shown that the alloy after the new two-step aging is significantly more resistant to stress corrosion cracking. Values of tensile properties and fracture toughness are similar for both thermal states. Processes that take place at the crack tip have been considered. The effect of the testing solution temperature on the crack growth rate on the plateau was determined. Two values of the apparent activation energy were obtained. These values correspond to different processes that control crack growth rate on the plateau at higher and lower temperatures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34028 i br. TR 34016

  12. Stress activates pronociceptive endogenous opioid signalling in DRG neurons during chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Valdez-Morales, Eduardo E; Jimenez-Vargas, Nestor N; Lopez-Lopez, Cintya; Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue; Okamoto, Takanobu; Nasser, Yasmin; Bunnett, Nigel W; Lomax, Alan E; Vanner, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress accompanies chronic inflammatory diseases such as IBD, and stress hormones can exacerbate pain signalling. In contrast, the endogenous opioid system has an important analgesic action during chronic inflammation. This study examined the interaction of these pathways. Mouse nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were incubated with supernatants from segments of inflamed colon collected from patients with chronic UC and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (cDSS)-induced chronic colitis. Stress effects were studied by adding stress hormones (epinephrine and corticosterone) to dissociated neurons or by exposing cDSS mice to water avoidance stress. Changes in excitability of colonic DRG nociceptors were measured using patch clamp and Ca 2+ imaging techniques. Supernatants from patients with chronic UC and from colons of mice with chronic colitis caused a naloxone-sensitive inhibition of neuronal excitability and capsaicin-evoked Ca 2+ responses. Stress hormones decreased signalling induced by human and mouse supernatants. This effect resulted from stress hormones signalling directly to DRG neurons and indirectly through signalling to the immune system, leading to decreased opioid levels and increased acute inflammation. The net effect of stress was a change endogenous opioid signalling in DRG neurons from an inhibitory to an excitatory effect. This switch was associated with a change in G protein-coupled receptor excitatory signalling to a pathway sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase A-protein, phospholipase C-protein and G protein βϒ subunits. Stress hormones block the inhibitory actions of endogenous opioids and can change the effect of opioid signalling in DRG neurons to excitation. Targeting these pathways may prevent heavy opioid use in IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. WRKY proteins: signaling and regulation of expression during abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins are emerging players in plant signaling and have been thoroughly reported to play important roles in plants under biotic stress like pathogen attack. However, recent advances in this field do reveal the enormous significance of these proteins in eliciting responses induced by abiotic stresses. WRKY proteins act as major transcription factors, either as positive or negative regulators. Specific WRKY factors which help in the expression of a cluster of stress-responsive genes are being targeted and genetically modified to induce improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The knowledge regarding the signaling cascade leading to the activation of the WRKY proteins, their interaction with other proteins of the signaling pathway, and the downstream genes activated by them are altogether vital for justified targeting of the WRKY genes. WRKY proteins have also been considered to generate tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses with possible roles in mediating a cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. In this review, we have reckoned the diverse signaling pattern and biological functions of WRKY proteins throughout the plant kingdom along with the growing prospects in this field of research.

  14. Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Aluminum Stress in the Root of a Biodiesel Plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADITE TISTAMA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated J. curcas responses to aluminum stress, histochemically and biochemically. Histochemical stainings were observed to analysis aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity on the surface and tissue of the root apex. Enzymatic analysis was conducted to measure malate content in leaf, root and malate efflux in the medium. We used M. malabathricum as a comparison for Al-tolerance plant. J. curcas root elongation was inhibited by 0.4 mM AlCl3, while M. malabathricum root elongation was inhibited by 0.8 mM AlCl3 treatment. Inhibition of root elongation has high correlation with Al accumulation in the root apex, which caused lipid degradation and cell death. Generally, malate content in J. curcas leaf and root was higher than that in M. malabathricum. In the contrary malate efflux from the root into the medium was lower. J. curcas root has a different pattern compared to M. malabathricum in malate synthesis and malate secretion when treated with a different Al concentration. We categorized J. curcas acc IP3 as more sensitive to aluminum than M. malabathricum.

  15. Reshock Response of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy at High Pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri-Li, Hou; Jian-Xiang, Peng; Fu-Qian, Jing; Jian-Hua, Zhang; Ping, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    By means of mounting the specimen on a low-impedance buffer, reshock experiments were carried out on a 2A12 aluminum alloy up to shock stresses of 67.6 GPa. Reshock wave profiles from the initial shock stresses of 60.9–67.6 GPa were measured with a velocity interferometer, and it shows that the 2A12 aluminum alloy characterizes as quasi-elastic response during recompression process. The Lagrange longitudinal velocities along the reloading path from initial shock state were obtained from two shots of experiments, while the bulk velocities at corresponding shock stresses were determined via extrapolating from the public reported unloading plastic sound velocities. Combining the reshock and the release experimental results, the yield strength of 2A12 aluminum alloy at shock stress of 60.9 GPa was estimated to be about 1.7 GPa

  16. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite, E-mail: wwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2014-05-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes.

  17. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

    2014-01-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes

  18. Residual stress measurement on propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy and study on its weak spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Li, Huan; Li, Jianxiong; Luo, Chuanguang; Ni, Yanbing [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    This paper presented residual stress measurement on two circumferential Variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) joints and one circular closed Friction stir welding (FSW) joint on the propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy using the indentation strain-gauge method. Quite large tensile residual stresses were attached to the center and inner areas of the circular closed FSW joint. There were very large tensile stresses in some points of the two circumferential VPPAW joints, among these points, the maximum value was +253 MPa, which was about 63 % of the yield strength of 410 MPa measured in the base material. In addition, the peak of compressive residual stress was about -160 MPa. Above all, there were two typical peaks of residual stress in the circumferential VPPAW joints, one was located in the middle part while the other one was near the start/end position of the joints. Combining the result of residual stress measurement with the characteristics of the tank structure, it can be concluded that circular closed FSW joint around the flange was a weak spot on the propellant tank. And the most vulnerable point on the circular closed FSW joint has also been found.

  19. Mitochondrial Stress Signaling Promotes Cellular Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Alexandra Barbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the aetiology of many complex diseases, as well as the ageing process. Much of the research on mitochondrial dysfunction has focused on how mitochondrial damage may potentiate pathological phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the less well-studied mechanisms by which the cell adapts to mitochondrial perturbations. This involves communication of stress to the cell and successful induction of quality control responses, which include mitophagy, unfolded protein response, upregulation of antioxidant and DNA repair enzymes, morphological changes, and if all else fails apoptosis. The mitochondrion is an inherently stressful environment and we speculate that dysregulation of stress signaling or an inability to switch on these adaptations during times of mitochondrial stress may underpin mitochondrial dysfunction and hence amount to pathological states over time.

  20. [Roles of organic acid metabolism in plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and aluminum toxicity stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfei; Shen, Qirong

    2006-11-01

    Organic acids not only act as the intermediates in carbon metabolism, but also exert key roles in the plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and metal stress and in the plant-microbe interactions at root-soil interface. From the viewpoint of plant nutrition, this paper reviewed the research progress on the formation and physiology of organic acids in plant, and their functions in nitrogen metabolism, phosphorus and iron uptake, aluminum tolerance, and soil ecology. New findings in the membrane transport of organic acids and the biotechnological manipulation of organic acids in transgenic model were also discussed. This novel perspectives of organic acid metabolism and its potential manipulation might present a possibility to understand the fundamental aspects of plant physiology, and lead to the new strategies to obtain crop varieties better adapted to environmental and metal stress.

  1. The relative stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of candidate aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of two powder metallurgy processed aluminum-lithium alloys were determined. Strength properties of 480 MPa yield and 550 MPa ultimate tensile strength with 5% strain to fracture were attained. Very little reduction in area was observed and fracture characteristics were brittle. The magnesium bearing alloy exhibited the highest strength and ductility, but fracture was intergranular. Recrystallization and grain growth, as well as coarse grain boundary precipitation, occurred in Alloy 2. The fracture morphology of the two alloys differed. Alloy 1 fractured along a plane of maximum shear stress, while Alloy 2 fractured along a plane of maximum tensile stress. It is found that a fixed orientation relationship exists between the shear fracture plane and the rolling direction which suggests that the PM alloys are strongly textured.

  2. FMRFamide signaling promotes stress-induced sleep in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Olivia; Xiong, Jianmei; Nelson, Matthew D; Raizen, David M; Williams, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Enhanced sleep in response to cellular stress is a conserved adaptive behavior across multiple species, but the mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster increases sleep following exposure to septic or aseptic injury, and Caenorhabditis elegans displays sleep-like quiescence following exposure to high temperatures that stress cells. We show here that, similar to C. elegans, Drosophila responds to heat stress with an increase in sleep. In contrast to Drosophila infection-induced sleep, heat-induced sleep is not sensitive to the time-of-day of the heat pulse. Moreover, the sleep response to heat stress does not require Relish, the NFκB transcription factor that is necessary for infection-induced sleep, indicating that sleep is induced by multiple mechanisms from different stress modalities. We identify a sleep-regulating role for a signaling pathway involving FMRFamide neuropeptides and their receptor FR. Animals mutant for either FMRFamide or for the FMRFamide receptor (FR) have a reduced recovery sleep in response to heat stress. FR mutants, in addition, show reduced sleep responses following infection with Serratia marcescens, and succumb to infection at a faster rate than wild-type controls. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that FMRFamide and its receptor promote an adaptive increase in sleep following stress. Because an FMRFamide-like neuropeptide plays a similar role in C. elegans, we propose that FRMFamide neuropeptide signaling is an ancient regulator of recovery sleep which occurs in response to cellular stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reversible post-breakdown conduction in aluminum oxide-polymer capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qian; Gomes, H.L.; Rocha, P.R.F.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum/Al2O3/polymer/metal capacitors submitted to a low-power constant current stress undergo dielectric breakdown. The post-breakdown conduction is metastable, and over time the capacitors recover their original insulating properties. The decay of the conduction with time follows a power law

  4. Effects of laser shock peening on stress corrosion behavior of 7075 aluminum alloy laser welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.T., E-mail: jiasqq1225@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Materials Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Zhang, Y.K. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chen, J.F.; Zhou, J.Y.; Ge, M.Z.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, X.L. [School of Materials Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China)

    2015-10-28

    7075 aluminum alloy weldments were processed by an intensive process known as laser shock peening (LSP), meanwhile its stress corrosion behaviors were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests. Results showed that the effect of LSP on corrosion behavior of the joint was fairly useful and obvious. With LSP, the elongation, time of fracture and static toughness after the SSRT test were improved by 11.13%, 20% and 100%, respectively. At the same time, the location of the fracture also changed. LSP led to a transition of the fracture type from transgranular to intergranular The reasons for these enhancements of the joint on corrosion behavior were caused by microstructure, residual stress, micro-hardness, and fracture appearance.

  5. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security. Copyright © 2015

  6. Polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors; I. Influence of the aluminum oxide layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, G.; Snik, F.; Keller, C.U.

    2009-01-01

    In polarimetry, it is important to characterize the polarization properties of the instrument itself to disentangle real astrophysical signals from instrumental effects. This article deals with the accurate measurement and modeling of the polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors, as used in

  7. On Time Domain Analysis of Photoplethysmogram Signals for Monitoring Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG and its second derivative (APG. However, we investigate the most suitable index from short PPG signal recordings for heat stress assessment. The APG waveform consists of a, b, c and d waves in systole and an e wave in diastole. Our preliminary results indicate that the use of the energy of aa area, derived from PPG signals measured from emergency responders in tropical conditions, is promising in determining the heat stress level using 20-s recordings. After examining 14 time domain features using leave-one-out cross-validation, we found that the aa energy extracted from PPG signals is the most informative feature for classifying heat-stressed subjects, with an overall accuracy of 79%. Moreover, the combination of the aa energy with the traditional heart rate variability index of heat stress (i.e., the square root of the mean of the squares of the successive aa intervals improved the heat stress detection to an overall accuracy of 83%.

  8. Using X-ray microbeam diffraction to study the long-range internal stresses in aluminum processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-Fang; Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Geantil, Peter T.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 1050 was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a single pass (equivalent uniaxial strain of about 0.88). Long-range internal stresses (LRISs) were assessed in the grain/subgrain interiors using X-ray microbeam diffraction to measure the spacing of {5 3 1} planes, with normals oriented approximately +27.3°, +4.9° and −17.5° off the pressing (axial) direction. The results are consistent with mechanical analysis that suggests the maximum tensile plastic-strain after one pass is expected for +22.5°, roughly zero along the pressing axis, and maximum compressive strain for the −67.5° direction. The magnitude of the measured maximum compressive long-range internal stress is about 0.13σ a (applied stress) in low-dislocation regions within the grain/subgrain interiors. This work is placed in the context of earlier work where convergent beam electron diffraction was used to analyze LRISs in close proximity to the deformation-induced boundaries. The results are complementary and the measured stresses are consistent with a composite model for long-range internal stresses

  9. An Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Anodized Aluminum Film at High Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Guoying; Yu, Yundan; Guo, Yuemei; Zhang, Ao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new environmental-friendly electrolyte containing sulfuric acid and tartaric acid has been used as the substitute of chromic acid for anodization. The work discussed the influence of anodizing voltages on the fatigue life of anodized Al 2024-T3 by performing fatigue tests with 0.1 stress ratio (R) at 320 MPa. Meanwhile the fatigue cycles to failure, yield strength, tensile strength and fracture surface of anodic films at different conditions were investigated. The results showed that the fatigue life of anodized and sealed specimens reduced a lot compared to aluminum alloy, which can be attributed to the crack sites initiated at the oxide layer. The fracture surface analyses also revealed that the number of crack initiation sites enlarged with the increase of anodizing voltage.

  10. Relationship between aluminum stress and caffeine biosynthesis in suspension cells of Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Kú, Roberto; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Monforte-González, Miriam; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; González-Mendoza, Víctor M; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Toxicity by aluminum is a growth-limiting factor in plants cultivated in acidic soils. This metal also promotes signal transduction pathways leading to the biosynthesis of defense compounds, including secondary metabolites. In this study, we observed that Coffea arabica L. cells that were kept in the dark did not produce detectable levels of caffeine. However, irradiation with light and supplementation of the culture medium with theobromine were the best conditions for cell maintenance to investigate the role of aluminum in caffeine biosynthesis. The addition of theobromine to the cells did not cause any changes to cell growth and was useful for the bioconversion of theobromine to caffeine. During a short-term AlCl 3 -treatment (500μM) of C. arabica cells kept under light irradiation, increases in the caffeine levels in samples that were recovered from both the cells and culture media were evident. This augmentation coincided with increases in the enzyme activity of caffeine synthase (CS) and the transcript level of the gene encoding this enzyme (CS). Together, these results suggest that actions by Al and theobromine on the same pathway lead to the induction of caffeine biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of MAPK Modules and ABA during Abiotic Stress Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zélicourt, Axel de

    2016-05-01

    To respond to abiotic stresses, plants have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to rapidly perceive and respond to environmental changes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) was shown to be a pivotal regulator of abiotic stress responses in plants, triggering major changes in plant physiology. The ABA core signaling pathway largely relies on the activation of SnRK2 kinases to mediate several rapid responses, including gene regulation, stomatal closure, and plant growth modulation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have also been implicated in ABA signaling, but an entire ABA-activated MAPK module was uncovered only recently. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of MAPK modules in the context of different plant ABA signaling pathways. Abiotic stresses impact average yield in agriculture by more than 50% globally.Since ABA is a key regulator of abiotic stress responses, an understanding of its functioning at the molecular level is essential for plant breeding. Although the ABA core signaling pathway has been unraveled, several downstream events are still unclear.MAPKs are involved in most plant developmental stages and in response to stresses. Several members of the MAPK family were shown to be directly or indirectly activated by the ABA core signaling pathway.Recent evidence shows that the complete MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14 module is under the control of ABA, whose members are under the transcriptional and post-translational control of the ABA core signaling pathway. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Proteomic analysis of a high aluminum tolerant yeast Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 in response to aluminum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Chang Yi; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Chen, Rong Fu; Lan, Ping; Shen, Ren Fang

    2013-10-01

    Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 is a high-aluminum (Al)-tolerant yeast that can survive in Al concentrations up to 200mM. The mechanisms for the high Al tolerance of R. taiwanensis RS1 are not well understood. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Al tolerance and toxicity in R. taiwanensis RS1, Al toxicity-induced changes in the total soluble protein profile were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 33 differentially expressed proteins responding to Al stress were identified from approximately 850 reproducibly detected proteins. Among them, the abundance of 29 proteins decreased and 4 increased. In the presence of 100mM Al, the abundance of proteins involved in DNA transcription, protein translation, DNA defense, Golgi functions and glucose metabolism was decreased. By contrast, Al treatment led to increased abundance of malate dehydrogenase, which correlated with increased malate dehydrogenase activity and the accumulation of intracellular citrate, suggesting that Al-induced intracellular citrate could play an important role in detoxification of Al in R. taiwanensis RS1. © 2013.

  13. Internal friction study of microplasticity of aluminum thin films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Y.; Tanahashi, K.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Internal friction in aluminum thin films 0.2 to 2.0 {mu}m thick on silicon substrates has been investigated between 180 and 360 K as a function of strain amplitude by means of a free-decay method of flexural vibration. According to the constitutive equation, the internal friction in the film alone can be evaluated separately from the data on the film/substrate composite. The amplitude-dependent part of internal friction in aluminum films is found in the strain range approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that for bulk aluminum. On the basis of the microplasticity theory, the amplitude-dependent internal friction can be converted into the plastic strain as a function of the effective stress on dislocation motion. The mechanical responses thus obtained for aluminum films show that the plastic strain of the order of 10-9 in creases nonlinearly with increasing stress. These curves tend to shift to a higher stress with decreasing film thickness and also with decreasing temperature, both indicating a suppression of the microplastic deformation. At all temperatures examined, the microflow stress at a constant level of the plastic strain varies inversely with the film thickness, which qualitatively agrees with the variation in macroscopic yield stress. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Phosphatidic acid, a versatile water-stress signal in roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionn eMcLoughlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate water supply is of utmost importance for growth and reproduction of plants. In order to cope with water deprivation, plants have to adapt their development and metabolism to ensure survival. To maximize water use efficiency, plants use a large array of signaling mediators such as hormones, protein kinases and phosphatases, Ca2+, reactive oxygen species and low abundant phospholipids that together form complex signaling cascades. Phosphatidic acid (PA is a signaling lipid that rapidly accumulates in response to a wide array of abiotic stress stimuli. PA formation provides the cell with spatial and transient information about the external environment by acting as a protein-docking site in cellular membranes. PA reportedly binds to a number of proteins that play a role during water limiting conditions, such as drought and salinity and has been shown to play an important role in maintaining root system architecture. Members of two osmotic stress-activated protein kinase families, sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs were recently shown bind PA and are also involved in the maintenance of root system architecture and salinity stress tolerance. In addition, PA regulates several proteins involved in abscisic acid (ABA-signaling. PA-dependent recruitment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH under water limiting conditions indicates a role in regulating metabolic processes. Finally, a recent study also shows the PA recruits the clathrin heavy chain and a potassium channel subunit, hinting towards additional roles in cellular trafficking and potassium homeostasis. Taken together, the rapidly increasing number of proteins reported to interact with PA implies a broad role for this versatile signaling phospholipid in mediating salt and water stress responses.

  15. Viscous properties of aluminum oxide nanotubes and aluminium oxide nanoparticles - silicone oil suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ram; French, Steven; Delgado, Adrian; Ramos, Carlos; Gutierrez, Jose; Chipara, Mircea; Lozano, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids consisting of γ-aluminum oxide nanotubes and γ-aluminum oxide nanoparticles dispersed within silicone oil were prepared. The relationship between shear stress and shear rate was measured and theoretically simulated by using an extended Bingham model for both the rheological and electrorheological features of these systems. Shear stress and viscosity showed a sharp increase for the aluminum oxide nanotubes suspensions subjected to applied electric fields whereas aluminum oxide nanoparticles suspensions showed a moderate change. It was found that the transition from liquid to solid state (mediated by the applied electric field) can be described by a power law and that for low applied voltages the relationship is almost linear.

  16. Laser cutting of triangular geometry into 2024 aluminum alloy: Influence of triangle size on thermal stress field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Akhtar, Syed Sohail [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Keles, Omer; Boran, Kurtulus [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Laser cutting of a triangular geometry into aluminum 2024 alloy is carried out. Thermal stress field in the cutting section is predicted using the finite element code ABAQUS. Surface temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. Morphological changes in the cut section are examined incorporating optical and electron scanning microscopes. The effects of the size of the triangular geometry on thermal stress field are also examined. It is found that surface temperature predictions agree well with thermocouple data. von Mises stress remains high in the region close to the corners of the triangular geometry, which is more pronounced for the small size triangle. This behavior is associated with the occurrence of the high cooling rates in this region. Laser cut edges are free from large scale sideways burning and large size burr attachments. However, some locally scattered dross attachments are observed at the kerf exit.

  17. Creep Aging Behavior Characterization of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the creep behaviors of 2219 aluminum alloy at different temperatures and stress levels, a RWS-50 Electronic Creep Testing Machine (Zhuhai SUST Electrical Equipment Company, Zhuhai, China was used for creep experiment at temperatures of 353~458 k and experimental stresses of 130~170 MPa. It was discovered that this alloy displayed classical creep curve characteristics in its creep behaviors within the experimental parameters, and its creep value increased with temperature and stress. Based on the creep equation of hyperbolic sine function, regression analysis was conducted of experimental data to calculate stress exponent, creep activation energy, and other related variables, and a 2219 aluminum alloy creep constitutive equation was established. Results of further analysis of the creep mechanism of the alloy at different temperatures indicated that the creep mechanism of 2219 aluminum alloy differed at different temperatures; and creek characteristics were presented in three stages at different temperatures, i.e., the grain boundary sliding creep mechanism at a low temperature stage (T < 373 K, the dislocation glide creep mechanism at a medium temperature stage (373 K ≤ T < 418 K, and the dislocation climb creep mechanism at a high temperature stage (T ≥ 418 K. By comparative analysis of the fitting results and experiment data, they were found to be in agreement with the experimental data, revealing that the established creep constitutive equation is suitable for different temperatures and stresses.

  18. Effect of creep-aging on precipitates of 7075 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C., E-mail: yclin@csu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jiang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Min; Wen, Dong-Xu [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Hua-Min [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-12-20

    The creep-aging behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy are studied by uniaxial tensile creep experiments under elevated temperatures. The effects of creep-aging temperature and applied stress on the precipitates of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy are investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results show that (1) coarse insoluble precipitates (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}Fe and Mg{sub 2}Si) and intermediate precipitates (Al{sub 18}Mg{sub 3}Cr{sub 2} and Al{sub 3}Zr) are found in the aluminum matrix, and the effects of creep-aging treatment on these precipitates are not obvious; (2) the main aging precipitates are η′ and η phases, and the amount of aging precipitates increase with the increase of creep-aging temperature and applied stress; (3) with the increase of creep-aging temperature and applied stress, the precipitates are discontinuously distributed on the grain boundary, and the width of precipitate free zone increases with the increase of creep-aging temperature and applied stress and (4) compared with the microstructure in the traditional stress-free aged sample, the creep-aging process can refine the precipitates and narrow the width of the precipitate free zone.

  19. The Effect Of Two-Stage Age Hardening Treatment Combined With Shot Peening On Stress Distribution In The Surface Layer Of 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Ł.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article present the results of the study on the improvement of mechanical properties of the surface layer of 7075 aluminum alloy via two-stage aging combined with shot peening. The experiments proved that thermo-mechanical treatment may significantly improve hardness and stress distribution in the surface layer. Compressive stresses of 226 MPa±5.5 MPa and hardness of 210±2 HV were obtained for selected samples.

  20. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  1. Oxidative Stress Promotes Peroxiredoxin Hyperoxidation and Attenuates Pro-survival Signaling in Aging Chondrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, John A.; Wood, Scott T.; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Rowe, Meredith A.; Carlson, Cathy S.; Chubinskaya, Susan; Poole, Leslie B.; Furdui, Cristina M.; Loeser, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress-mediated post-translational modifications of redox-sensitive proteins are postulated as a key mechanism underlying age-related cellular dysfunction and disease progression. Peroxiredoxins (PRX) are critical intracellular antioxidants that also regulate redox signaling events. Age-related osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging and oxidative stress on chondrocyte intracellular signaling, with a specific focus on oxidation of cytosolic PRX2 and mitochondrial PRX3. Menadione was used as a model to induce cellular oxidative stress. Compared with chondrocytes isolated from young adult humans, chondrocytes from older adults exhibited higher levels of PRX1–3 hyperoxidation basally and under conditions of oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was associated with inhibition of pro-survival Akt signaling and stimulation of pro-death p38 signaling. These changes were prevented in cultured human chondrocytes by adenoviral expression of catalase targeted to the mitochondria (MCAT) and in cartilage explants from MCAT transgenic mice. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was observed in situ in human cartilage sections from older adults and in osteoarthritic cartilage. MCAT transgenic mice exhibited less age-related osteoarthritis. These findings demonstrate that age-related oxidative stress can disrupt normal physiological signaling and contribute to osteoarthritis and suggest peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation as a potential mechanism. PMID:26797130

  2. Stress Wave Attenuation in Aluminum Alloy and Mild Steel Specimens Under SHPB Tensile Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothnis, J. R.; Ravikumar, G.; Arya, H.; Yerramalli, Chandra S.; Naik, N. K.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on the effect of intensity of incident pressure wave applied through the striker bar on the specimen force histories and stress wave attenuation during split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tensile testing are presented. Details of the tensile SHPB along with Lagrangian x- t diagram of the setup are included. Studies were carried out on aluminum alloy 7075 T651 and IS 2062 mild steel. While testing specimens using the tensile SHPB setup, it was observed that the force calculated from the transmitter bar strain gauge was smaller than the force obtained from the incident bar strain gauge. This mismatch between the forces in the incident bar and the transmitter bar is explained on the basis of stress wave attenuation in the specimens. A methodology to obtain force histories using the strain gauges on the specimen during SHPB tensile testing is also presented. Further, scanning electron microscope images and photomicrographs are given. Correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties is explained. Further, uncertainty analysis was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of the results.

  3. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Polyak, Steve

    2015-08-28

    Silymarin (SM), a natural product, is touted as a liver protectant and preventer of both chronic inflammation and diseases. To define how SM elicits these effects at a systems level, we performed transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies in human liver and T cell lines. Multiple pathways associated with cellular stress and metabolism were modulated by SM treatment within 0.5 to four hours: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed suppression of glycolytic, TCA cycle, and amino acid metabolism by SM treatment. Antiinflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e. 24 hours) SM exposure, with suppression of multiple proinflammatory mRNAs and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling. Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that SM inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, while SM inhibition of the mTOR pathway in part required DDIT4. Thus, SM activates stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Therefore, natural products like SM may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation.

  4. Role of deferoxamine on enzymatic stress markers in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease after chronic aluminum exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, José L; Garcia, Tania; Gómez, Mercedes; Nogués, M Rosa; Giralt, Montserrat; Domingo, José L

    2011-06-01

    The effect of the chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on the activity of enzymatic stress markers was assessed in amyloid beta peptide (AβPP) transgenic mice, an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, after oral aluminum (Al) exposure for 6 months. AβPP transgenic (Tg2576) and C57BL6/SJL wild-type mice of 5 months of age were fed a diet supplemented with Al lactate (1 mg of Al/g food). Four groups of Tg2576 and wild-type animals were used: control, Al only, DFO only, and Al plus DFO. Mice in the DFO-treated groups received also subcutaneous injections of 0.20 mmol/kg/d of this chelating agent twice a week until the end of the study at 11 months of age. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex were removed and processed to examine a number of oxidative stress markers. Furthermore, the expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Aluminum levels in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice were higher than those found in cerebellum and cortex, while the main oxidative effects were evidenced in the presence of DFO only. Oral Al exposure of AβPP transgenic mice would have some potential to promote pro-oxidant events, while DFO administration would not help in preventing these deleterious effects.

  5. Dynamics of a Lüders Band and Destruction of an Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, Initiated by a Stress Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Zheltov, M. A.; Gasanov, M. F.; Zolotov, A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Spatio-temporal localization of deformation and the rupture of the aluminum-magnesium AlMg6 alloy, initiated by a geometrical stress concentrator, are studied in situ by video recording at a speed of 500 to 20000 frames/s. It is established that a stress concentrator in the form of a small notch with a depth about 1% of the width of a flat specimen is an attractor of bands of macrolocalized plastic deformation, starting from a Lüders band and ending with the start of the main crack. The key role of intersecting deformation macrobands in the development of the main crack is revealed. Possible micromechanisms of viscous destruction associated with the dynamics of the intersection of deformation bands are discussed.

  6. Microscopic analysis of effect of shot peening on corrosion fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Cheon; Cheong, Seong Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study considers corrosion fatigue improvement of 7075-T6 aluminum by using shot peening treatment on 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Aluminum alloy is generally used in aerospace structural components because of the light weight and high strength characteristics. Many studies have shown that an aluminum alloy can be approximately 50% lighter than other materials. Mostly, corrosion leads to earlier fatigue crack propagation under tensile conditions and severely reduces the life of structures. Therefore, the technique to improve material resistance to corrosion fatigue is required. Shot peening technology is widely used to improve fatigue life and other mechanical properties by induced compressive residual stress. Even the roughness of treated surface causes pitting corrosion, the compressive residual stress, which is induced under the surface layer of material by shot peening, suppersses the corrosion and increases the corrosion resistance. The experimental results for shot peened specimens were compared with previous work for non treated aluminum alloy. The results show that the shot peening treatment affects the corrosion fatigue improvement of aluminum alloys and the induced compressive residual stress by shot peening treatment improves the resistance to corrosion fatigue

  7. Microscopic analysis of effect of shot peening on corrosion fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Cheon; Cheong, Seong Kyun [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The object of this study considers corrosion fatigue improvement of 7075-T6 aluminum by using shot peening treatment on 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Aluminum alloy is generally used in aerospace structural components because of the light weight and high strength characteristics. Many studies have shown that an aluminum alloy can be approximately 50% lighter than other materials. Mostly, corrosion leads to earlier fatigue crack propagation under tensile conditions and severely reduces the life of structures. Therefore, the technique to improve material resistance to corrosion fatigue is required. Shot peening technology is widely used to improve fatigue life and other mechanical properties by induced compressive residual stress. Even the roughness of treated surface causes pitting corrosion, the compressive residual stress, which is induced under the surface layer of material by shot peening, suppersses the corrosion and increases the corrosion resistance. The experimental results for shot peened specimens were compared with previous work for non treated aluminum alloy. The results show that the shot peening treatment affects the corrosion fatigue improvement of aluminum alloys and the induced compressive residual stress by shot peening treatment improves the resistance to corrosion fatigue.

