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Sample records for aluminum sodium sulfate

  1. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbin Yu; Daming Yong; Shaojun Dong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants,an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant.Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study,which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal,resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity.We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucoseglutamic acid as an exogenous material.Under oxygen restriction,the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0,37℃ and reaction for 3 hr).The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method,using ferricyanide as a mediator.The current signal obtained represents the re oxidation of ferrocyanide,which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency,IC50,as a quantitative measure of toxicity.The IC50 values measured were 410,570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite,borax and aluminum potassium sulfate,respectively.The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods.Furthermore,the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be:sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate >blank,according to the atomic force microscopy images of E.coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions.The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  2. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  3. REFINEMENT OF THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GUANIDINIUM ALUMINUM SULFATE HEXAHYDRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERROELECTRIC CRYSTALS, * CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*GUANIDINES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), (*ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ), SULFATES, HYDRATES, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, CRYSTAL LATTICES, CHEMICAL BONDS

  4. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  5. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  7. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by....1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  8. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  9. Study on Properties and Synthesize of a new Polymeric Aluminum Sulfate-silicate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shu-rong; Wang Qing-ning; Zhang Fei-long; Ye Qi-zhi

    2004-01-01

    The polymeric basic aluminum silicate-sulfate can be made from three substances, such as aluminum sulfate, sodium silicate and sodium aluminates. Adoption sort neote ric one synthesis,under high shear mixing condition to produce polymeric Aluminum Sulfate-silicate--inorganic macromolecule flocculants, that is liquid, PH is 3.0, molecular formula: AlA (OH) B (SO4) C (SiOx)Because inorganic macromolecule have capability of electricity neutralized, bigger molecular mass,strong capability of adsorption, and products are relative stabilize, more economical than organic macromolecule flocculants, innocuity and high effect compared with tradition flocculants.We can use the flocculants to make sewages purified .The sewages contain sulfur, oiliness, which are treated sewages of oil refining to organism treatment sump in parturition course of oil refining,and the sewages of dark and white in parturition course of paper mill. We study the properties of the flocculants, change of CODCr and effect of sewerage decolouring and so on.Thus fig. Can be seen to add the flocculants(0.1ml) to the sewages of the oil refining and the paper mill that effect is not distinctly. Yet increase of quantity to remove turbidity and floccules effect is distinctness. When the flocculants (0.5mi) be added to the dark sewage of, the penetrate light rate attain 90~98%, the sewage of the oil refining is about 90%, but when we make floccules experiment, the color of dark green and auras of the sewages of oil refining and the paper mill are all disappear, the PASS that add to the sewage will have certainly time to flocculate. When use pay attention to quantity and horary the connection.As a result in the sewages purified, those products form quickly, granule density is big, and subsided velocity is quickly, Floccules effect and capability of removing turbidity, removing CODCr are ascendancy than tradition flocculants - aluminates, and the remained aluminum of water treatment is little. It has

  10. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  11. Role of sodium tetradecyl sulfate in venous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Sanjay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous malformations are one of the commonest anomalies of the vascular tree and their management has always remained a major challenge. Surgery and other treatment modalities are not always satisfactory and have a higher morbidity, recurrence and complication rate. The author retrospectively analyzed 40 patients of venous malformations who underwent sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate solely or as an adjunct to surgery. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy in the treatment of venous malformations.

  12. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetinger M.R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control, but enhanced it in liver (31.2 ± 15.0%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05. The concentrations of aluminum in the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminum concentrations increased significantly in the liver (527 ± 3.9%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and kidney (283 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 but did not change in the brain of aluminum-exposed mice. One of the most important and striking observations was the increase in hepatic aluminum concentration in the mice treated only with 1 g% sodium citrate (34 mM (217 ± 1.5%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control. These results show that aluminum interferes with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of this element was in the order: liver > kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  13. Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose, S11(:

  14. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  15. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  16. Gas evolution during vitrification of sodium sulfate and silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Rosine, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.]|[Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the operation of an apparatus designed to identify species evolved during vitrification of hazardous waste materials and to measure the temperatures at which they are evolved. To demonstrate the utility of the apparatus for designing off-gas systems, the authors present the results of heating various sulfates alone and in the presence of silica. During vitrification, the decomposition behavior of some waste components will be affected by the chemical composition of the melt. For example, they found that when silica is present during heating, SO{sub x} gases are evolved at lower temperatures than when pure sodium sulfate is heated. Such analyses will be important in the design of off-gas units for waste vitrification systems.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-06-12

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3-5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3-5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2-30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  19. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  20. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  1. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  2. Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiozer, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

  3. Synthesis of Renewable Energy Materials, Sodium Aluminum Hydride by Grignard Reagent of Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on hydrogen generation and application has attracted widespread attention around the world. This paper is to demonstrate that sodium aluminum hydride can be synthesized under simple and mild reaction condition. Being activated through organics, aluminum powder reacts with hydrogen and sodium hydride to produce sodium aluminum hydride under atmospheric pressure. The properties and composition of the sample were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and so forth. The results showed that the product through this synthesis method is sodium aluminum hydride, and it has higher purity, perfect crystal character, better stability, and good hydrogen storage property. The reaction mechanism is also discussed in detail.

  4. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-02-04

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly comprising ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease, are complex and multifactorial diseases with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, a number of murine models of colitis have been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate a number of potential therapeutics. Among various chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when employed. This protocol describes the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on details and factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology.

  5. Location of ethanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Tian-Qing; YU, Wei-Li; GUO, Rong

    2000-01-01

    The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase of SDS ( Sodium dodecyl sulfate)/H2O system changes into lamellar liquid crystal and the effective length of surfactant molecule d0/2 in the lamellar liquid crystal decreases with the addition of ethanol.The micellar aggregation number N of SDS decreases and the micellar diffusion coefficient increases with the added ethanol.Under a constant concentration of SDS, the molecule number ratio of ethanol to SDS in the micelle increases with the concentration of ethanol and even exceeds 10 when ethanol concentration is 1.085 mol/L. All these results show that ethanol, even though a short chain alcohol and soluble in water, can partly exist in the interphase of the amphiphilic aggregates showing some properties of co-surfactant.

  6. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari

    2011-11-01

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  7. Complexation between sodium dodecyl sulfate and amphoteric polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2007-09-27

    The complexation between negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and positively charged amphoteric polyurethane (APU) self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) containing nonionic hydrophobic segments is studied by dynamic light scattering, pyrene fluorescent probing, zeta-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the present paper. With increasing the mol ratio of SDS to the positive charges on the surface of APU NPs, the aqueous solution of APU NPs presents precipitation at pH 2, around stoichiometric SDS concentration, and then the precipitate dissociates with excess SDS to form more stable nanoparticles of ionomer complexes. Three stages of the complexation process are clearly shown by the pyrene I1/I3 variation of the complex systems, which only depends on the ratio of SDS/APU, and demonstrate that the process is dominated by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic aggregation.

  8. Sodium arsenite reduces severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua J. MALAGO; Hortensia NONDOLI

    2008-01-01

    The histopathological features and the associated clinical findings of ulcerative colitis (UC) are due to persistent inflammatory response in the colon mucosa. Interventions that suppress this response benefit UC patients. We tested whether sodium arsenite (SA) benefits rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis. The DSS-colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water. SA (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) was given 8 h before DSS treatment and then every 48 h for 3 cycles of 7,14 or 21 d. At the end of each cycle rats were sacrificed and colon sections processed for histological examination. DSS induced diarrhea, loose stools, hemoccult positive stools, gross bleeding, loss of body weight, loss of epithelium, crypt damage, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The severity of these changes increased ir the order of Cycles 1,2 and 3. Treatment of rats with SA significantly reduced this severity and improved the weight gain.

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced rapid gelation of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xilong; Hou, Jing; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Jiangnan; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Shenzhou

    2012-07-01

    The in situ formation of injectable silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels have potential advantages over various other biomaterials due to the minimal invasiveness during application. Biomaterials need to gel rapidly under physiological conditions after injection. In the current paper, a novel way to accelerate SF gelation using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a gelling agent is reported. The mechanism of SDS-induced rapid gelation was determined. At low surfactant concentrations, hydrophobic interactions among the SF chains played a dominant role in the association, leading to decreased gelation time. At higher concentrations of surfactant, electrostatic repulsive forces among micellar aggregates gradually became dominant and gelation was hindered. Gel formation involves the connection of clusters formed by the accumulation of nanoparticles. This process is accompanied by the rapid formation of β-sheet structures due to hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. It is expected that the silk hydrogel with short gelation time will be used as an injectable hydrogel in drug delivery or cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  11. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  12. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  13. Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, U. B.; Akdim, O.; Miele, P.

    The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) at 80 °C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl 3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl 3 reactivity was compared to those of AlCl 3·6H 2O, AlF 3, CoCl 2, RuCl 3 and NiCl 2. With AlCl 3 and a NaBH 4 solution having a gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) of 2.9 wt.%, almost 100% hydrogen was generated in few seconds, i.e., with a hydrogen generation rate (HGR) of 354 L min -1 g -1(Al). This HGR is one of the highest rates ever reported. Higher HGRs were obtained by mixing AlCl 3 with CoCl2, RuCl 3 or NiCl 2. For example, the system RuCl 3:AlCl 3 (50:50 mass proportion) showed a HGR > 1000 L min -1 g -1(Ru:Al). The hydrolysis by-products (once dried) were identified (by XRD, IR and elemental analysis) as being Al(OH) 3, NaCl and Na 2B(OH) 4Cl and it was observed that even in situ formed Al(OH) 3 has catalytic abilities with HGRs of 5 L min -1 g -1(Al). All of these preliminary results are discussed, which concludes that AlCl 3 has a potential as accelerator for single-use NaBH 4-based storage system.