  8. Global Plant Stress Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species at the Cross-Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser eSewelam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Current technologies have changed biology into a data-intensive field and significantly increased our understanding of signal transduction pathways in plants. However, global defense signaling networks in plants have not been established yet. Considering the apparent intricate nature of signaling mechanisms in plants (due to their sessile nature, studying the points at which different signaling pathways converge, rather than the branches, represents a good start to unravel global plant signaling networks. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together. In this review, the complex nature of plant stress signaling networks will be discussed. An emphasis on different signaling players with a specific attention to ROS as the primary source of the signaling battery in plants will be presented. The interactions between ROS and other signaling components, e.g. calcium, redox homeostasis, membranes, G-proteins, MAPKs, plant hormones and transcription factors will be assessed. A better understanding of the vital roles ROS are playing in plant signaling would help innovate new strategies to improve plant productivity under the circumstances of the increasing severity of environmental conditions and the high demand of food and energy worldwide

  9. A central integrator of transcription networks in plant stress and energy signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-González, Elena; Rolland, Filip; Thevelein, Johan M; Sheen, Jen

    2007-08-23

    Photosynthetic plants are the principal solar energy converter sustaining life on Earth. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about how plants sense and adapt to darkness in the daily light-dark cycle, or how they adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses that compromise photosynthesis and respiration and deplete energy supplies. Current models emphasize diverse stress perception and signalling mechanisms. Using a combination of cellular and systems screens, we show here that the evolutionarily conserved Arabidopsis thaliana protein kinases, KIN10 and KIN11 (also known as AKIN10/At3g01090 and AKIN11/At3g29160, respectively), control convergent reprogramming of transcription in response to seemingly unrelated darkness, sugar and stress conditions. Sensing and signalling deprivation of sugar and energy, KIN10 targets a remarkably broad array of genes that orchestrate transcription networks, promote catabolism and suppress anabolism. Specific bZIP transcription factors partially mediate primary KIN10 signalling. Transgenic KIN10 overexpression confers enhanced starvation tolerance and lifespan extension, and alters architecture and developmental transitions. Significantly, double kin10 kin11 deficiency abrogates the transcriptional switch in darkness and stress signalling, and impairs starch mobilization at night and growth. These studies uncover surprisingly pivotal roles of KIN10/11 in linking stress, sugar and developmental signals to globally regulate plant metabolism, energy balance, growth and survival. In contrast to the prevailing view that sucrose activates plant SnRK1s (Snf1-related protein kinases), our functional analyses of Arabidopsis KIN10/11 provide compelling evidence that SnRK1s are inactivated by sugars and share central roles with the orthologous yeast Snf1 and mammalian AMPK in energy signalling.

  10. Accumulation and localization of extensin protein in apoplast of pea root nodule under aluminum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Cell wall components such as hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs, extensins) have been proposed to be involved in aluminum (Al) resistance mechanisms in plants. We have characterized the distribution of extensin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules apoplast under short (for 2 and 24h) Al stress. Monoclonal antibodie LM1 have been used to locate extensin protein epitope by immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling. The nodules were shown to respond to Al stress by thickening of plant and infection thread (IT) walls and disturbances in threads growth and bacteria endocytosis. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 17-kDa band specific for LM1. Irrespective of the time of Al stress, extensin content increased in root nodules. Further observation utilizing fluorescence and transmission electron microscope showed that LM1 epitope was localized in walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex tissues and in the infection threads matrix. Al stress in nodules appears to be associated with higher extensin accumulation in matrix of enlarged thick-walled ITs. In addition to ITs, thickened walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex were also associated with intense extensin accumulation. These data suggest that Al-induced extensin accumulation in plant cell walls and ITs matrix may have influence on the process of IT growth and tissue and cell colonization by Rhizobium bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the Local Residual Stresses of 7050-T7452 Aluminum Alloy in Microzones by the Instrumented Indentation with the Berkovich Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Huang, C. H.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, F.; Zhang, N.; Li, F. G.

    2017-10-01

    The local residual stresses in microzones are investigated by the instrumented indentation method with the Berkovich indenter. The parameters required for determination of residual stresses are obtained from indentation load-penetration depth curves constructed during instrumented indentation tests on flat square 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy specimens with a central hole containing the compressive residual stresses generated by the cold extrusion process. The force balance system with account of the tensile and compressive residual stresses is used to explain the phenomenon of different contact areas produced by the same indentation load. The effect of strain-hardening exponent on the residual stress is tuned-off by application of the representative stress σ_{0.033} in the average contact pressure assessment using the Π theorem, while the yield stress value is obtained from the constitutive function. Finally, the residual stresses are calculated according to the proposed equations of the force balance system, and their feasibility is corroborated by the XRD measurements.

  12. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  13. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene negatively regulates ER stress signaling in rodent and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sonya G; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Oslowski, Christine M; Lu, Simin; Lipson, Kathryn L; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Hayashi, Emiko; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Oka, Yoshitomo; Permutt, M Alan; Urano, Fumihiko

    2010-03-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, caused by nonautoimmune loss of beta cells, and neurological dysfunctions. We have previously shown that mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene cause Wolfram syndrome and that WFS1 has a protective function against ER stress. However, it remained to be determined how WFS1 mitigates ER stress. Here we have shown in rodent and human cell lines that WFS1 negatively regulates a key transcription factor involved in ER stress signaling, activating transcription factor 6alpha (ATF6alpha), through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. WFS1 suppressed expression of ATF6alpha target genes and repressed ATF6alpha-mediated activation of the ER stress response element (ERSE) promoter. Moreover, WFS1 stabilized the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, brought ATF6alpha to the proteasome, and enhanced its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to suppression of ER stress signaling. Consistent with these data, beta cells from WFS1-deficient mice and lymphocytes from patients with Wolfram syndrome exhibited dysregulated ER stress signaling through upregulation of ATF6alpha and downregulation of HRD1. These results reveal a role for WFS1 in the negative regulation of ER stress signaling and in the pathogenesis of diseases involving chronic, unresolvable ER stress, such as pancreatic beta cell death in diabetes.

  14. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  15. Growth and Breakdown of Surface Films and Localized Corrosion of Aluminum in Concentrated Chloride Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jiajing

    1994-01-01

    ...) and mechanical stress for aluminum and titanium alloys in aggressive corrosion environments. This report presents results of some very preliminary experiments on aluminum alloys and titanium during anodic dissolution in chloride media...

  16. Nonintrusive biological signal monitoring in a car to evaluate a driver's stress and health state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Lee, Haet Bit; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-03-01

    Nonintrusive monitoring of a driver's physiological signals was introduced and evaluated in a car as a test of extending the concept of ubiquitous healthcare to vehicles. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and respiration were measured in the ubiquitous healthcare car (U-car) using nonintrusively installed sensors on the steering wheel, driver's seat, and seat belt. Measured signals were transmitted to the embedded computer via Bluetooth(R) communication and processed. We collected and analyzed physiological signals during driving in order to estimate a driver's stress state while using this system. In order to compare the effect of stress on physical and mental conditions, two categories of stresses were defined. Experimental results show that a driver's physiological signals were measured with acceptable quality for analysis without interrupting driving, and they were changed meaningfully due to elicited stress. This nonintrusive monitoring can be used to evaluate a driver's state of health and stress.

  17. Calcium efflux systems in stress signalling and adaptation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar eBose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt elevation is an ubiquitous denominator of the signalling network when plants are exposed to literally every known abiotic and biotic stress. These stress-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevations vary in magnitude, frequency and shape, depending on the severity of the stress as well the type of stress experienced. This creates a unique stress-specific calcium signature that is then decoded by signal transduction networks. While most published papers have been focused predominantly on the role of Ca2+ influx mechanisms in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures, restoration of the basal [Ca2+]cyt levels is impossible without both cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and efficient Ca2+ efflux mechanisms removing excess Ca2+ from cytosol, to reload Ca2+ stores and to terminate Ca2+ signalling. This is the topic of the current review. The molecular identity of two major types of Ca2+ efflux systems, Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, is described, and their regulatory modes are analysed in detail. The spatial and temporal organisation of calcium signalling networks is described, and the importance of existence of intracellular calcium microdomains is discussed. Experimental evidence for the role of Ca2+ efflux systems in plant responses to a range of abiotic and biotic factors is summarised. Contribution of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures is then modelled by using a four-component model (plasma- and endo- membrane-based Ca2+-permeable channels and efflux systems taking into account the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. It is concluded that physiologically relevant variations in the activity of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers are sufficient to fully describe all the reported experimental evidence and determine the shape of [Ca2+]cyt signatures in response to environmental stimuli, emphasising the crucial role these active efflux systems play in plant adaptive responses to environment.

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviors of 6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yibo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural components of high speed trains are usually made of aluminum alloys, for example, 6082. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the material is one of key factors considered in structural design and safety assessment. In this paper, dynamic mechanical experiments were conducted with strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 100 s−1 using Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress-strain curves were fitted based on experimental data. Johnson-Cook model of 6082-T6 aluminum alloy was built to investigate the effect of strain and strain rate on flow stress. It has shown that the flow stress was sensitive to the strain rate. Yield strength and tensile strength increased with a high strain rate, which showed strain rate effect to some extent. Fracture analysis was carried out by using Backscattered Electron imaging (BSE. As strain rate increased, more precipitates were generated in fracture.

  19. Rapid stress-induced transcriptomic changes in the brain depend on beta-adrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Martin; Manuella, Francesca; von Ziegler, Lukas; Durán-Pacheco, Gonzalo; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Acute exposure to stressful experiences can rapidly increase anxiety and cause neuropsychiatric disorders. The effects of stress result in part from the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, which regulate gene expression in different brain regions. The fast neuroendocrine response to stress is largely mediated by norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), followed by a slower and more sustained release of corticosterone. While corticosterone is an important regulator of gene expression, it is not clear which stress-signals contribute to the rapid regulation of gene expression observed immediately after stress exposure. Here, we demonstrate in mice that 45 min after an acute swim stress challenge, large changes in gene expression occur across the transcriptome in the hippocampus, a region sensitive to the effects of stress. We identify multiple candidate genes that are rapidly and transiently altered in both males and females. Using a pharmacological approach, we show that most of these rapidly induced genes are regulated by NE through β-adrenergic receptor signaling. We find that CRH and corticosterone can also contribute to rapid changes in gene expression, although these effects appear to be restricted to fewer genes. These results newly reveal a widespread impact of NE on the transcriptome and identify novel genes associated with stress and adrenergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Torsion Property of the Structure Bonded Aluminum Foam Due to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang G.W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aluminum foam added with foaming agent, is classified into an open-cell type for heat transfer and a closed-cell type for shock absorption. This study investigates the characteristic on the torsion of aluminum foam for a closed-cell type under impact. The fracture characteristics are investigated through the composite of five types of aluminum foam (the thicknesses of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 mm, when applying the torsional moment of impact energy on the junction of a porous structure attached by an adhesive. When applying the impact energy of 100, 200 and 300J, the aluminum foams with thicknesses of 25 mm and 35 mm broke off under all conditions. For the energy over 200J, aluminums thicker than 55 mm continued to be attached. Furthermore, the aluminum specimens with thicknesses of 55 mm and 65 mm that were attached with more than 30% of bonding interface remained, proving that they could maintain bonding interface against impact energy. By comparing the data based on the analysis and test result, an increase in the thickness of specimen leads to the plastic deformation as the stress at the top and bottom of bonding interface moves to the middle by spreading the stress horizontally. Based on this fracture characteristic, this study can provide the data on the destruction and separation of bonding interface and may contribute to the safety design.

  1. Insulin Signaling in the Aging of Healthy and Proteotoxically Stressed Mechanosensory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney eScerbak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin signaling is central to cellular metabolism and organismal aging. However, the role of insulin signaling in natural and proteotoxically stressed aging neurons has yet to be fully described. We studied aging of Caenorbaditis elegans mechanosensory neurons expressing a neurotoxic expanded polyglutamine transgene (polyQ128, or lacking this proteotoxicity stressor (polyQ0, under conditions in which the insulin signaling pathway was disrupted by RNA interference (RNAi. We describe specific changes in lifespan, mechanosensory neuronal morphologies, and mechansensory function following RNAi treatment targeting the insulin signaling pathway. Overall, we confirmed that transcription factor DAF-16 is neuroprotective in the proteotoxically stressed model, though not strikingly in the naturally aging model. Decreased insulin signaling through daf-2 RNAi improved mechanosensory function in both models and decreased protein aggregation load in polyQ128, yet showed opposing effects on accumulation of neuronal aberrations in both strains. Decreased daf-2 signaling slightly enhanced mechanosensation while greatly enhancing branching of the mechanosensory neuron axons and dendrites in polyQ0 animals, suggesting that branching is an adaptive response in natural aging. These effects in polyQ0 did not appear to involve DAF-16, suggesting the existence of a non-canonical DAF-2 pathway for the modulation of morphological adaptation. However, in polyQ128 animals, decreased daf-2 signaling significantly enhanced mechanosensation while decreasing neuronal aberrations. Unlike other interventions that reduce the strength of insulin signaling, daf-2 RNAi dramatically redistributed large polyQ128 aggregates to the cell body, away from neuronal processes. Our results suggest that insulin signaling strength can differentially affect specific neurons aging naturally or under proteotoxic stress.

  2. Study on Electrophysiological Signal Monitoring of Plant under Stress Based on Integrated Op-Amps and Patch Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological signal in plant is a weak electrical signal, which can fluctuate with the change of environment. An amplification detection system was designed for plant electrical signal acquisition by using integrated op-amps (CA3140, AD620, and INA118, patch electrode, data acquisition card (NI USB-6008, computer, and shielded box. Plant electrical signals were also studied under pressure and flooding stress. The amplification detection system can make nondestructive acquisition for Aquatic Scindapsus and Guaibcn with high precision, high sensitivity, low power consumption, high common mode rejection ratio, and working frequency bandwidth. Stress experiments were conducted through the system; results show that electrical signals were produced in the leaf of Aquatic Scindapsus under the stress of pressure. Electrical signals in the up-leaf surface of Aquatic Scindapsus were stronger than the down-leaf surface. Electrical signals produced in the leaf of Guaibcn were getting stronger when suffering flooding stress. The more the flooding stress was severe, the faster the electrical signal changed, the longer the time required for returning to a stable state was, and the greater the electrical signal got at the stable state was.

  3. Particles geometry influence in the thermal stress level in an SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite considering the material non-linear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Boari, Zoroastro de M.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed to predict the thermal stress level that occurs in a metallic matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles, when the temperature decreases from 600 deg C to 20 deg C during the fabrication process. This analytical development is based on the Eshelby method, dislocation mechanisms, and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution model. The material was assumed to have a linear elastic behavior. The analytical results from this formulation were verified against numerical linear analyses that were performed over a set of random non-uniform distribution of particles that covers a wide range of volumetric ratios. To stick with the analytical hypothesis, particles with round geometry were used. Each stress distribution, represented by the isostress curves at ΔT=-580 deg C, was analyzed with an image analyzer. A statistical procedure was applied to obtain the most probable thermal stress level. Analytical and numerical results compared very well. Plastic deformation as well as particle geometry can alter significantly the stress field in the material. To account for these effects, in this work, several numerical analyses were performed considering the non-linear behavior for the aluminum matrix and distinct particle geometries. Two distinct sets of data with were used. To allow a direct comparison, the first set has the same models (particle form, size and distribution) as used previously. The second set analyze quadrilateral particles and present very tight range of volumetric ratio, closer to what is found in actual SiC composites. A simple and fast algorithm was developed to analyze the new results. The comparison of these results with the previous ones shows, as expected, the strong influence of the elastic-plastic behavior of the aluminum matrix on the composite thermal stress distribution due to its manufacturing process and shows, also, a small influence of the particles geometry and volumetric ratio. (author)

  4. Yield and flow properties of aluminum alloy AA 8001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.S.; Johnson, H.W.; Han, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 8001 is being used at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for nuclear reactor fuel and target components. The objective of this research was to determine parameters for predictive models of the compressive flow properties of AA 8001. Seventy-five true strain-rate, hot compression tests were performed. New, quantitative information about the yield and flow behavior of aluminum alloy AA 8001 was determined. Parameters were determined to use in a hyperbolic sine constitutive law so that the yield stress, the peak stress, and the peak strain can be predicted from the temperature-compensated strain-rate, Z. It was found that the onset of strain softening was more strongly dependent on Z than the onset of yielding was

  5. Fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. T. V.; Ritchie, R. O.; Piascik, R. S.; Gangloff, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The principal mechanisms which govern the fatigue crack propagation resistance of aluminum-lithium alloys are investigated, with emphasis on their behavior in controlled gaseous and aqueous environments. Extensive data describe the growth kinetics of fatigue cracks in ingot metallurgy Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 and in powder metallurgy alloys exposed to moist air. Results are compared with data for traditional aluminum alloys 2024, 2124, 2618, 7075, and 7150. Crack growth is found to be dominated by shielding from tortuous crack paths and resultant asperity wedging. Beneficial shielding is minimized for small cracks, for high stress ratios, and for certain loading spectra. While water vapor and aqueous chloride environments enhance crack propagation, Al-Li-Cu alloys behave similarly to 2000-series aluminum alloys. Cracking in water vapor is controlled by hydrogen embrittlement, with surface films having little influence on cyclic plasticity.

  6. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  7. Novel roles for phospholipase C in plant stress signalling and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, efforts have been made to explore PLC signaling in plants. Compared to the classical PLC signaling pathway, a different picture is emerging for plants. Several roles for PLC in plant development and stress responses have been claimed but genetic evidence for this is mostly missing.

  8. Stat5 signaling specifies basal versus stress erythropoietic responses through distinct binary and graded dynamic modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Porpiglia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo-induced Stat5 phosphorylation (p-Stat5 is essential for both basal erythropoiesis and for its acceleration during hypoxic stress. A key challenge lies in understanding how Stat5 signaling elicits distinct functions during basal and stress erythropoiesis. Here we asked whether these distinct functions might be specified by the dynamic behavior of the Stat5 signal. We used flow cytometry to analyze Stat5 phosphorylation dynamics in primary erythropoietic tissue in vivo and in vitro, identifying two signaling modalities. In later (basophilic erythroblasts, Epo stimulation triggers a low intensity but decisive, binary (digital p-Stat5 signal. In early erythroblasts the binary signal is superseded by a high-intensity graded (analog p-Stat5 response. We elucidated the biological functions of binary and graded Stat5 signaling using the EpoR-HM mice, which express a "knocked-in" EpoR mutant lacking cytoplasmic phosphotyrosines. Strikingly, EpoR-HM mice are restricted to the binary signaling mode, which rescues these mice from fatal perinatal anemia by promoting binary survival decisions in erythroblasts. However, the absence of the graded p-Stat5 response in the EpoR-HM mice prevents them from accelerating red cell production in response to stress, including a failure to upregulate the transferrin receptor, which we show is a novel stress target. We found that Stat5 protein levels decline with erythroblast differentiation, governing the transition from high-intensity graded signaling in early erythroblasts to low-intensity binary signaling in later erythroblasts. Thus, using exogenous Stat5, we converted later erythroblasts into high-intensity graded signal transducers capable of eliciting a downstream stress response. Unlike the Stat5 protein, EpoR expression in erythroblasts does not limit the Stat5 signaling response, a non-Michaelian paradigm with therapeutic implications in myeloproliferative disease. Our findings show how the

  9. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, Michael; Zeigler, Kristine; Stone, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of ∼7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low (∼20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the

  10. Reproducibility of aluminum foam properties: Effect of precursor distribution on the structural anisotropy and the collapse stress and its dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosko, M.; Simancik, F.; Florek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The porous structure of aluminum foam manufactured through the foaming of precursors containing blowing agent is stochastic in nature, usually with a random distribution of pores of different size and shape, creating difficulties in the modeling and prediction of foam properties. In this study, the effect of the initial location of the precursor material in the mold on the foam structure and compression behavior was investigated. Structural characterization showed that the porosity distribution, surface skin thickness and pore orientation was affected by the location of the precursors in the mold and by the extrusion direction of the precursors. Moreover, compression tests demonstrated a significant effect of the structural anisotropy on the collapse stress and its dispersion. The collapse stress of the foam increased if the loading was performed parallel to the thicker surface skin or parallel to the preferential pore orientation, leading to a 20% difference in collapse stress. The dispersion of the collapse stress could be significantly decreased if the loading was performed with regard to the structural anisotropy.

  11. Dysregulated stress signal sensitivity and inflammatory disinhibition as a pathophysiological mechanism of stress-related chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Jana; Skoluda, Nadine; Rohleder, Nicolas; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Chronic stress and its subsequent effects on biological stress systems have long been recognized as predisposing and perpetuating factors in chronic fatigue, although the exact mechanisms are far from being completely understood. In this review, we propose that sensitivity of immune cells to glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CATs) may be the missing link in elucidating how stress turns into chronic fatigue. We searched for in vitro studies investigating the impact of GCs or CATs on mitogen-stimulated immune cells in chronically stressed or fatigued populations, with 34 original studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Besides mixed cross-sectional findings for stress- and fatigue-related changes of GC sensitivity under basal conditions or acute stress, longitudinal studies indicate a decrease with ongoing stress. Research on CATs is still scarce, but initial findings point towards a reduction of CAT sensitivity under chronic stress. In the long run, resistance of immune cells to stress signals under conditions of chronic stress might translate into self-maintaining inflammation and inflammatory disinhibition under acute stress, which in turn lead to fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological stress mediates the honesty of social signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R Bortolotti

    Full Text Available Extravagant ornaments used as social signals evolved to advertise their bearers' quality. The Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis proposes that testosterone-dependent ornaments reliably signal health and parasite resistance; however, empirical studies have shown mixed support. Alternatively, immune function and parasite resistance may be indirectly or directly related to glucocorticoid stress hormones. We propose that an understanding of the interplay between the individual and its environment, particularly how they cope with stressors, is crucial for understanding the honesty of social signals.We analyzed corticosterone deposited in growing feathers as an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a wild territorial bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We manipulated two key, interrelated components, parasites and testosterone, which influence both ornamentation and fitness. Birds were initially purged of parasites, and later challenged with parasites or not, while at the same time being given testosterone or control implants, using a factorial experimental design. At the treatment level, testosterone enhanced ornamentation, while parasites reduced it, but only in males not implanted with testosterone. Among individuals, the degree to which both parasites and testosterone had an effect was strongly dependent on the amount of corticosterone in the feather grown during the experiment. The more stressors birds had experienced (i.e., higher corticosterone, the more parasites developed, and the less testosterone enhanced ornamentation.With this unique focus on the individual, and a novel, integrative, measure of response to stressors, we show that ornamentation is ultimately a product of the cumulative physiological response to environmental challenges. These findings lead toward a more realistic concept of honesty in signaling as well as a broader discussion of the concept of stress.

  13. Effect of material strength on the relationship between the principal Hugoniot and quasi-isentrope of beryllium and 6061-T6 aluminum below 35 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Quasi-isentropic (QI) compression can be achieved by loading a specimen with a low strain rate, long rise time uniaxial strain wave. Recent experimental data show that the quasi-isentrope of 6061-T6 aluminum lies a few percent above the principal Hugoniot, that is, at a given specific volume, the QI stress exceeds the principal Hugoniot stress. It has been suggested that this effect is due to material strength. Using Hugoniot data, shock-reshock, and shock-unload data for beryllium and 6061-T6 aluminum, we have constructed the quasi-isentropes as functions of specific volume. Our results show that the QI stress exceeds the principal Hugoniot stress above a Hugoniot stress of 8.4 GPa in beryllium, and between Hugoniot stresses of 3.8 and 21.4 GPa in aluminum. The effect is due to strength and implies that the QI yield strength can be large. Our calculations show that the QI yield strength is 0.9 GPa in aluminum at a QI stress of 9 GPa, and 5.2 GPa in beryllium at a QI stress of 35 GPa

  14. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Walley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA and ethylene (ET signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  15. ROS signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junsheng; Song, Chun-Peng; Wang, Baoshan; Zhou, Jianmin; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2018-04-16

    Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO 2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO 2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles. These ROS form a sophisticated cellular signaling network, with the accumulation of apoplastic ROS an early hallmark of stomatal movement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ROS signaling network, primarily during drought stress and pathogen attack. We summarize the roles of apoplastic ROS in regulating stomatal movement, ABA and CO 2 signaling, and immunity responses. Finally, we discuss ROS accumulation and communication between organelles and cells. This information provides a conceptual framework for understanding how ROS signaling is integrated with various signaling pathways during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of aluminum drill-pipe material and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lourenco, Marcelo I.; Netto, Theodoro Antoun [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Experimental program and numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes designed and manufactured in compliance with ISO 15546. The main objective is to improve the fatigue performance of these components by selecting the appropriate aluminum alloy and by enhancing the mechanical design of the threaded steel connector. This paper presents the experimental test program and numerical analyses conducted on a drill-pipe of different materials (Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg system aluminum alloys) and geometry. Material mechanical properties, including S-N curve, were determined through small-scale tests on specimens cut from actual drill pipes. Full-scale experiments were also performed in laboratory. A finite element model of the drill pipe, including the tool-joint region, was developed. The model simulates, through different load steps, the tool-joint hot assembly, and then reproduces the physical experiments numerically in order to obtain the actual stress distribution. Good correlation between full-scale and small-scale fatigue tests was obtained by adjusting the strain/stress levels monitored in the full-scale tests in light of the numerical simulations and performing fatigue life calculations via multiaxial fatigue models. The weak points of the current practice design are highlighted for further development. (author)

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Aluminum Honeycombs Subjected to Dynamic Indentation and Compression Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Ayman Ashab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams.

  18. Explosive compaction of aluminum oxide modified by multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzyurkin, A. E.; Kraus, E. I.; Lukyanov, Ya L.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents experiments and numerical research on explosive compaction of aluminum oxide powder modified by multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and modeling of the stress state behind the shock front at shock loading. The aim of this study was to obtain a durable low-porosity compact sample. The explosive compaction technology is used in this problem because the aluminum oxide is an extremely hard and refractory material. Therefore, its compaction by traditional methods requires special equipment and considerable expenses.

  19. AP2/EREBP transcription factors are part of gene regulatory networks and integrate metabolic, hormonal and environmental signals in stress acclimation and retrograde signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Vogel, Marc Oliver; Viehhauser, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    To optimize acclimation responses to environmental growth conditions, plants integrate and weigh a diversity of input signals. Signal integration within the signalling networks occurs at different sites including the level of transcription factor activation. Accumulating evidence assigns a major and diversified role in environmental signal integration to the family of APETALA 2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors. Presently, the Plant Transcription Factor Database 3.0 assigns 147 gene loci to this family in Arabidopsis thaliana, 200 in Populus trichocarpa and 163 in Oryza sativa subsp. japonica as compared to 13 to 14 in unicellular algae ( http://plntfdb.bio.uni-potsdam.de/v3.0/ ). AP2/EREBP transcription factors have been implicated in hormone, sugar and redox signalling in context of abiotic stresses such as cold and drought. This review exemplarily addresses present-day knowledge of selected AP2/EREBP with focus on a function in stress signal integration and retrograde signalling and defines AP2/EREBP-linked gene networks from transcriptional profiling-based graphical Gaussian models. The latter approach suggests highly interlinked functions of AP2/EREBPs in retrograde and stress signalling.

  20. Replication stress, DNA damage signalling, and cytomegalovirus infection in human medulloblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Fornara, Olesja; Merchut-Maya, Joanna Maria

    2017-01-01

    suppressor activation, across our medulloblastoma cohort. Most tumours showed high proliferation (Ki67 marker), variable oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoguanine lesions) and formation of 53BP1 nuclear 'bodies', the latter indicating (along with ATR-Chk1 signalling) endogenous replication stress. The bulk...... cell replication stress and DNA repair. Collectively, the scenario we report here likely fuels genomic instability and evolution of medulloblastoma resistance to standard-of-care genotoxic treatments....... eight established immunohistochemical markers to assess the status of the DDR machinery, we found pronounced endogenous DNA damage signalling (γH2AX marker) and robust constitutive activation of both the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 DNA damage checkpoint kinase cascades, yet unexpectedly modest p53 tumour...

  1. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  2. Activation of PERK signaling through fluoride-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in OS732 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Zhou, Yu-lai; Zhang, Xiu-yun; Lu, Peng; Li, Guang-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Our proteomical analysis of osteoblasts exposed to fluoride revealed a distinctive upregulation of proteins in osteoblast. These upregulated proteins play key roles in the protein folding. The PRK-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling, one branch of unfolded protein response (UPR) to combat ER stress, is a transcription factor needed for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. The mechanism of skeletal fluorosis by which fluoride regulates osteoblast is not fully defined. Here we studied the effect of fluoride on PERK signaling genes and x-box binding protein 1 (xbp-1) in OS7232 cells (human osteoblast-like cell line). Meantime, genes associated with bone turnover were examined in this study. We found that early and continuous fluoride exposure increased the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) expression and activated the PERK signaling pathway, resulting in activation of transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The altered expression of cbfa1, osteoprotegerin (OPG)/nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were viewed in this study. These results showed fluoride impelled a distinctive ER stress response in OS732 cells, primarily by activating PERK and PERK-dependent signaling. Little effects were viewed for activating xbp-1, a common target of the other two canonical sensors of ER stress, ATF6 and IRE1. In this study the altered expression of bone turnover genes were consistent with activation of ER stress and PERK signaling. This study proved that PERK signaling play major roles in action of fluoride on osteoblast, and suggested that bone response in skeletal fluorosis may be due in part to PERK signaling pathway.

  3. Stress-strain time-dependent behavior of A356.0 aluminum alloy subjected to cyclic thermal and mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, G. H.; Ghodrati, M.; Azadi, M.; Rezvani Rad, M.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the cyclic behavior of the A356.0 aluminum alloy under low-cycle fatigue (or isothermal) and thermo-mechanical fatigue loadings. Since the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) test is time consuming and has high costs in comparison to low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests, the purpose of this research is to use LCF test results to predict the TMF behavior of the material. A time-independent model, considering the combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law, was used to predict the TMF behavior of the material. Material constants of this model were calibrated based on room-temperature and high-temperature low-cycle fatigue tests. The nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening law could accurately estimate the stress-strain hysteresis loop for the LCF condition; however, for the out-of-phase TMF, the condition could not predict properly the stress value due to the strain rate effect. Therefore, a two-layer visco-plastic model and also the Johnson-Cook law were applied to improve the estimation of the stress-strain hysteresis loop. Related finite element results based on the two-layer visco-plastic model demonstrated a good agreement with experimental TMF data of the A356.0 alloy.

  4. A study of tensile test on open-cell aluminum foam sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. A.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.; Endut, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum foam sandwich (AFS) panels are one of the growing materials in the various industries because of its lightweight behavior. AFS also known for having excellent stiffness to weight ratio and high-energy absorption. Due to their advantages, many researchers’ shows an interest in aluminum foam material for expanding the use of foam structure. However, there is still a gap need to be fill in order to develop reliable data on mechanical behavior of AFS with different parameters and analysis method approach. Least of researcher focusing on open-cell aluminum foam and statistical analysis. Thus, this research conducted by using open-cell aluminum foam core grade 6101 with aluminum sheets skin tested under tension. The data is analyzed using full factorial in JMP statistical analysis software (version 11). ANOVA result show a significant value of the model which less than 0.500. While scatter diagram and 3D plot surface profiler found that skins thickness gives a significant impact to stress/strain value compared to core thickness.

  5. Neuronal Calcium Signaling in Metabolic Regulation and Adaptation to Nutrient Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Siddharth; Hasan, Gaiti

    2018-01-01

    All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development. Here we review the role of a newly identified set of integrative interneurons and the role of intracellular calcium signaling within these neurons, in regulating nutrient sensing under conditions of nutrient stress. A comparison of the identified Drosophila circuit and cellular mechanisms employed in this circuit, with vertebrate systems, suggests that the identified cell signaling mechanisms may be conserved for neural circuit function related to nutrient sensing by central neurons. The ideas proposed are potentially relevant for understanding the molecular basis of metabolic disorders, because these are frequently linked to nutritional stress.

  6. Temperature Field Prediction for Determining the Residual Stresses Under Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to non-stationary temperature field blanks from aluminum alloys during heat treatment. It consists of the introduction and two smaller paragraphs. In the introduction the author concerns the influence of residual stresses arising in the manufacturing process of details, on the strength of the whole aircraft construction and, consequently, on their technical and economic parameters, such as weight, reliability, efficiency, and cost. He also notes that the residual stresses appeared during the production of parts change their location, size and direction under the influence of the elastic deformations that occur during the exploitation of aircraft. Redistributed residual stresses may have a chaotic distribution that may cause overlap of these stresses on the stresses caused by the impact of workload of constructions and destruction or damage of aircraft components.The first paragraph is devoted to the existing methods and techniques for determining the residual stresses. The presented methods and techniques are analyzed to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The conclusion is drawn that the method to determine the residual stresses is necessary, its cost is less than those of existing ones, and an error does not exceed 10%.In the second section, the author divides the problem of determining the residual stresses into two parts, and describes the solution methods of the first one. The first problem is to define the temperature field of the work piece. The author uses a Fourier equation with the definition of initial and boundary conditions to describe a mathematical model of the heat cycle of work piece cooling. He draws special attention here to the fact that it is complicated to determine the heat transfer coefficient, which characterizes the process of cooling the work piece during hardening because of its dependence on a number of factors, such as changing temperature-dependent material properties of

  7. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Stengel; Yvette F. Taché; Yvette F. Taché

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates—in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis—other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a br...