  14. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  15. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  16. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  17. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  18. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES wit

  19. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    -b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...

  20. The Electrooxidation of Tetracycline at Acetylene Black Electrode in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ping DANG; Cheng Guo HU; Ying Liang WEI; Sheng Shui HU

    2004-01-01

    The electrooxidation of tetracycline (TC) at acetylene black electrode has been studied in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Tetracycline (TC) exhibited very sensitive oxidation peak in this system. The peak current was proportional to TC concentration, and the detection limit was 1.2 × 10-8 mol/L. The system was used to the determination of TC in pharmaceuticals.

  1. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PSEUDOMONAS GENES DETERMINING SODIUM DODECYL-SULFATE BIODEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAVISON, J; BRUNEL, F; PHANOPOULOS, A; PROZZI, D; TERPSTRA, P

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two genes involved in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) degradation, by Pseudomonas, have been determined. One of these, sdsA, codes for an alkyl sulfatase (58 957 Da) and has similarity (31.8% identity over a 201-amino acid stretch) to the N terminus of a predicted protein of

  2. Understanding pH and ionic strength effects on aluminum sulfate-induced microalgae flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Yuan, W; Cheng, J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pH and ionic strength of aluminum sulfate on the flocculation of microalgae. It was found that changing pH and ionic strength influenced algal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells, which was described by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). For both algal species of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata, cells with lower total DLVO interaction energy had higher flocculation efficiency, indicating that the DLVO model was qualitatively accurate in predicting the flocculation of the two algae. However, the two algae responded differently to changing pH and ionic strength. The flocculation of N. oculata increased with increasing aluminum sulfate concentration and favored either low (pH 5) or high (pH 10) pH where cells had relatively low negative surface charges. For S. dimorphus, the highest flocculation was achieved at low ionic strength (1 μM) or moderate pH (pH 7.5) where cell surface charges were fully neutralized (zero zeta potential).

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  4. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  5. Thermodynamics of micelle formation in a water-alcohol solution of sodium tetradecyl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, S. V.; Tret'yakova, A. Ya.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of addition of ethanol and propan-1-ol on sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation in an aqueous solution are studied via microprobe fluorescence microscopy and conductometry. The critical micelle concentration, quantitative characteristics of micelles, and thermodynamic parameters of micelle formation are determined. Addition of 5-15 vol % of ethanol or 5-10 vol % of propan-1-ol is shown to result in a lower critical micelle concentration than in the aqueous solution, and in the formation of mixed spherical micelles whose sizes and aggregation numbers are less than those for the systems without alcohol. The contribution from the enthalpy factor to the free energy of sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation is found to dominate in mixed solvents, in contrast to aqueous solutions.

  6. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate%一种新的芒硝制碱法实验室研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash.A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate,complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate,regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution,processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate,and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate.The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  7. Electrochemical Oxidation of L-Cysteine in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Admicelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中春; 刘天晴; 郭荣

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of L-cysteine can be catalyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) admicelles. The catalytic efficiency increases hardly when SDS concentration is lower than the critical admicelle concentration (CAC) and increases rapidly when SDS concentration is between CAC and the critical micelle concentration (CMC), but decreases when SDS concentration is higher than CMC. Both results of rate constant k0 and Gibbs free energy ΔGck accord with that of catalytic efficiency.

  8. Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of a SiC fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Changes in the microstructural chemical composition of the specimens were investigated. The samples provided by Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, PA were grouped as follows: (1) as-received, (2) Na2SO4 salt-coated and heat-treate...

  9. Preparation and Catalytic Properties of Iron-Cerium Phosphates with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Onoda; Takeshi Sakumura

    2012-01-01

    Iron phosphate was prepared from iron nitrate and phosphoric acid with sodium dodecyl sulfate at various stirring hours. The chemical composition of the obtained samples was estimated from ICP and XRD measurements. Particle shape and size distribution were observed by SEM images and laser diffraction/scattering methods. Further, the catalytic activity was studied with the decomposition of the complex between formaldehyde, ammonium acetate, and acetylacetone. The peaks of FePO4 were observed i...

  10. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-07-01

    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Effects of Sodium Sulfate as Electrolyte Additive on Electrochemical Performance of Lead Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-yu; QIAN Zhao-hong; ZHAO Meng; WANG Yu-jie; NIU Lin

    2013-01-01

    Sodium sulfate as an electrolyte additive was studied via electrochemical methods including linear sweep voltammetry(LSV),cyclic voltammetry(CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) to deeply understand its effect on the hydrogen evolution current and overpotential as well as the formation and structure of anodic passivation films on lead surface during the redox processes.The results achieved will be valuable to improve the cycle life and maintenance-free properties of lead-acid batteries.

  12. Comparison between sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate reducer in lightening of overexposed working length radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to test whether lightening of the overexposed radiographs improve determination of endodontic files length and whether lightened radiographs are comparable with ideally exposed radiographs. Material and Methods: Four dried human skull coated with soft tissue-equivalent wax used for exposing radiographs of the upper molars. First, the endodontic file was placed in full length of the root and four series of radiographs obtained. The time to expose the first series was unchanged (standard group but increased for the other three series.  Two series of overexposed radiographs set as test groups (one lightened with copper sulfate reducer and the other lightened with sodium hypochlorite and one series set as control group. Then the endodontic file placed 2mm short in the root and four series of radiographs obtained like the former. A viewer evaluated radiographs. ROC curves were obtained and areas under the curves were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was calculated. Results: The average area under ROC curves was 1, 0.995,1 and 0.643 for the standard, Copper sulfate, sodium hypochlorite and the control group, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite show a better performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to Copper sulfate. Differences between the test radiographs and standard and control radiographs were significant (p

  13. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  14. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  15. 由废铝制备明矾及其组成测定%Preparation and determination of potassium aluminum sulfate from waste aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程相春

    2011-01-01

    以生活废铝易拉罐为原料,采用不同的方法制备明矾,通过XRD、TG、EDTA配位法、重量法等对产物进行了表征,获得了很好的结果.%Potassium aluminum sulfate were prepared by different ways used pop can as material, the complexes were characterized by XRD,TG and EDTA coordination and weight method, and the result is satisfying.

  16. Ab Initio Study of Thermodynamic Properties of Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Yu. N.; Bugaeva, I. A.; Zhuravleva, L. V.

    2013-11-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of lithium, sodium, and potassium single and double sulfate crystals are determined by the method of ab initio calculation of a linear combination of atomic orbitals in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the software package CRYSTAL09 within the framework of the quasi-harmonic approximation of the Debye theory. It is demonstrated that the standard entropies and heat capacities as well as the temperature dependences are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data. The average frequency, Debye temperature, and thermal conductivity coefficient increase with external pressure, whereas the Gruneisen parameter decreases. The dependences of the potentials of free and internal energies on the temperature and volume are expressed through the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a square-law dependence on these parameters of their vibrational components. The thermodynamic parameters of lithium-potassium sulfate appear closer to potassium sulfate, whereas for sodium-potassium, they lie between the corresponding parameters for single compounds.

  17. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  18. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: quina@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos

    2013-02-15

    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  19. Adsorption characteristics of zinc ions on sodium dodecyl sulfate in process of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To separate zinc ions from aqueous solution efficiently, micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration(MEUF) of hollow ultrafiltration membrane was used with sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as surfactant. The formation of micellar and the adsorption mechanism were investigated, including the influence of the ratio of SDS to zinc ions on the micelle quantity, the micelle ratio, the gross adsorptive capacity, the rejection of zinc ions and the adsorption isotherm law. The results show that the rejection rate of zinc ions reaches 97% and the adsorption of zinc ions on SDS conforms to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the adsorption is a chemical adsorption process.

  20. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Colitis in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme C; Bériou, Gaëlle; Josien, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex multifactorial disease thought to result from inappropriate immune responses to the gut microbiota, in genetically susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors. Among the different animal models developed to help in understanding IBDs pathophysiological mechanisms as well as to achieve pharmacological preclinical studies, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most widely used because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and similarity with human IBDs. This section provides with a detailed protocol that we validated in our laboratory to perform DSS-induced acute colitis in the Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rat.

  1. Analysis of Furaneol in tomato using dynamic headspace sampling with sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R G; Takeoka, G R; Naim, M; Rabinowitch, H; Nam, Y

    2001-09-01

    High-flow dynamic headspace sampling with excess anhydrous sodium sulfate was found to be an effective method of isolating Furaneol from fresh tomatoes. Quantitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography using maltol as internal standard. Furaneol was found in the highest concentrations (660-1100 ppb) in the summer crop of home-grown tomatoes and in some of the greenhouse hydroponically grown tomatoes, which are ripened on the plant before being transported to the supermarkets. Furaneol was found in the lowest concentrations (38-180 ppb) in the common ethylene-ripened, field-grown, supermarket tomatoes.

  2. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  3. Effect of Arctium lappa L.in the dextran sulfate sodium colitis mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzou-Chi; Huang; Shinn-Shyong; Tsai

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the possible protective role of Arctium lappa L.(AL)in a murine model of ulcerative colitis(UC).METHODS:BALB/c mice were administered 100 mg/kg AL powder orally each day.After 7 d,colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)(5% W/V)in drinking water for a further 8 consecutive days.Diarrhea and bloody stools as well as colonic histology were observed.The level of interleukin-6(IL-6)and tu-mor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in colonic sections were detected by immunohistochemi...