  8. Molecular hydrogen is involved in phytohormone signaling and stress responses in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqing Zeng

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 metabolism in bacteria and algae has been well studied from an industrial perspective because H2 is viewed as a potential future energy source. A number of clinical trials have recently reported that H2 is a therapeutic antioxidant and signaling molecule. Although H2 metabolism in higher plants was reported in some early studies, its biological effects remain unclear. In this report, the biological effects of H2 and its involvement in plant hormone signaling pathways and stress responses were determined. Antioxidant enzyme activity was found to be increased and the transcription of corresponding genes altered when the effects of H2 on the germination of mung bean seeds treated with phytohormones was investigated. In addition, upregulation of several phytohormone receptor genes and genes that encode a few key factors involved in plant signaling pathways was detected in rice seedlings treated with HW. The transcription of putative rice hydrogenase genes, hydrogenase activity, and endogenous H2 production were also determined. H2 production was found to be induced by abscisic acid, ethylene, and jasmonate acid, salt, and drought stress and was consistent with hydrogenase activity and the expression of putative hydrogenase genes in rice seedlings. Together, these results suggest that H2 may have an effect on rice stress tolerance by modulating the output of hormone signaling pathways.

  9. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette F

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates-in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake) and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  10. Halobenzoquinone-Induced Alteration of Gene Expression Associated with Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Moe, Birget; Liu, Yanming; Li, Xing-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that effectively induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in vitro. However, the impacts of HBQs on oxidative-stress-related gene expression have not been investigated. In this study, we examined alterations in the expression of 44 genes related to oxidative-stress-induced signaling pathways in human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) upon exposure to six HBQs. The results show the structure-dependent effects of HBQs on the studied gene expression. After 2 h of exposure, the expression levels of 9 to 28 genes were altered, while after 8 h of exposure, the expression levels of 29 to 31 genes were altered. Four genes ( HMOX1, NQO1, PTGS2, and TXNRD1) were significantly upregulated by all six HBQs at both exposure time points. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the Nrf2 pathway was significantly responsive to HBQ exposure. Other canonical pathways responsive to HBQ exposure included GSH redox reductions, superoxide radical degradation, and xenobiotic metabolism signaling. This study has demonstrated that HBQs significantly alter the gene expression of oxidative-stress-related signaling pathways and contributes to the understanding of HBQ-DBP-associated toxicity.

  11. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Mario; Diallo, Amadou Oury

    2008-08-27

    Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive) that differ in their response to Al were performed. Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate) needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  12. Axin1 up-regulated 1 accelerates stress-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Lin, Junyi; Lin, Zebin; Xue, Aimin; Li, Liliang; Zhao, Ziqin; Liu, Li; Shen, Yiwen; Cong, Bin

    2017-10-15

    Stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases, but how stress induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains largely unclear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of Axin1 up-regulated 1 (Axud1), a novel pro-apoptotic protein, on the cardiomyocyte survival and the underlying mechanisms. To this end, a rat model under restraint stress (RS) was established and in vitro stress-induced cardiomyocytes culture was achieved. Our data showed that Axud1 was upregulated in the rat myocardia after exposure to RS. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was decreased, whereas pro-apoptotic Bax and Cleaved caspase-3 (Cc3) were increased in a time-dependent manner. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling was observed to be interestingly activated in heart undergoing RS. In addition, the treatment of norepinephrine (NE) to in vitro cardiomyocytes increased Axud1 level and induced cell apoptosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling was consistently activated. Knockdown of Axud1 using specific siRNA blunted NE-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and also inactivated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. XAV-939, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, partially reversed the pro-apoptotic effect of NE. In conclusion, Axud1 accelerated stress-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our data provided novel evidence that therapeutic strategies against Axud1 or Wnt/β-catenin signaling might be promising in relation to RS-induced myocardial injury. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase-matched light amplification by three-wave mixing process in a birefringent fiber due to externally applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, M.; Kitayama, K.; Ishida, Y.; Uchida, N.

    1982-01-01

    A novel method to achieve phase-matched light amplification in a birefringent fiber via the three-wave mixing is proposed by using frequency shift change due to the stress applied to the fiber. It is confirmed that the signal power from a cw laser diode at lambda = 1.292 μm is amplified by 6.1 x 10 3 times in the birefringent fiber pumped with a Q-switched Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet laser at lambda = 1.064 μm. This will provide a new fiber-optic light signal amplifier having a good tolerance for variation of signal wavelengths

  14. On the plastic collapse stress of open-cell aluminum foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Onck, P. R.

    Duocel open-cell aluminum foam (20 PPI) was tested with the long axis of the cells oriented longitudinal or transverse to the loading direction, and for both orientations the samples were both annealed and heat treated. Using the extrapolated stiffness at zero per cent strain, the strain-hardening

  15. Fatigue of a Laterally-Constrained Closed Cell Aluminum Foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murthy Kolluri, N.V.V.R.; Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.; Ramamurty, U.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the constant stress amplitude compression–compression fatigue behavior of closed-cell aluminum foam, both with and without lateral constraint, was conducted. Results show that while the early stages of strain accumulation due to fatigue loading are independent of

  16. Effects of anomalies on fracture processes of graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, J.; Wu, G.H.; Li, Y.; Gou, H.S.; Chen, G.H.; Xiu, Z.Y.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effects of anomalies on fracture processes of graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composite (Gr f /Al), unidirectional Gr f /Al specimens embedded with inclusions and aluminum-rich areas (Al-rich) were chosen for bending test. Fracture processes and fracture surfaces of anomaly-embedded specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy in situ observation. The micromechanisms of fracture process are as following: interface layer between inclusions and composite is fractured by stress concentration in front of crack tip, and cracks connect voids in inclusions, resulting in failure of inclusion-embedded specimens immediately. However, Al-rich eases stress concentration in bending specimens and crack is blunted by Al-rich/composite interface debonding and friction during fracture process.

  17. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  18. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T Aluminum-alloy Sheet with and Without a Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR; Smith, W H

    1944-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests were made on 189 coupon specimens of 0.032-inch 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet and a few supplementary specimens of 0.004-inch sheet. The mean load was zero. The specimens were restrained against lateral buckling by lubricated solid guides described in a previous report on this project. About two-thirds of the 0.032-inch specimens were plain coupons nominally free from stress raisers. The remainder contained a 0.1285-inch drilled hole at the center where the reduced section was 0.5 inch wide. S-N diagrams were obtained for cycles to failure between about 1000 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the plain specimens and 17 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the drilled specimens. The fatigue stress concentration factor increased from about 1.08 for a stress amplitude causing failure at 0.25 cycles (static) to a maximum of 1.83 at 15,000 cycles and then decreased gradually. The graph for the drilled specimens showed less scatter than that for the plain specimens.

  19. Pre-mRNA splicing repression triggers abiotic stress signaling in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2016-09-24

    Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs enhances transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity in response to diverse growth and stress cues. Recent work has shown that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various inhibitors of AS. Here, we show that the macrolide pladienolide B (PB) inhibits constitutive splicing and AS in plants. Also, our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that PB mimics abiotic stress signals including salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). PB activates the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive reporters RD29A

  20. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stengel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates—in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis—other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  1. Pre-mRNA splicing repression triggers abiotic stress signaling in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu; Alshareef, Sahar; Butt, Haroon; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Li, Lixin; Galal, Aya A.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Momin, Afaque Ahmad Imtiyaz; Tashkandi, Manal; Richardson, Dale N.; Fujii, Hiroaki; Arold, Stefan T.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Duque, Paula; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs enhances transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity in response to diverse growth and stress cues. Recent work has shown that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various inhibitors of AS. Here, we show that the macrolide pladienolide B (PB) inhibits constitutive splicing and AS in plants. Also, our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that PB mimics abiotic stress signals including salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). PB activates the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive reporters RD29A

  2. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haihong; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H p (y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H p (y), its slope coefficient K S and maximum gradient K max changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H p (y) and its slope coefficient K S increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H p (y) and K S reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H p (y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H p (y), K S , K max and the change rate of K S increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H p (y) signals. • Magnitude of H p (y), K S and K max increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  3. Effects Of Welding On The Fatigue Behaviour Of Commercial Aluminum AA-1100 Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Rani, Ahmad Majdi Abdul; Hadzima, Branislav

    2018-04-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an budding solid state welding process, which is frequently used for joining aluminum alloys where materials can be joined without melt and recast. Therefore, when welding alloys through FSW the phase transformations occurs will be in the solid state form. The present work is aimed in evaluating the fatigue life of friction stir welded commercial grade aluminum alloy joints. The commercial grade AA1100 aluminum alloy of 12mm thickness plate is welded and the specimens are tested using a rotary beam fatigue testing machine at different stress levels. The stress versus number of cycles (S-N) curves was plotted using the data points. The Fatigue life of tungsten inert gas (TIG) and metal inert gas (MIG) welded joints was compared. The fatigue life of the weld joints was interrelated with the tensile properties, microstructure and micro hardness properties. The effects of the notches and welding processes are evaluated and reported.

  4. Effects of signal salience and noise on performance and stress in an abbreviated vigil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William Stokely

    Vigilance or sustained attention tasks traditionally require observers to detect predetermined signals that occur unpredictably over periods of 30 min to several hours (Warm, 1984). These tasks are taxing and have been useful in revealing the effects of stress agents, such as infectious disease and drugs, on human performance (Alluisi, 1969; Damos & Parker, 1994; Warm, 1993). However, their long duration has been an inconvenience. Recently, Temple and his associates (Temple et al., 2000) developed an abbreviated 12-min vigilance task that duplicates many of the findings with longer duration vigils. The present study was designed to explore further the similarity of the abbreviated task to long-duration vigils by investigating the effects of signal salience and jet-aircraft engine noise on performance, operator stress, and coping strategies. Forty-eight observers (24 males and 24 females) were assigned at random to each of four conditions resulting from the factorial combination of signal salience (high and low contrast signals) and background noise (quiet and jet-aircraft noise). As is the case with long-duration vigils (Warm, 1993), signal detection in the abbreviated task was poorer for low salience than for high salience signals. In addition, stress scores, as indexed by the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (Matthews, Joiner, Gilliland, Campbell, & Falconer, 1999), were elevated in the low as compared to the high salience condition. Unlike longer vigils, however, (Becker, Warm, Dember, & Hancock, 1996), signal detection in the abbreviated task was superior in the presence of aircraft noise than in quiet. Noise also attenuated the stress of the vigil, a result that is counter to previous findings regarding the effects of noise in a variety of other scenarios (Clark, 1984). Examination of observers' coping responses, as assessed by the Coping Inventory for Task Situations (Matthews & Campbell, 1998), indicated that problem-focused coping was the overwhelming

  5. Study of nanodispersed aluminum and iron alcosols by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Vladimir; de Izarra, Charles; Saveliev, Gennady

    2011-06-01

    Nanodispersed aluminum and iron alcosols were prepared by ultrasonic dispersion of nanodispersed aluminum and iron powders in absolute ethanol. The photoacoustic signal (PAS) produced in modulated CO2 laser irradiation (1.026 and 1.096 kHz) of alcosols depends on the nature and method of nanoparticle fabrication and does not depend on their concentration in ethanol (within 1-5 g/l). Chemical interaction between metal nanoparticles and ethanol activated by laser irradiation or/and ultrasound is considered as the cause of the PAS.

  6. Packaging material and aluminum. Hoso zairyo to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T [Mitsubishi Aluminum Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    The present paper introduces aluminum foil packaging materials among the relation between packing materials and aluminum. The characteristics of aluminum foil in the packaging area are in its barrier performance, non-toxicity, tastelessness and odorlessness. Its excellent functions and processibility suit best as functional materials for food, medicine and industrial material packaging. While an aluminum foil may be used as a single packing material as in foils used in homes, many of it as a packaging material are used in combination with adhesives, papers or plastic films, or coated or printed. It is used as composite materials laminated or coated with other materials according to their use for the purpose of complementing the aluminum foil as the base material. Representative method to laminate aluminum foils include the wet lamination, dry lamination, thermally dissolved lamination and extruded lamination. The most important quality requirement in lamination is the adhesion strength, which requires a close attention in selecting the kinds of adhesive, laminating conditions, and aging conditions. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 in Protecting against Aluminum Toxicity Mediated by Intestinal Barrier Function and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-02

    Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy) were examined and the results indicated that L. plantarum CCFM639 alleviated Al-induced cytotoxicity. In a mouse model, L. plantarum CCFM639 treatment was found to significantly alleviate oxidative stress in the intestinal tract, regulate the function of the intestinal mucosal immune system, restore the integrity of tight junction proteins and maintain intestinal permeability. These results suggest that in addition to Al sequestration, L. plantarum CCFM639 can also inhibit Al absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, alleviating Al-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 has the potential to be a dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against Al-induced gut injury.

  8. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 in Protecting against Aluminum Toxicity Mediated by Intestinal Barrier Function and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy were examined and the results indicated that L. plantarum CCFM639 alleviated Al-induced cytotoxicity. In a mouse model, L. plantarum CCFM639 treatment was found to significantly alleviate oxidative stress in the intestinal tract, regulate the function of the intestinal mucosal immune system, restore the integrity of tight junction proteins and maintain intestinal permeability. These results suggest that in addition to Al sequestration, L. plantarum CCFM639 can also inhibit Al absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, alleviating Al-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 has the potential to be a dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against Al-induced gut injury.

  9. Effects of Range of Stress and of Special Notches on Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys Suitable for Airplane Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Thomas J

    1942-01-01

    Laboratory tests were made to obtain information on the load-resisting properties of X76S-T aluminum alloy when subjected to static, impact, and repeated loads. Results are presented from static-load test of unnotched specimens in tension and in torsion and of notched specimens in tension. Charpy impact values obtained from bend tests on notched specimens and tension impact values for both notched and unnotched specimens tested at several different temperatures are included. The endurance limits obtained from repeated bending fatigue tests made on three different types of testing machine are given for unnotched polished specimens, and the endurance limits of notched specimens subjected to six different ranges of bending stress are also reported. The results indicated that: (a) polished rectangular specimens had an endurance limit about 30 percent less than that obtained for round specimens; (b) a comparison of endurance limits obtained from tests on three different types of machine indicated that there was no apparent effect of speed of testing on the endurance limit for the range of speeds used (1,750 to 13,000 rpm). (c) the fatigue strength (endurance limit) of the X76S-T alloy was greatly decreased by the presence of a notch in the specimens; (d) no complete fractures of the entire specimens occurred in notched fatigue specimens when subjected to stress cycles for which the mean stress at the notch during the cycle was a compressive stress; for this test condition a microscopic cracking occurred near the root of the notch and was used as a criterion of failure of the specimen. (e) as the mean stress at the notch was decreased from a tensile (+) stress to a compressive (-) stress, it was found that the alternating stress that could be superimposed on the mean stress in the cycle without causing failure of the specimens was increased.

  10. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePelliciari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress.Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur towards apo-operators, while the binding towards holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur towards the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to

  11. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  12. Roles of oxidative stress and Akt signaling in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Yamada, Yoshiji; Kawai, Yoshichika; Osawa, Toshihiko; Furuhashi, Koichi; Duan Zhiwen; Ichihara, Gaku

    2007-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a treatment-limiting side effect of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We have now investigated the roles of oxidative stress and signaling by the protein kinase Akt in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity as well as the effects on such toxicity both of fenofibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and of polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), an antioxidant. Mice injected intraperitoneally with DOX were treated for 4 days with fenofibrate or PEG-SOD. Fenofibrate and PEG-SOD each prevented the induction of cardiac dysfunction by DOX. Both drugs also inhibited the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and increase in lipid peroxidation in the left ventricle induced by DOX, whereas only PEG-SOD inhibited the DOX-induced activation of Akt and Akt-regulated gene expression. These results suggest that fenofibrate and PEG-SOD prevented cardiac dysfunction induced by DOX through normalization of oxidative stress and redox-regulated NF-κB signaling

  13. Making memories of stressful events: a journey along epigenetic, gene transcription and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes M.H.M. eReul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong psychologically stressful events are known to have a long-lasting impact on behavior. The consolidation of such, largely adaptive, behavioral responses to stressful events involves changes in gene expression in limbic brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The underlying molecular mechanisms however were until recently unresolved. More than a decade ago we started to investigate the role of these hormones in signaling and epigenetic mechanisms participating in the effects of stress on gene transcription in hippocampal neurons. We discovered a novel, rapid non-genomic mechanism in which glucocorticoids via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs facilitate signaling of the ERK MAPK signaling pathway to the downstream nuclear kinases MSK1 and Elk-1 in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons. Activation of this signaling pathway results in serine10 (S10 phosphorylation and lysine14 (K14 acetylation at histone H3 (H3S10p-K14ac, leading to the induction of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Egr-1. In addition, we found a role of the DNA methylation status of gene promoters. A series of studies showed that these molecular mechanisms play a critical role in the long-lasting consolidation of behavioral responses in the forced swim test and Morris water maze. Furthermore, an important role of GABA was found in controlling the epigenetic and gene transcriptional responses to psychological stress. Thus, psychologically stressful events evoke a long-term impact on behavior through changes in hippocampal function brought about by distinct glutamatergic and glucocorticoid-driven changes in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription which are modulated by (local GABAergic interneurons and limbic afferent inputs. These epigenetic processes may play an important role in the etiology of stress-related mental disorders such as major depressive and anxiety disorders like PTSD.

  14. Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial t...

  15. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  16. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  17. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  18. Stuy on Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloy Considering Fretting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maosheng; Zhao, Hongqiang; Wang, Yunxiang; Chen, Xiaofei; Fan, Jiali

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of fretting on Aluminum Alloy, a global finite element model considering fretting was performed using the commercial code ABAQUS. With which a new model for predicting fretting fatigue life has been presented based on friction work. The rationality and effectiveness of the model were validated according to the contrast of experiment life and predicting life. At last influence factor on fretting fatigue life of aerial aluminum alloy was investigated with the model. The results revealed that fretting fatigue life decreased monotonously with the increasing of normal load and then became constant at higher pressures. At low normal load, fretting fatigue life was found to increase with increase in the pad radius. At high normal load, however, the fretting fatigue life remained almost unchanged with changes in the fretting pad radius. The bulk stress amplitude had the dominant effect on fretting fatigue life. The fretting fatigue life diminished as the bulk stress amplitude increased.

  19. Expression of Aluminum-Induced Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Can Ameliorate Aluminum Stress and/or Oxidative Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Bunichi; Gardner, Richard C.; Ezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    To examine the biological role of Al-stress-induced genes, nine genes derived from Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were expressed in Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg. Lines containing eight of these genes were phenotypically normal and were tested in root elongation assays for their sensitivity to Al, Cd, Cu, Na, Zn, and to oxidative stresses. An Arabidopsis blue-copper-binding protein gene (AtBCB), a tobacco glutathione S-transferase gene (parB), a tobacco peroxidase gene (NtPox), and a tobacco GDP-dissociation inhibitor gene (NtGDI1) conferred a degree of resistance to Al. Two of these genes, AtBCB and parB, and a peroxidase gene from Arabidopsis (AtPox) also showed increased resistance to oxidative stress induced by diamide, while parB conferred resistance to Cu and Na. Al content of Al-treated root tips was reduced in the four Al-resistant plant lines compared with wild-type Ler-0, as judged by morin staining. All four Al-resistant lines also showed reduced staining of roots with 2′,7′-dichloro fluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA), an indicator of oxidative stress. We conclude that Al-induced genes can serve to protect against Al toxicity, and also provide genetic evidence for a link between Al stress and oxidative stress in plants. PMID:10712528

  20. Noninvasive evaluation of mental stress using by a refined rough set technique based on biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tung-Kuan; Chen, Yeh-Peng; Hou, Zone-Yuan; Wang, Chao-Chih; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2014-06-01

    Evaluating and treating of stress can substantially benefits to people with health problems. Currently, mental stress evaluated using medical questionnaires. However, the accuracy of this evaluation method is questionable because of variations caused by factors such as cultural differences and individual subjectivity. Measuring of biomedical signals is an effective method for estimating mental stress that enables this problem to be overcome. However, the relationship between the levels of mental stress and biomedical signals remain poorly understood. A refined rough set algorithm is proposed to determine the relationship between mental stress and biomedical signals, this algorithm combines rough set theory with a hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm, called RS-HTGA. Two parameters were used for evaluating the performance of the proposed RS-HTGA method. A dataset obtained from a practice clinic comprising 362 cases (196 male, 166 female) was adopted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The empirical results indicate that the proposed method can achieve acceptable accuracy in medical practice. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully used to identify the relationship between mental stress levels and bio-medical signals. In addition, the comparison between the RS-HTGA and a support vector machine (SVM) method indicated that both methods yield good results. The total averages for sensitivity, specificity, and precision were greater than 96%, the results indicated that both algorithms produced highly accurate results, but a substantial difference in discrimination existed among people with Phase 0 stress. The SVM algorithm shows 89% and the RS-HTGA shows 96%. Therefore, the RS-HTGA is superior to the SVM algorithm. The kappa test results for both algorithms were greater than 0.936, indicating high accuracy and consistency. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for both the RS-HTGA and a SVM method were greater than 0.77, indicating

  1. Superplasticity in powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.S.; Bieler, T.R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Superplasticity in powder metallurgy Al alloys and composites has been reviewed through a detailed analysis. The stress-strain curves can be put into 4 categories: classical well-behaved type, continuous strain hardening type, continuous strain softening type and complex type. The origin of these different types of is discussed. The microstructural features of the processed material and the role of strain have been reviewed. The role of increasing misorientation of low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries by lattice dislocation absorption is examined. Threshold stresses have been determined and analyzed. The parametric dependencies for superplastic flow in modified conventional aluminum alloys, mechanically alloyed alloys and Al alloy matrix composites is determined to elucidate the superplastic mechanism at high strain rates. The role of incipient melting has been analyzed. A stress exponent of 2, an activation energy equal to that for grain boundary diffusion and a grain size dependence of 2 generally describes superplastic flow in modified conventional Al alloys and mechanically alloyed alloys. The present results agree well with the predictions of grain boundary sliding models. This suggests that the mechanism of high strain rate superplasticity in the above-mentioned alloys is similar to conventional superplasticity. The shift of optimum superplastic strain rates to higher values is a consequence of microstructural refinement. The parametric dependencies for superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of 313 kJ/mol best describes the composites having SiC reinforcements. The role of shape of the reinforcement (particle or whisker) and processing history is addressed. The analysis suggests that the mechanism for superplasticity in composites is interface diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding

  2. Tensile and compressive behavior of Borsic/aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Viswanathan, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the mechanical behavior of Borsic/aluminum are presented. Composite laminates were tested in tension and compression for monotonically increasing load and also for variable loading cycles in which the maximum load was increased in each successive cycle. It is shown that significant strain-hardening, and corresponding increase in yield stress, is exhibited by the metal matrix laminates. For matrix dominated laminates, the current yield stress is essentially identical to the previous maximum stress, and unloading is essentially linear with large permanent strains after unloading. For laminates with fiber dominated behavior, the yield stress increases with increase in the previous maximum stress, but the increase in yield stress does not keep pace with the previous maximum stress. These fiber dominated laminates exhibit smaller nonlinear strains, reversed nonlinear behavior during unloading, and smaller permanent strains after unloading. Compression results from sandwich beams and flat coupons are shown to differ considerably. Results from beam specimens tend to exhibit higher values for modulus, yield stress, and strength.

  3. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haihong, E-mail: huanghaihong@hfut.edu.cn; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-10-15

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H{sub p}(y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H{sub p}(y), its slope coefficient K{sub S} and maximum gradient K{sub max} changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) and its slope coefficient K{sub S} increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H{sub p}(y) and K{sub S} reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S}, K{sub max} and the change rate of K{sub S} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H{sub p}(y) signals. • Magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S} and K{sub max} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  4. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Amadou

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive that differ in their response to Al were performed. Results Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. Conclusion In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  5. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  6. Heat stress differentially modifies ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in pea floral and fruit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savada, Raghavendra P; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Jayasinghege, Charitha P A; Waduthanthri, Kosala D; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2017-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions. The transcript abundance profiles of PsACS [encode enzymes that convert S-adenosyl-L-methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] and PsACO (encode enzymes that convert ACC to ethylene), and ethylene evolution were developmentally, environmentally, and tissue-specifically regulated in the floral/fruit/pedicel tissues of pea. Higher transcript abundance of PsACS and PsACO in the ovaries, and PsACO in the pedicels was correlated with higher ethylene evolution and ovary senescence and pedicel abscission in fruits that were not pollinated under control temperature conditions. Under heat-stress conditions, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis gene expression in pre-pollinated ovaries was also associated with higher ethylene evolution and lower retention of these fruits. Following successful pollination and ovule fertilization, heat-stress modified PsACS and PsACO transcript profiles in a manner that suppressed ovary ethylene evolution. The normal ethylene burst in the stigma/style and petals following pollination was also suppressed by heat-stress. Transcript abundance profiles of ethylene receptor and signaling-related genes acted as qualitative markers of tissue ethylene signaling events. These data support the hypothesis that ethylene biosynthesis is

  7. Unexpected temporal evolution of atomic spectral lines of aluminum in a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Rawad; L'Hermite, Daniel; Bousquet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the laser induced breakdown (LIBS) signal of a pure aluminum sample was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres. In addition to the usual decrease of signal due to plasma cooling, unexpected temporal evolutions were observed for a spectral lines of aluminum, which revealed the existence of collisional energy transfer effects. Furthermore, molecular bands of AlN and AlO were observed in the LIBS spectra, indicating recombination of aluminum with the ambient gas. Within the experimental conditions reported in this study, both collisional energy transfer and recombination processes occurred around 1.5 μs after the laser shot. This highlights the possible influence of collisional and chemical effects inside the plasma that can play a role on LIBS signals. - Highlights: • Persistence of two Al I lines related to the 61,844 cm −1 energy level only under nitrogen atmosphere. • Collisional energy transfer effect exists between aluminum and nitrogen. • Observation of molecular band of AlN (under nitrogen) and AlO (under air) after a delay time of 1.5 µs. • 20% of oxygen in air is sufficient to annihilate both the collisional energy transfer effect and the AlN molecular formation

  8. The Effect of Applied Tensile Stress on Localized Corrosion in Sensitized AA5083

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    corrosion, but if exposed to elevated temperature for prolonged periods of time the alloy becomes sensitized. Since the β phase is more anodic than the...degree of localized corrosion for sensitized AA5083 under an applied tensile stress. AA5083 is an aluminum -magnesium alloy that experiences severe...direction. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Aluminum alloy , AA5083, IGSCC, intergranular stress corrosion cracking, localized corrosion, sensitized aluminum 15

  9. The role of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) signaling pathway in radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheij, M.; Ruiter, G.A.; Zerp, S.F.; Bartelink, H.; Blitterswijk, W.J. van; Fuks, Z.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, like a variety of other cellular stress factors, initiates apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in many cell systems. This mode of radiation-induced cell kill should be distinguished from clonogenic cell death due to unrepaired DNA damage. Ionizing radiation not only exerts its effect on the nuclear DNA, but also at the plasma membrane level where it may activate multiple signal transduction pathways. One of these pathways is the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade which transduces death signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. This review discusses recent evidence on the critical role of this signaling system in radiation- and stress-induced apoptosis. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in radiation-induced apoptosis may ultimately provide novel strategies of intervention in specific signal transduction pathways to favorably alter the therapeutic ratio in the treatment of human malignancies. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Pre-earthquake signals – Part I: Deviatoric stresses turn rocks into a source of electric currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Freund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are feared because they often strike so suddenly. Yet, there are innumerable reports of pre-earthquake signals. Widespread disagreement exists in the geoscience community how these signals can be generated in the Earth's crust and whether they are early warning signs, related to the build-up of tectonic stresses before major seismic events. Progress in understanding and eventually using these signals has been slow because the underlying physical process or processes are basically not understood. This has changed with the discovery that, when igneous or high-grade metamorphic rocks are subjected to deviatoric stress, dormant electronic charge carriers are activated: electrons and defect electrons. The activation increases the number density of mobile charge carriers in the rocks and, hence, their electric conductivity. The defect electrons are associated with the oxygen anion sublattice and are known as positive holes or pholes for short. The boundary between stressed and unstressed rock acts a potential barrier that lets pholes pass but blocks electrons. Therefore, like electrons and ions in an electrochemical battery, the stress-activated electrons and pholes in the "rock battery" have to flow out in different directions. When the circuit is closed, the battery currents can flow. The discovery of such stress-activated currents in crustal rocks has far-reaching implications for understanding pre-earthquake signals.

  11. The Role of Na/K-ATPase Signaling in Oxidative Stress Related to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithika Srikanthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Na/K-ATPase has been extensively studied for its ion pumping function, but, in the past several decades, has been identified as a scaffolding and signaling protein. Initially it was found that cardiotonic steroids (CTS mediate signal transduction through the Na/K-ATPase and result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are also capable of initiating the signal cascade. However, in recent years, this Na/K-ATPase/ROS amplification loop has demonstrated significance in oxidative stress related disease states, including obesity, atherosclerosis, heart failure, uremic cardiomyopathy, and hypertension. The discovery of this novel oxidative stress signaling pathway, holds significant therapeutic potential for the aforementioned conditions and others that are rooted in ROS.

  12. Effects of different aging statuses and strain rate on the adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, G.Y., E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Chen, P.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Zhang, Q.M. [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-06-01

    The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress-true strain curves and true stress-time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  14. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The characteristics and residual stress of aluminum nitride films grown by two-stage sputtering of mid-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Cheng, H.-E.; Tang, S.-H.; Liu, W.-C.; Lee, Antony H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The [0 0 2] oriented aluminum nitride has a high surface acoustic wave speed and high mechanic-electron couple coefficient. It is a potential material for manufacturing piezoelectric devices in high frequency application. The AlN films deposited onto silicon substrates were fabricated by two-stage sputtering process with mid-frequency generator. The results showed that the film did not have well [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 1.0 and 1.5 kW, and exhibited a [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 2.0 kW. The adhesion was poor when the film had a high preferred orientation because the substrate was damaged by high energetic atoms bombardment. A two-stage growth method was investigated in order to get high [0 0 2] preferred orientation and good adhesion. A good performance was obtained at the first stage power of 1.5 kW and the second stage power of 2.0 kW. The film showed a tensile stress state when the film was deposited at 1.0 kW. In contrast, the stress state was changed to compressive when the films were grown at 2.0 kW. The two-stage growth could succeed not only to get a high [0 0 2] preferred orientation but also to develop a reducing global stress film

  16. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  17. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  18. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  19. Radiation-induced bystander effects in the Atlantic salmon (salmo salar L.) following mixed exposure to copper and aluminum combined with low-dose gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin B. [McMaster University, Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Aas (Norway); Smith, Richard W. [McMaster University, Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Heier, Lene Soerlie; Teien, Hans-Christian; Land, Ole Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2014-03-15

    Very little is known about the combined effects of low doses of heavy metals and radiation. However, such ''multiple stressor'' exposure is the reality in the environment. In the work reported in this paper, fish were exposed to cobalt 60 gamma irradiation with or without copper or aluminum in the water. Doses of radiation ranged from 4 to 75 mGy delivered over 48 or 6 h. Copper doses ranged from 10 to 80 μg/L for the same time period. The aluminum dose was 250 μg/L. Gills and skin were removed from the fish after exposure and explanted in tissue culture flasks for investigation of bystander effects of the exposures using a stress signal reporter assay, which has been demonstrated to be a sensitive indicator of homeostatic perturbations in cells. The results show complex synergistic interactions of radiation and copper. Gills on the whole produce more toxic bystander signals than skin, but the additivity scores show highly variable results which depend on dose and time of exposure. The impacts of low doses of copper and low doses of radiation are greater than additive, medium levels of copper alone have a similar level of effect of bystander signal toxicity to the low dose. The addition of radiation stress, however, produces clear protective effects in the reporters treated with skin-derived medium. Gill-derived medium from the same fish did not show protective effects. Radiation exposure in the presence of 80 μg/L led to highly variable results, which due to animal variation were not significantly different from the effect of copper alone. The results are stressor type, stressor concentration and time dependent. Clearly co-exposure to radiation and heavy metals does not always lead to simple additive effects. (orig.)