  4. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  5. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-02-20

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.

  6. Investigation of ozone and coagulant material’s (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime efficiency in “Kerman Kork” industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hussein Javid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entry of untreated wastewater of wool scouring factories has been associated with many environmental hazards because of high rate of pollution. Presently effective treatment methods and reducing the costs of operation and maintenance from treatment units have always been under the attention of this industry owners. The aim of this survey is to present a suitable method for the treatment of wool scouring. Methods: In this study, chemical coagulant is used for wastewater treatment (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime. And then these materials with “ozone” as a strong oxidative in reduction of the amount of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in wastewater effluent has been surveyed. Results: The results of this work showed that only ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate among the above chemical coagulant had a high efficiency in the turbidity removal. Productivity of turbidity removal using ferric chloride with the pH of 4 to 5 was 99%, and turbidity was reduced from 166 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU to 1.5 NTU, and productivity of turbidity removal using aluminum sulfate within the pH 4.5 to 5 was 99.33% that reduced turbidity from 166 to 1.1 NTU. Results of ozonation with 5 g/hour and the oxygen flow of 2.5 litter per min with the pH assess of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min to wastewater from chemical treatment with ferric chloride showed that the rate of COD was reduced from 24700 mg/L to 2940 mg/L. In ozonation to wastewater of chemical treatment with aluminum sulfate within the above rang of time, the rate of COD was reduced from 22500 mg/l to 4800 mg/l. Conclusion: We can be hopeful that in near future, getting the cheap technology of ozone production in industrial scale, one can use this technology for the propose of removal of pollutants having removal preferable by help of advanced treatment approaches.

  7. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The ab...

  8. Effects of sodium sulfate on the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii: implications for the optimization of algal culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    The study of the microalgal growth kinetics is an indispensable tool in all fields of phycology. Knowing the optimal nutrient concentration is an important issue that will help to develop efficient growth systems for these microorganisms. Although nitrogen and phosphorus are well studied for this purpose, sulfur seems to be less investigated. Sulfate is a primary sulfur source used by microalgae; moreover, the concentration of this compound is increasing in freshwater systems due to pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sodium sulfate concentrations in the culture medium on growth and growth kinetics of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Production of biomass, chl content, kinetic equations, and a mathematical model that describe the microalgal growth in relation with the concentration of sodium sulfate were obtained. The lowest concentration of sodium sulfate allowing optimal growth was 0.1 mM. Concentrations higher than 3 mM generated a toxic effect. This work demonstrates that this toxic effect was not directly due to the excess of sulfate ion but by the elevation of the ionic strength. An inhibition model was successfully used to simulate the relationship between specific growth rate and sodium sulfate in this microalga.

  9. Effect of coating of aluminum carboxymethylcellulose beads on the release and bioavailability of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, E A; al-Helw A al-R

    1998-01-01

    The production of spheres loaded with diclofenac sodium by the cross linking technique was achieved. The hydrophilic polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) which gels in the presence of a cross linking agent, aluminum chloride (AlCl3), was used as a matrix forming agent for the bead production. To obtain a regular and uniform rate of drug release, the produced beads were coated with sodium alginate to increase the pathway of the diffused medium. Two processing variables were studied, the flocculating agent concentration (20, 40 and 60% w/v) and different coating times (15, 30 and 60 min). The results show that the higher concentrations of aluminum chloride (40 and 60% w/v) produced more uniform and rounded beads than that prepared using 20% w/v salt. The particle size of the core beads decreased insignificantly (P > 0.05) as the flocculating agent concentration increased. The coating time did not affect the particle size of the coated beads within the same concentration of aluminum chloride. The dissolution studies showed that the release rate of diclofenac sodium from the core beads increased with the increase of AlCl3 concentration and that the rate of drug release was markedly reduced after the coating of the core beads with Na-alginate. The results also show a linear relationship for drug release over a 4-5 h period from the core beads where it showed a longer straight line relationship (7 h) for the coated beads. The coating of the Al-CMC beads, prepared using 60% w/v AlCl3.6H2O, with 2% w/v aqueous solution of Na-alginate resulted in a significant (P 24 increased insignificantly (P > 0.05) from 39.82 +/- 26.61 to 57.92 +/- 25.58 micrograms h/ml resulting in a relative bioavailability of 145.45% relative to Al-CMC beads.

  10. Orally delivered β-glucans aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Williams, David L; Welting, Olaf; Meijer, Sybren L; Gordon, Siamon; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucans have beneficial health effects due to their immune modulatory properties. Oral administration of β-glucans affects tumour growth, microbial infection, sepsis, and wound healing. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with orally delivered soluble and particulate β-glucans could ameliorate the development of aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced intestinal inflammation. To study this, mice were orally pre-treated with β-glucans for 14 days. We tested curdlan (a particulate β-(1,3)-glucan), glucan phosphate (a soluble β-(1,3)-glucan), and zymosan (a particle made from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contains around 55% β-glucans). Weight loss, colon weight, and feces score did not differ between β-glucan and vehicle treated groups. However, histology scores indicated that β-glucan-treated mice had increased inflammation at a microscopic level suggesting that β-glucan treatment worsened intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, curdlan and zymosan treatment led to increased colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, compared to vehicle. Glucan phosphate treatment did not significantly affect cytokine and chemokine levels. These data suggest that particulate and soluble β-glucans differentially affect the intestinal immune responses. However, no significant differences in other clinical colitis scores between soluble and particulate β-glucans were found in this study. In summary, β-glucans aggravate the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation at the level of the mucosa.

  11. Involvement of lymphocytes in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Woon Kim; Jae Nam Seo; Young Ho Suh; Hyo Jin Park; Ju Hyun Kim; Ji Young Kim; Kwon Tk Oh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of lymphocytes in the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.METHODS: Using various doses of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we induced colitis in wild-type B6control and Rag-1 knockout (H-2b haplotype) mice,and evaluated the colitis in terms of symptomatic and histologic parameters, such as weight loss, survival,severity of diarrhea, shortage of colon length and histological changes. Symptomatic parameters were checked daily and histological changes were scored.RESULTS: Although development of colitis in Rag-1knockout mice treated with high dose (5%) of DSS was comparable to that in B6 control mice, colitis progression was much more tolerable in Rag-1 knockout mice compared to than in B6 mice treated with low dose (1.5%)DSS. Symptomatic parameters as well as histopathologic changes were improved in Rag-1 knockout mice.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the presence of lymphocytes contributes to colitis progression at low dose of DSS stimulation. Lymphocytes may play roles as an aggravating factor in DSS-induced colitis.

  12. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  13. Study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Khoukh, Abdel; François, Jeanne

    2004-07-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) (of molecular weight M(w) = 434 g x mol(-1)) mixtures have been studied using conductimetry, static light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR. It has been shown that SDS and PPOMA form mixed micelles, and SDS and PPOMA aggregation numbers, N(ag SDS) and N(ag PPOMA), have been determined. Total aggregation numbers of the micelles (N(ag SDS) + N(ag PPOMA)) and those of SDS decrease upon increasing the weight ratio R = PPOMA/SDS. Localization of PPOMA inside the mixed micelles is considered (i) using 1H NMR to localize the methacrylate function at the hydrophobic core-water interface and (ii) by studying the SDS-PPO micellar system (whose M(w) = 400 g x mol(-1)). Both methods have indicated that the PPO chain of the macromonomer is localized at the SDS micelle surface. Models based on the theorical prediction of the critical micellar concentration of mixed micelles and structural model of swollen micelles are used to confirm the particular structure proposed for the SDS-PPOMA system, i.e., the micelle hydrophobic core is primarily composed of the C12 chains of the sodium dodecyl sulfate, the hydrophobic core-water interface is made up of the SDS polar heads as well as methacrylate functions of the PPOMA, the PPO chains of the macromonomer are adsorbed preferentially on the surface, i.e., on the polar heads of the SDS.

  14. Inhibition of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell proliferation by sodium spirulan, a new sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hamada, Chieko; Yamamoto, Chika; Shimada, Satomi; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2002-06-01

    Sodium spirulan (Na-SP) is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, which consists of two types of disaccharide repeating units, O-hexuronosyl-rhamnose (aldobiuronic acid) and O-rhamnosyl-3-O-methylrhamnose (acofriose) with sulfate groups, other minor saccharides and sodium ion. Vascular endothelial cells are present on the inner surface of blood vessels in a monolayer and have anticoagulant properties. To address the question whether Na-SP influences the maintenance of endothelial cell monolayers, we investigated the proliferation of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells treated with Na-SP. It was found that Na-SP has an inhibitory activity on endothelial cell proliferation accompanied with suppression of whole protein synthesis but without non-specific cell damage. The inhibitory activity of Na-SP was the strongest when compared to that of heparan sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A/C and hyaluronan. Furthermore, it was shown that the inhibitory activity of Na-SP disappeared by either desulfation or depolymerization. The present data suggest that Na-SP is a unique sulfated polysaccharide that strongly inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation, and the inhibitory activity requires polymerization of sulfated O-rhamnosyl-acofriose repeating units.

  15. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer.

  16. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年

    2015-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  17. Comparative toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplat, Christelle; Oral, Rahime; Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Mao, Andrea; Barillier, Daniel; Guida, Marco; Della Rocca, Claudio; Pagano, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS, but not SA Al(III)- and Zn(II)-exposed embryos vs. controls. Both Al(III) and Zn(II), up to 10 microM, from SA and SS, inhibited mitotic activity and induced mitotic aberrations in exposed embryos. SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant FR increase, unlike Al(III) sulfate overlapping with controls. Both SA-Zn(II) and Zn(II) sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant FR increase. The offspring of SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant DD decrease, unlike Al(III) sulfate exposure. Zinc sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant increase in offspring DDs, whereas SA-Zn(II) sperm exposure decreased DDs. Together, exposures to SA-dissolved Al(III) or Zn(II) resulted in lesser, if any toxicity, up to hormesis, compared to SS. Studies of metal speciation should elucidate the present results.

  18. Evaluation of using aluminum sulfate and water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin to reduce turbidity and toxicity of polluted stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, José Henrique Edmilson Souza; de Santana, Keissy Vanderley; do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Claudina; de Paiva, Sérgio Carvalho; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Aluminum salts are used as coagulants in water treatment; however, the exposure to residual aluminum has been associated with human brain lesions. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL), which is extracted with distilled water and isolated by chitin chromatography, has coagulant activity and is able to reduce the concentration of metal ions in aqueous solutions. This study evaluated the potential of using aluminum sulfate and WSMoL to reduce the turbidity and toxicity of water from the Cavouco stream located in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The water sample used (called P1) was collected from the stream source, which was found to be strongly polluted based on physicochemical and water quality analyses, as well as ecotoxicity assays with Artemia salina and seeds of Eruca sativa and Lactuca sativa. The assays combining WSMoL and aluminum sulfate were more efficient than those that used these agents separately. Furthermore, the greatest reduction in turbidity (96.8%) was obtained with the treatment using aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL, compared to when they were applied simultaneously (91.3%). In addition, aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL treatment resulted in residual aluminum concentration (0.3 mg/L) that was much lower than that recorded after the treatment using only the salt (35.5 mg/L). The ecotoxicity of P1 was also strongly reduced after the treatments. In summary, the combined use of aluminum sulfate and WSMoL was efficient in promoting a strong reduction of turbidity and ecotoxicity of a polluted water sample, without resulting in a high residual aluminum concentration at the conclusion of the treatment.

  19. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  20. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Ndoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

  1. Improving the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by using sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to improve the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. The effects of SDS on shear strength, viscosity and storage stability were investigated. It was shown that, although the addition of 1.5-2% (dry starch basis) SDS resulted in a slight decrease in shear strength, the mobility and storage stability of adhesive were significantly enhanced. Possible mechanisms regarding specific action of SDS were discussed. It was proved, using blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, that the amylose-SDS complexes were formed in the adhesive. The complex formation or simple adsorption of SDS with starch molecules might hinder the aggregation of latex particles, as shown by scanning electron microscopy images, and inhibit starch retrogradation, as observed by DSC analysis. As a result, in the presence of SDS, the adhesive had higher mobility and storage stability, indicating that SDS could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with high performance.

  2. Synthesis and surface-active property of bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate Gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qiuling; Gao Zhinong

    2006-01-01

    N,N-dimethyldodecylamine,hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin (molar ration is 2:1:1) were used to synthesize bis-quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactant with a hydroxyl in its spacer group by the one-pot method.This hydroxyl was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid and then neutralized to bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate zwitterionic Gemini surfactant.The yield of the final product was 78%,and the melting point was 231-233℃.Its structure was characterized by IR,1H-NMR,MS,and elemental analyses.The critical micelle concentration (cmc)and surface tension of the novel zwitterionic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution at 15℃ are 7.2×10-5 mol/L and 34.5 mN/m,respectively.

  3. Prospective randomized comparison of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol as variceal sclerosing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, D K; Singh, B; Dogra, R; Dasarathy, S; Sharma, M P

    1992-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate differences in efficacy and complication rate between the two most commonly used sclerosing agents, sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STD) and polidocanol. Of 52 patients with esophageal variceal bleeding, 26 were randomized to receive sclerotherapy with 1.5% STD and 26 to receive 1% polidocanol at weekly intervals. Eradication of varices was achieved in 88% patients each of the STD and polidocanol group. There was no significant difference between patients injected with STD and polidocanol with regard to re-bleeding (27% vs. 15%) and mortality (11.5% in both). The use of STD, in contrast to polidocanol, was associated with a higher incidence of complications in terms of severe retrosternal pain (27% vs. 4%), deep ulceration (53% vs. 23%), dysphagia (88% vs. 46%), and stricture formation (27% vs. 8%). It was concluded that these two agents were similar in efficacy. However, polidocanol was superior due to a lower incidence of complications.

  4. Impaired skin barrier function in mice with colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.

  5. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on flow and electrokinetic properties of Na-activated bentonite dispersions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Günıster; S İşçı; A Alemdar; N Güngör

    2004-06-01

    The present study reports the effect of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, C12H25 OSO3Na) upon the electrokinetic (electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential) and rheological (viscosity, yield value) properties of the Ca-bentonitic clay found in Turkey and its Na-activated form. The SDS dispersant was added in different concentrations in the range of 1 × 10-5-5 × 10-2 mol/l. The results show that the viscosity and zeta potential values of bentonite dispersion are affected by the addition of anionic surfactant. The obtained data are analysed by considering the kind of exchangeable cations. Thixotropic property effect was observed in bentonite dispersions.

  6. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case. PMID:27789914

  7. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the reaction between Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA A. JANKOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on the rate of the reaction between the cationic form of Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide was investigated in the pH range from 5 to 8.5. A retardation of the oxidation of Nile Blue A with hydrogen peroxide of three orders of magnitude was observed at pH 8.5 in the presence of anionic micelles compared to the kinetic data in water. The retardation effect was less pronounced at lower pH values. These effects were explained by the electrostatic interaction of the species involved in the reaction with the negatively charged micellar surface and their effective separation in the vicinity of the micellar surface.

  8. Improved detection of amylase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerized starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, T F; Alarcón, F J; Díaz-López, M; Moyano, F J

    2000-08-01

    An improved method, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for detection of amylase activity is described. This method will allow better characterization of certain amylases than that obtained by the Davis technique. The main features of the technique are: (i) identification of amylase bands and molecular mass determination are possible in the same gel; (ii) the hydrolysis of copolymerized substrate during electrophoretic separation is prevented using very low temperatures instead of inactivating agents such as chelating agents; and (iii) the technique is applicable to reveal amylase activity in a wide range of biological samples. The method is not useful for enzymes sensitive to SDS and for high molecular mass amylases.

  9. Modulating effects of oatmeal extracts in the sodium lauryl sulfate skin irritancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, K; Cours-Darne, S; Vienne, M P; Boyer, F; Fabre, B; Dupuy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of two topically applied oatmeal extracts, i.e. Avena sativa and Avena Rhealba, using the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation model. At baseline, test areas on the volar surface of the upper arms of 12 healthy individuals were pretreated with the two extracts and their vehicle (petrolatum ointment) under occlusion for 2 h, and one site was left untreated. Then a patch with a 1% SLS solution was applied to the test sites for 24 h. Irritation was determined at each period by measuring by chromametry and laser-Doppler. In a dose-ranging study with the Avena Rhealba extract alone, the 20 and 30% concentrations exerted a slight inhibition of the a* parameter increase and a marked reduction of the blood flow increase (p oatmeal extracts on skin irritation in the SLS model.

  10. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Scutellariae Radix extract (SRE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats induced by dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS).METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-180 g) by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, wt/v; MW 54000) in drinking water for 8 d. The treated rats received 4% DSS and SRE orally (100 mg/kg per day). Control rats received either tap water or SRE only. Macroscopic assessment which included body weight changes, fecal occult blood and stool consistency were determined daily. At the appointed time, the rats were sacrificed and the entire colons were removed. The colon length and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The severity of colitis was graded by morphological and histological assessments. The ion transport activity of the colonic mucosa was assessed by electrophysiological technique. RESULTS: Rats treated with oral administration of 4% DSS regularly developed clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis. Treatment with SRE relieved the symptoms, including the reduction in body weight, shortening and ulceration of the colon. Administration of SRE also significantly reduced the histological damage induced by DSS. Moreover, the Isc responses of the colonic mucosa to forskolin were suppressed after the induction of colitis. The stimulated ion transport activity of DSS-rats treated with SRE displayed significant improvement in the secretory responsiveness.CONCLUSION: SRE was effective in treating acute DSS -induced ulcerative colitis, as gauged by reduced clinical disease, improved macroscopic and histological damage scores, and enhanced recovery of normal colonic secretory function.

  11. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of fluorescence labeled propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengli; Li, Chunxia; Xue, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hongbing; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence labeling method was developed and validated for the microanalysis of a sulfated polysaccharide drug,namely propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), in rat plasma. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was selected to label PSS, and 1, 6-diaminohexane was used to link PSS and FITC in order to prepare FITC-labeled PSS (F-PSS) through a reductive amination reaction. F-PSS was identified by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The cell stability and cytotoxicity of F-PSS were tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results indicated that the labeling efficiency of F-PSS was 0.522% ± 0.0248% and the absolute bioavailability was 8.39%. F-PSS was stable in MDCK cells without obvious cytotoxicity. The method was sensitive and reliable; it showed a good linearity, precision, recovery and stability. The FITC labeling method can be applied to investigating the absorption and metabolism of PSS and other polysaccharides in biological samples.

  12. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of bleeding stomal varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Chang; Yang, Po Sang; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Gun [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A small varix is an uncommon complication with a high mortality rate occurring secondary to portal hypertension in patients with a stoma. We describe a case of recurrent stomal varix bleeding successfully managed by balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam.