  20. Experimental studies of glued Aluminum-glass joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.

    2018-04-01

    Glued steel-glass or aluminum-glass joints are to be found, among other things, in vehicles (cars, buses, trains, trams) as windscreen assembly pieces for the supporting structure. For the purposes of the experiments, samples were made in which the top beam was made of the AW-2017A aluminum alloy and the bottom beam was made of thermally reinforced soda-lime glass whereas the glued joints were made of one-component polyurethane glue Körapur 175. The tests were performed under four-point bending conditions at monotonic incremental bending moment values on the Instron 5965 durability machine. The experimental study of the durability of glued joints under four-point bending conditions with the monotonic incremental bending moment allows to determine the values of stresses, whose value is related to initiation of damage of the tested joint.

  1. Effects of Qingshen Granules on the Oxidative Stress-NF/kB Signal Pathway in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Background . The activation of NF-kappa B (NF/kB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in renal tubules. The process of oxidative stress reaction in kidney is via excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to activate NF/kB signaling pathway. Qingshen Granule (QSG) is an effective Chinese formula utilized to treat chronic renal failure. Previous studies confirmed that QSG could inhibit RIF in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats. In this study, we used UUO rats to investigate the effects of QSG on oxidative stress and the activation of NF/kB signaling. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham group, UUO model group, Qingshen Granules (QSG) high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose groups, PDTC group, and candesartan group (10 rats in each group). Our study demonstrated that oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway contributed to the formation of UUO renal interstitial fibrosis. QSG may protect against RIF by inhibiting the oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway, reducing inflammation, and improving renal tubular EMT.

  2. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminum 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2011-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {psi} method. The results show that the formation of the curvature arc height is proportional to the shot peening pressure, of spheres size and inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample, and that stress concentration factor is larger for samples shot peened with small balls. On final of this paper presents an additional study on micro strain and average crystallite size, which can evaluate the profile of the samples after blasting. (author)

  3. Influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at room temperature and 350degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoishi, Norio; Kondo, Eiji; Nisitani, Hironobu; Shimamoto, Atsunori; Tashiro, Rieko

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of an aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at elevated temperature, rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out under two-step loading at room temperature and 350degC. Both of static strength and fatigue strength decreased at 350degC. However, at the same relative stress σ a /σ B , fatigue life was longer at 350degC than at room temperature. Although the cumulative ratios Σ(N/N f ) were nearly unity for both the low to high and the high to low block loadings at room temperature, Miner's rule did not hold at 350degC. These results were related to the stress dependence on the log l-N/N f relation. That is, the crack length initiated at the same N/N f was larger in higher stress level at 350degC, whereas there was no stress dependence in the relation at room temperature. The stress dependence on the relation at 350degC was caused by the suppression of crack initiation due to the surface oxidation. (author)

  4. α-Syntrophin is involved in the survival signaling pathway in myoblasts under menadione-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Choi, Su Jin; Moon, Jae Yun; Kim, Hye Sun

    2016-05-15

    Dystrophin-deficient muscle is known to be more vulnerable to oxidative stress, but not much is known about the signaling pathway(s) responsible for this phenomenon. α-Syntrophin, a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, can function as a scaffold protein because of its multiple protein interaction domains. In this study, we investigated the role of α-syntrophin in C2 myoblasts under menadione-induced oxidative stress. We found that the protein level of α-syntrophin was elevated when cells were exposed to menadione. To investigate the function of α-syntrophin during oxidative stress, we established α-syntrophin-overexpressing and knockdown cell lines. The α-syntrophin-overexpressing cells were resistant to the menadione-induced oxidative stress. In addition, survival signalings such as protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and the Bcl-2/BAX ratio were increased in these cells. On the other hand, apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) were increased in the α-syntrophin knockdown cells. Furthermore, Ca(2+)influx, which is known to increase when cells are exposed to oxidative stress, decreased in the α-syntrophin-overexpressing cells, but increased in the knockdown cells. These results suggest that α-syntrophin plays a pivotal role in the survival pathway triggered by menadione-induced oxidative stress in cultured myoblasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemical Random Signal Analysis during Localized Corrosion of Anodized 1100 Aluminum Alloy in Chloride Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakairi, M.; Shimoyama, Y.; Nagasawa, D.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical random signal (electrochemical noise) analysis technique was applied to localized corrosion of anodic oxide film formed 1100 aluminum alloy in 0.5 kmol/m 3 H 3 BO 4 /0.05 kmol/m 3 Na 2 B 4 O 7 with 0.01 kmol/m 3 NaCl. The effect of anodic oxide film structure, barrier type, porous type, and composite type on galvanic corrosion resistance was also examined. Before localized corrosion started, incubation period for pitting corrosion, both current and potential slightly change as initial value with time. The incubation period of porous type anodic oxide specimens are longer than that of barrier type anodic oxide specimens. While pitting corrosion, the current and potential were changed with fluctuations and the potential and the current fluctuations show a good correlation. The records of the current and potential were processed by calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. The potential and current PSD decrease with increasing frequency, and the slopes are steeper than or equal to minus one (-1). This technique allows observation of electrochemical impedance changes during localized corrosion

  6. The PP2C Alphabet is a negative regulator of stress-activated protein kinase signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Caroline; Sahmi, Malha; Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Stronach, Beth; Therrien, Marc

    2009-02-01

    The Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways, also known as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways, are signaling conduits reiteratively used throughout the development and adult life of metazoans where they play central roles in the control of apoptosis, immune function, and environmental stress responses. We recently identified a Drosophila Ser/Thr phosphatase of the PP2C family, named Alphabet (Alph), which acts as a negative regulator of the Ras/ERK pathway. Here we show that Alph also plays an inhibitory role with respect to Drosophila SAPK signaling during development as well as under stress conditions such as oxidative or genotoxic stresses. Epistasis experiments suggest that Alph acts at a step upstream of the MAPKKs Hep and Lic. Consistent with this interpretation, biochemical experiments identify the upstream MAPKKKs Slpr, Tak1, and Wnd as putative substrates. Together with previous findings, this work identifies Alph as a general attenuator of MAPK signaling in Drosophila.

  7. Pressure Dependence of the Peierls Stress in Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh; Spearot, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    The effect of pressure applied normal to the {111} slip plane on the Peierls stress in Al is studied via atomistic simulations. Edge, screw, 30°, and 60° straight dislocations are created using the Volterra displacement fields for isotropic elasticity. For each dislocation character angle, the Peierls stress is calculated based on the change in the internal energy, which is an invariant measure of the dislocation driving force. It is found that the Peierls stress for dislocations under zero pressure is in general agreement with previous results. For screw and 60° dislocations, the Peierls stress versus pressure relationship has maximum values associated with stacking fault widths that are multiples of the Peierls period. For the edge dislocation, the Peierls stress decreases with increasing pressure from tension to compression. Compared with the Mendelev potential, the Peierls stress calculated from the Mishin potential is more sensitive to changes in pressure.

  8. Stress analysis and deformation prediction of sheet metal workpieces based on finite element simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Penghao; Wang Aimin; Wang Xiaolong; Zhang Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    After aluminum alloy sheet metal parts machining, the residual stress release will cause a large deformation. To solve this problem, this paper takes a aluminum alloy sheet aerospace workpiece as an example, establishes the theoretical model of elastic deformation and the finite element model, and places quantitative initial stress in each element of machining area, analyses stress release simulation and deformation. Through different initial stress release simulative analysis of deformation ...

  9. Mitochondrial Stress Signalling: HTRA2 and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Desideri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are cellular energy generators whose activity requires a continuous supply of oxygen. Recent genetic analysis has suggested that defects in mitochondrial quality control may be key factors in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Mitochondria have a crucial role in supplying energy to the brain, and their deterioration can affect the function and viability of neurons, contributing to neurodegeneration. These organelles can sow the seeds of their own demise because they generate damaging oxygen-free radicals as a byproduct of their intrinsic physiological functions. Mitochondria have therefore evolved specific molecular quality control mechanisms to compensate for the action of damaging agents such as oxygen-free radicals. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and high-temperature-regulated A2 (HTRA2, a mitochondrial protease, have recently been proposed to be key modulators of mitochondrial molecular quality control. Here, we review some of the most recent advances in our understanding of mitochondria stress-control pathways, focusing on how signalling by the p38 stress kinase pathway may regulate mitochondrial stress by modulating the activity of HTRA2 via PINK1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5. We also propose how defects in this pathway may contribute to PD.

  10. Finite Element Analysis and Die Design of Non-specific Engineering Structure of Aluminum Alloy during Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.-C.; Lu, Y.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extension applies to industrial structure, light load, framework rolls and conveyer system platform. Many factors must be controlled in processing the non-specific engineering structure (hollow shape) of the aluminum alloy during extrusion, to obtain the required plastic strain and desired tolerance values. The major factors include the forming angle of the die and temperature of billet and various materials. This paper employs rigid-plastic finite element (FE) DEFORM 3D software to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of an aluminum alloy (A6061, A5052, A3003) workpiece during extrusion for the engineering structure of the aluminum alloy. This work analyzes effective strain, effective stress, damage and die radius load distribution of the billet under various conditions. The analytical results confirm the suitability of the current finite element software for the non-specific engineering structure of aluminum alloy extrusion.

  11. Alternative Oxidase: A Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathway to Maintain Metabolic and Signaling Homeostasis during Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg C. Vanlerberghe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative oxidase (AOX is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance.

  12. ROS signaling, oxidative stress and Nrf2 in pancreatic beta-cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi Jingbo; Zhang Qiang; Fu Jingqi; Woods, Courtney G.; Hou Yongyong; Corkey, Barbara E.; Collins, Sheila; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from glucose metabolism, such as H 2 O 2 , act as metabolic signaling molecules for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential inhibitory role of endogenous antioxidants, which rise in response to oxidative stress, in glucose-triggered ROS and GSIS. We propose that cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress challenge, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant induction, plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic beta-cell function. On the one hand, induction of antioxidant enzymes protects beta-cells from oxidative damage and possible cell death, thus minimizing oxidative damage-related impairment of insulin secretion. On the other hand, the induction of antioxidant enzymes by Nrf2 activation blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling, thus resulting in reduced GSIS. These two premises are potentially relevant to impairment of beta-cells occurring in the late and early stage of Type 2 diabetes, respectively. In addition, we summarized our recent findings that persistent oxidative stress due to absence of uncoupling protein 2 activates cellular adaptive response which is associated with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function.

  13. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses. PMID:27200043

  14. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusiak, Matthew G.; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans was developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics of C. elegans in combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components in C. elegans. PMID:26907690

  15. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  16. Three-dimensional stress and strain around real shape Si particles in cast aluminum alloy under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teranishi, Masaki [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Kuwazuru, Osamu, E-mail: kuwa@u-fukui.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Gennai, Shota [Department of Nuclear Power & Energy Safety Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Toda, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The crack initiation mechanism of cast Al-Si-Mg alloy under low-cycle fatigue was addressed by using the synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) and the image-based finite element analysis. The fatigue test and its in situ CT observation were conducted to visualize the crack initiation behavior. In the low-cycle fatigue, the cracking generally started with the voiding by the fracture of silicon particles, and the coalescence of these voids formed the crack. To elucidate the mechanism of silicon particle fracture, the finite element elastic-plastic analyses were performed with regard to twelve silicon particles including the fractured and intact particles detected by the chronological CT observation. By using the image-based modeling technique, the interested particle was embedded in the finite element model along with the surrounding particles as they were in the specimen. The material properties of silicon phase and aluminum matrix were identified by the nanoindentation tests. Ten cycles of loading by the uniform stress which was equivalent to the load in the fatigue test was applied to the finite element model, and the stress, strain and their cyclic response around the silicon particles were simulated. The morphology analysis was also carried out for the interested particles, and the geometrical parameters affecting the particle fracture were examined. By comparing the results of fractured and intact particles, we found that there were some geometrical conditions for the fracture of silicon particles, and a certain magnitude of hydrostatic stress was required to break the particles.

  17. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2014 to 29-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Oxidation Products of Aluminum ...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT

  18. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  19. Crosstalk between mitochondrial stress signals regulates yeast chronological lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth A; Shadel, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exists in multiple copies per cell and is essential for oxidative phosphorylation. Depleted or mutated mtDNA promotes numerous human diseases and may contribute to aging. Reduced TORC1 signaling in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extends chronological lifespan (CLS) in part by generating a mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) signal that epigenetically alters nuclear gene expression. To address the potential requirement for mtDNA maintenance in this response, we analyzed strains lacking the mitochondrial base-excision repair enzyme Ntg1p. Extension of CLS by mtROS signaling and reduced TORC1 activity, but not caloric restriction, was abrogated in ntg1Δ strains that exhibited mtDNA depletion without defects in respiration. The DNA damage response (DDR) kinase Rad53p, which transduces pro-longevity mtROS signals, is also activated in ntg1Δ strains. Restoring mtDNA copy number alleviated Rad53p activation and re-established CLS extension following mtROS signaling, indicating that Rad53p senses mtDNA depletion directly. Finally, DDR kinases regulate nucleus-mitochondria localization dynamics of Ntg1p. From these results, we conclude that the DDR pathway senses and may regulate Ntg1p-dependent mtDNA stability. Furthermore, Rad53p senses multiple mitochondrial stresses in a hierarchical manner to elicit specific physiological outcomes, exemplified by mtDNA depletion overriding the ability of Rad53p to transduce an adaptive mtROS longevity signal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of material properties of SiC particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite using neutron and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Machiya, Shutaro; Kimura, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Keisuke; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The phase stresses under loading in a monolithic aluminum alloy and an aluminum alloy reinforced with silicon carbide particles were measured by the neutron diffraction method. Under uniaxial loading, the longitudinal and transverse strains in each constituent phase were measured. The diffraction elastic constants for each diffraction plane were investigated as a function of the diffraction intensity by TOF. Single peak analysis was carried out for each diffraction profile. The measured results were compared with the theoretical micromechanical models such as the self-consistent and Mori-Tanaka method using the Eshelby theory (MTE). The accuracy of the elastic constant strongly depends on the diffraction intensity. In order to confirm the rule of mixture, the phase stress was measured by the X-ray method. The macrostress calculated by the rule of mixture agreed very well with the applied stress. Finally, fatigue damage was evaluated by the neutron method. The change of the full width at half maximum in the aluminum phase during fatigue is small. On the other hand, the value in the SiC phase increased steeply just before fracture

  1. Stresses in sulfuric acid anodized coatings on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, R. S.; Xu, J.; Mcclung, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Stresses in porous anodic alumina coatings have been measured for specimens stabilized in air at different temperatures and humidities. In ambient atmosphere the stress is tensile after anodic oxidation and is compressive after sealing. Exposure to dry atmosphere causes the stress to change to strongly tensile, up to 110 MPa. The stress increase is proportional to the loss of water from the coating. These changes are reversible with changes in humidity. Similar reversible effects occur upon moderate temperature changes. The biaxial modulus of the coating is about 100 GPa.

  2. Deformation Behavior of Reverse Deep Drawing of 5A06 Aluminum Alloy Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhi-chao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The limit drawing ratio is influenced by the bending and unbending effect during reverse deep drawing of plate. The 5A06 aluminum alloy plate widely applied in aerospace industry was used, and the reverse deep drawing of the 4.5mm thick plate was investigated experimentally and numerically. The stress and strain distributions of plate were analyzed, the deformation behaviour was discussed for three types of cross section of die during the reverse deep drawing process; moreover, the changing rule of strain paths with the die profile was also discussed. Results show that a maximum radial stress is induced by the bending effect at the transient region between the inside die radius and straight wall, where a radial stress and strain gradient along the thickness direction appears and the fracture is easy to occur. For the semi-circle profiled die structure, the limited punch stroke is 203mm which is increased by 40% than that for the die with a planar profile section. The semi-circle profiled die structure can reduce the bending effect, effectively reduce the stress gradient and the maximum stress value in the transient region, and is helpful to improve the limit drawing ratio of the 5A06 aluminum alloy plate.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Stress Signals from Bridge Monitoring by FBG System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG-based stress monitoring system instrumented on an orthotropic steel deck arch bridge is demonstrated. The FBG sensors are installed at two types of critical fatigue-prone welded joints to measure the strain and temperature signals. A total of 64 FBG sensors are deployed around the rib-to-deck and rib-to-diagram areas at the mid-span and quarter-span of the investigated orthotropic steel bridge. The local stress behaviors caused by the highway loading and temperature effect during the construction and operation periods are presented with the aid of a wavelet multi-resolution analysis approach. In addition, the multi-modal characteristic of the rainflow counted stress spectrum is modeled by the method of finite mixture distribution together with a genetic algorithm (GA-based parameter estimation approach. The optimal probability distribution of the stress spectrum is determined by use of Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Furthermore, the hot spot stress of the welded joint is calculated by an extrapolation method recommended in the specification of International Institute of Welding (IIW. The stochastic characteristic of stress concentration factor (SCF of the concerned welded joint is addressed. The proposed FBG-based stress monitoring system and probabilistic stress evaluation methods can provide an effective tool for structural monitoring and condition assessment of orthotropic steel bridges.

  4. Role of Ethylene and Its Cross Talk with Other Signaling Molecules in Plant Responses to Heavy Metal Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Thu, Nguyen Binh Anh; Hoang, Xuan Lan Thi; Asgher, Mohd; Khan, Nafees A.; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural lands cause toxicities to plants, resulting in declines in crop productivity. Recent advances in ethylene biology research have established that ethylene is not only responsible for many important physiological activities in plants but also plays a pivotal role in HM stress tolerance. The manipulation of ethylene in plants to cope with HM stress through various approaches targeting either ethylene biosynthesis or the ethylene signaling pathway has brought promising outcomes. This review covers ethylene production and signal transduction in plant responses to HM stress, cross talk between ethylene and other signaling molecules under adverse HM stress conditions, and approaches to modify ethylene action to improve HM tolerance. From our current understanding about ethylene and its regulatory activities, it is believed that the optimization of endogenous ethylene levels in plants under HM stress would pave the way for developing transgenic crops with improved HM tolerance. PMID:26246451

  5. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  6. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusiak, Matthew G; Jin, Yishi

    2016-04-08

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundwormCaenorhabditis eleganswas developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics ofC. elegansin combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components inC. elegans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Perinatal maternal stress and serotonin signaling: effects on pain sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Liesbeth; Pawluski, Jodi L; Patijn, Jacob; van Kleef, Maarten; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A

    2014-07-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women are facing perinatal stress and depression. Perinatal maternal stress has been shown to increase pain sensitivity in offspring. For the treatment of their depressive symptoms, pregnant women are frequently prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Since the descending pain inhibitory circuit matures perinatally, perinatal SSRI exposure has been shown to affect pain sensitivity in offspring. In the present review, we summarize experimental and clinical evidence for the effect of perinatal maternal stress and SSRI exposure on pain sensitivity in offspring. Both experimental and clinical studies show the effect of perinatal maternal stress on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and the serotonin pain inhibitory system. Alterations in these two systems likely underlie long-term alterations in the development of pain sensitivity. This review sheds light on the effect of perinatal maternal stress and treatment with SSRIs on offspring pain sensitivity, in relation to the developing HPA system and 5-HT signaling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An examination of the shrinking-core model of sub-micron aluminum combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, John; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    We revisit the shrinking-core model of sub-micron aluminum combustion with particular attention to the mass flux balance at the reaction front which necessarily leads to a displacement velocity of the alumina shell surrounding the liquid aluminum. For the planar problem this displacement simply leads to an equal displacement of the entire alumina layer, and therefore a straightforward mathematical framework can be constructed. In this way we are able to construct a single curve which defines the burn time for arbitrary values of the diffusion coefficient of O atoms, the reaction rate, the characteristic length of the combustion field, and the O atom mass concentration within the alumina provided that it is much smaller than the aluminum density. This demonstrates a transition between a 'd 2-t' law for fast chemistry and a 'd-t' law for slow chemistry. For the spherical geometry, the one of physical interest, the outward displacement velocity creates not a simple displacement, but a stress field which, when examined within the framework of linear elasticity, strongly suggests the creation of internal cracking. We note that if the molten aluminum is pushed into these cracks by the high internal pressure characteristic of the stress field, its surface, where reaction occurs, could be fractal in nature and affect the fundamental nature of the burning law. Indeed, if this ingredient is added to the planar model, a single curve for the burn time can again be derived, and this describes a transition from a 'd 2-t' law to a 'd ν-t' law, where 0<ν<1.

  9. Proteome modification in tomato plants upon long-term aluminum treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to identify the aluminum (Al)-induced proteomes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, “Micro-Tom”) after long-term exposure to the stress factor. Plants were treated in Magnavaca’s solution (pH 4.5) supplemented with 7.5 uM Al3+ ion activity over a 4 month period beginning at the emergen...

  10. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  11. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  12. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm 2 ) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  13. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Yokota, Hiroki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: sungna@iupui.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm{sup 2}) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  14. CDIP1-BAP31 Complex Transduces Apoptotic Signals from Endoplasmic Reticulum to Mitochondria under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Namba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31 as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cleavage upon ER stress and for BAP31-Bcl-2 association. The recruitment of Bcl-2 to the BAP31-CDIP1 complex, as well as CDIP1-dependent truncated Bid (tBid and caspase-8 activation, contributes to BAX oligomerization. Genetic knockout of CDIP1 in mice leads to impaired response to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the CDIP1/BAP31-mediated regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway represents a mechanism for establishing an ER-mitochondrial crosstalk for ER-stress-mediated apoptosis signaling.

  15. Improvement of emotional healthcare system with stress detection from ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivatansakul, S; Ohkura, M

    2015-01-01

    Our emotional healthcare system is designed to cope with users' negative emotions in daily life. To make the system more intelligent, we integrated emotion recognition by facial expression to provide appropriate services based on user's current emotional state. Our emotion recognition by facial expression has confusion issue to recognize some positive, neutral and negative emotions that make the emotional healthcare system provide a relaxation service even though users don't have negative emotions. Therefore, to increase the effectiveness of the system to provide the relaxation service, we integrate stress detection from ECG signal. The stress detection might be able to address the confusion issue of emotion recognition by facial expression to provide the service. Indeed, our results show that integration of stress detection increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the emotional healthcare system to provide services.

  16. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  17. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  18. On the mechanism of aluminum ion-induced neurotoxicity: The effects of aluminum species on G-protein-mediated processes and on drug interactions with the N-methyl-D-aspartate modulated ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    To establish what effects Al 3+ may have on G-protein mediate signal transduction, the effects of Al 3+ on the signal-coupling G-protein from retinal rod outer segments (G t or transducin) have been investigated as a model for the effects of Al 3+ on signal transduction by G-proteins in general. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of Al 3+ on the isolated, light-dependent rhodopsin catalyzed GTP-GDP exchange on G t ; the light-dependent GTPase activity of G t ; the light-independent cGMP hydrolysis by PDE; and the light activated, rhodopsin catalyzed, cGMP hydrolysis by PDE in vitro. To determine the effects of two defined species of aluminum on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-channel modulation we utilized a specific radioligand binding assay. This allowed us to compare the effects of aluminum to other metal ions on specific [ 3 H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor-channel complex. This complex is involved in long-term potentiation, which is currently being investigated as the mechanism by which learning and memory occur and has been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. We have investigated the effects of two different species of aluminum, as well as Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Li + on the specific binding of [ 3 H]MK-801 to the NMDA receptor-channel complex under depolarized conditions

  19. Growth and ABA responses of maple seedlings to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, A.; Robitaille, G.; Boutin, R. [Canadian Forestry Service, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Nadeau, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Station, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    The impacts of low pH and 2.0 mM aluminum (Al) on the growth of sugar maple seedlings was assessed over a 13-week period. The hypothesis was that low pH and high aluminum concentration would lower the vigor of sugar maple seedlings and were contributing factors to sugar maple stand decline. The effects of the stresses were measured in roots and shoots. The concentration of abscisis acid (ABA) in xylem sap in response to Al over time was measured to determine whether it could be used as an indicator of Al stress in sugar maple seedlings. At week 9, total leaf area of Al-treated seedlings was reduced by 27%, but by week 13 leaf area was similar for seedlings in all treatments. None of the other growth parameters examined were negatively affected by the treatments at either week 9 or week 13. ABA concentration in the xylem sap was not affected by any of the treatments. The duration of exposure to Al was found critical when assessing a threshold concentration for Al toxicity because plants can acclimate to an Al concentration previously considered toxic. 36 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Low-level shear stress promotes migration of liver cancer stem cells via the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Lingling; Song, Guanbin

    2018-07-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumour cells that have been proposed to be responsible for cancer initiation, chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. Shear stress activated cellular signalling is involved in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the effects of shear stress on the migration of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). Here, we studied the effects of shear stress that are generated from a parallel plated flow chamber system, on LCSC migration and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), using transwell assay and western blot, respectively. We found that 2 dyne/cm 2 shear stress loading for 6 h promotes LCSC migration and activation of the FAK and ERK1/2 signalling pathways, whereas treatment with the FAK phosphorylation inhibitor PF573228 or the ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the shear stress-promoted migration, indicating the involvement of FAK and ERK1/2 activation in shear stress-induced LCSC migration. Additionally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that shear stress lowers LCSC stiffness via the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways, suggesting that the mechanism by which shear stress promotes LCSC migration might partially be responsible for the decrease in cell stiffness. Further experiments focused on the role of the actin cytoskeleton, demonstrating that the F-actin filaments in LCSCs are less well-defined after shear stress treatment, providing an explanation for the reduction in cell stiffness and the promotion of cell migration. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress promotes LCSC migration through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathways, which further results in a reduction of organized actin and softer cell bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum stress and low potassium soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yuan, Ling; Li, Yang-Bo; He, Lin-Wei

    2014-10-01

    Soil acidification, aluminum (Al3+) toxicity and nutrient deficiency could be some of the most important reasons for the decline and death of forests in tropical and subtropical areas. Ectomycorrhizal fungi for Al3+ resistance and nutrient mobilization are beneficial for preventing forests against Al3+ toxicity and increasing forest productivity. Therefore, Suillus luteus (SI 13), Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt 715) and Suillus subluteus (Ss 00) were grown in liquid culture medium with soil as the sole K source under Al3+ stress to study the fungal growth, organic acid and proton efflux, and potassium (K) unitization. The result indicated that the fungal growth, organic acid and proton efflux, and nutrient uptake, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), were regulated by Al3+ concentration in culture solutions. They increased with increasing Al3+ at low concentration and after reaching a peak, they started to decrease. Fungal strain with high resistance to Al3+ also showed higher Al3+ concentration at the peak than those with low ability. Al3+ concentration at the peak of fungal biomass and N uptake by Pt 715 was four folds or twice of Ss 00 and SI 13, respectively. The uptake of P and K and efflux of organic acids and protons by Pt 715 were also higher than Ss 00 and Sl 13. All three fungal strains could utilize structural K in soil minerals and the utilization rate reached 2.10% for Pt 715, 1.43% for Ss 00 and 1.17% for Sl 13, respectively, which could be related to the types and amount of organic acids and protons.

  2. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins t...

  3. Abscisic Acid Signaling and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: A Review on Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K.; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R. G.; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis-acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance. PMID:28265276

  4. Signalling fiscal stress in the euro area - a country-specific early warning system

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Cos, Pablo; Koester, Gerrit B.; Moral-Benito, Enrique; Nickel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has increased the interest in early warning indicators, with the aim to indicate the build?up of fiscal stress early on and to facilitate crisis prevention by a timely counteraction of fiscal and macroeconomic policies. This paper presents possible improvements to enhance existing early warning indicators for fiscal stress, especially for the euro area. We show that a country?specific approach could strongly increase the signalling power of early war...

  5. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-05-23

    The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ER(T2)-Rosa-STOP(loxP/loxP)-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms

  6. Aluminum oxide from trimethylaluminum and water by atomic layer deposition: The temperature dependence of residual stress, elastic modulus, hardness and adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylivaara, Oili M.E.; Liu, Xuwen; Kilpi, Lauri; Lyytinen, Jussi; Schneider, Dieter; Laitinen, Mikko; Julin, Jaakko; Ali, Saima; Sintonen, Sakari; Berdova, Maria; Haimi, Eero; Sajavaara, Timo; Ronkainen, Helena; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has increased as ALD enables conformal growth on 3-dimensional structures at relatively low temperatures. For MEMS device design and fabrication, the understanding of stress and mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, hardness and adhesion of thin film is crucial. In this work a comprehensive characterization of the stress, elastic modulus, hardness and adhesion of ALD aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) films grown at 110–300 °C from trimethylaluminum and water is presented. Film stress was analyzed by wafer curvature measurements, elastic modulus by nanoindentation and surface-acoustic wave measurements, hardness by nanoindentation and adhesion by microscratch test and scanning nanowear. The films were also analyzed by ellipsometry, optical reflectometry, X-ray reflectivity and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection for refractive index, thickness, density and impurities. The ALD Al 2 O 3 films were under tensile stress in the scale of hundreds of MPa. The magnitude of the stress decreased strongly with increasing ALD temperature. The stress was stable during storage in air. Elastic modulus and hardness of ALD Al 2 O 3 saturated to a fairly constant value for growth at 150 to 300 °C, while ALD at 110 °C gave softer films with lower modulus. ALD Al 2 O 3 films adhered strongly on cleaned silicon with SiO x termination. - Highlights: • The residual stress of Al 2 O 3 was tensile and stable during the storage in air. • Elastic modulus of Al 2 O 3 saturated to at 170 GPa for films grown at 150 to 300 °C. • At 110 °C Al 2 O 3 films were softer with high residual hydrogen and lower density. • The Al 2 O 3 adhered strongly on the SiO x -terminated silicon

  7. Shear stress induces cell apoptosis via a c-Src-phospholipase D-mTOR signaling pathway in cultured podocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunfa, E-mail: chunfa.huang@case.edu [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Bruggeman, Leslie A. [Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hydo, Lindsey M. [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Miller, R. Tyler [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    The glomerular capillary wall, composed of endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the podocytes, is continually subjected to hemodynamic force arising from tractional stress due to blood pressure and shear stress due to blood flow. Exposure of glomeruli to abnormal hemodynamic force such as hyperfiltration is associated with glomerular injury and progressive renal disease, and the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the regulation of the process is poorly understood in podocytes. By examining DNA fragmentation, apoptotic nuclear changes and cytochrome c release, we found that shear stress induced cell apoptosis in cultured podocytes. Meanwhile, podocytes exposed to shear stress also stimulated c-Src phosphorylation, phospholipase D (PLD) activation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Using the antibodies against c-Src, PLD{sub 1}, and PLD{sub 2} to perform reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations and in vitro PLD activity assay, our data indicated that c-Src interacted with and activated PLD{sub 1} but not PLD{sub 2}. The inhibition of shear stress-induced c-Src phosphorylation by PP{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of c-Src kinase) resulted in reduced PLD activity. Phosphatidic acid, produced by shear stress-induced PLD activation, stimulated mTOR signaling, and caused podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/ P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  9. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  10. Prediction of brittle fracture of epoxy-aluminum flanging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbel J.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fracture mechanical approach for estimation of critical bending load of different types of aluminum-epoxy flanging and comparison with experimental measurements. For this purpose, several designs of the flanges were investigated. The flanges were glued to the epoxy bars and adhesive-epoxy interface was considered as a bi-material notch. Prediction of the failure is based on generalized stress intensity factor and generalized fracture toughness.

  11. Neonatal overfeeding disrupts pituitary ghrelin signalling in female rats long-term; Implications for the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Ziko, Ilvana; Spencer, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress are exacerbated in adult female but not male rats made obese due to overfeeding in early life. Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in coordinating the HPA responses to stress, particularly by acting directly at the anterior pituitary where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), the receptor for acyl ghrelin, is abundantly expressed. We therefore hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding in female rats would compromise pituitary responsiveness to ghrelin, contributing to a hyperactive central stress responsiveness. Unlike in males where hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is compromised by neonatal overfeeding, there was no effect of early life diet on circulating ghrelin or hypothalamic ghrelin signalling in females, indicating hypothalamic feeding and metabolic ghrelin circuitry remains intact. However, neonatal overfeeding did lead to long-term alterations in the pituitary ghrelin system. The neonatally overfed females had increased neonatal and reduced adult expression of GHSR and ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT) in the pituitary as well as reduced pituitary responsiveness to exogenous acyl ghrelin-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in vitro. These data suggest that neonatal overfeeding dysregulates pituitary ghrelin signalling long-term in females, potentially accounting for the hyper-responsive HPA axis in these animals. These findings have implications for how females may respond to stress throughout life, suggesting the way ghrelin modifies the stress response at the level of the pituitary may be less efficient in the neonatally overfed.

  12. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling.

  13. Oxidative stress damage-associated molecular signaling pathways differentiate spontaneous preterm birth and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Eryn H; Behnia, Faranak; Boldogh, Istvan; Saade, George R; Taylor, Brandie D; Kacerovský, Marian; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-02-01

    In women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), increased oxidative stress may accelerate premature cellular senescence, senescence-associated inflammation and proteolysis, which may predispose them to rupture. We demonstrate mechanistic differences between preterm birth (PTB) and PPROM by revealing differences in fetal membrane redox status, oxidative stress-induced damage, distinct signaling pathways and senescence activation. Oxidative stress-associated fetal membrane damage and cell cycle arrest determine adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as spontaneous PTB and PPROM. Fetal membranes and amniotic fluid samples were collected from women with PTB and PPROM. Molecular, biochemical and histologic markers were used to document differences in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme status, DNA damage, secondary signaling activation by Ras-GTPase and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and activation of senescence between membranes from the two groups. Oxidative stress was higher and antioxidant enzymes were lower in PPROM compared with PTB. PTB membranes had minimal DNA damage and showed activation of Ras-GTPase and ERK/JNK signaling pathway with minimal signs of senescence. PPROM had higher numbers of cells with DNA damage, prosenescence stress kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and signs of senescence. Samples were obtained retrospectively after delivery. The markers of senescence that we tested are specific but are not sufficient to confirm senescence as the pathology in PPROM. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and senescence are characteristics of fetal membranes from PPROM, compared with PTB with intact membranes. PTB and PPROM arise from distinct pathophysiologic pathways. Oxidative stress and oxidative stress-induced cellular damages are likely determinants of the mechanistic signaling pathways and phenotypic outcome. This study is supported by developmental funds to Dr R. Menon from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at The University of

  14. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  15. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy-fractographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, I.; Muhammad, W.; Ejaz, N.

    2016-08-01

    A two-fold approach was adopted to understand the fatigue crack growth process in an Aluminum alloy; fatigue crack growth test of samples and analysis of fractured surfaces. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on middle tension M(T) samples prepared from an Aluminum alloy cylinder. The tests were conducted under constant amplitude loading at R ratio 0.1. The stress applied was from 20,30 and 40 per cent of the yield stress of the material. The fatigue crack growth data was recorded. After fatigue testing, the samples were subjected to detailed scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. The resulting fracture surfaces were subjected to qualitative and quantitative fractographic examinations. Quantitative fracture analysis included an estimation of crack growth rate (CGR) in different regions. The effect of the microstructural features on fatigue crack growth was examined. It was observed that in stage II (crack growth region), the failure mode changes from intergranular to transgranular as the stress level increases. In the region of intergranular failure the localized brittle failure was observed and fatigue striations are difficult to reveal. However, in the region of transgranular failure the crack path is independent of the microstructural features. In this region, localized ductile failure mode was observed and well defined fatigue striations were present in the wake of fatigue crack. The effect of interaction of growing fatigue crack with microstructural features was not substantial. The final fracture (stage III) was ductile in all the cases.

  17. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkerton, Gary Wayne [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.

  18. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression

  19. Prediction of the Stress-Strain Behavior of Open-Cell Aluminum Foam under Compressive Loading and the Effects of Various RVE Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi Ghaleh Jigh, Behrang; Farsi, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Toudeshky, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    The prediction of the mechanical behavior of metallic foams with realistic microstructure and the effects of various boundary conditions on the mechanical behavior is an important and challenging issue in modeling representative volume elements (RVEs). A numerical investigation is conducted to determine the effects of various boundary conditions and cell wall cross sections on the compressive mechanical properties of aluminum foam, including the stiffness, plateau stress and onset strain of densification. The open-cell AA6101-T6 aluminum foam Duocel is used in the analyses in this study. Geometrical characteristics including the cell size, foam relative density, and cross-sectional shape and thickness of the cell walls are extracted from images of the foam. Then, the obtained foam microstructure is analyzed as a 2D model. The ligaments are modeled as shear deformable beams with elastic-plastic material behavior. To prevent interpenetration of the nodes and walls inside the cells with large deformations, self-contact-type frictionless interaction is stipulated between the internal surfaces. Sensitivity analyses are performed using several boundary conditions and cells wall cross-sectional shapes. The predicted results from the finite element analyses are compared with the experimental results. Finally, the most appropriate boundary conditions, leading to more consistent results with the experimental data, are introduced.

  20. Prediction of the Stress-Strain Behavior of Open-Cell Aluminum Foam under Compressive Loading and the Effects of Various RVE Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi Ghaleh Jigh, Behrang; Farsi, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Toudeshky, Hossein

    2018-05-01

    The prediction of the mechanical behavior of metallic foams with realistic microstructure and the effects of various boundary conditions on the mechanical behavior is an important and challenging issue in modeling representative volume elements (RVEs). A numerical investigation is conducted to determine the effects of various boundary conditions and cell wall cross sections on the compressive mechanical properties of aluminum foam, including the stiffness, plateau stress and onset strain of densification. The open-cell AA6101-T6 aluminum foam Duocel is used in the analyses in this study. Geometrical characteristics including the cell size, foam relative density, and cross-sectional shape and thickness of the cell walls are extracted from images of the foam. Then, the obtained foam microstructure is analyzed as a 2D model. The ligaments are modeled as shear deformable beams with elastic-plastic material behavior. To prevent interpenetration of the nodes and walls inside the cells with large deformations, self-contact-type frictionless interaction is stipulated between the internal surfaces. Sensitivity analyses are performed using several boundary conditions and cells wall cross-sectional shapes. The predicted results from the finite element analyses are compared with the experimental results. Finally, the most appropriate boundary conditions, leading to more consistent results with the experimental data, are introduced.

  1. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Molpeceres, C.; Paredes, M.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto a water-immersed type aluminum samples. Effect of pulse density in the residual stress field is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the higher the pulse density the larger the zone size with compressive residual stress. Densities of 900, 1350 and 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation are used. Pre-cracked compact tension specimens were subjected to LSP process and then tested under cyclic loading with R = 0.1. Fatigue crack growth rate is determined and the effect of LSP process parameters is evaluated. Fatigue crack growth rate is compared in specimens with and without LSP process. In addition fracture toughness is determined in specimens with and without LSP treatment. It is observed that LSP reduces fatigue crack growth and increases fracture toughness in the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

  3. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J; Balmanno, Kathryn; Cook, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  4. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Darling

    Full Text Available Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  5. Signaling in a polluted world: oxidative stress as an overlooked mechanism linking contaminants to animal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Marasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to communicate effectively with other individuals plays a critical role in the daily life of an individual and can have important fitness consequences. Animals rely on a number of visual and non-visual signals, whose production brings costs to the individual. The theory of honest signaling states that these costs are higher for low than for high-quality individuals, which prevents cheating and makes signals, such as skin and plumage colouration, indicators of individual’s quality or condition. The condition-dependent nature of signals makes them ideally suited as indicators of environmental quality, implying that signal production might be affected by contaminants. In this mini-review article, we have made the point that oxidative stress (OS is one overlooked mechanism linking exposure to contaminants to signaling because (i many contaminants can influence the individual’s oxidative balance, and (ii generation of both visual and non-visual signals is sensitive to oxidative stress. To this end, we have provided the first comprehensive review on the way both non-organic (heavy metals, especially mercury and organic (persistent organic pollutants contaminants may influence either OS or sexual signaling. We have also paid special attention to emerging classes of pollutants like brominated flame-retardants and perfluoroalkoxy alkanes in order to stimulate research in this area. We have finally provided suggestions and warnings for future work on the links among OS, sexual signaling and contaminant exposure.

  6. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  7. Activation of stress signaling molecules in bat brain during arousal from hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonyong; Choi, Inho; Park, Kyoungsook

    2002-08-01

    Induction of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) is a ubiquitous intracellular response to stresses such as hypoxia, glucose starvation and acidosis. The induction of GRPs offers some protection against these stresses in vitro, but the specific role of GRPs in vivo remains unclear. Hibernating bats present a good in vivo model to address this question. The bats must overcome local high oxygen demand in tissue by severe metabolic stress during arousal thermogenesis. We used brain tissue of a temperate bat Rhinolopus ferrumequinum to investigate GRP induction by high metabolic oxygen demand and to identify associated signaling molecules. We found that during 30 min of arousal, oxygen consumption increased from nearly zero to 11.9/kg/h, which was about 8.7-fold higher than its active resting metabolic rate. During this time, body temperature rose from 7 degrees C to 35 degrees C, and levels of TNF-alpha and lactate in brain tissue increased 2-2.5-fold, indicating a high risk of oxygen shortage. Concomitantly, levels of GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 increased 1.5-1.7-fold. At the same time, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activity increased 6.4-fold, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity decreased to a similar degree (6.1-fold). p38 MAPK activity was very low and remained unchanged during arousal. In addition, survival signaling molecules protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) were activated 3- and 5-fold, respectively, during arousal. Taken together, our results showed that bat brain undergoes high oxygen demand during arousal from hibernation. Up-regulation of GRP proteins and activation of JNK, PKCgamma and Akt may be critical for neuroprotection and the survival of bats during the repeated process.

  8. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  9. Thermographic Analysis of Stress Distribution in Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Ž.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue life prediction of welded joints based on S-N curves in conjunction with nominal stresses generally is not reliable. Stress distribution in welded area affected by geometrical inhomogeneity, irregular welded surface and weld toe radius is quite complex, so the local (structural stress concept is accepted in recent papers. The aim of this paper is to determine the stress distribution in plate type aluminum welded joints, to analyze the reliability of TSA (Thermal Stress Analysis in this kind of investigations, and to obtain numerical values for stress concentration factors for practical use. Stress distribution in aluminum butt and fillet welded joints is determined by using the three different methods: strain gauges measurement, thermal stress analysis and FEM. Obtained results show good agreement - the TSA mutually confirmed the FEM model and stresses measured by strain gauges. According to obtained results, it may be stated that TSA, as a relatively new measurement technique may in the future become a standard tool for the experimental investigation of stress concentration and fatigue in welded joints that can help to develop more accurate numerical tools for fatigue life prediction.

  10. Thermographic Analysis of Stress Distribution in Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piršić, T.; Krstulović Opara, L.; Domazet, Ž.

    2010-06-01

    The fatigue life prediction of welded joints based on S-N curves in conjunction with nominal stresses generally is not reliable. Stress distribution in welded area affected by geometrical inhomogeneity, irregular welded surface and weld toe radius is quite complex, so the local (structural) stress concept is accepted in recent papers. The aim of this paper is to determine the stress distribution in plate type aluminum welded joints, to analyze the reliability of TSA (Thermal Stress Analysis) in this kind of investigations, and to obtain numerical values for stress concentration factors for practical use. Stress distribution in aluminum butt and fillet welded joints is determined by using the three different methods: strain gauges measurement, thermal stress analysis and FEM. Obtained results show good agreement - the TSA mutually confirmed the FEM model and stresses measured by strain gauges. According to obtained results, it may be stated that TSA, as a relatively new measurement technique may in the future become a standard tool for the experimental investigation of stress concentration and fatigue in welded joints that can help to develop more accurate numerical tools for fatigue life prediction.

  11. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  13. Elevated stress hormone diminishes the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A Gabriell; Leary, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Mate selection can be stressful; time spent searching for mates can increase predation risk and/or decrease food consumption, resulting in elevated stress hormone levels. Both high predation risk and low food availability are often associated with increased variation in mate choice by females, but it is not clear whether stress hormone levels contribute to such variation in female behavior. We examined how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea. Specifically, we assessed whether CORT administration affects female preferences for call rate - an acoustic feature that is typically under directional selection via mate choice by females in most anurans and other species that communicate using acoustic signals. Using a dual speaker playback paradigm, we show that females that were administered higher doses of CORT were less likely to choose male advertisement calls broadcast at high rates. Neither CORT dose nor level was related to the latency of female phonotactic responses, suggesting that elevated CORT does not influence the motivation to mate. Results were also not related to circulating sex steroids (i.e., progesterone, androgens or estradiol) that have traditionally been the focus of studies examining the hormonal basis for variation in female mate choice. Our results thus indicate that elevated CORT levels decrease the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  15. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL, one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone1 (NQO1. However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  16. The Brucella abortus virulence regulator, LovhK, is a sensor kinase in the general stress response signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Willett, Jonathan W; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean

    2014-11-01

    In the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus, the general stress response (GSR) signalling system determines survival under acute stress conditions in vitro, and is required for long-term residence in a mammalian host. To date, the identity of the Brucella sensor kinase(s) that function to perceive stress and directly activate GSR signalling have remained undefined. We demonstrate that the flavin-binding sensor histidine kinase, LovhK (bab2_0652), functions as a primary B. abortus GSR sensor. LovhK rapidly and specifically phosphorylates the central GSR regulator, PhyR, and activates transcription of a set of genes that closely overlaps the known B. abortus GSR regulon. Deletion of lovhK severely compromises cell survival under defined oxidative and acid stress conditions. We further show that lovhK is required for cell survival during the early phase of mammalian cell infection and for establishment of long-term residence in a mouse infection model. Finally, we present evidence that particular regions of primary structure within the two N-terminal PAS domains of LovhK have distinct sensory roles under specific environmental conditions. This study elucidates new molecular components of a conserved signalling pathway that regulates B. abortus stress physiology and infection biology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of stress concentration in the Dutton groove regions of the Super Lightweight External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.

    1995-05-01

    Because the 2195 aluminum-lithium material of the super lightweight external tank (SLWT ET) has a lower toughness than the 2219 aluminum used in previous ET's, careful attention must be paid to stress concentrations. This report details the analysis performed on some of the stress concentrations in the orthogrid panels of the liquid hydrogen tank.

  18. Transcriptome-Based Modeling Reveals that Oxidative Stress Induces Modulation of the AtfA-Dependent Signaling Networks in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Orosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the molecular functions of the master stress-response regulator AtfA in Aspergillus nidulans, transcriptomic analyses of the atfA null mutant and the appropriate control strains exposed to menadione sodium bisulfite- (MSB-, t-butylhydroperoxide- and diamide-induced oxidative stresses were performed. Several elements of oxidative stress response were differentially expressed. Many of them, including the downregulation of the mitotic cell cycle, as the MSB stress-specific upregulation of FeS cluster assembly and the MSB stress-specific downregulation of nitrate reduction, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, showed AtfA dependence. To elucidate the potential global regulatory role of AtfA governing expression of a high number of genes with very versatile biological functions, we devised a model based on the comprehensive transcriptomic data. Our model suggests that an important function of AtfA is to modulate the transduction of stress signals. Although it may regulate directly only a limited number of genes, these include elements of the signaling network, for example, members of the two-component signal transduction systems. AtfA acts in a stress-specific manner, which may increase further the number and diversity of AtfA-dependent genes. Our model sheds light on the versatility of the physiological functions of AtfA and its orthologs in fungi.

  19. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young; Park, Myoung Ryoul; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Mauleon, Ramil; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Bruskiewich, Richard; de los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-01-01

    -plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress

  20. Effects of environmental variables on the crack initiation stages of corrosion fatigue of high strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    Fatigue initiation in six aluminum alloys used in the aircraft industry was investigated. Cyclic loading superimposed on a constant stress was alternated with atmospheric corrosion. Tests made at different stress levels revealed that a residual stress as low as 39% of the yield strength caused stress corrosion cracking in some of the alloys. An atmospheric corrosion rate meter developed to measure the corrosivity of the atmosphere is described. An easily duplicated hole in the square test specimen with a self-induced residual stress was developed.

  1. Acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of adhesively bonded CFRP-aluminum joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Kwon, Oh Yang

    1997-01-01

    Correlation between the amount of artificial defects in bonded region and the acousto-ultrasonic parameters(AUPs) including signal amplitude and then the static strength of adhesively bonded joints of carbon fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP) laminates and Al6061 plates has been investigated. The effect of the frequency content and the bandwidth of input signals were studied using 200 kHz, 650 kHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz pulses and 1 MHz tone-burst signals. With increasing fraction of defects, the signal amplitude and AUP1 were decreased whereas AUP2 was increased. This result has been attributed to the energy transfer characteristics of bonded joints with delamination-type defects and the change of spectral content due to the defects. Considering the nature of high attenuation, a pulse signal with major frequency content at the third harmonic of thickness mode resonance, 650 kHz for the dimension of specimens used in this study, has been found optimal for acousto-ultrasonic testing of CFRP-aluminum joints.

  2. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the TORC1 and Osmotic Stress Signaling Network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Worley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Target of Rapamycin kinase Complex I (TORC1 is a master regulator of cell growth and metabolism in eukaryotes. Studies in yeast and human cells have shown that nitrogen/amino acid starvation signals act through Npr2/Npr3 and the small GTPases Gtr1/Gtr2 (Rags in humans to inhibit TORC1. However, it is unclear how other stress and starvation stimuli inhibit TORC1, and/or act in parallel with the TORC1 pathway, to control cell growth. To help answer these questions, we developed a novel automated pipeline and used it to measure the expression of a TORC1-dependent ribosome biogenesis gene (NSR1 during osmotic stress in 4700 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from the yeast knock-out collection. This led to the identification of 440 strains with significant and reproducible defects in NSR1 repression. The cell growth control and stress response proteins deleted in these strains form a highly connected network, including 56 proteins involved in vesicle trafficking and vacuolar function; 53 proteins that act downstream of TORC1 according to a rapamycin assay—including components of the HDAC Rpd3L, Elongator, and the INO80, CAF-1 and SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes; over 100 proteins involved in signaling and metabolism; and 17 proteins that directly interact with TORC1. These data provide an important resource for labs studying cell growth control and stress signaling, and demonstrate the utility of our new, and easily adaptable, method for mapping gene regulatory networks.

  5. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  6. Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: 4-Hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress-mediated signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Sharad S.; Singh, Sharda P.; Singhal, Preeti; Horne, David; Singhal, Jyotsana; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4HNE), one of the major end products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. It appears to modulate signaling processes in more than one way because it has been suggested to have a role in signaling for differentiation and proliferation. It has been known that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) can reduce lipid hydroperoxides through their Se-independent glutathione-peroxidase activity and that these enzymes can also detoxify LPO end-products such as 4HNE. Available evidence from earlier studies together with results of recent studies in our laboratories strongly suggests that LPO products, particularly hydroperoxides and 4HNE, are involved in the mechanisms of stress-mediated signaling and that it can be modulated by the alpha-class GSTs through the regulation of the intracellular concentrations of 4HNE. We demonstrate that 4HNE induced apoptosis in various cell lines is accompanied with c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activation. Cells exposed to mild, transient heat or oxidative stress acquire the capacity to exclude intracellular 4HNE at a faster rate by inducing GSTA4-4 which conjugates 4HNE to glutathione (GSH), and RLIP76 which mediates the ATP-dependent transport of the GSH-conjugate of 4HNE (GS-HNE). The balance between formation and exclusion promotes different cellular processes — higher concentrations of 4HNE promote apoptosis; whereas, lower concentrations promote proliferation. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the cellular effects of 4HNE, followed by a review of its GST-catalyzed detoxification, with an emphasis on the structural attributes that play an important role in the interactions with alpha-class GSTA4-4. Taken together, 4HNE is a key signaling molecule and that GSTs being determinants of its intracellular concentrations, can regulate stress-mediated signaling, are reviewed in this article. - Highlights: • GSTs are the major

  7. Fractal nature of aluminum alloys substructures under creep and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Bruno, G.; González-Doncel, G.

    2018-04-01

    The present work offers an explanation for the variation of the power-law stress exponent, n, with the stress σ normalized to the shear modulus G in aluminum alloys. The approach is based on the assumption that the dislocation structure generated with deformation has a fractal nature. It fully explains the evolution of n with σ/G even beyond the so-called power law breakdown region. Creep data from commercially pure Al99.8%, Al-3.85%Mg, and ingot AA6061 alloy tested at different temperatures and stresses are used to validate the proposed ideas. Finally, it is also shown that the fractal description of the dislocation structure agrees well with current knowledge.

  8. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Protects against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy: Role of PTEN-Akt-mTOR Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Pang

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER plays an essential role in ensuring proper folding of the newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER homeostasis triggers ER stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. ADH is involved in catalyzing ethanol to acetaldehyde although its role in cardiovascular diseases other than ethanol metabolism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the impact of ADH on ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies and underlying mechanisms involved using cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 48 hrs. Myocardial mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+ properties, ER stress, autophagy and associated cell signaling molecules were evaluated.ER stress compromised cardiac contractile function (evidenced as reduced fractional shortening, peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged relengthening duration and impaired intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress and upregulated autophagy (increased LC3B, Atg5, Atg7 and p62, along with dephosphorylation of PTEN, Akt and mTOR, all of which were attenuated by ADH. In vitro study revealed that ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte anomaly was abrogated by ADH overexpression or autophagy inhibition using 3-MA. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of ADH was obliterated by autophagy induction, inhibition of Akt and mTOR. ER stress also promoted phosphorylation of the stress signaling ERK and JNK, the effect of which was unaffected by ADH transgene.Taken together, these findings suggested that ADH protects against ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies possibly via attenuation of oxidative stress and PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway-regulated autophagy.

  9. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehanathan eMuthamilarasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.

  10. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling. PMID:26635818

  11. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-Lα, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm 2 irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm 2 UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  12. Signaling dynamics of palmitate-induced ER stress responses mediated by ATF4 in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palmitic acid, the most common saturated free fatty acid, has been implicated in ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. This lipoapotosis is dependent, in part, on the upregulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4. To better understand the mechanisms by which palmitate upregulates the expression level of ATF4, we integrated literature information on palmitate-induced ER stress signaling into a discrete dynamic model. The model provides an in silico framework that enables simulations and predictions. The model predictions were confirmed through further experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and the results were used to update the model and our current understanding of the signaling induced by palmitate. Results The three key things from the in silico simulation and experimental results are: 1 palmitate induces different signaling pathways (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PERK (PKR-like ER kinase, PKA (cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in a time dependent-manner, 2 both ATF4 and CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 interact with the Atf4 promoter to contribute to a prolonged accumulation of ATF4, and 3 CREB1 is involved in ER-stress induced apoptosis upon palmitate treatment, by regulating ATF4 expression and possibly Ca2+ dependent-CaM (calmodulin signaling pathway. Conclusion The in silico model helped to delineate the essential signaling pathways in palmitate-mediated apoptosis.

  13. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type (Development of aluminum alloy casting system using aluminum titanate ceramic member); 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Chitansan aluminium ceramics buzai wo shiyoshita aluminium gokin chuzo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An automatic liquid metal charging system driven by a linear induction type electromagnetic pump is developed, with its members to be in contact with liquid aluminum alloy being constituted of aluminum titanate ceramics not to be wetted by liquid aluminum alloy and highly resistant to thermal impact. Technologies for casting aluminum titanate ceramic members in plaster molds, CIP (cold isostatic pressing) molding, and burning were established. The mechanism of wettability of liquid aluminum alloy on aluminum titanate ceramic members was elucidated, and an aluminum titanate ceramic member with a dense spinel layer formed thereon in situ was developed for improvement on non-wettability. The developed member remained non-wettable more than six times longer than conventional members. A special electronic counter mechanism was developed by installing in a conduit an aluminum titanate ceramic made impeller whose revolution was converted into electric signals for the measurement of the amount of charged liquid. A non-asbestos polycrystalline alumina-silica fiber was selected as the insulator for the melting/holding furnace, which enabled 30% energy conservation as compared with the conventional type. (NEDO)

  14. Application of Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) to evidence localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu, Nicoleta; Alexis, Joël; Lacroix, Loïc; Abrudeanu, Marioara; Petit, Jacques-Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  15. Study of the localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy. Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) application

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu , Nicoleta; Lacroix , Loïc; Alexis , Joël; Abrudeanu , Marioara; Petit , Jacques-Alain

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  16. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  17. Heat stress, gastrointestinal permeability and interleukin-6 signaling - Implications for exercise performance and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Nicole; Marino, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Exercise in heat stress exacerbates performance decrements compared to normothermic environments. It has been documented that the performance decrements are associated with reduced efferent drive from the central nervous system (CNS), however, specific factors that contribute to the decrements are not completely understood. During exertional heat stress, blood flow is preferentially distributed away from the intestinal area to supply the muscles and brain with oxygen. Consequently, the gastrointestinal barrier becomes increasingly permeable, resulting in the release of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) into the circulation. LPS leakage stimulates an acute-phase inflammatory response, including the release of interleukin (IL)-6 in response to an increasingly endotoxic environment. If LPS translocation is too great, heat shock, neurological dysfunction, or death may ensue. IL-6 acts initially in a pro-inflammatory manner during endotoxemia, but can attenuate the response through signaling the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis. Likewise, IL-6 is believed to be a thermoregulatory sensor in the gut during the febrile response, hence highlighting its role in periphery - to - brain communication. Recently, IL-6 has been implicated in signaling the CNS and influencing perceptions of fatigue and performance during exercise. Therefore, due to the cascade of events that occur during exertional heat stress, it is possible that the release of LPS and exacerbated response of IL-6 contributes to CNS modulation during exertional heat stress. The purpose of this review is to evaluate previous literature and discuss the potential role for IL-6 during exertional heat stress to modulate performance in favor of whole body preservation.

  18. Leaf cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals novel mechanisms for boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu-Qing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Xin-Xing; Ye, Xin; Chen, En-Jun; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-10-01

    Little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (Al)-toxicity. 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing different concentrations of B (2.5 or 20μM H3BO3) and Al (0 or 1.2mM AlCl3·6H2O). B alleviated Al-induced inhibition in plant growth accompanied by lower leaf Al. We used cDNA-AFLP to isolate 127 differentially expressed genes from leaves subjected to B and Al interactions. These genes were related to signal transduction, transport, cell wall modification, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and stress responses. The ameliorative mechanisms of B on Al-toxicity might be related to: (a) triggering multiple signal transduction pathways; (b) improving the expression levels of genes related to transport; (c) activating genes involved in energy production; and (d) increasing amino acid accumulation and protein degradation. Also, genes involved in nucleic acid metabolism, cell wall modification and stress responses might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. To conclude, our findings reveal some novel mechanisms on B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity at the transcriptional level in C. grandis leaves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Curcumin Induced Human Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells Apoptosis by ROS-Mediated ASK1-MKK4-JNK Stress Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The signaling mediated by stress-activated MAP kinases (MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK has well-established importance in cancer. In the present report, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the signaling pathway in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and BGC-823 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidant (NAC or Trion significantly prevented curcumin-mediated apoptosis. Notably, we observed that curcumin activated ASK1, a MAPKKK that is oxidative stress sensitive and responsible to phosphorylation of JNK via triggering cascades, up-regulated an upstream effector of the JNK, MKK4, and phosphorylated JNK protein expression in BGC-823 cells. However, curcumin induced ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling was attenuated by NAC. All the findings confirm the possibility that oxidative stress-activated ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling cascade promotes the apoptotic response in curcumin-treated BGC-823 cells.

  20. Optical properties of aluminum nitride thin films grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering close to epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, A. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Abdallah, B. [Department of Materials Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Charrier, J. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l' informatiON (FOTON), UMR CNRS 6082, 6, rue de Kerampont CS 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Deresmes, D. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jouan, P.-Y.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel – IMN, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinère BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dogheche, E.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-05-01

    Low-temperature Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited by Direct-Current magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate. They present optical properties similar to those of epitaxially grown films. Different characterization methods such as X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to determine the structural properties of the films such as its roughness and crystallinity. Newton interferometer was used for stress measurement of the films. Non-destructive prism-coupling technique was used to determine refractive index and thickness homogeneity by a mapping on the whole sample area. Results show that AlN films grown on AlGaN layer have a high crystallinity close to epitaxial films, associated to a low intrinsic stress for low thickness. These results highlight that it is possible to grow thick sample with microstructure and optical properties close to epitaxy, even on a large surface. - Highlights: ► Aluminum Nitride sputtering technique with a low temperature growth process ► Epitaxial quality of two microns sputtered Aluminum Nitride film ► Optics as a non-destructive accurate tool for acoustic wave investigation.

  1. Systematic Review of Uit Parameters on Residual Stresses of Sensitized AA5456 and Field Based Residual Stress Measurements for Predicting and Mitigating Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    University Press, 2009, pp. 820–824. [30] S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2003. [31] M. N.James et al...around welds in aluminum ship structures both in the laboratory and in the field. Tensile residual stresses are often generated during welding and, in...mitigate and even reverse these tensile residual stresses. This research uses x-ray diffraction to measure residual stresses around welds in AA5456 before

  2. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Gongming [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Shen, Nan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Nong, Luming, E-mail: lumingnong@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Ren, Kewei, E-mail: keweiren@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  3. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  4. Chronic Stress Decreases Basal Levels of Memory-Related Signaling Molecules in Area CA1 of At-Risk (Subclinical) Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2015-08-01

    An important factor that may affect the severity and time of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is chronic stress. Epidemiological studies report that chronically stressed individuals are at an increased risk for developing AD. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether chronic psychosocial stress could hasten the appearance of AD symptoms including changes in basal levels of cognition-related signaling molecules in subjects who are at risk for the disease. We investigated the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of subclinical rat model of AD. The subclinical symptomless rat model of AD was induced by osmotic pump continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of 160 pmol/day Aβ1-42 for 14 days. Rats were chronically stressed using the psychosocial stress intruder model. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of important signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed no significant difference between the subclinical AD rat model and control rat. Following six weeks of psychosocial stress, molecular analysis showed that subclinical animals subjected to stress have significantly reduced basal levels of p-CaMKII and decreased p-CaMKII/t-CaMKII ratio as well as decreased basal levels of p-CREB, total CREB, and BDNF. The present results suggest that these changes in basal levels of signaling molecules may be responsible for impaired learning, memory, and LTP in this rat model, which support the proposition that chronic stress may accelerate the emergence of AD in susceptible individuals.