  13. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. II. Coarsely sandblasted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2003-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to investigate the corrosion resistance of coarsely sandblasted implant alloys, commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. Coarsely sandblasted samples have a heterogeneous surface constituted by a large number of protrusions and recessions. Impedance spectra collected in sodium sulfate present two time constants (maxima in the phase-angle of the bode plot) associated with the total surface and with the tips, respectively. In bovine serum, the two maxima in the impedance spectra cannot be distinguished because of the formation of an adsorption layer of organic molecules, which causes a decrease in the values of both the total and tips' capacitances as well as an increase in the polarization resistance. Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb show the highest corrosion rate both in serum and in sodium sulfate. Based on the capacitance values obtained in sodium sulfate, the real surface area of the coarsely sandblasted electrodes has been estimated relative to mechanically polished surfaces. The values of the effective electrode area correlate with the mechanical properties of the samples: in fact, the softest electrode (commercially pure titanium) shows the largest effective electrode area, whereas the hardest material (CoCrMo alloy) shows the smallest surface area.

  14. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  15. Disposition, accumulation and toxicity of iron fed as iron (II) sulfate or as sodium iron EDTA in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    A study was performed to provide data on the disposition, accumulation and toxicity of sodium iron EDTA in comparison with iron (II) sulfate in rats on administration via the diet for 31 and 61 days. Clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, food conversion efficiency, hematology, clinical che

  16. The effectiveness of dentifrices without and with sodium lauryl sulfate on plaque, gingivitis and gingival abrasion : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.; Rosema, N.A.M.; Martin, E.C.J.; Slot, D.E.; Timmer, C.J.; Dörfer, C.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to a dentifrice with SLS in young adults aged 18–34 years on gingivitis. Material and methods One hundred twenty participants (non-dental students) with a moderate gingival inflammation (

  17. Exploring the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavinder; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2009-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis. DSS (2%) was administered orally in drinking water for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. The extent and severity of ulceration was analysed macroscopically, histopathologically and using a disease activity index. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific marker of inflammation; histamine, a marker of mast cell degranulation; superoxide anion generation and, lipid peroxides were analysed. Administration of DSS resulted in a significant development of ulceration in the colon along with a rise in histamine, MPO activity and oxidative stress. Treatment with Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic inflammation along with attenuation of histamine, MPO and oxidative stress. The antiulcerative effect of Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction were comparable to sulphasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg/kg i.p). It is concluded that Punica granatum has a potential for ameliorating DSS-induced colitis and its ellagic acid rich fraction may be responsible for this effect. Further, the antiulcerative effects may be attributed to mast cell stabilizing, antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions.

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE ANALYSIS OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  20. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  1. Hyperbranched exopolysaccharide-enhanced foam properties of sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanhua; Li, Haiping; Sun, Haoyang; Sun, Yange; Li, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The foam properties, such as the foamability, foam stability, drainage, coalescence and bulk rheology, of aqueous solutions containing an eco-friendly exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by a deep-sea mesophilic bacterium, Wangia profunda SM-A87, and an anionic surfactant, sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES), were studied. Both the foamability and foam stability of the EPS/AES solutions are considerably higher than those of single AES solutions, even at very low AES concentrations, although pure EPS solutions cannot foam. The improved foamability and foam stability arise from the formation of the EPS/AES complex via hydrogen bonds at the interfaces. The synergism between the EPS and AES decreases the surface tension, increases the interfacial elasticity and water-carrying capacity, and suppresses the coalescence and collapse of the foams. The EPS/AES foams are more salt-resistant than the AES foams. This work provides not only a new eco-friendly foam with great potential for use in enhanced oil recovery and health-care products but also useful guidance for designing other environmentally friendly foam systems that exhibit high performance.

  2. Free Energy of Scission for Sodium Laureth-1-Sulfate Wormlike Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtt, Karsten; Jiang, Hanqiu; Beaucage, Gregory; Weaver, Michael

    2017-02-28

    Wormlike micelles (WLMs) are nanoscale, self-assembled components of many products from shampoos to fracking fluids due to their viscoelasticity. Their rheological behavior is largely governed by the contour length of the micelles and the concomitant propensity of the micelles to overlap and entangle. The large contour lengths, on the order of micrometers, is the result of a delicate balance between the scission enthalpy of the wormlike micelles on the one hand and entropic factors such as the mixing entropy of dispersion, the ordering of water molecules and counterions, and the mobility of branch points on the other hand. The structure and contour length of wormlike micelles assembled from sodium laureth-1-sulfate was determined at various temperatures using small-angle neutron scattering. The results allow the calculation of the enthalpy and entropy as well as the free energy of scission and are employed to critically evaluate the common methods to determine micellar scission energy from mean-field theory. Interesting behavior is observed when comparing branched and unbranched WLMs that may reflect on mechanistic differences in chain scission.

  3. Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Å; Tormo-Badia, N; Baridi, A; Xu, J; Molin, G; Hagslätt, M-L; Karlsson, C; Jeppsson, B; Cilio, C M; Ahrné, S

    2015-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis.

  4. An investigation of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate interactions in acetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/surfactant association is a cooperative phenomenon where surfactant binds to the polymer in the form of aggregates, usually through electrostatic or hydrophobic forces. As already known, polyelectrolytes may interact with oppositely charged surfactants through electrostatic attraction that results in polymer/surfactant complex formation. This behavior could be desirable in wide range of application of polymer/surfactant mixtures, such as improving colloid stability, gelling, emulsification and microencapsulation. In the present study surface tension, turbidity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to investigate interactions of cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (Ch and oppositely charged anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, in buffered water. Obtained results show the presence of interactions that lead to Ch/SDS complexes formation at all investigated pH and for all investigated polymer concentrations. Mechanisms of interaction, as well as characteristics of formed Ch/SDS complexes, are highly dependent on their mass ratio in the mixtures, while pH has no significant influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. II46010

  5. Atomistic Simulation of Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Marchi, Massimo; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi; Abel, Stéphane

    2016-04-19

    Solubilization of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene-ring PAH) and pyrene (PYR, 4-benzene-ring PAH), into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle was studied through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that NAP as well as PYR could move between the micelle shell and core regions, contributing to their distribution in both regions of the micelle at any PAH concentration. Moreover, both NAP and PYR prefer to stay in the micelle shell region, which may arise from the greater volume of the micelle shell, the formation of hydrogen bonds between NAP and water, and the larger molecular volume of PYR. The PAHs are able to form occasional clusters (from dimer to octamer) inside the micelle during the simulation time depending on the PAH concentration in the solubilization systems. Furthermore, the micelle properties (i.e., size, shape, micelle internal structure, alkyl chain conformation and orientation, and micelle internal dynamics) are found to be nearly unaffected by the solubilized PAHs, which is irrespective of the properties and concentrations of PAHs.

  6. Solvation dynamics of DCM in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate: gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Arnab; Sen, Pratik; Burman, Anupam Das; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2004-02-03

    Solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylidene)-2-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-6-methyl-4H-pyran (DCM) is studied in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate consisting of gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KP) buffer. The average solvation time (tauS) in gelatin-SDS aggregate at 45 degrees C is found to be 1780 ps, which is about 13 times slower than that in 15 mM SDS in KP buffer at the same temperature. The fluorescence anisotropy decay in gelatin-SDS aggregate is also different from that in SDS micelles in KP buffer. DCM displays negligible emission in the presence of gelatin in aqueous solution. Thus the solvation dynamics in the presence of gelatin and SDS is exclusively due to the probe (DCM) molecules at the gelatin-micelle interface. The slow solvation dynamics is ascribed to the restrictions imposed on the water molecules trapped between the polypeptide chain and micellar aggregates. The critical association concentration (cac) of SDS for gelatin is determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM.

  7. Interaction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with sodium dodecyl sulfate below the critical aggregation concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Nobuo; Ogawa, Minami

    2014-06-10

    Interaction between the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (P-NIP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) both above and below its phase transition temperature was examined under dilute conditions. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of P-NIP (32 °C), 0.01 wt % P-NIP specifically interacted with 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L SDS to form a precipitate. However, when SDS was added at concentrations above or below 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, the P-NIP solution remained clear above the LCST. A fluorometric probe, N-phenyl-naphthalene, indicated that the hydrophobicity of the aggregates composed of P-NIP and SDS changed at an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Although the hydrophobicity of the precipitate was similar to that of P-NIP alone at less than 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, it approached that of SDS homomicelles as the SDS concentration increased above 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Dynamic light scattering and turbidimetry studies showed no P-NIP phase transition above an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, which is much lower than the reported critical association concentration (CAC) of SDS with P-NIP. This indicates that P-NIP interacted with SDS above the LSCT at much lower SDS concentration than the reported CAC.

  8. Antibody to eosinophil cationic protein suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Shichijo; Kazuya Makiyama; Chun-Yang Wen; Mutsumi Matsuu; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima; Makoto Ihara; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To produce an antibody against rat eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and to examine the effects of the antibody in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: An antibody was raised against rat ECP. Rats were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 d and received the antibody or normal serum. The colons were exarmined histologically and correlated with clinical symptoms.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were estimated as a grade of inflammation.RESULTS: The ECP antibody stained the activated eosinophils around the injured crypts in the colonic mucosa.Antibody treatment reduced the severity of colonic ulceration and acute clinical symptoms (diarrhea and/or blood-stained stool). Body weight gain was significantly greater and the colon length was significantly longer in anti-ECP-treated rats than in normal serum-treated rats. Expression of ECP in activated eosinophils was associated with the presence of erosions and inflammation. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in the regenerated surface epithelium increased in anti-ECP-treated rats compared with normal serum-treated rats. Western blot analysis revealed reduced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in anti-ECP-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with ECP antibody, improved DSS-induced colitis in rats, possibly by increasing the regenerative activity of the colonic epithelium and downregulation of the immune response,and suggest that anti-ECP may promote intestinal wound healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

  9. Application and Mechanism of Anionic Collector Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS in Phosphate Beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate ore is a valuable strategic resource. Most phosphate ore in China is collophane. Utilization of mid-low grade collophane is necessary to maintain social sustainable development. The gravity-flotation combination separation process can be utilized to separate mid-low grade collophane, but the process consumes a large quantity of acid in the reverse stage. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was used as a dolomite collector in this study to reduce the acid consumption of collophane flotation. SDS effectively removed dolomite from the gravity concentrate when no other reagents were present. Flotation test results showed that, compared to the conventional gravity-flotation process, the proposed SDS-based process reduced phosphoric acid dosage from 6.1 kg/t to 3.9 kg/t with similar separation results. The SDS action mechanisms on dolomite were further investigated by zeta potential analysis, single mineral flotation tests, infrared spectrum detection, and theoretical analysis. The results indicate that the SDS adsorption on dolomite is mainly physical adsorption, and that favorable separation effects between collophane and dolomite may be attributed to physical adsorption and entrainment. In addition, it also indicates that the physical adsorption can be utilized to remove dolomite from phosphate on account of zeta potential differences when the separate feed is coarse.

  10. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  12. Efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration with sodium tetradecyl sulfate liquid sclerotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Kwon, So Young; Cheo, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Shim, Chan Sup; Lee, Tae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Han [Digestive Disease Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44-86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6-33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices.

  13. Nature of large aggregates in supercooled aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1980-09-18

    Preparations of 2.0 and 5.5 wt % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 3.5 wt % (0.6 M) aqueous NaCl are equilibrium micellar solutions above 28/sup 0/C, the Krafft point of the surfactant at this salinity. These systems can be supercooled and remain transparent for hours and days. At 25/sup 0/C at equilibrium they are biphasic, a hydrated crystal phase and an aqueous salt solution phase containing only 0.01/sub 2/ wt % SDS. Conductimetry and /sup 13/C NMR show that these transparent supercooled systems are indeed supersaturated solutions and not microdispersions of the hydrated crystal. The time lag for the onset of nucleation of the crystals depends strongly on stirring details and probably on presence of gas-liquid interface. The big nonequilibrium aggregates present in the supersaturated systems resemble micelles in conductivity and molecular motion, and are likely to be metastable micelles as is presumed by Mazer, Benedek, and Carey. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  14. A new insight on the dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous micellar solutions by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Leandro; Carlà, Marcello; Lanzi, Leonardo; Gambi, Cecilia M C

    2009-02-01

    Aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solutions were investigated by a recently developed double-differential dielectric spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 100 MHz-3 GHz at 22 degrees C, in the surfactant concentration range 29.8-524 mM, explored for the first time above 104 mM. The micellar contribution to dielectric spectra was analyzed according to three models containing, respectively, a single Debye relaxation, a Cole-Cole relaxation and a double Debye relaxation. The single Debye model is not accurate enough. Both Cole-Cole and double Debye models fit well the experimental dielectric spectra. With the double Debye model, two characteristic relaxation times were identified: the slower one, in the range 400-900 ps, is due to the motion of counterions bound to the micellar surface (lateral motion); the faster one, in the range 100-130 ps, is due to interfacial bound water. Time constants and amplitudes of both processes are in fair agreement with Grosse's theoretical model, except at the largest concentration values, where interactions between micelles increase. For each sample, the volume fraction of bulk water and the effect of bound water as well as the conductivity in the low frequency limit were computed. The bound water increases as the surfactant concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the micellar properties. The number of water molecules per surfactant molecule was also computed. The conductivity values are in agreement with Kallay's model over the whole surfactant concentration range.

  15. Toxicity Biosensor for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Using Immobilized Green Fluorescent Protein Expressing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein (GFP is suitable as a toxicity sensor due to its ability to work alone without cofactors or substrates. Its reaction with toxicants can be determined with fluorometric approaches. GFP mutant gene (C48S/S147C/Q204C/S65T/Q80R is used because it has higher sensitivity compared to others GFP variants. A novel sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS toxicity detection biosensor was built by immobilizing GFP expressing Escherichia coli in k-Carrageenan matrix. Cytotoxicity effect took place in the toxicity biosensor which leads to the decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The fabricated E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has a wide dynamic range of 4–100 ppm, with LOD of 1.7 ppm. Besides, it possesses short response time (0.98, and long-term stability (46 days. E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has been applied to detect toxicity induced by SDS in tap water, river water, and drinking water. High recovery levels of SDS indicated the applicability of E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor in real water samples toxicity evaluation.

  16. Glycyrrhetic Acid Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Deok Jeon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR is a Korean traditional herb medicine that is widely used in clinical health care. Glycyrrhetic acid (GA is an aglycone saponin extracted from GR that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of GA in colitis have not been reported. This study investigated the role of GA on ulcerative colitis in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced mouse colitis model. DSS-treated mice displayed weight loss and shortened colon length compared with control mice. Mice administered GA showed less weight loss and longer colon length than the DSS-treated group. Interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased by GA treatment. GA treatment also reduced DSS-induced microscopic damage to colon tissue. GA regulates the phosphorylation of transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and IκB alpha, and regulates the expression of cycloxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. GA thus showed beneficial effects in a mouse model of colitis, implicating GA might be a useful herb-derived medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  17. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

    2011-07-28

    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  18. Effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on dextran sulfate sodium colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yue; Zhe Shen; Chao-Hui Yu; Hua Ye; Yue-Fang Ye; You-Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the concomitant effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on colitis. METHODS: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was investigated at a 7-d interval after ovalbumin (OVA) administration and immunization under normal and colitis conditions in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Pathological scores for the colon were graded after ingestion of colon-extracted protein (CEP) and induction of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Thereafter, Th1 and Th2 in Peyer's patches and spleen lymphocytes were detected in CEP-treated and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-treated control mice. RESULTS: In appendectomized mice, DTH was not inhibited at day 7 after OVA administration and at the initial phase of DSS colitis, whereas it was inhibited at day 14 and day 21. However, in sham-operated mice, it was inhibited during the whole procedure and the onset of DSS colitis. The protective role of CEP against DSS colitis was present in sham-operated mice, with predominant improvement of colonic pathological changes, while vanished in the appendectomized mice. A shift from Th1 to Th2 in Peyer's patches resulted from a decrease of Th1 cells with the ingestion of CEP. Compared with BSA in the sham-operated group, no predominant changes were observed in the appendectomized mice. CONCLUSION: Appendectomy interferes with the protective role of CEP in DSS colitis via a shift from Th2 to Th1 during oral tolerance induction.

  19. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-04-05

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  20. Effects of ulinastatin in experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Ulinastatin has been reported to be beneficial for maintenance of steroid-refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanism underlying remains uncertain. Leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory site plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD, analysis of leukocyte and endothelium interaction may provide new avenues for treatment of IBD. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Ulinastatin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis rat model using intravital video microscopy. METHODS: Rats were given drinking water containing 3.5% (W/V) DSS for 10 days then 1% for 14 days. DSS induced colitis rats were treated Ulinastatin 3 000 unit*kg-1*d-1 via intraperitoneum during 1% DSS feeding. Controls received distilled water for 24 days. Body weight was determined for all groups. Colitis severity was assessed using histological scoring systems by H&E sections. Intravital microscopic techniques were used to quantitate leukocyte adhesion (LA), leukocyte emigration (LE) and venular protein leakage (VPL) in rat mesentery. RESULTS: DSS induced loss of body weight, whereas Ulinastatin-treated rat showed a significant increase in body weight. Histological analysis revealed improvement of colitis such as leukocyte infiltration, loss of goblet cells, transmural edema. DSS intake elicited increase in LA, LE, and VPL compared to control group. Ulinstatin significantly reversed the increase in LA, LE, and VPL induced by DSS. CONCLUSION: Administration of Ulinastatin effectively ameliorates experimental colitis by interfering with leukocyte recruitment, and may become a potential candidate for control of inflammation of IBD.

  1. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  2. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  3. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 1. Review and Agglomeration Regime Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    This paper, and two associated papers [Hede, P. D.; Jensen, A. D.; Bach, P. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1905 and 1914], address the fluid-bed coating of placebo enzyme granules (i.e., sodium sulfate cores, with a size range of 400-500 mu m) using two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA......-TiO2. The coating experiments were conducted in a medium-scale top-spray MP-1 fluid bed, and many rheological experiments were performed on the coating formulations to support the interpretation of the fluid-bed coating results. In this first part of the study, a thorough introduction to the inorganic...... salt and polymer film coating is provided, along with a presentation of the equipment and materials being used in this and the following papers. Results from agglomeration studies over a broad range of process conditions are presented, showing that the tendency toward agglomeration is always less...

  4. INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL, PROPYLENE GLYCOL, POLYSORBATE-80 AND SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE ON THE PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, C. J.; C. E. Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 and sodium lauryl sulfate on the lipophilic character of quetiapine fumarate by studying their effects on the partition coefficient of the drug. The partition coefficient was evaluated in n-hexane-water system at room temperature. Of the vehicles investigated, it was found that glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 decreased the partition coefficient of quetiapine fumarate, whi...

  5. Influence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Tween 80 on Carbamazepine–Nicotinamide Cocrystal Solubility and Dissolution Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Wang; Ning Qiao; Mingzhong Li

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine–nicotinamide (CBZ–NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ–NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated...