  5. Dysregulation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathways in endometriosis: from oxidative stress to fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Foruria, Iñaki; Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Carmona, Francisco; Chapron, Charles; Batteux, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    Is oxidative stress associated with the A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM) metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17)/Notch signalling pathway and fibrosis in the development of endometriosis? Oxidative stress is correlated with hyperactivation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathway and a consequent increase in fibrosis in patients with endometriosis. It is nowadays accepted that oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of endometriosis. Oxidative stress is able to induce the synthesis of some members of the 'ADAM' family, such as ADAM17. ADAM17/Notch signalling is dysregulated in other profibrotic and inflammatory diseases. This was a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n = 202) during surgery for a benign gynaecological condition. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free control women were enrolled. Peritoneal fluid (PF) samples were obtained from all the study participants during surgery in order to detect advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and metalloproteinase activity of ADAM17. Stromal cells from endometrial specimens (n = 8) were obtained from endometrium of control patients (Cs), and from eutopic (Es) and ectopic (Ps) endometrium of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (n = 8). ADAM17, Notch and the fibrosis markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type-I collagen were assessed using immunoblotting in all the endometrial samples obtained. Additionally, fibrosis was assessed after using Notch cleavage inhibitors (DAPT and FLI-06). Notch and fibrosis were also evaluated after stimulation of stromal endometrial cells with ADAM17 purified protein, increasing concentrations of H2O2 and primary cell culture supernatants. Patients with DIE presented higher PF AOPP

  6. Impression creep properties of a semi-solid processed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, B.; Razavi, H.; Miresmaeili, S.M.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Shabestari, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The creep properties of a thixoformed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements were studied under shear modulus-normalized stresses ranging from 0.0225 to 0.035 at temperatures of 150-212 o C using the impression creep technique. Analysis of the creep mechanism based on a power-law equation indicated that pipe diffusion-controlled dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism during creep. The alloy has a better creep resistance than high-pressure die-cast magnesium-aluminum alloy.

  7. Spermidine-mediated hydrogen peroxide signaling enhances the antioxidant capacity of salt-stressed cucumber roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianqiang; Shu, Sheng; Li, Chengcheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2018-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a key signaling molecule that mediates a variety of physiological processes and defense responses against abiotic stress in higher plants. In this study, our aims are to clarify the role of H 2 O 2 accumulation induced by the exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in regulating the antioxidant capacity of roots under salt stress. The results showed that Spd caused a significant increase in endogenous polyamines and H 2 O 2 levels, and peaked at 2 h after salt stress. Spd-induced H 2 O 2 accumulation was blocked under salt stress by pretreatment with a H 2 O 2 scavenger and respective inhibitors of cell wall peroxidase (CWPOD; EC: 1.11.1.7), polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC: 1.5.3.11) and NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC: 1.6.3.1); among these three inhibitors, the largest decrease was found in response to the addition of the inhibitor of polyamine oxidase. In addition, we observed that exogenous Spd could increase the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC: 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD; EC: 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT; EC: 1.11.1.6) as well as the expression of their genes in salt-stressed roots, and the effects were inhibited by H 2 O 2 scavengers and polyamine oxidase inhibitors. These results suggested that, by regulating endogenous PAs-mediated H 2 O 2 signaling in roots, Spd could enhance antioxidant enzyme activities and reduce oxidative damage; the main source of H 2 O 2 was polyamine oxidation, which was associated with improved tolerance and root growth recovery of cucumber under salt stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Cool-down flow-rate limits imposed by thermal stresses in LNG pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J. K.; Edeskuty, F. J.; Bartlit, J. R.

    Warm cryogenic pipelines are usually cooled to operating temperature by a small, steady flow of the liquid cryogen. If this flow rate is too high or too low, undesirable stresses will be produced. Low flow-rate limits based on avoidance of stratified two-phase flow were calculated for pipelines cooled with liquid hydrogen or nitrogen. High flow-rate limits for stainless steel and aluminum pipelines cooled by liquid hydrogen or nitrogen were determined by calculating thermal stress in thick components vs flow rate and then selecting some reasonable stress limits. The present work extends these calculations to pipelines made of AISI 304 stainless steel, 6061 aluminum, or ASTM A420 9% nickel steel cooled by liquid methane or a typical natural gas. Results indicate that aluminum and 9% nickel steel components can tolerate very high cool-down flow rates, based on not exceeding the material yield strength.

  9. Structural changes in leaves and roots are anatomical markers of aluminum sensitivity in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Silva de Jesus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity in plants evidences the importance of genotype evaluation to the identification of tolerance markers. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of aluminum stress on the relative water content, membrane damages and anatomical changes, in Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive sunflower cultivars. Sunflower plants [Catissol (Al-tolerant and IAC-Uruguai (Al-sensitive] were grown in nutrient solution (control or nutrient solution containing 0.15 mM of AlCl3 (Al-stress treatment, in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial arrangement consisting of four harvest times x two sunflower cultivars x two Al levels, with four replications. The results showed that Al negatively affected the absolute integrity percentage and relative water content only for the IAC-Uruguay cultivar. These results in the stressed leaves of the Al-sensitive cultivar may be due to damage in the xylem structure. In addition, the increase in leaf blade thickness and parenchyma layers, as well as lignification of root tissues, are important traits of IAC-Uruguay plants and may be used as anatomical markers of Al sensitivity in sunflower.

  10. Crosstalk between phospholipase D and sphingosine kinase in plant stress signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin eWang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The activation of phospholipase D (PLD produces phosphatidic acid (PA, whereas sphingosine kinase (SPHK phosphorylates long-chain bases (LCBs to generate LCB-1-phosphates (LCBPs such as phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (phyto-S1P. PA and phyto-S1P have been identified as lipid messengers. Recent studies have shown that PA interacts directly with SPHKs in Arabidopsis, and that the interaction promotes SPHK activity. However, SPHK and phyto-S1P act upstream of PLDα1 and PA in the stomatal response to abscisic acid (ABA. These findings indicate that SPHK/phyto-S1P and PLD/PA are co-dependent in the amplification of lipid messengers, and that crosstalk between the sphingolipid- and phospholipid-mediated signaling pathways may play important roles in plant stress signaling.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of BR-deficient Micro-Tom reveals correlations between drought stress tolerance and brassinosteroid signaling in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinsu; Shim, Donghwan; Moon, Suyun; Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Wonsil; Kim, Kyunghwan; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Hong, Chang Pyo; Hong, Suk-Young; Lee, Ye-Jin; Sung, Jwakyung; Ryu, Hojin

    2018-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones that play crucial roles in a range of growth and developmental processes. Although BR signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways have been well characterized in model plants, their biological roles in an important crop, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), remain unknown. Here, cultivated tomato (WT) and a BR synthesis mutant, Micro-Tom (MT), were compared using physiological and transcriptomic approaches. The cultivated tomato showed higher tolerance to drought and osmotic stresses than the MT tomato. However, BR-defective phenotypes of MT, including plant growth and stomatal closure defects, were completely recovered by application of exogenous BR or complementation with a SlDWARF gene. Using genome-wide transcriptome analysis, 619 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between WT and MT plants. Several DEGs were linked to known signaling networks, including those related to biotic/abiotic stress responses, lignification, cell wall development, and hormone responses. Consistent with the higher susceptibility of MT to drought stress, several gene sets involved in responses to drought and osmotic stress were differentially regulated between the WT and MT tomato plants. Our data suggest that BR signaling pathways are involved in mediating the response to abiotic stress via fine-tuning of abiotic stress-related gene networks in tomato plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  13. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  14. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on cell wall polysaccharides and aluminum tolerance of trichosanthes kirilowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.; Liu, D.; Xio, Y.; Liu, P.; Gao, P. P.; Cao, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on root length, relative aluminum content in the apical cell wall, acid phosphatase (APA) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity, root pectin, hemicellulose 1(HC1), and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) contents of Anguo Trichosanthes kirilowii (Al-tolerant genotype) and Pujiang T. kirilowii (Al-sensitive genotype) under 800 micro mol/L of aluminum stress. The results showed that the growth of Al-tolerant Anguo T. kirilowii and Al-sensitive Pujiang T. kirilowii was inhibited when exposed to 800 micro mol/L of aluminum solution. APA and PME activities were also enhanced for both genotypes. The contents of relative aluminum, pectin, HC1, and HC2, as well as Al accumulation in the root tips were increased under aluminum toxicity. Pujiang T. kirilowii showed higher enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide contents than Anguo T. kirilowii. In addition, the root cell wall pectin, HC1, and HC2 contents of Pujiang T. kirilowii were increased by a large margin, showing its greater sensitivity to aluminum toxicity. Root length is an important indicator of aluminum toxicity, and has an important relationship with cell wall polysaccharide content. Aluminum toxicity led to the accumulation of pectin and high PME activity, and also increased the number of free carboxyl groups, which have more aluminum binding sites. Membrane skim increased extensively with the increase in APA activity, damaging membrane structure and function. Different SA concentrations can decrease enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide content to some extent. With the addition of different SA concentrations, the root relative aluminum content, cell wall polysaccharide content, APA and PME activities decreased. Aluminum toxicity to both genotypes of T. kirilowii was relieved in different degrees as exogenous SA concentration increased. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to examine the genetic distance

  15. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  16. Convergence of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and GR signaling in response to fluoxetine treatment in chronically stressed female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitic, Milos; Brkic, Zeljka; Lukic, Iva; Adzic, Miroslav

    2017-08-30

    Accumulating evidence strongly suggest that impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is involved in stress-related mood disorders, and nominate GR as a potential target for antidepressants (ADs). It is known that different classes of ADs affects the GR action via modifying its phosphorylation, while the mechanism through which ADs alter GR phosphorylation targeted by GSK3β, a kinase modulated via serotonin neurotransmission, are unclear. On this basis, we investigated whether GSK3β-GR signaling could be a convergence point of fluoxetine action on brain function and behavior, by examining its effect on GSK3β targeted-GR phosphorylation on threonine 171 (pGR171), and expression of GR-regulated genes in the hippocampus of female and male rats exposed to chronic isolation stress. Stress induced sex-specific GSK3β-targeted phosphorylation of pGR171 in the nucleus of the hippocampus of stressed animals. Namely, while in females stress triggered coupled action of GSK3β-pGR171 signaling, in males changes in pGR171 levels did not correspond to GSK3β activity. On the other hand, fluoxetine managed to up-regulate this pathway in sex-unbiased manner. Furthermore, fluoxetine reverted stress-induced changes in most of the analyzed genes in males, CRH, 5-HT1a and p11, while in females its effect was limited to CRH. These data further suggest that pGR171 signaling affects cellular localization of GR in response to chronic stress and fluoxetine in both sexes. Collectively, our results describe a novel convergence point between GR signaling and GSK3β pathway in rat hippocampus in response to stress and fluoxetine in both sexes and its involvement in fluoxetine-regulated brain function in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  18. Stress analysis and deformation prediction of sheet metal workpieces based on finite element simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Penghao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After aluminum alloy sheet metal parts machining, the residual stress release will cause a large deformation. To solve this problem, this paper takes a aluminum alloy sheet aerospace workpiece as an example, establishes the theoretical model of elastic deformation and the finite element model, and places quantitative initial stress in each element of machining area, analyses stress release simulation and deformation. Through different initial stress release simulative analysis of deformation of the workpiece, a linear relationship between initial stress and deformation is found; Through simulative analysis of coupling direction-stress release, the superposing relationship between the deformation caused by coupling direction-stress and the deformation caused by single direction stress is found. The research results provide important theoretical support for the stress threshold setting and deformation controlling of the workpieces in the production practice.

  19. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Hossain and B. J, O’Toole: Stress Corrosion Cracking of Martensitic Stainless Steel for Transmutation Application, Presented at 2003 International...SCC of marternsitic stainless steel by Roy,[12] and learn the annealing effect on SCC of carbon steel by Haruna.[13] The application of slow...observations. In his study on SCC of AISI 304 stainless steel , Roychowdhury[3] detected no apparent SCC in solutions containing 1 ppm thiosulfate and

  20. Phonon optimized interatomic potential for aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gopal Muraleedharan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of generating a phonon optimized interatomic potential (POP for aluminum. The POP methodology, which has already been shown to work for semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, uses an evolutionary strategy based on a genetic algorithm (GA to optimize the free parameters in an empirical interatomic potential (EIP. For aluminum, we used the Vashishta functional form. The training data set was generated ab initio, consisting of forces, energy vs. volume, stresses, and harmonic and cubic force constants obtained from density functional theory (DFT calculations. Existing potentials for aluminum, such as the embedded atom method (EAM and charge-optimized many-body (COMB3 potential, show larger errors when the EIP forces are compared with those predicted by DFT, and thus they are not particularly well suited for reproducing phonon properties. Using a comprehensive Vashishta functional form, which involves short and long-ranged interactions, as well as three-body terms, we were able to better capture interactions that reproduce phonon properties accurately. Furthermore, the Vashishta potential is flexible enough to be extended to Al2O3 and the interface between Al-Al2O3, which is technologically important for combustion of solid Al nano powders. The POP developed here is tested for accuracy by comparing phonon thermal conductivity accumulation plots, density of states, and dispersion relations with DFT results. It is shown to perform well in molecular dynamics (MD simulations as well, where the phonon thermal conductivity is calculated via the Green-Kubo relation. The results are within 10% of the values obtained by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE, employing Fermi’s Golden Rule to predict the phonon-phonon relaxation times.

  1. Phonon optimized interatomic potential for aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Murali Gopal; Rohskopf, Andrew; Yang, Vigor; Henry, Asegun

    2017-12-01

    We address the problem of generating a phonon optimized interatomic potential (POP) for aluminum. The POP methodology, which has already been shown to work for semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, uses an evolutionary strategy based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the free parameters in an empirical interatomic potential (EIP). For aluminum, we used the Vashishta functional form. The training data set was generated ab initio, consisting of forces, energy vs. volume, stresses, and harmonic and cubic force constants obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Existing potentials for aluminum, such as the embedded atom method (EAM) and charge-optimized many-body (COMB3) potential, show larger errors when the EIP forces are compared with those predicted by DFT, and thus they are not particularly well suited for reproducing phonon properties. Using a comprehensive Vashishta functional form, which involves short and long-ranged interactions, as well as three-body terms, we were able to better capture interactions that reproduce phonon properties accurately. Furthermore, the Vashishta potential is flexible enough to be extended to Al2O3 and the interface between Al-Al2O3, which is technologically important for combustion of solid Al nano powders. The POP developed here is tested for accuracy by comparing phonon thermal conductivity accumulation plots, density of states, and dispersion relations with DFT results. It is shown to perform well in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as well, where the phonon thermal conductivity is calculated via the Green-Kubo relation. The results are within 10% of the values obtained by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), employing Fermi's Golden Rule to predict the phonon-phonon relaxation times.

  2. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  3. GABAergic Signaling within a Limbic-Hypothalamic Circuit Integrates Social and Anxiety-Like Behavior with Stress Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Wu, Christine; Naser, Sam; Solomon, Matia B; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2016-05-01

    The posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH) stimulates autonomic stress responses. However, the role of the PH in behavioral correlates of psychiatric illness, such as social and anxiety-like behavior, is largely unexplored, as is the neurochemistry of PH connectivity with limbic and neuroendocrine systems. Thus, the current study tested the hypothesis that GABAergic signaling within the PH is a critical link between forebrain behavior-regulatory nuclei and the neuroendocrine hypothalamus, integrating social and anxiety-related behaviors with physiological stress reactivity. To address this hypothesis, GABAA receptor pharmacology was used to locally inhibit or disinhibit the PH immediately before behavioral measures of social and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Limbic connectivity of the PH was then established by simultaneous co-injection of anterograde and retrograde tracers. Further, the role of PH GABAergic signaling in neuroendocrine stress responses was tested via inhibition/disinhibition of the PH. These studies determined a prominent role for the PH in the expression of anxiety-related behaviors and social withdrawal. Histological analyses revealed divergent stress-activated limbic input to the PH, emanating predominantly from the prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, and amygdala. PH projections also targeted both parvicellular and magnocellular peptidergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamus. Further, GABAA receptor pharmacology determined an excitatory effect of the PH on neuroendocrine responses to stress. These data indicate that the PH represents an important stress-integrative center, regulating behavioral processes and connecting the limbic forebrain with neuroendocrine systems. Moreover, the PH appears to be uniquely situated to have a role in stress-related pathologies associated with limbic-hypothalamic dysfunction.

  4. Salicylic Acid Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity in Soybean Roots through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L. exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM and SA (10 μM/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H, and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  5. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean roots through modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-11-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  6. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  7. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  8. The cell envelope stress response of Bacillus subtilis: from static signaling devices to dynamic regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeck, Jara; Fritz, Georg; Mascher, Thorsten

    2017-02-01

    The cell envelope stress response (CESR) encompasses all regulatory events that enable a cell to protect the integrity of its envelope, an essential structure of any bacterial cell. The underlying signaling network is particularly well understood in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. It consists of a number of two-component systems (2CS) and extracytoplasmic function σ factors that together regulate the production of both specific resistance determinants and general mechanisms to protect the envelope against antimicrobial peptides targeting the biogenesis of the cell wall. Here, we summarize the current picture of the B. subtilis CESR network, from the initial identification of the corresponding signaling devices to unraveling their interdependence and the underlying regulatory hierarchy within the network. In the course of detailed mechanistic studies, a number of novel signaling features could be described for the 2CSs involved in mediating CESR. This includes a novel class of so-called intramembrane-sensing histidine kinases (IM-HKs), which-instead of acting as stress sensors themselves-are activated via interprotein signal transfer. Some of these IM-HKs are involved in sensing the flux of antibiotic resistance transporters, a unique mechanism of responding to extracellular antibiotic challenge.

  9. Deep ECGNet: An Optimal Deep Learning Framework for Monitoring Mental Stress Using Ultra Short-Term ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bosun; You, Jiwoo; Vaessen, Thomas; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Park, Cheolsoo; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2018-02-08

    Stress recognition using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals requires the intractable long-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameter extraction process. This study proposes a novel deep learning framework to recognize the stressful states, the Deep ECGNet, using ultra short-term raw ECG signals without any feature engineering methods. The Deep ECGNet was developed through various experiments and analysis of ECG waveforms. We proposed the optimal recurrent and convolutional neural networks architecture, and also the optimal convolution filter length (related to the P, Q, R, S, and T wave durations of ECG) and pooling length (related to the heart beat period) based on the optimization experiments and analysis on the waveform characteristics of ECG signals. The experiments were also conducted with conventional methods using HRV parameters and frequency features as a benchmark test. The data used in this study were obtained from Kwangwoon University in Korea (13 subjects, Case 1) and KU Leuven University in Belgium (9 subjects, Case 2). Experiments were designed according to various experimental protocols to elicit stressful conditions. The proposed framework to recognize stress conditions, the Deep ECGNet, outperformed the conventional approaches with the highest accuracy of 87.39% for Case 1 and 73.96% for Case 2, respectively, that is, 16.22% and 10.98% improvements compared with those of the conventional HRV method. We proposed an optimal deep learning architecture and its parameters for stress recognition, and the theoretical consideration on how to design the deep learning structure based on the periodic patterns of the raw ECG data. Experimental results in this study have proved that the proposed deep learning model, the Deep ECGNet, is an optimal structure to recognize the stress conditions using ultra short-term ECG data.

  10. Effect of some grain refiners on the mechanical properties of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that aluminum and its alloys are grain refined by some refractory metals to enhance their surface qualities and mechanical strengths. In this paper, the literature on grain refining, and its mechanism is reviewed and discussed. Also, the effect of grain refining of commercially pure aluminum by the addition of titanium, boron, vanadium, molybdenum, and zirconium is investigated. The effect of each of these elements on grain size, hardness and mechanical behavior is presented and discussed. It was found that the addition of any of these elements except zirconium resulted in enhancement of grain size, hardness and mechanical strength. An increase of 2.1 % in flow stress of Al grain refined by Ti+B was achieved by addition of 0.1 % V at 0.2 strain. (author)

  11. Corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AA7020-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, A., E-mail: arjun_venu@hotmail.com [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Srinath, J. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Rama Krishna, L. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005 (India); Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sharma, S.C.; Venkitakrishnan, P.V. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2016-04-13

    Alumina coating was deposited on AA7020 aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and nano-mechanical behaviors were examined by means of potentiodynamic polarization, slow strain rate test (SSRT) and nano-indentation tests. Potentiodynamic polarization (PP) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating and slow strain rate test (SSRT) was used for evaluating the environmental cracking resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution. The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) were obtained from each indentation as a function of the penetration depth across the coating cross section. The above results were compared with similar PEO coated aluminum and magnesium alloys. Results indicated that PEO coating on AA7020 alloy significantly improved the corrosion resistance. However the environmental cracking resistance was found to be only marginal. The hardness and elastic modulus values were found to be much higher when compared to the base metal and similar PEO coated 7075 aluminum alloys. The fabricated coating also exhibited good adhesive strength with the substrate similar to other PEO coated aluminum alloys reported in the literature.

  12. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  13. SIGNALING TO THE P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR THROUGH PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC STRESSES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2002-07-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is post-translational modified at {approx}18 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review the posttranslational modifications to p53 and the pathways that produce them in response to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.

  14. Perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin status result in differential photooxidative stress signaling and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Heum; Jung, Sunyo

    2018-02-12

    We examined differential photooxidative stress signaling and antioxidant responses in rice plants treated with norflurazon (NF) and oxyfluorfen (OF), which are inhibitors of carotenoid and porphyrin biosynthesis, respectively. Plants treated with OF markedly increased levels of cellular leakage and malondialdehyde, compared with NF-treated plants, showing that OF plants suffered greater oxidative damage with respect to membrane integrity. The enhanced production of H 2 O 2 in response to OF, but not NF, indicates the important role of H 2 O 2 in activation of photooxidative stress signaling in OF plants. In response to NF and OF, the increased levels of free salicylic acid as well as maintenance of the redox ratio of ascorbate and glutathione pools to a certain level are considered to be crucial factors in the protection against photooxidation. Plants treated with OF greatly up-regulated catalase (CAT) activity and Cat transcript levels, compared with NF-treated plants. Interestingly, NF plants showed no noticeable increase in oxidative metabolism, although they did show considerable increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase activities and transcript levels of APX, as in OF plants. Our results suggest that perturbations in carotenoid and porphyrin status by NF and OF can be sensed by differential photooxidative stress signaling, such as that involving H 2 O 2 , redox state of ascorbate and glutathione, and salicylic acid, which may be responsible for at least part of the induction of ROS-scavenging enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: 4-Hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sharad S; Singh, Sharda P; Singhal, Preeti; Horne, David; Singhal, Jyotsana; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2015-12-15

    4-Hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4HNE), one of the major end products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. It appears to modulate signaling processes in more than one way because it has been suggested to have a role in signaling for differentiation and proliferation. It has been known that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) can reduce lipid hydroperoxides through their Se-independent glutathione-peroxidase activity and that these enzymes can also detoxify LPO end-products such as 4HNE. Available evidence from earlier studies together with results of recent studies in our laboratories strongly suggests that LPO products, particularly hydroperoxides and 4HNE, are involved in the mechanisms of stress-mediated signaling and that it can be modulated by the alpha-class GSTs through the regulation of the intracellular concentrations of 4HNE. We demonstrate that 4HNE induced apoptosis in various cell lines is accompanied with c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activation. Cells exposed to mild, transient heat or oxidative stress acquire the capacity to exclude intracellular 4HNE at a faster rate by inducing GSTA4-4 which conjugates 4HNE to glutathione (GSH), and RLIP76 which mediates the ATP-dependent transport of the GSH-conjugate of 4HNE (GS-HNE). The balance between formation and exclusion promotes different cellular processes - higher concentrations of 4HNE promote apoptosis; whereas, lower concentrations promote proliferation. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the cellular effects of 4HNE, followed by a review of its GST-catalyzed detoxification, with an emphasis on the structural attributes that play an important role in the interactions with alpha-class GSTA4-4. Taken together, 4HNE is a key signaling molecule and that GSTs being determinants of its intracellular concentrations, can regulate stress-mediated signaling, are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Aluminum exposure for one hour decreases vascular reactivity in conductance and resistance arteries in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Patrícia Medeiros; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Kunz, Simone Noremberg; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Alonso, María Jesús; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl 3 : single dose of AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries. NO released was assessed in aorta and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, non-protein thiol levels, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant activities were investigated in plasma, aorta and/or mesenteric arteries. After one hour of AlCl 3 exposure serum Al levels attained 147.7 ± 25.0 μg/L. Al treatment: 1) did not affect blood pressure, heart rate and vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside; 2) decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses; 3) increased endothelial modulation of contractile responses, NO release and vascular ROS production from NADPH oxidase; 4) increased plasmatic, aortic and mesenteric malondialdehyde and ROS production, and 5) decreased antioxidant capacity and affected the antioxidant biomarkers non-protein thiol levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. Conclusion: AlCl 3 -acute exposure reduces vascular reactivity. This effect is associated with increased NO production, probably acting on K + channels, which seems to occur as a compensatory mechanism against Al-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that Al exerts toxic effects to the vascular system. - Highlights:

  17. Aluminum exposure for one hour decreases vascular reactivity in conductance and resistance arteries in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Patrícia Medeiros; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Kunz, Simone Noremberg [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Department of Physiological Sciences, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Alonso, María Jesús [Department of Basic Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Peçanha, Franck Maciel [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra, E-mail: giuliawp@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Aims: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl{sub 3}: single dose of AlCl{sub 3} (100 mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries. NO released was assessed in aorta and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, non-protein thiol levels, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant activities were investigated in plasma, aorta and/or mesenteric arteries. After one hour of AlCl{sub 3} exposure serum Al levels attained 147.7 ± 25.0 μg/L. Al treatment: 1) did not affect blood pressure, heart rate and vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside; 2) decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses; 3) increased endothelial modulation of contractile responses, NO release and vascular ROS production from NADPH oxidase; 4) increased plasmatic, aortic and mesenteric malondialdehyde and ROS production, and 5) decreased antioxidant capacity and affected the antioxidant biomarkers non-protein thiol levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. Conclusion: AlCl{sub 3}-acute exposure reduces vascular reactivity. This effect is associated with increased NO production, probably acting on K{sup +} channels, which seems to occur as a compensatory mechanism against Al-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that Al exerts toxic effects to the vascular

  18. Transcriptome responses to aluminum stress in roots of aspen (Populus tremula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ionic aluminum (mainly Al3+ is rhizotoxic and can be present in acid soils at concentrations high enough to inhibit root growth. Many forest tree species grow naturally in acid soils and often tolerate high concentrations of Al. Previously, we have shown that aspen (Populus tremula releases citrate and oxalate from roots in response to Al exposure. To obtain further insights into the root responses of aspen to Al, we investigated root gene expression at Al conditions that inhibit root growth. Results Treatment of the aspen roots with 500 μM Al induced a strong inhibition of root growth within 6 h of exposure time. The root growth subsequently recovered, reaching growth rates comparable to that of control plants. Changes in gene expression were determined after 6 h, 2 d, and 10 d of Al exposure. Replicated transcriptome analyses using the Affymetrix poplar genome array revealed a total of 175 significantly up-regulated and 69 down-regulated genes, of which 70% could be annotated based on Arabidopsis genome resources. Between 6 h and 2 d, the number of responsive genes strongly decreased from 202 to 26, and then the number of changes remained low. The responses after 6 h were characterized by genes involved in cell wall modification, ion transport, and oxidative stress. Two genes with prolonged induction were closely related to the Arabidopsis Al tolerance genes ALS3 (for Al sensitive 3 and MATE (for multidrug and toxin efflux protein, mediating citrate efflux. Patterns of expression in different plant organs and in response to Al indicated that the two aspen genes are homologs of the Arabidopsis ALS3 and MATE. Conclusion Exposure of aspen roots to Al results in a rapid inhibition of root growth and a large change in root gene expression. The subsequent root growth recovery and the concomitant reduction in the number of responsive genes presumably reflect the success of the roots in activating Al tolerance mechanisms. The

  19. Sinomenine attenuates renal fibrosis through Nrf2-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress and TGFβ signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Tian [School of Life Science & Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yin, Shasha; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yangyang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang, Fengjie, E-mail: hfj@cpu.edu.cn [School of Life Science & Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cao, Wangsen, E-mail: wangsencao@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Renal fibrosis is the common feature of chronic kidney disease and mainly mediated by TGFβ-associated pro-fibrogenic signaling, which causes excessive extracellular matrix accumulation and successive loss of kidney functions. Sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid derived from medicinal herb extensively used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and various inflammatory disorders, displays renal protective properties in experimental animals; however its pharmacological potency against renal fibrosis is not explored. In this study we report that SIN possesses strong anti-renal fibrosis functions in kidney cell and in mouse fibrotic kidney. SIN beneficially modulated the pro-fibrogenic protein expression in TGFβ-treated kidney cells and attenuated the renal fibrotic pathogenesis incurred by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), which correlated with its activation of Nrf2 signaling - the key defender against oxidative stress with anti-fibrotic potentials. Further investigation on its regulation of Nrf2 downstream events revealed that SIN significantly balanced oxidative stress via improving the expression and activity of anti-oxidant and detoxifying enzymes, and interrupted the pro-fibrogenic signaling of TGFβ/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin. Even more impressively SIN achieved its anti-fibrotic activities in an Nrf2-dependent manner, suggesting that SIN regulation of Nrf2-associated anti-fibrotic activities constitutes a critical component of SIN's renoprotective functions. Collectively our studies have demonstrated a novel anti-fibrotic property of SIN and its upstream events and provided a molecular basis for SIN's potential applications in treatment of renal fibrosis-associated kidney disorders. - Highlights: • Sinomenine has strong potency of inhibiting renal fibrosis in UUO mouse kidney. • Sinomenine attenuates the expression of profibrogenic proteins. • Sinomenine balances renal fibrosis-associated oxidative stress. • Sinomenine mitigates profibrogenic

  20. Overexpression of BdMATE Gene Improves Aluminum Tolerance in Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots. In sorghum, a membrane transporter gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family was identified and characterized as an aluminum-activated citrate transporter gene responsible for Al tolerance in this crop. Setaria viridis is an emerging model for C4 species and it is an important model to validate some genes for further C4 crops transformation, such as sugarcane, maize, and wheat. In the present work, Setaria viridis was used as a model plant to overexpress a newly identified MATE gene from Brachypodium distachyon (BdMATE, closely related to SbMATE, for aluminum tolerance assays. Transgenic S. viridis plants overexpressing a BdMATE presented an improved Al tolerance phenotype, characterized by sustained root growth and exclusion of aluminum from the root apex in transgenic plants, as confirmed by hematoxylin assay. In addition, transgenic plants showed higher root citrate exudation into the rhizosphere, suggesting that Al tolerance improvement in these plants could be related to the chelation of the metal by the organic acid anion. These results suggest that BdMATE gene can be used to transform C4 crops of economic importance with improved aluminum tolerance.

  1. Study on the influence of Sempervivum tectorum and Melatonin on Glutathion protective effects in rats blood exposed to Aluminum sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Gravila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract and melatonin on reduced glutathione (GSH protective effect in Wistar albino rat blood exposed to aluminium sulphate- Al2(SO43. The rats were divided in one control group (C and 7 experimental groups (E. The control group received tap water. The experimental rats were feed the following way: E1 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months; : E2 group – Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for 3 months; : E3 group – melatonin, daily, for 3 months; : E4 group – aluminum sulphate with Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for 3 months; : E5 group – aluminum sulphate with melatonin, daily, for 3 months; E6 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months, and thereafter with Sempervivum tectorum for 1 month; E7 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 month, and thereafter with melatonin for 1 month. This study showed that Aluminum toxicity induced lower GSH. The oxidative stress caused by aluminum, given individual, is more pronounced than in the case in which aluminum is administered simultaneously with Sempervivum tectorum or melatonin. Decreasing GSH value is very small if Sempervivum tectorum or melatonin is given for one month, three months after the administration of aluminum. Effect induced by melatonin is more favorable than that of Sempervivum tectorum.