  6. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background and aims: Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.Methods: Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.Results: Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.Conclusion: Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: preclinical, oral iron treatment, tolerability, colonic tissue erosion

  7. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  8. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. I. Mechanically polished samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2002-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to monitor the long-term stability (up to 150 days) of mechanically polished commercial pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo alloys in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. A capacitive spectrum in the frequency range from 10(-3) to 10(5) Hz is always found and the impedance spectra can be fitted by a simple parallel RC circuit with a constant phase element. The open circuit potential observed in serum is always more cathodic and the polarization resistance (R(p)) is higher than that recorded in sodium sulfate solutions. The observed variation of the equivalent capacitance in serum bovine suggests that an adsorption layer of organic molecules develops on the electrode surface and it is responsible for both the decrease in open circuit potential and the higher R(p), because it hinders the oxygen evolution reaction and the charge transfer responsible for the passive film dissolution (or growth). Among the alloys studied, Ti6Al4V displayed the highest steady-state values of R(p) both in serum and in sodium sulfate.

  9. Whey protein versus whey protein hydrolyzate for the protection of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate induced colonic tumors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaallah, Wafi; Yilmaz, Ayşe Mine; Erdoğan, Nusret; Yalçin, A Suha; Aktan, A Ozdemir

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that whey protein has many useful effects including its anti-cancer effect. In this study we have compared the protective effect of dietary whey protein with whey protein hydrolyzate against azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate induced colon cancer in rats. We used a rat model of the colon cancer induced by administration of azoxymethane followed by repeated dextran sodium sulfate ingestion which causes multiple tumor development. Colon tissues were analyzed histologically in addition to biochemical analyses performed by measuring lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and glutathione levels in both of colon and liver tissues of rats after sacrification. Macroscopic and microscopic tumors were identified in all groups that received azoxymethane followed by repeated dextran sodium sulfate. Group fed with whey protein hydrolyzate showed significantly less macroscopic and microscopic tumor development compared with group fed with whey protein. The protocol applied to generate an appropriate model of colon cancer was successful. Whey protein hydrolyzate was found to be more effective in preventing colon tumor development compared with whey protein.

  10. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginova, T. P., E-mail: tlg@ineos.ac.ru; Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Matyushin, A. A. [Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, First Moscow State Medical University (Russian Federation); Khotina, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Shtykova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  11. L-arginine supplementation improves responses to injury and inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Coburn

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC, results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg, a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y(+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2 and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS(-/- mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity.

  12. Histopathological and morphometric changes induced by a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-05-01

    Oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used as an inducer of enteric inflammation in rodents. However, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding appropriate dosage, timing, or ageresponses in broilers for this potential inducer of inflammation without necrosis. Two experiments were conducted in day-of-hatch chicks to analyze clinical parameters and enteric histological changes induced by DSS when administered via drinking water ( DW: ). In both experiments, birds were distributed into nontreated control or varying concentrations of DSS in DW. For both experiments, only 0.75% DSS in DW was histologically evaluated. In Experiment 1, chicks received DSS from day 3 to 11, and at 3, 6, and 8 d of treatment, chicks were weighed, and sections of the duodenum, ileum, and ceca were formalin fixed. The addition of 0.75% DSS caused depression, anemia, and watery bloody diarrhea, plus significantly (P DSS administration (P DSS from days 10 to 16 and were sampled at 3 and 6 d of treatment. Similar changes were found in ceca of treated birds. There was no significant change in the duodenal villus height and goblet cell density by 6 d of treatment, suggesting that 6 d of 0.75% DSS in DW was not sufficient for the reproduction of duodenal symptoms in these older birds. However, there was a significant decrease in ilealvillus height and decreased ileal epithelial cell height at 3 and 6 d of treatment, as well as a significant decrease in BW compared to the control group. These findings indicate that DW administration of 0.75% DSS caused generalized mild and non-necrotic enteritis in broilers and that this compound may be useful for enteric inflammation modeling in poultry.

  13. Micelles in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a bolaform surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Gente, Giacomo; La Mesa, Camillo; Caponetti, Eugenio; Chillura-Martino, Delia; Pedone, Lucia; Saladino, Maria Luisa

    2006-07-04

    Mixtures composed of water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a bolaform surfactant with two aza-crown ethers as polar headgroups (termed Bola C-16) were investigated by modulating the mole ratios between the components. The two surfactants have ionic and nonionic, but ionizable, headgroups, respectively. The ionization is due to the complexation of alkali ions by the aza-crown ether unit(s). Structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the above mixtures were investigated. Results from surface tension, translational self-diffusion, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are reported and discussed. Interactions between the two surfactants to form mixed micelles result in a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions. These effects are reflected in the size and shape of the aggregates as well as in transport properties. The translational diffusion of the components in mixed micelles, in particular, depends on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio. Nonideality of mixing of the two components was inferred from the dependence of the critical micelle concentration, cmc, on the mole fraction of Bola C-16. This behavior is also reflected in surface adsorption and in the area per polar headgroup at the air-water interface. SANS data analysis for the pure components gives results in good agreement with previous findings. An analysis of data relative to mixed systems allows us to compute some structural parameters of the mixed aggregates. The dependence of aggregation numbers, nu(T), on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio displays a maximum that depends on the overall surfactant content and is rationalized in terms of the nonideality of mixing. Aggregates grow perpendicularly to the major rotation axis, as formerly observed in the Bola C-16 system, and become progressively ellipsoidal in shape.

  14. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zheng; Feng-Li Niu; Wen-Zhong Liu; Yao Shi; Lun-Gen Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by giving 2% DSS orally in drinking water for 8 d. Twenty-six male rats were randomized into oxymatrine-treated group (group A, 10rats), DSS control (group B, 10 rats) and normal control (group C, 6 rats). The rats in group A were injected from d 1 to 11 and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11.The rats in group B were treated with 0.9% saline in an equal volume as group A and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11. The rats in group C were treated with 0.9% saline as group B from d 1 to 11 and drank water normally. Diarrhea and bloody stool as well as colonic histology were observed. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)activity and the expression of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in colonic mucosa were detected by immunohistochernistry method.RESULTS: Compared with DSS control group, the inflammatory symptoms and histological damages of colonic mucosa in oxymatrine-treated group were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB, ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa were significantly reduced.CONCLUSION: The fact that oxymatrine can reduce the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa in DSS-induced colitis of rats indicates that oxymatrine may ameliorate the colonic inflammation and thus alleviate diarrhea and bloody stool.

  15. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India."nMaterials and Methods: Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM, SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis."nResults: Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 μmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3."nConclusion: This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

  16. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandurangan AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashok Kumar Pandurangan,1,2 Nooshin Mohebali,2 Mohd Esa Norhaizan,1,3 Chung Yeng Looi2 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Gallic acid (GA is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05 reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA.Keywords: IL-21, NQO1, MDA, enzymic antioxidants

  17. Balsalazine decreases intestinal mucosal permeability of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chang LIU; Qiao MEI; Jian-ming XU; Jing HU

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of balsalazine treatment on intestinal mucosal permeability in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and to determine the mechanism of the balsalazine-induced changes.Methods:Experimental colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the administration of 5% DSS.Balsalazine was administered intragastrically at doses of 42,141,and 423 mg/kg.The disease activity index (DAI) score was evaluated and colon tissue was collected for the assessment of histological changes.The amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the colon was determined,along with the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).Mucosa from the small intestine was collected to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-Y.The mucosa was ultrastructurally examined with transmission electron microscopy and intestinal permeability was assayed using Evans blue.Results:Balsalazine was found to reduce the DAI score and the histological index (HI) score,decrease the MDA content and the activity of MPO,and increase the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in colitis mice.At the same time,balsalazine ameliorated microvillus and tight junction structure,resulting in a decrease in the amount of Evans blue permeating into the intestinal wall and the levels of TNF-α and IFN-Y in colitis mice.Conclusion:In colitis mice,the anti-colitis effect of balsalazine results in a decrease in intestinal mucosal permeability.The mechanism of this effect is partly associated with balsalazine's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. Bifidobacterium breve attenuates murine dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases regulatory T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    Full Text Available While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition.

  19. Alterations of testosterone metabolism in microsomes from rats with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanjuan; Hu, Nan; Gao, Xuejiao; Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Sai; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru

    2015-05-05

    Down-regulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) was observed in patients and animals with ulcerative colitis (UC). This study examined changes of CYP450s activities in microsomes of liver (RLMs), intestine (RIMs) and kidney (RRMs) from rats with experimental acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days and those receiving DSS treatment followed by 7-d cessation through measuring 6α-(CYP1A1), 7α-(CYP2A1), 16α-(CYP2C11) and 2β-/6β-(CYP3A2) hydroxytestosterone (OHT) formed from testosterone. Both pro-(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-(IL-4, IL-10) inflammatory cytokines were elevated in acute colitis, while the production of the former was enhanced and that of the latter declined by DSS withdrawal. In RLMs, the CYP2A1 activity was significantly increased at DSS stimulation and partially returned to normal level when DSS treatment was terminated. Activity of other CYP450s were decreased by acute colitis and remained after DSS withdrawal. In RRMs, formations of 6α-, 16α- and 2β-OHT significantly declined in acute colitis and DSS termination further potentiated the down-regulation, while 7α-OHT formation was suppressed at DSS stimulation and remained after DSS withdrawal. The formation of 6β-OHT only showed significant decrease after DSS withdrawal. Two metabolites (6α- and 6β-OHT) formed in RIMs and 6β-OHT formation was significantly decreased by DSS stimulation and continued after DSS treatment halted. These findings indicate that the alterations of CYP450s activities vary with organ, CYP isoforms and colitis status, which arouse cautions on efficacy and toxicity of drug therapy during disease progression.