  2. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  3. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  4. Evaluation the Mechanical Properties of Shot Peened TIG Welded Aluminum Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ameed Zain Al-Abideen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A tungsten inert gas (TIG welding is one of the most popular kinds of welding used to join metals mainly for aluminum alloys. However, many challenges may be met with this kind of joining process; these challenges arise from decay of mechanical properties of welded materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to enhancing the mechanical properties of TIG weld joint of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy by hardening the surfaces using shoot peening technique. To optimize the shoot peening process three times of exposure (5, 10, and 15 min. was used. All peened and unpeened, and welded and unwelded samples were characterized by metallographic test to indicate the phase transformation and modification in microstructure occurring during welding process. Tensile test and Vickers micro-hardness measurements were performed for all samples to investigate the effect of shoot peening on mechanical properties of welded aluminum. The results indicated a significant improvement in properties for peened welded and unwelded samples compared with those unpeened one. Also, the results showed that the tensile and microhardness properties were increased with increasing the time of exposure to 15 min. due to generation of compressive residual stresses at surface.

  5. Karrikin-KAI2 signalling provides Arabidopsis seeds with tolerance to abiotic stress and inhibits germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Waters, Mark T; Smith, Steven M

    2018-05-04

    The control of seed germination in response to environmental conditions is important for plant success. We investigated the role of the karrikin receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) in the response of Arabidopsis seeds to osmotic stress, salinity and high temperature. Germination of the kai2 mutant was examined in response to NaCl, mannitol and elevated temperature. The effect of karrikin on germination of wild-type seeds, hypocotyl elongation and the expression of karrikin-responsive genes was also examined in response to such stresses. The kai2 seeds germinated less readily than wild-type seeds and germination was more sensitive to inhibition by abiotic stress. Karrikin-induced KAI2 signalling stimulated germination of wild-type seeds under favourable conditions, but, surprisingly, inhibited germination in the presence of osmolytes or at elevated temperature. By contrast, GA stimulated germination of wild-type seeds and mutants under all conditions. Karrikin induced expression of DLK2 and KUF1 genes and inhibited hypocotyl elongation independently of osmotic stress. Under mild osmotic stress, karrikin enhanced expression of DREB2A, WRKY33 and ERF5 genes, but not ABA signalling genes. Thus, the karrikin-KAI2 signalling system can protect against abiotic stress, first by providing stress tolerance, and second by inhibiting germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3 signalling mediates stress-related alcohol preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Walker

    Full Text Available Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs, providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3 prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT and Rxfp3 knockout (KO (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol.

  7. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-induced behavioral dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-12-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction, whereas the mechanism underlying stress-mediated neurological complications is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) mediated neurological alterations are associated with impaired hippocampal insulin signaling or not, and studied the effect of quercetin in this scenario. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to 21day CUS, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. After 21days, behavioral functions were evaluated in terms of locomotor activity (Actophotometer), muscle coordination (Rota-rod), depression (Tail Suspension Test (TST), Forced Swim Test (FST)) and memory performance (Passive-avoidance step-down task (PASD)). Further, hippocampal insulin signaling was evaluated in terms of protein expression of insulin, insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) and neurogenesis was evaluated in terms of doublecortin (DCX) expression. 21day CUS significantly impaired locomotion and had no effect on muscle coordination. Stressed animals were depressed and showed markedly impaired memory functions. Quercetin treatment significantly improvement stress-mediated behavior dysfunction as indicated by improved locomotion, lesser immobility time and greater frequency of upward turning in TST and FST and increased transfer latency on the day 2 (short-term memory) and day 5 (long-term memory) in PASD test. We observed significantly higher IR expression and significantly lower GLUT-4 expression in the hippocampus of stressed animals, despite of nonsignificant difference in insulin levels. Further, chronic stress impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, as indicated by the significantly reduced levels of hippocampal DCX expression. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered insulin and IR expression and significantly enhanced GLUT-4 and DCX expression in the hippocampus, when compared to CUS. In

  8. Mechanism of Gene Expression of Arabidopsis Glutathione S-Transferase, AtGST1, and AtGST11 in Response to Aluminum Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Bunichi; Suzuki, Masakatsu; Motoda, Hirotoshi; Kawamura, Masako; Nakashima, Susumu; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    The gene expression of two Al-induced Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase genes, AtGST1 and AtGST11, was analyzed to investigate the mechanism underlying the response to Al stress. An approximately 1-kb DNA fragment of the 5′-upstream region of each gene was fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (pAtGST1::GUS and pAtGST11::GUS) and introduced into Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta. The constructed transgenic lines showed a time-dependent gene expression to a different degree in the root and/or leaf by Al stress. The pAtGST1::GUS gene was induced after a short Al treatment (maximum expression after a 2-h exposure), while the pAtGST11::GUS gene was induced by a longer Al treatment (approximately 8 h for maximum expression). Since the gene expression was observed in the leaf when only the root was exposed to Al stress, a signaling system between the root and shoot was suggested in Al stress. A GUS staining experiment using an adult transgenic line carrying the pAtGST11::GUS gene supported this suggestion. Furthermore, Al treatment simultaneously with various Ca depleted conditions in root region enhanced the gene expression of the pAtGST11::GUS in the shoot region. This result suggested that the degree of Al toxicity in the root reflects the gene response of pAtGST11::GUS in the shoot via the deduced signaling system. Both transgenic lines also showed an increase of GUS activity after cold stress, heat stress, metal toxicity, and oxidative damages, suggesting a common induction mechanism in response to the tested stresses including Al stress. PMID:15047894

  9. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  10. Insulin Combined with Glucose Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in Aluminum Chloride-Induced Dementia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Kutty, Nampurath Gopalan; Krishnadas, Nandakumar; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention using drugs against Alzheimer disease is curative clinically. At present, there are no reports on the curative role of insulin in chronic models of dementia. We evaluated the curative role of insulin and its combination with glucose in dementia. We also investigated the impact of treatments on blood glucose to correlate with cognitive deficit. Further, we analyzed the interaction of treatments with the cholinergic system and oxidative stress in memory centers (i.e., hippocampus and frontal cortex). The antidementia activity of insulin was assessed against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced dementia in rats. Behavioral parameters (Morris water maze test) along with biochemical parameters (Hippocampus and frontal cortex) such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to correlate cognitive function with cholinergic transmission and oxidative stress. Rats administered insulin and glucose showed improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze test. The combination corrected the diminished level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and GSH in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.Combined administration of insulin and glucose to aluminum-treated rats did not inhibit the aluminum action on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. No significant changes were observed in blood glucose levels between the treatment groups.

  11. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S + I - surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  12. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  13. Salinity stress induces the production of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones and regulates novel classes of responsive genes involved in signal transduction in Aquilaria sinensis calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Bowen; Liu, Xiao; Dong, Xianjuan; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Fan, Huiyan; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-05-26

    Agarwood, is a resinous portion derived from Aquilaria sinensis, has been widely used in traditional medicine and incense. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones are principal components responsible for the quality of agarwood. However, the molecular basis of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones biosynthesis and regulation remains almost unknown. Our research indicated that salt stress induced production of several of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in A. sinensis calli. Transcriptome analysis of A. sinensis calli treated with NaCl is required to further facilitate the multiple signal pathways in response to salt stress and to understand the mechanism of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones biosynthesis. Forty one 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones were identified from NaCl-treated A. sinensis calli. 93 041 unigenes with an average length of 1562 nt were generated from the control and salt-treated calli by Illmunina sequencing after assembly, and the unigenes were annotated by comparing with the public databases including NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO database. In total, 18 069 differentially expressed transcripts were identified by the transcriptome comparisons on the control calli and calli induced by 24 h or 120 h salinity stress. Numerous genes involved in signal transduction pathways including the genes responsible for hormone signal transduction, receptor-like kinases, MAPK cascades, Ca(2+) signal transduction, and transcription factors showed clear differences between the control calli and NaCl-treated calli. Furthermore, our data suggested that the genes annotated as chalcone synthases and O-methyltransferases may contribute to the biosynthesis of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones. Salinity stress could induce the production of 41 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in A. sinensis calli. We conducted the first deep-sequencing transcriptome profiling of A. sinensis under salt stress and observed a large number of differentially expressed genes in response to salinity stress. Moreover, salt stress induced

  14. Plastic Behavior and Fracture of Aluminum and Copper in Torsion Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, Jose Divo

    2007-01-01

    Present work investigates the plastic behavior, work hardening and the beginning of plastic instabilities, of cylindrical specimens deformed by high speed cold plastic torsion tests and at low speed tensile test. The tests were carried out in a laboratory torsion test equipment and an universal tensile test machine. The tensile tests were performed at room temperature in an universal testing machine at low strain rate of 0.034/s. Experimental torsion tests were carried out at constant angular speed that imposed a constant shear strain rate to the specimen. In the tests, the rotation speed were set to 62 rpm and 200 rpm which imposed high strain rates of about 2/s and 6.5/s respectively. The torsion tests performed at room temperature on annealed commercial pure copper and aluminum. Two types of torsion specimen for aluminum were used: solid and tubular. The solid aluminum specimen curves presented various points of maximum torque. The tubular copper specimens showed two points of maximum. Shear bands or shear strain localization at specimen were possibly the mechanism of maximum torque points formation. The work hardening coefficient n and the strain rate sensitivity parameter m were evaluated from the equivalent stress versus strain curve from tensile and torsion tests. The n-value remained constant whereas the m-value increased ten folds for aluminum specimens: from tensile test m= 0.027 and torsion test m= 0.27. However, the hardening curves were sigmoidal

  15. Repeated homotypic stress elevates 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels and enhances short-term endocannabinoid signaling at inhibitory synapses in basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sachin; Kingsley, Philip J; Mackie, Ken; Marnett, Lawrence J; Winder, Danny G

    2009-12-01

    Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for development and exacerbation of neuropsychiatric illness. Repeated stress causes biochemical adaptations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling that contribute to stress-response habituation, however, the synaptic correlates of these adaptations have not been examined. Here, we show that the synthetic enzyme for the eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase alpha, is heterogeneously expressed in the amygdala, and that levels of 2-AG and precursor DAGs are increased in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) after 10 days, but not 1 day, of restraint stress. In contrast, arachidonic acid was decreased after both 1 and 10 days of restraint stress. To examine the synaptic correlates of these alterations in 2-AG metabolism, we used whole-cell electrophysiology to determine the effects of restraint stress on depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in the BLA. A single restraint stress exposure did not alter DSI compared with control mice. However, after 10 days of restraint stress, DSI duration, but not magnitude, was significantly prolonged. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation with MAFP also prolonged DSI duration; the effects of repeated restraint stress and MAFP were mutually occlusive. These data indicate that exposure to repeated, but not acute, stress produces neuroadaptations that confer BLA neurons with an enhanced capacity to elevate 2-AG content and engage in 2-AG-mediated short-term retrograde synaptic signaling. We suggest stress-induced enhancement of eCB-mediated suppression of inhibitory transmission in the BLA could contribute to affective dysregulation associated with chronic stress.

  16. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

    2016-06-01

    Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  18. Toxicity and tolerance of aluminum in plants: tailoring plants to suit to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Hemalatha; Meriga, Balaji; Surapu, Varalakshmi; Gadi, Jogeswar; Sunita, M S L; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) stress is one of the serious limiting factors in plant productivity in acidic soils, which constitute about 50 % of the world's potentially arable lands and causes anywhere between 25 and 80 % of yield losses depending upon the species. The mechanism of Al toxicity and tolerance has been examined in plants, which is vital for crop improvement and enhanced food production in the future. Two mechanisms that facilitate Al tolerance in plants are Al exclusion from the roots and the ability to tolerate Al in the symplast or both. Although efforts have been made to unravel Al-resistant factors, many aspects remain unclear. Certain gene families such as MATE, ALMT, ASR, and ABC transporters have been implicated in some plants for resistance to Al which would enhance the opportunities for creating crop plants suitable to grow in acidic soils. Though QTLs have been identified related to Al-tolerance, no crop plant that is tolerant to Al has been evolved so far using breeding or molecular approaches. The remarkable changes that plants experience at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level under Al stress, the vast array of genes involved in Al toxicity-tolerance, the underlying signaling events and the holistic image of the molecular regulation, and the possibility of creating transgenics for Al tolerance are discussed in this review.

  19. Vapor corrosion of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel materials in storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of vapor environments on the corrosion of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (A1 SNF) has been performed. Aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel alloys have been exposed to environments of air/water vapor/ionizing radiation and characterized for applications to degradation mode analysis for interim dry and repository storage systems. Models have been developed to allow predictions of the corrosion response under conditions of unlimited corrodant species. Threshold levels of water vapor under which corrosion does not occur have been identified through tests under conditions of limited corrodant species. Coupons of aluminum 1100, 5052, and 6061, the US equivalent of cladding alloys used to manufacture foreign research reactor fuels, and several aluminum-uranium alloys (aluminum-10, 18, and 33 wt% uranium) were exposed to various controlled vapor environments in air within the following ranges of conditions: Temperature -- 80 to 200 C; Relative Humidity -- 0 to 100% using atmospheric condensate water and using added nitric acid to simulate radiolysis effects; and Gamma Radiation -- none and 1.8 x 10 6 R/hr. The results of this work are part of the body of information needed for understanding the degradation of the A1 SNF waste form in a direct disposal system in the federal repository. It will provide the basis for data input to the ongoing performance assessment and criticality safety analyses. Additional testing of uranium-aluminum fuel materials at uranium contents typical of high enriched and low enriched fuels is being initiated to provide the data needed for the development of empirical models

  20. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  1. Prevention of non-ductile fracture in 6061-T6 aluminum nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahr, G.T.

    1995-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee has approved rules for the use of 6061-T6 and 6061-T651 aluminum for the construction of Class 1 welded nuclear pressure vessels for temperatures not exceeding 149 C (300 F). Nuclear Code Case N-519 allows the use of this aluminum in the construction of low temperature research reactors such as the Advanced Neutron Source. The rules for protection against non-ductile fracture are discussed. The basis for a value of 25.3 MPa √m (23 ksi √in.) for the critical or reference stress intensity factor for use in the fracture analysis is presented. Requirements for consideration of the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness are discussed

  2. ER stress stimulates production of the key antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, by forming a previously unidentified intracellular S1P signaling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungho; Ikushiro, Hiroko; Seo, Ho Seong; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Jong Youl; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yano, Takato; Holleran, Walter M; Elias, Peter; Uchida, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-08

    We recently identified a previously unidentified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling mechanism that stimulates production of a key innate immune element, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), in mammalian cells exposed to external perturbations, such as UVB irradiation and other oxidative stressors that provoke subapoptotic levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, independent of the well-known vitamin D receptor-dependent mechanism. ER stress increases cellular ceramide and one of its distal metabolites, S1P, which activates NF-κB followed by C/EBPα activation, leading to CAMP production, but in a S1P receptor-independent fashion. We now show that S1P activates NF-κB through formation of a previously unidentified signaling complex, consisting of S1P, TRAF2, and RIP1 that further associates with three stress-responsive proteins; i.e., heat shock proteins (GRP94 and HSP90α) and IRE1α. S1P specifically interacts with the N-terminal domain of heat shock proteins. Because this ER stress-initiated mechanism is operative in both epithelial cells and macrophages, it appears to be a universal, highly conserved response, broadly protective against diverse external perturbations that lead to increased ER stress. Finally, these studies further illuminate how ER stress and S1P orchestrate critical stress-specific signals that regulate production of one protective response by stimulating production of the key innate immune element, CAMP.

  3. 40 CFR 63.5753 - How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? 63.5753... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5753 How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum...

  4. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C; McCall, S K; Ott, R T

    2017-09-05

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems for melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.

  5. Energy Stress Regulates Hippo-YAP Signaling Involving AMPK-Mediated Regulation of Angiomotin-like 1 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael DeRan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hippo signaling is a tumor-suppressor pathway involved in organ size control and tumorigenesis through the inhibition of YAP and TAZ. Here, we show that energy stress induces YAP cytoplasmic retention and S127 phosphorylation and inhibits YAP transcriptional activity and YAP-dependent transformation. These effects require the central metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and the upstream Hippo pathway components Lats1/Lats2 and angiomotin-like 1 (AMOTL1. Furthermore, we show that AMPK directly phosphorylates S793 of AMOTL1. AMPK activation stabilizes and increases AMOTL1 steady-state protein levels, contributing to YAP inhibition. The phosphorylation-deficient S793Ala mutant of AMOTL1 showed a shorter half-life and conferred resistance to energy-stress-induced YAP inhibition. Our findings link energy sensing to the Hippo-YAP pathway and suggest that YAP may integrate spatial (contact inhibition, mechanical, and metabolic signals to control cellular proliferation and survival.

  6. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  7. Effect of high-temperature pre-precipitation on microstructure and properties of 7055 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈康华; 黄兰萍

    2003-01-01

    The near-solvus pre-precipitation following higher temperature solution treatment was performed on 7055 aluminum alloy. The effect of the pre-precipitation on the microstructure, age hardening and stress corrosion cracking of 7055 alloy was investigated. The optical and transmission electron microscopy results show that the near-solvus pre-precipitation can be limited to grain boundary and enhance the discontinuity of grain boundary precipitates in the sequent age. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of aged 7055 alloys could be improved with non-deteriorated strength and plasticity via the pre-precipitation.

  8. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  9. Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction measurements of full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Lee, I-Fang; Xu, Ruqing; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure the full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors of low dislocation density regions within the submicrometer grain/subgrain structure of equal-channel angular pressed (ECAP) aluminum alloy AA1050 after 1, 2, and 8 passes using route B C . This is the first time that full tensors were measured in plastically deformed metals at this length scale. The maximum (most tensile or least compressive) principal elastic strain directions for the unloaded 1 pass sample for the grain/subgrain interiors align well with the pressing direction, and are more random for the 2 and 8 pass samples. The measurements reported here indicate that the local stresses and strains become increasingly isotropic (homogenized) with increasing ECAP passes using route B C . The average maximum (in magnitude) LRISs are −0.43 σ a for 1 pass, −0.44 σ a for 2 pass, and 0.14 σ a for the 8 pass sample. These LRISs are larger than those reported previously because those earlier measurements were unable to measure the full stress tensor. Significantly, the measured stresses are inconsistent with the two-component composite model.

  10. 3-dimensional numerical analysis of friction stir welding of copper and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleagha, M. E. Aalami; Hadi, Behzad; Shahbazi, Mohammad Ali [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    A time dependent Eulerian thermal/material flow model of friction stir welding was developed and applied to the dissimilar joining of pure copper and aluminum 1050-H16 alloy to investigate the maximum penetration of base metals. Thermal and material flow analysis was done with the assumed velocity field in the stir zone and considering a thermal source of energy obtained from the both Coulomb type of friction and the loss of shear stress in a non-Newtonian viscous behavior of metal flow. The developed model was used to estimate temperature gradient and penetration of material under three different conditions of tool offset and compared with the experimental results. The model shows that the penetration of the base metals is closely related to tool offset. In all of the cases, the metal fixed in the advancing side is copper. Nevertheless, when considering tool offset in the copper side and also when considering tool offset in the aluminum side, penetrating metals are copper and aluminum, respectively. Also, the model shows that the maximum temperature achieved in the base metals significantly depends on the tool offset.

  11. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  12. Mechanistic Basis for Plant Responses to Drought Stress : Regulatory Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in the rapid adaptation of plants to environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Accumulated ABA in plant cells promotes stomatal closure in guard cells and transcription of stress-tolerant genes. Our understanding of ABA responses dramatically improved by the discovery of both PYR/PYL/RCAR as a soluble ABA receptor and inhibitory complex of a protein phospatase PP2C and a protein kinase SnRK2. Moreover, several structural analyses of PYR/PYL/RCAR revealed the mechanistic basis for the regulatory mechanism of ABA signaling, which provides a rational framework for the design of alternative agonists in future.

  13. microRNAs involved in auxin signalling modulate male sterility under high-temperature stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuanhao; Ma, Yizan; Liu, Nian; Xu, Jiao; Hu, Qin; Li, Yaoyao; Wu, Yuanlong; Xie, Sai; Zhu, Longfu; Min, Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-09-01

    Male sterility caused by long-term high-temperature (HT) stress occurs widely in crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, play an important role in the plant response to various abiotic stresses. To dissect the working principle of miRNAs in male sterility under HT stress in cotton, a total of 112 known miRNAs, 270 novel miRNAs and 347 target genes were identified from anthers of HT-insensitive (84021) and HT-sensitive (H05) cotton cultivars under normal-temperature and HT conditions through small RNA and degradome sequencing. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments were used to validate the sequencing data. The results show that miR156 was suppressed by HT stress in both 84021 and H05; miR160 was suppressed in 84021 but induced in H05. Correspondingly, SPLs (target genes of miR156) were induced both in 84021 and H05; ARF10 and ARF17 (target genes of miR160) were induced in 84021 but suppressed in H05. Overexpressing miR160 increased cotton sensitivity to HT stress seen as anther indehiscence, associated with the suppression of ARF10 and ARF17 expression, thereby activating the auxin response that leads to anther indehiscence. Supporting this role for auxin, exogenous Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) leads to a stronger male sterility phenotype both in 84021 and H05 under HT stress. Cotton plants overexpressing miR157 suppressed the auxin signal, and also showed enhanced sensitivity to HT stress, with microspore abortion and anther indehiscence. Thus, we propose that the auxin signal, mediated by miRNAs, is essential for cotton anther fertility under HT stress. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Damage characterization and modeling of a 7075-T651 aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordon, J.B.; Horstemeyer, M.F.; Solanki, K.; Bernard, J.D.; Berry, J.T.; Williams, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the damage-induced anisotropy arising from material microstructure heterogeneities at two different length scales was characterized and modeled for a wrought aluminum alloy. Experiments were performed on a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy plate using sub-standard tensile specimens in three different orientations with respect to the rolling direction. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to characterize the stereology of the final damage state in terms of cracked and or debonded particles. A physically motivated internal state variable continuum model was used to predict fracture by incorporating material microstructural features. The continuum model showed good comparisons to the experimental data by capturing the damage-induced anisotropic material response. Estimations of the mechanical stress-strain response, material damage histories, and final failure were numerically calculated and experimentally validated thus demonstrating that the final failure state was strongly dependent on the constituent particle morphology.

  15. Activation of Akt is essential for the propagation of mitochondrial respiratory stress signaling and activation of the transcriptional coactivator heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Manti; Fang, Ji-Kang; Monks, Robert; Birnbaum, Morris J; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2010-10-15

    Mitochondrial respiratory stress (also called mitochondrial retrograde signaling) activates a Ca(2+)/calcineurin-mediated signal that culminates in transcription activation/repression of a large number of nuclear genes. This signal is propagated through activation of the regulatory proteins NFκB c-Rel/p50, C/EBPδ, CREB, and NFAT. Additionally, the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNPA2) functions as a coactivator in up-regulating the transcription of Cathepsin L, RyR1, and Glut-4, the target genes of stress signaling. Activation of IGF1R, which causes a metabolic switch to glycolysis, cell invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis, is a phenotypic hallmark of C2C12 myoblasts subjected to mitochondrial stress. In this study, we report that mitochondrial stress leads to increased expression, activation, and nuclear localization of Akt1. Mitochondrial respiratory stress also activates Akt1-gene expression, which involves hnRNPA2 as a coactivator, indicating a complex interdependency of these two factors. Using Akt1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Akt1 mRNA-silenced C2C12 cells, we show that Akt1-mediated phosphorylation is crucial for the activation and recruitment of hnRNPA2 to the enhanceosome complex. Akt1 mRNA silencing in mtDNA-depleted cells resulted in reversal of the invasive phenotype, accompanied by sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. These results show that Akt1 is an important regulator of the nuclear transcriptional response to mitochondrial stress.

  16. Springback of aluminum alloy brazing sheet in warm forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu Bin; George, Ryan; Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.; Winkler, Sooky

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum is increasing in the automotive industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, recyclability and corrosion resistance. However, aluminum is prone to significant springback due to its low elastic modulus coupled with its high strength. In this paper, a warm forming process is studied to improve the springback characteristics of 0.2 mm thick brazing sheet with an AA3003 core and AA4045 clad. Warm forming decreases springback by lowering the flow stress. The parts formed have complex features and geometries that are representative of automotive heat exchangers. The key objective is to utilize warm forming to control the springback to improve the part flatness which enables the use of harder temper material with improved strength. The experiments are performed by using heated dies at several different temperatures up to 350 °C and the blanks are pre-heated in the dies. The measured springback showed a reduction in curvature and improved flatness after forming at higher temperatures, particularly for the harder temper material conditions.

  17. Synthesis of Aluminum-Aluminum Nitride Nanocomposites by a Gas-Liquid Reaction II. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Cecilia; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2016-04-01

    In situ fabrication of the reinforcing particles in the metal matrix is an answer to many of the challenges encountered in manufacturing aluminum matrix nanocomposites. In this method, the nanoparticles are formed directly within the melt by means of a chemical reaction between a specially designed aluminum alloy and a gas. In this publication, we describe a process for synthesizing aluminum-aluminum nitride nanocomposites by reacting a nitrogen-containing gas with a molten aluminum-lithium alloy. We quantify the effect of the process parameters on the average particle size and particle distribution, as well as on the tendency of the particles to cluster in the alloy matrix, is quantified. Also in this publication, we present the measured room temperature and elevated temperature tensile properties of the nanocomposite material as well as its measured room temperature impact toughness.

  18. Regulation of the insulin-Akt signaling pathway and glycolysis during dehydration stress in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Tessier, Shannon N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2017-12-01

    Estivation is an adaptive stress response utilized by some amphibians during periods of drought in the summer season. In this study, we examine the regulation of the insulin signaling cascade and glycolysis pathway in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis during the dehydration stress induced state of estivation. We show that in the brain and heart of X. laevis, dehydration reduces the phosphorylation of the insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and this is followed by similar reductions in the phosphorylation of the Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. Interestingly, phosphorylation levels of IGF-1R and mTOR were not affected in the kidney, and phosphorylation levels of P70S6K and the ribosomal S6 protein were elevated during dehydration stress. Animals under estivation are also susceptible to periods of hypoxia, suggesting that glycolysis may also be affected. We observed that protein levels of many glycolytic enzymes remained unchanged during dehydration; however, the hypoxia response factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein was elevated by greater than twofold in the heart during dehydration. Overall, we provide evidence that shows that the insulin signaling pathway in X. laevis is regulated in a tissue-specific manner during dehydration stress and suggests an important role for this signaling cascade in mediating the estivation response.

  19. Perturbation of cellular signaling cascades modulated by ionizing radiation and environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling plays a central role in the regulation of several cell functions, which can be perturbed by different external stimuli, including environmental stress and ionizing radiation. The dysregulation of intra- and extracellular mechanisms may alter the correct behaviour of cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the activation of strongly interlaced intracellular signaling pathways, following the exposure to low- and medium-doses of X-rays, with a focus on the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory- and apoptotic-related responses. In particular, the temporal dynamics of the ERK1/2 and PKB/AKT pathways and their possible dose dependences were investigated. The presented results indicate a clear dose dependence of such pathways only at early time points, suggesting a fast response of the system to X-rays and the need for further studies at shorter times after exposures.

  20. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  4. Observation of gap inhomogeneity in superconducting aluminum tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmartin, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments using a novel technique to investigate spatial variations in the superconducting gap parameter of aluminum films driven out of equilibrium by intense tunnel injection are described. The technique features fine spatial and energy resolution of the gap parameter. The experiments employed a finely focused laser spot scanned across the surface of a double tunnel junction sandwich to produce a very weak electrical signal that was analyzed to determine the gap parameter as a function of position in the plane of the device. Technical aspects of the problem are emphasized, since a new technique is presented. An elaborate explanation of the origin and analysis of the laser induced signal is given, as well as a detailed description of the experimental apparatus. Very briefly, the principle of operation is that a large flux of quasiparticles is injected through the lower junction of the sandwich into the middle aluminum film, and the upper junction serves to detect the effects of that injection. The middle film takes on two or more values of the gap parameter under injection, presumably indicating spatial variation. The presence of a small laser spot on a given point on the device perturbs the potential on the detector junction very slightly. That perturbation is measured as a function of bias current to determine the gap parameter of the middle film at that point. The spot is scanned in a raster pattern to produce a picture of the space dependence of the gap parameter

  5. Investigation of Material Performance Degradation for High-Strength Aluminum Alloy Using Acoustic Emission Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Ai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural materials damages are always in the form of micro-defects or cracks. Traditional or conventional methods such as micro and macro examination, tensile, bend, impact and hardness tests can be used to detect the micro damage or defects. However, these tests are destructive in nature and not in real-time, thus a non-destructive and real-time monitoring and characterization of the material damage is needed. This study is focused on the application of a non-destructive and real-time acoustic emission (AE method to study material performance degradation of a high-strength aluminum alloy of high-speed train gearbox shell. By applying data relative analysis and interpretation of AE signals, the characteristic parameters of materials performance were achieved and the failure criteria of the characteristic parameters for the material tensile damage process were established. The results show that the AE method and signal analysis can be used to accomplish the non-destructive and real-time detection of the material performance degradation process of the high-strength aluminum alloy. This technique can be extended to other engineering materials.

  6. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing For Aluminum And Nickel Laterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.; Penfield, Glen T.; Grubbs, Donald K.

    1984-08-01

    The new LANDSAT-4,-5/Thematic Mapper (TM) land observational satellite remote sensing systems are providing dramatically new and important short wave infrared (SWIR) data, which combined with Landsat's Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) visible (VIS), very near infrared (VNIR), and thermal infrared (TI) data greatly improves regional geological mapping on a global scale. The TM will significantly improve clay, iron oxide, aluminum, and nickel laterite mapping capabilities over large areas of the world. It will also improve the ability to discriminate vegetation stress and species distribution associated with lateritic environments. Nickel laterites on Gag Island, Indonesia are defined by MSS imagery. Satellite imagery of the Cape Bougainville and the Darling Range, Australia bauxite deposits show the potential use of MSS data for exploration and mining applications. Examples of satellite syn-thetic aperture radar (SAR) for Jamaica document the use of this method for bauxite exploration. Thematic Mapper data will be combined with the French SPOT satellite's high spatial resolution and stereoscopic digital data, and U.S., Japanese, European, and Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to assist with logistics, mine development, and environ-mental concerns associated with aluminum and nickel lateritic deposits worldwide.

  8. BDE-47 induces oxidative stress, activates MAPK signaling pathway, and elevates de novo lipogenesis in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Kang, Hye-Min; Park, Jun Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Om, Ae-Son; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-12-01

    Brominated flame retardant, 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), has received grave concerns as a persistent organic pollutant, which is toxic to marine organisms, and a suspected link to endocrine abnormalities. Despite the wide distribution in the marine ecosystem, very little is known about the toxic impairments on marine organisms, particularly on invertebrates. Thus, we examined the adverse effects of BDE-47 on life history trait (development), oxidative markers, fatty acid composition, and lipid accumulation in response to BDE-47-induced stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Also, activation level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the gene expression profile of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathways were addressed. As a result, BDE-47 induced oxidative stress (e.g. reactive oxygen species, ROS) mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in MAPK pathways. Activated MAPK pathways, in turn, induced signal molecules that bind to the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for lipogenesis to EcR, SREBP, ChREBP promoters. Also, the stress stimulated the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a preparedness of the organism to adapt the observed stress, which could be correlated with the elongase and desaturase gene (e.g. ELO3, Δ5-DES, Δ9-DES) expressions, and then extended to the delayed early post-embryonic development and increased accumulation of lipid droplets in P. nana. This study will provide a better understanding of how BDE-47 effects on marine invertebrates particularly on the copepods, an important link in the marine food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum (Al) cation Al(3) (+) is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al(3) (+) conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al(3) (+) from root cells (exclusion mechanisms) and those that enable plants to tolerate Al(3) (+) once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms). The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al(3) (+) exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al(3) (+) adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  10. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  11. The Parkinson’s disease-associated protein α-synuclein disrupts stress signaling – a possible implication for methamphetamine use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxiao Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The human neuronal protein α-synuclein (α-syn has been linked by a plethora of studies as a causative factor in sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD. To speed the pace of discovery about the biology and pathobiology of α-syn, organisms such as yeast, worms, and flies have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which elevated levels of α-syn are toxic to cells and to screen for drugs and genes that suppress this toxicity. We recently reported [Wang et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.(2012 109: 16119–16124] that human α-syn, at high expression levels, disrupts stress-activated signal transduction pathways in both yeast and human neuroblastoma cells. Disruption of these signaling pathways ultimately leads to vulnerability to stress and to cell death. Here we discuss how the disruption of cell signaling by α-syn may have relevance to the parkinsonism that is associated with the abuse of the drug methamphetamine (meth.

  12. The development of a quality prediction system for aluminum laser welding to measure plasma intensity using photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ji Young [Technical Research Center, Hyundai Steel Company, Dangjin (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Yong Ho [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando (United States); Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Lightweight metals have been used to manufacture the body panels of cars to reduce the weight of car bodies. Typically, aluminum sheets are welded together, with a focus on weld quality assurance. A weld quality prediction system for the laser welding of aluminum was developed in this research to maximize welding production. The behavior of the plasma was also analyzed, dependent on various welding conditions. The light intensity of the plasma was altered with heat input and wire feed rate conditions, and the strength of the weld and sensor signals correlated closely for this heat input condition. Using these characteristics, a new algorithm and program were developed to evaluate the weld quality. The design involves a combinatory algorithm using a neural network model for the prediction of tensile strength from measured signals and a fuzzy multi-feature pattern recognition algorithm for the weld quality classification to improve predictability of the system.

  13. The development of a quality prediction system for aluminum laser welding to measure plasma intensity using photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ji Young; Sohn, Yong Ho; Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight metals have been used to manufacture the body panels of cars to reduce the weight of car bodies. Typically, aluminum sheets are welded together, with a focus on weld quality assurance. A weld quality prediction system for the laser welding of aluminum was developed in this research to maximize welding production. The behavior of the plasma was also analyzed, dependent on various welding conditions. The light intensity of the plasma was altered with heat input and wire feed rate conditions, and the strength of the weld and sensor signals correlated closely for this heat input condition. Using these characteristics, a new algorithm and program were developed to evaluate the weld quality. The design involves a combinatory algorithm using a neural network model for the prediction of tensile strength from measured signals and a fuzzy multi-feature pattern recognition algorithm for the weld quality classification to improve predictability of the system

  14. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  15. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  17. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ohashi, H; Nagai, H; Kakimi, S; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, Y; Ishii, K

    1993-12-31

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer`s disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer`s disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author).

  18. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Experimental Investigation and FE Analysis on Constitutive Relationship of High Strength Aluminum Alloy under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of 17 high strength aluminum alloy (7A04 specimens were conducted to investigate the constitutive relationship under cyclic loading. The monotonic behavior and hysteretic behavior were focused on and the fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM to investigate the microfailure modes. Based on Ramberg-Osgood model, stress-strain skeleton curves under cyclic loading were fitted. Parameters of combined hardening model including isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening were calibrated from test data according to Chaboche model. The cyclic tests were simulated in finite element software ABAQUS. The test results show that 7A04 aluminum alloy has obvious nonlinearity and ultra-high strength which is over 600 MPa, however, with relatively poor ductility. In the cyclic loading tests, 7A04 aluminum alloy showed cyclic hardening behavior and when the compressive strain was larger than 1%, the stiffness degradation and strength degradation occurred. The simulated curves derived by FE model fitted well with experimental curves which indicates that the parameters of this combined model can be used in accurate calculation of 7A04 high strength aluminum structures under cyclic loading.

  20. Inclusion Detection in Aluminum Alloys Via Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2018-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown promise as a technique to quickly determine molten metal chemistry in real time. Because of its characteristics, LIBS could also be used as a technique to sense for unwanted inclusions and impurities. Simulated Al2O3 inclusions were added to molten aluminum via a metal-matrix composite. LIBS was performed in situ to determine whether particles could be detected. Outlier analysis on oxygen signal was performed on LIBS data and compared to oxide volume fraction measured through metallography. It was determined that LIBS could differentiate between melts with different amounts of inclusions by monitoring the fluctuations in signal for elements of interest. LIBS shows promise as an enabling tool for monitoring metal cleanliness.

  1. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  2. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  3. [Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Chang, Cuilan; Guo, Qilei; Cao, Hong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-04-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied. The pigments contained in the color lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps: dissolve the color lakes in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, adjust the pH of the solution to 5.0, then mix it with the solution of EDTA x 2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pigments from the solution, and finally elute the pigments with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The CZE conditions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were: 48.50 cm of a fused silica capillary with 40.00 cm effective length and 50 microm i. d., the temperature controlled at 20.0 degrees C, 29.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.015 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were: the same capillary and temperature, 25.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.025 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0.26 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, and the linear ranges were 0.53-1.3 x 10(2) mg/L and 0.54-1.4 x 10(2) mg/L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. The RSDs were 4.3% and 5.7% (run to run, n = 6), 5.6% and 6.0% (day to day, n = 6) for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method analyzing color lakes in foods.

  4. HSP72 protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of IRE1alpha-XBP1 signaling through a physical interaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardial ischemia. Hsp72 inhibits several features of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp72 expression inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis are not clearly understood. Here we show that Hsp72 enhances cell survival under ER stress conditions. The UPR signals through the sensor IRE1alpha, which controls the splicing of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1. We show that Hsp72 enhances XBP1 mRNA splicing and expression of its target genes, associated with attenuated apoptosis under ER stress conditions. Inhibition of XBP1 mRNA splicing either by dominant negative IRE1alpha or by knocking down XBP1 specifically abrogated the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis by Hsp72. Regulation of the UPR was associated with the formation of a stable protein complex between Hsp72 and the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha. Finally, Hsp72 enhanced the RNase activity of recombinant IRE1alpha in vitro, suggesting a direct regulation. Our data show that binding of Hsp72 to IRE1alpha enhances IRE1alpha\\/XBP1 signaling at the ER and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results provide a physical connection between cytosolic chaperones and the ER stress response.

  5. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  6. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.; Gillam, J.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved

  7. EFFECT OF STRAIN HARDENING ON FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE IN ALUMINUM ALLOY UNDER CONSTANT AMPLITUDE WITH SINGLE OVERLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirpesh Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study effect of strain hardening on crack closure has been examined with the help of experiments and finite element method on the side edge notched specimen of five different Aluminum alloy (3003 Al, 5052 Al, 6061 T6, 6063 T6, 6351 in mode I under constant amplitude fatigue loading with single overload using Abaqus® 6.10 which is very well accepted FEM application in research. Extended Finite Element Method Module has been used to determine effective stress intensity factor at the crack tip while propagation takes place. FEM results have given good agreement with experimental results. Regression analysis has also been done with SPSS® 16 and dependency of strain hardening coefficient on crack closure has analyzed. A generalized empirical formula has been developed based on strain hardening to calculate effective stress intensity range ratio and a modified Paris law has also been formulated for these aluminum alloy.

  8. Thermal stress analysis of the SLAC moveable mask. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) can impinge on the walls of tangential divertor channels. A moveable mask made of 6061-T6 aluminum is installed in the channel to limit wall heating. The mask is cooled with water flowing axially at 30 0 C. Beam strikes on the mask cause highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the moveable mask operating at a peak temperature of 88 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 19% of the yield of 6061-T6 aluminum

  9. Honest signaling and oxidative stress: the special case of avian acoustic communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eCasagrande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs or constraints determined by the oxidative status of an individual can assure the honesty of visual signals, such as sexually selected color ornaments. However, acoustic communication has been largely overlooked in this respect. Here, we describe the few available studies that have considered the role of oxidative status in mediating vocal behavior in adult and nestling birds. Further, we discuss the theoretical principles of how the honesty of avian acoustic signals may be maintained by an organism’s oxidative status. We here distinguish between studies that considered songs and begging calls as indicators of oxidative status and studies where vocalizations were assumed to be the source of oxidative costs. We outline experimental and methodological issues related to the study of bird vocalizations and oxidative stress and describe opportunities for future work in this field of research. Investigating the interactions between acoustic signals and redox state may help address some unresolved questions in avian vocalization, thereby increasing our understanding of the evolutionary pressures shaping animal communication. Finally, we argue that it will be important to extend this line of research beyond birds and include other taxa as well.

  10. Involvement of glucocorticoid-mediated Zn2+ signaling in attenuation of hippocampal CA1 LTP by acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Takada, Shunsuke; Ide, Kazuki; Oku, Naoto

    2012-03-01

    Glucocorticoid-glutamatergic interactions have been proposed as a potential model to explain stress-mediated impairment of cognition. However, it is unknown whether glucocorticoid-zincergic interactions are involved in this impairment. Histochemically reactive zinc (Zn(2+)) is co-released with glutamate from zincergic neurons. In the present study, involvement of synaptic Zn(2+) in stress-induced attenuation of CA1 LTP was examined in hippocampal slices from young rats after exposure to tail suspension stress for 30s, which significantly increased serum corticosterone. Stress-induced attenuation of CA1 LTP was ameliorated by administration of clioquinol, a membrane permeable zinc chelator, to rats prior to exposure to stress, implying that the reduction of synaptic Zn(2+) by clioquinol participates in this amelioration. To pursue the involvement of corticosterone-mediated Zn(2+) signal in the attenuated CA1 LTP by stress, dynamics of synaptic Zn(2+) was checked in hippocampal slices exposed to corticosterone. Corticosterone increased extracellular Zn(2+) levels measured with ZnAF-2 dose-dependently, as well as the intracellular Ca(2+) levels measured with calcium orange AM, suggesting that corticosterone excites zincergic neurons in the hippocampus and increases Zn(2+) release from the neuron terminals. Intracellular Zn(2+) levels measured with ZnAF-2DA were also increased dose-dependently, but not in the coexistence of CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) levels is increased by the influx of extracellular Zn(2+). Furthermore, corticosterone-induced attenuation of CA1 LTP was abolished in the coexistence of CaEDTA. The present study suggests that corticosterone-mediated increase in postsynaptic Zn(2+) signal in the cytosolic compartment is involved in the attenuation of CA1 LTP after exposure to acute stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. AMP Kinase Activation Alters Oxidant-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Modulating Cell Signaling and Microtubule Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Koromilas, Antonis E; Stochaj, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells assemble stress granules (SGs) when translation initiation is inhibited. Different cell signaling pathways regulate SG production. Particularly relevant to this process is 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a stress sensor and is transiently activated by adverse physiologic conditions. Here, we dissected the role of AMPK for oxidant-induced SG formation. Our studies identified multiple steps of de novo SG assembly that are controlled by the kinase. Single-cell analyses demonstrated that pharmacological AMPK activation prior to stress exposure changed SG properties, because the granules became more abundant and smaller in size. These altered SG characteristics correlated with specific changes in cell survival, cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, and the abundance of translation initiation factors. Specifically, AMPK activation increased stress-induced eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α phosphorylation and reduced the concentration of eIF4F complex subunits eIF4G and eIF4E. At the same time, the abundance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was diminished. This loss of HDAC6 was accompanied by increased acetylation of α-tubulin on Lys40. Pharmacological studies further confirmed this novel AMPK-HDAC6 interplay and its importance for SG biology. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of SG formation. We propose that AMPK activation stimulates oxidant-induced SG formation but limits their fusion into larger granules. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Potential protective effects of extra virgin olive oil on the hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure of adult rats to acrylamide and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil has been shown to be effective against oxidative stress associated diseases. In addition to the high quantities of oleic acid, it is rich in phenolic compounds. We investigated the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) against the hepatotoxicity induced by both aluminum and acrylamide. Animals were divided into four groups containing six rats each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received drinking water containing aluminum chloride (50 mg kg(-1) body weight) and acrylamide (20 mg kg(-1) body weight) by gavage; group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same ways as well as EVOO (300 μl) by gavage; group 4 received only EVOO by gavage for 3 weeks. The rats exposed to both aluminum and acrylamide exhibited oxidative stress observed by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT and GPx were decreased, while SOD activity was increased. The liver metallothioneins, such as MT1 and MT2 genes expression, were also increased. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters mentioned above. The plasma transaminases (AST and ALT), LDH activities, glucose and albumin levels, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG decreased. The co-administration of EVOO to acrylamide and aluminum treated rats restored their hepatic markers to near-normal values. Liver histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. These results suggest that extra virgin olive oil, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role in decreasing the liver damage induced by both aluminum and acrylamide.

  13. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  14. EFFECT OF CONTROLLED QUENCHING ON THE AGING OF 2024 ALUMINUM ALLOY CONTAINING BORON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khatami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C. Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C and conventional quenching (T6 were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility

  15. Cantharidin Induced Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis via the JNK-Regulated Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chuan Su

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a subtype of head and neck cancer which represents 2.65% of all human malignancies. Most of oral cancer is histopathologically diagnosed as oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. OSCC is characterized by a high degree of local invasion and a high rate of metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. How to prevention and treatment of OSCC is important and imperative. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of cantharidin, an active compound isolated from blister beetles, on OSCC in vitro. Results showed that cantharidin significantly decreased cell viability in human tongue squamous carcinoma-derived SAS, CAL-27, and SCC-4 cell lines. The further mechanistic studies were carried out in SAS cells. Cantharidin also significantly increased apoptosis-related signals, including caspase-9, caspase-7 and caspase-3 proteins. Besides, cantharidin decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP and induced cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF release. Cantharidin also increased Bax, Bid, and Bak protein expressions and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Cantharidin could also increase the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signals, including the expressions of phosphorylated eIF-2α and CHOP, but not Grp78 and Grp94. Furthermore, cantharidin reduced pro-caspase-12 protein expression. In signals of mitogen-activated protein kinases, cantharidin increased the phosphorylation of JNK, but not ERK and p38. Transfection of shRNA-JNK to OSCC cells effectively reversed the cantharidin-induced cell apoptotic signals, including the mitochondrial and ER stress-related signaling molecules. Taken together, these findings suggest that cantharidin induces apoptosis in OSCC cells via the JNK-regulated mitochondria and ER stress-related signaling pathways.

  16. Effect of the aluminum flow pattern on the bonding of aluminum to oxidized Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Lambert, J.P.

    1965-04-01

    The bonds produced when hot aluminum is allowed to flow smoothly from an extrusion die to the oxidized surface of a heated tube of Zircaloy-2 are consistently inferior to those produced with back-extruded flow. The difference is believed to be due to the reduction in, or elimination of, the oxide layer on the aluminum that comes in contact with the surface of the Zircaloy-2. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 1965. (author)

  17. Automatic generation of 2D micromechanical finite element model of silicon–carbide/aluminum metal matrix composites: Effects of the boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element (FE) simulations of the deformation and damage evolution of Silicon–Carbide (SiC) particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite including interphase are carried out for different microstructures and particle volume fractions of the composites. A program is developed...... for the automatic generation of 2D micromechanical FE-models with randomly distributed SiC particles. In order to simulate the damage process in aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles, a damage parameter based on the stress triaxial indicator and the maximum principal stress criterion based elastic brittle damage...... model are developed within Abaqus/Standard Subroutine USDFLD, respectively. An Abaqus/Standard Subroutine MPC, which allows defining multi-point constraints, is developed to realize the symmetric boundary condition (SBC) and periodic boundary condition (PBC). A series of computational experiments...

  18. Dietary gossypol suppressed postprandial TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fuyun; Jiang, Haowen; Man, Mingsan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2017-01-01

    Gossypol is known to be a polyphenolic compound toxic to animals. However, its molecular targets are far from fully characterized. To evaluate the physiological and molecular effects of gossypol, we chose turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish, as our model species. Juvenile turbots (7.83 ± 0.02 g) were fed diets containing gradient levels of gossypol at 0 (G0), 600 (G1), and 1,200 (G2) mg/kg diets for 11 wk. After the feeding trial, fish growth, body protein, and fat contents were significantly reduced in the G2 group compared with those of the G0 group (P TOR) signaling and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in both the feeding experiment and cell cultures. Our results demonstrated that gossypol inhibited TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways both in vivo and in vitro, thus providing new mechanism of action of gossypol in nutritional physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  20. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far

  1. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  2. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  3. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  4. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low...... and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.......Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure. Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA...

  5. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    microns can obliterate small features. The nanoimprint lithography community extensively uses functional monolayer coatings on silicon/SiO2 lithographic stamps [7–11]. This treatment dramatically reduces stiction, and improves yield and quality of replicated nanostructures. Here we report on a fluorinated...... trichloro-silane based coating deposited on aluminum or its alloys by molecular vapor deposition. We have tested the stability of this coating in challenging conditions of injection molding, an environment with high shear stress from the molten polymer, pressures up to 200 MPa, temperatures up to 250 ◦C...

  6. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  7. HSP72 protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of IRE1alpha-XBP1 signaling through a physical interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR. Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardial ischemia. Hsp72 inhibits several features of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp72 expression inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis are not clearly understood. Here we show that Hsp72 enhances cell survival under ER stress conditions. The UPR signals through the sensor IRE1alpha, which controls the splicing of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1. We show that Hsp72 enhances XBP1 mRNA splicing and expression of its target genes, associated with attenuated apoptosis under ER stress conditions. Inhibition of XBP1 mRNA splicing either by dominant negative IRE1alpha or by knocking down XBP1 specifically abrogated the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis by Hsp72. Regulation of the UPR was associated with the formation of a stable protein complex between Hsp72 and the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha. Finally, Hsp72 enhanced the RNase activity of recombinant IRE1alpha in vitro, suggesting a direct regulation. Our data show that binding of Hsp72 to IRE1alpha enhances IRE1alpha/XBP1 signaling at the ER and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results provide a physical connection between cytosolic chaperones and the ER stress response.

  8. Proposal of 99.99%-aluminum/7N01-Aluminum clad beam tube for high energy booster of Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Hajime

    1994-01-01

    Proposal of 99.99% pure aluminum/7N01 aluminum alloy clad beam tube for high energy booster in Superconducting Super Collider is described. This aluminum clad beam tube has many good performances, but a eddy current effect is large in superconducting magnet quench collapse. The quench test result for aluminum clad beam tube is basically no problem against magnet quench collapse. (author)

  9. Cre-mediated stress affects sirtuin expression levels, peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, antioxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    Full Text Available Cre-mediated excision of loxP sites is widely used in mice to manipulate gene function in a tissue-specific manner. To analyze phenotypic alterations related to Cre-expression, we have used AMH-Cre-transgenic mice as a model system. Different Cre expression levels were obtained by investigation of C57BL/6J wild type as well as heterozygous and homozygous AMH-Cre-mice. Our results indicate that Cre-expression itself in Sertoli cells already has led to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE lysine adducts, inducing PPARα/γ, peroxisome proliferation and alterations of peroxisome biogenesis (PEX5, PEX13 and PEX14 as well as metabolic proteins (ABCD1, ABCD3, MFP1, thiolase B, catalase. In addition to the strong catalase increase, a NRF2- and FOXO3-mediated antioxidative response (HMOX1 of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial SOD2 and a NF-κB activation were noted. TGFβ1 and proinflammatory cytokines like IL1, IL6 and TNFα were upregulated and stress-related signaling pathways were induced. Sertoli cell mRNA-microarray analysis revealed an increase of TNFR2-signaling components. 53BP1 recruitment and expression levels for DNA repair genes as well as for p53 were elevated and the ones for related sirtuin deacetylases affected (SIRT 1, 3-7 in Sertoli cells. Under chronic Cre-mediated DNA damage conditions a strong downregulation of Sirt1 was observed, suggesting that the decrease of this important coordinator between DNA repair and metabolic signaling might induce the repression release of major transcription factors regulating metabolic and cytokine-mediated stress pathways. Indeed, caspase-3 was activated and increased germ cell apoptosis was observed, suggesting paracrine effects. In conclusion, the observed wide stress-induced effects and metabolic alterations suggest that it is essential to use the correct control animals (Cre/Wt with matched Cre expression levels to differentiate between Cre-mediated and specific gene-knock out

  10. Cre-Mediated Stress Affects Sirtuin Expression Levels, Peroxisome Biogenesis and Metabolism, Antioxidant and Proinflammatory Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Karnati, Srikanth; Qian, Guofeng; Nenicu, Anca; Fan, Wei; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Höland, Anita; Hossain, Hamid; Guillou, Florian; Lüers, Georg H.; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    Cre-mediated excision of loxP sites is widely used in mice to manipulate gene function in a tissue-specific manner. To analyze phenotypic alterations related to Cre-expression, we have used AMH-Cre-transgenic mice as a model system. Different Cre expression levels were obtained by investigation of C57BL/6J wild type as well as heterozygous and homozygous AMH-Cre-mice. Our results indicate that Cre-expression itself in Sertoli cells already has led to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE lysine adducts), inducing PPARα/γ, peroxisome proliferation and alterations of peroxisome biogenesis (PEX5, PEX13 and PEX14) as well as metabolic proteins (ABCD1, ABCD3, MFP1, thiolase B, catalase). In addition to the strong catalase increase, a NRF2- and FOXO3-mediated antioxidative response (HMOX1 of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial SOD2) and a NF-κB activation were noted. TGFβ1 and proinflammatory cytokines like IL1, IL6 and TNFα were upregulated and stress-related signaling pathways were induced. Sertoli cell mRNA-microarray analysis revealed an increase of TNFR2-signaling components. 53BP1 recruitment and expression levels for DNA repair genes as well as for p53 were elevated and the ones for related sirtuin deacetylases affected (SIRT 1, 3-7) in Sertoli cells. Under chronic Cre-mediated DNA damage conditions a strong downregulation of Sirt1 was observed, suggesting that the decrease of this important coordinator between DNA repair and metabolic signaling might induce the repression release of major transcription factors regulating metabolic and cytokine-mediated stress pathways. Indeed, caspase-3 was activated and increased germ cell apoptosis was observed, suggesting paracrine effects. In conclusion, the observed wide stress-induced effects and metabolic alterations suggest that it is essential to use the correct control animals (Cre/Wt) with matched Cre expression levels to differentiate between Cre-mediated and specific gene-knock out

  11. Mucin 4 Gene Silencing Reduces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Through the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway in Nephrolithiasis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephrolithiasis plagues a great number of patients all over the world. Increasing evidence shows that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC dysfunction and attrition are central to the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Mucin 4 (MUC4 is reported as an activator of ERK signaling pathway in epithelial cells. In this study, using rat models of calcium oxalate (CaOx nephrolithiasis, the present study aims to define the roles of MUC4 and ERK signaling pathway as contributors to oxidative stress and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Methods: Data sets of nephrolithiasis were searched using GEO database and a heat flow map was drawn. Then MUC4 function was predicted. Wistar rats were prepared for the purpose of model establishment of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. In order to assess the detailed regulatory mechanism of MUC4 silencing on the ERK signaling pathway and RTEC, we used recombinant plasmid to downregulate MUC4 expression in Wistar rat-based models. Samples from rat urine, serum and kidney tissues were reviewed to identify oxalic acid and calcium contents, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels, calcium crystal formation in renal tubules and MUC4 positive expression rate. Finally, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA were employed to access oxidative stress state and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Results: Initially, MUC4 was found to have an influence on the process of nephrolithiasis. MUC4 was upregulated in the CaOx nephrolithiasis model rats. We proved that the silencing of MUC4 triggered the inactivation of ERK signaling pathway. Following the silencing of MUC4 or the inhibition of ERK signaling pathway, the oxalic acid and calcium contents in rat urine, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels in rat serum, p-ERK1/2, MCP-1 and OPN expressions in RTEC and H2O2 and MDA levels in the cultured supernatant were downregulated, but the GSH

  12. Fluoxetine increases the activity of the ERK-CREB signal system and alleviates the depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoli; Lin, Wenjuan; Li, Junfa; Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Donglin; Sun, Meng

    2008-08-01

    Our previous research indicates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) signal system may be involved in the molecular mechanism of depression. The present study further investigated the effect of antidepressant fluoxetine on the ERK-CREB signal system and the depressive-like behaviors in rats. Fluoxetine was administrated to either naive rats or stressed rats for 21 days. The results showed that chronic forced swim stress induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased the levels of P-ERK2, P-CREB, ERK1/2 and CREB in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Fluoxetine alleviated the depressive-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in stressed rats. Fluoxetine also exerted mood-elevating effect and increased the levels of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in naive rats. These results suggest that the ERK-CREB signal system may be the targets of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine and participate in the neuronal mechanism of depression.

  13. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  14. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  15. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  16. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  17. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  18. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy B Iser

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan.We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants.These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  19. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wendy B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2007-11-28

    Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS) are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan. We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  20. Altered ERK1/2 Signaling in the Brain of Learned Helpless Rats: Relevance in Vulnerability to Developing Stress-Induced Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2- (ERK1/2- mediated cellular signaling plays a major role in synaptic and structural plasticity. Although ERK1/2 signaling has been shown to be involved in stress and depression, whether vulnerability to develop depression is associated with abnormalities in ERK1/2 signaling is not clearly known. The present study examined ERK1/2 signaling in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats that showed vulnerability (learned helplessness, (LH or resiliency (non-learned helplessness, (non-LH to developing stress-induced depression. In frontal cortex and hippocampus of LH rats, we found that mRNA and protein expressions of ERK1 and ERK2 were significantly reduced, which was associated with their reduced activation and phosphorylation in cytosolic and nuclear fractions, where ERK1 and ERK2 target their substrates. In addition, ERK1/2-mediated catalytic activities and phosphorylation of downstream substrates RSK1 (cytosolic and nuclear and MSK1 (nuclear were also lower in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of LH rats without any change in their mRNA or protein expression. None of these changes were evident in non-LH rats. Our study indicates that ERK1/2 signaling is differentially regulated in LH and non-LH rats and suggests that abnormalities in ERK1/2 signaling may be crucial in the vulnerability to developing depression.

  1. Evaluation of anisotropic effective stress-strain criteria for the biaxial yield and flow of 2024 aluminum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, M.G.; Hecker, S.S.; Bourcier, R.

    1983-01-01

    2024 aluminum tubes, heat treated to a T6 and T8 temper, were tested in combinations of tension-internal pressure and tension-torsion loading. Yield loci and flow behavior were determined for both modes of loading and compared to theoretical predictions. Both tempers of 2024 aluminum exhibited crystallographic textures and anisotropic yield and flow. Hill's quadratic yield criterion and the associated flow rule under-estimate balanced biaxial yield and flow, which is consistent with hydraulic bulge data on other face-centered cubic metals. Hill's nonquadratic criterion, which adds one additional parameter, and Bassani's criterion, which adds two parameters, predict the anisotropic yield behavior much more accurately. Predictions of the complete flow behavior, including strain paths, with these anisotropic criteria could be improved markedly by including provisions for planar anisotropy

  2. Effects of Slip Planes on Stresses in MICE Coupling Solenoid Coil Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, XingLong; Cheng, Y.; Green, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The MICE superconducting coupling solenoid magnet is made from copper matrix Nb-Ti conductors with inner radius of 750 mm, length of 285 mm and thickness of 110.4 mm at room temperature. The coil is to be wound on a mandrel made of aluminum. The peak magnetic field on the conductor is about 7.3 T when fully charged at 210 A. High magnetic field and large size make the stress inside the coupling coil assembly relatively high during cool down and full energizing. The shear stress between coil winding and aluminum casing may cause premature quench. To avoid quench potential induced by stress, slip planes were designed for the coil assembly. In this paper, FE models with and without slip planes for it have been developed to simulate the stresses during the process including winding, cooling down and charging. The stress distribution in the coil assembly with and without slip planes was investigated. The results show that slip planes with low friction coefficients can improve the stress condition in the coil, especially reduce the shear stress largely so that improve the stability.

  3. Modification of mechanical properties of single crystal aluminum oxide by ion beam induced structural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, W.; Nowak, R.; Horino, Y.; Baba, K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of ceramics is essentially determined by their surface qualities. As a surface modification technique, ion implantation provides the possibility to modify the mechanical properties of ceramics. Highly energetic ions are implanted into the near-surface region of a material and modify its composition and structure. Ions of aluminum, oxygen, nickel and tantalum were implanted into single-crystal α-aluminum oxide. Three-point bending tests showed that an increase in flexural strength of up to 30% could be obtained after implantation of aluminum and oxygen. Nickel and tantalum ion implantation increased the fracture toughness. Indentation tests with Knoop and Vickers diamonds and comparison of the lengths of the developed radial cracks showed that ion implantation leads to a reaction in cracking. The observed effects are assigned to radiation induced structural changes of the ceramic. Ion bombardment leads to radiation damage and formation of compressive stress. In case of tantalum implantation, the implanted near-surface zone becomes amorphous. These effects make the ceramic more resistant to fracture. (orig.)

  4. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining

  5. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  6. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  7. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  8. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  9. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  10. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  13. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  14. Effects of stress concentration on low-temperature fracture behavior of A356 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guanghui; Li, Runxia; Li, Rongde

    2016-06-14

    The effect of stress concentration on the dislocation motion, the Si particles and the crack propagation path in A356 alloy at the temperature of 20 °C to −60 °C was analyzed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope using a series of notched tensile specimens and normal tensile specimens. The results show that the sensitivity of A356 alloy to the stress concentration increases, the tensile strength and yield strength of normal specimens and notched specimens increase, and the elongation shows a decreasing trend with the decrease of test temperature from 20 °C to −60 °C. The yield strength is not affected by the notch, and the tensile strength is sensitive to the stress concentration. Stress concentration leads to a large number of dislocation generation. Local plastic deformation occurred in the stress concentration region during the tensile process firstly. With the stress concentration in the aluminum matrix between the Si phase and the crack further increasing, the distribution of cracks along the Si phase leads to the cracking of aluminum matrix particle.

  15. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  16. Electrical transport through single-wall carbon nanotube-anodic aluminum oxide-aluminum heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, Jarmo; Rautio, Aatto; Sala, Giovanni; Pino, Flavio; Toth, Geza; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Maeklin, Jani; Jantunen, Heli; Uusimaeki, Antti; Kordas, Krisztian; Gracia, Eduardo; Terrones, Mauricio; Shchukarev, Andrey; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum foils were anodized in sulfuric acid solution to form thick porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films of thickness ∼6 μm. Electrodes of carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were inkjet printed on the anodic oxide layer and the electrical characteristics of the as-obtained SWCNT-AAO-Al structures were studied. Nonlinear current-voltage transport and strong temperature dependence of conduction through the structure was measured. The microstructure and chemical composition of the anodic oxide layer was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Schottky emission at the SWCNT-AAO and AAO-Al interfaces allowed by impurity states in the anodic aluminum oxide film together with ionic surface conduction on the pore walls of AAO gives a reasonable explanation for the measured electrical conduction. Calcined AAO is proposed as a dielectric material for SWCNT-field effect transistors.

  17. Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, C; Hause, B

    2013-06-01

    Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed.

  18. A melt refining method for uranium-contaminated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, T.; Iba, H.; Hanawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    Melt refining of uranium-contaminated aluminum which has been difficult to decontaminate because of the high reactivity of aluminum, was experimentally studied. Samples of contaminated aluminum and its alloys were melted after adding various halide fluxes at various melting temperatures and various melting times. Uranium concentration in the resulting ingots was determined. Effective flux compositions were mixtures of chlorides and fluorides, such as LiF, KCl, and BaCl 2 , at a fluoride/chloride mole ratio of 1 to 1.5. The removal of uranium from aluminum (the ''decontamination effect'') increased with decreasing melting temperature, but the time allowed for reaction had little influence. Pure aluminum was difficult to decontaminate from uranium; however, uranium could be removed from alloys containing magnesium. This was because the activity of the aluminum was decreased by formation of the intermetallic compound Al-Mg. With a flux of LiF-KCl-BaCl 2 and a temperature of 800 0 C, uranium added to give an initial concentration of 500 ppm was removed from a commercial alloy of aluminum, A5056, which contains 5% magnesium, to a final concentration of 0.6 ppm, which is near that in the initial aluminum alloy

  19. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Aluminum Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican ch