  20. Investigation of dynamic processing on aluminum floc aggregation: Cyclic shearing recovery and effect of sulfate ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU YongBao; GAO BaoYu; YUE QinYan; WANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    The floe formation and re-aggregation potential and the effects of sulfate on coagulation by AlCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and Al13 species using a photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA) are in-vestigated. It is found that the recovery level from shearing is the highest for the Al13 species. This is likely s result of Increased collision efficiency due to more effective charge neutralization. The ex-perimental results show that sulfate has a significant effect on coagulation and promoting aggregation of hydrolyzed specie8 for the Al13 species. It results in significant improvement of the coagulation effi-ciency through an electrostatic patch effect. The results further indicate that zeta potential of the psrti-cle suspension is not the only indicator for the coagulant efficiency when preoipitate formation sig-nificantly Improves coagulation.

  1. K+-Na+ ion-exchanged sodium magnesium aluminum germanate glass waveguide amplifier operating in the first telecommunications window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dianlai; Zhang, Jie; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai

    2010-12-01

    Potassium-sodium (K+-Na+) ion-exchanged multimode channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated based on Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped sodium magnesium aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass substrates. The normalized optical and relative gain coefficients of a 2.20 cm long device were identified to be 3.65 dB/cm and 1.58 dB/cm, respectively, at a signal wavelength of 810 nm under 457 mW 980 nm laser diode excitation. These are the highest values reported, and the results indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NMAG glasses are an attractive material for optical amplification in the first telecommunications window.

  2. EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING PITTING CORROSION OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  3. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease via the pregnane X receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2015-12-01

    , Crohn’s disease, tanshinone IIA, pregnane X receptor, inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sodium sulfate

  4. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie, E-mail: wangtj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Nano silica particle was modified to produce hydrophobic surface with contact angle of 107° using the water soluble SDS as a modifier through a new route. The grafted density reached 1.82–2 nm. Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation, forming a Si–O–C structure. - Highlights: • Silica was modified to produce hydrophobic surface using SDS as modifier. • The route is free of organic solvent and gets perfect contact of SDS and silica. • Contact angle of modified silica particles reached 107°. • Grafted density on the silica surface reached 1.82 SDS nm{sup −2}. • Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation. - Abstract: Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm{sup −2}, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO{sub 2} ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO{sub 2} particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO{sub 2} reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si–O–C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a

  5. Effects of brief and intermediate exposures to sulfate submicron aerosols and sulfate injections on cardiopulmonary function of dogs and tracheal mucous velocity of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackner, M.A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL); Dougherty, R.L.; Chapman, G.A.; Cipley, J.; Perez, D.; Kwoka, M.; Reinhart, M.; Brito, M.; Schreck, R.

    1981-06-01

    Pulmonary mechanics of anesthetized dogs were not changed or were minimally altered by breathing the following compounds as submicron aerosols in concentrations up to 17.3 mg/m/sup 3/ for 7.5 min: (1) sodium chloride (as a control), (2) sodium sulfate, (3) ammonium sulfate, (4) zinc sulfate, (5) zinc ammonium sulfate, (6) ammonium bisulfate, (7) aluminum sulfate, (8) manganese sulfate, (9) nickel sulfate, (10) copper sulfate, (11) ferrous fulfate, and (12) ferric sulfate. Submicron aerosols of these compounds in concentrations of 4.1 to 8.8 mg/m/sup 3/, administered for 4 h to anesthetized dogs, did not affect mechanics of breathing, hemodynamics, and arterial blood gases. In conscious sheep, tracheal mucous velocity was not altered by exposure to the submicron aerosols of the sulfate compounds. None of these compounds, injected iv in a dose of 1 mg, had adverse effects on mechanics of breathing, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, or arterial blood gases. In 100-mg injections, zinc sulfate and zinc ammonium sulfate produced a fall in cardiac output, systemic hypotension, hypoxemia, and metabolic acidosis. Copper sulfate at this dose produced pulmonary hypertension, a fall in cardiac output, hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, and a decrease of specific total respiratory conductance. It is concluded that submicron aerosols of sulfate salts do not have adverse cardiopulmonary effects when administered in high concentrations for up to 4 h. However, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of zinc sulfate, zinc ammonium sulfate, and copper sulfate aerosols might have adverse cardiopulmonary effects.

  6. Speciation and Structural Properties of Hydrothermal Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Sulfate Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joachim; Vogel, Frédéric; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew

    2016-05-18

    Aqueous solutions of salts at elevated pressures and temperatures play a key role in geochemical processes and in applications of supercritical water in waste and biomass treatment, for which salt management is crucial for performance. A major question in predicting salt behavior in such processes is how different salts affect the phase equilibria. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate molecular-scale structures of solutions of sodium and/or potassium sulfate, which show contrasting macroscopic behavior. Solutions of Na-SO4 exhibit a tendency towards forming large ionic clusters with increasing temperature, whereas solutions of K-SO4 show significantly less clustering under equivalent conditions. In mixed systems (Nax K2-x SO4 ), cluster formation is dramatically reduced with decreasing Na/(K+Na) ratio; this indicates a structure-breaking role of K. MD results allow these phenomena to be related to the characteristics of electrostatic interactions between K(+) and SO4 (2-) , compared with the analogous Na(+) -SO4 (2-) interactions. The results suggest a mechanism underlying the experimentally observed increasing solubility in ternary mixtures of solutions of Na-K-SO4 . Specifically, the propensity of sodium to associate with sulfate, versus that of potassium to break up the sodium-sulfate clusters, may affect the contrasting behavior of these salts. Thus, mutual salting-in in ternary hydrothermal solutions of Na-K-SO4 reflects the opposing, but complementary, natures of Na-SO4 versus K-SO4 interactions. The results also provide clues towards the reported liquid immiscibility in this ternary system.

  7. A novel mouse model for colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sulfate sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Wang; Dong-Fei Wang; Bing-Jian Lv; Jian-Min Si

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To develop an efficient animal colitis-associated carcinogenesis model and to detect the expression of β-catenin and p53 in this new model.METHODS: Dysplasia and cancer were investigated in mice pretreated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg body mass of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine prior to three repetitive oral administrations of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium to give conditions similar to the clinically observed active and remission phases. Immunohistochemical staining of β-catenin and p53 was performed on paraffin-imbedded specimens of animals with cancer and/or dysplasia, those without dysplasia and the normal control animals.RESULTS: At wk 11, four early-invasive adenocarcinomas and 36 dysplasia were found in 10 (90.9%) of the 11 mice that underwent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-pretreatment with 3 cycles of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium-exposure. Dysplasia and/or cancer occurred as flat lesions or as dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM) as observed in humans. Colorectal carcinogenesis occurred primarily on the distal portion of the large intestine. No dysplasia and/or cancer lesion was observed in the control groups with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine pretreatment or 3 cycles of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium exposure alone. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that β-catenin was translocated from cell membrane to cytoplasm and/or nucleus in 100% of cases with dysplasia and neoplasm, while normal membrane staining was observed in cases without dysplasia and the normal control animals. Nuclear expression of p53 was not detected in specimens.CONCLUSION: A single dose of procarcinogen followed by induction of chronic ulcerative colitis results in a high incidence of colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Abnormal expression of β-catenin occurs frequently in dysplasia and cancer. This novel mouse model may provide an excellent vehicle for studying colitis-related colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Induction of experimental acute ulcerative colitis in rats by administration of dextran sulfate sodium at low concentration followed by intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several models of experimental ulcerative colitis have been reported previously. However, none of these models showed the optimum characteristics. Although dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis results in inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis, an obvious obstacle is that dextran sulfate sodium is very expensive. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive model of colitis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 3 d followed by an intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol. The administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium followed by 30% ethanol induced significant weight loss, diarrhea and hematochezia in rats. Severe ulceration and inflammation of the distal part of rat colon were developed rapidly. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,lymphocytes and existence of cryptic abscesses and dysplasia. The model induced by dextran sulfate sodium at lower concentration followed by 30% ethanol is characterized by a clinical course, localization of the lesions and histopathological features similar to human ulcerative colitis and fulfills the criteria set out at the beginning of this study.

  9. Effect of Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, and Urea on the Molecular Interactions and Properties of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm3 (STP/standard temperature and pressure) 100 μm (m2 d bar)−1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 μm (m2 d)−1 measured at 50 to 0% r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:28149835

  10. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  11. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  12. Purification of papain by metal affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase polyethylene glycol/sodium sulfate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hai-De; Wang, Wei-Tao

    2015-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive aqueous two-phase affinity partitioning system using metal ligands was introduced to improve the selectivity of commercial papain extraction. Polyethylene glycol 4000 was first activated using epichlorohydrin, then it was covalently linked to iminodiacetic acid. Finally, the specific metal ligand Cu(2+) was attached to the polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid. The chelated Cu(2+) content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry as 0.88 mol/mol (polyethylene glycol). The effects on the purification at different conditions, including polyethylene glycol molecular weight (2000, 4000, and 6000), concentration of phase-forming components (polyethylene glycol 12-20% w/w and sodium sulfate 12-20%, w/w), metal ligand type, and concentration, system pH and the commercial papain loading on papain extraction, were systematically studied. Under optimum conditions of the system, i.e. 18% w/w sodium sulfate, 18% w/w polyethylene glycol 4000, 1% w/w polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid-Cu(2+) and pH 7, a maximum yield of 90.3% and a degree of purification of 3.6-fold were obtained. Compared to aqueous two phase extraction without ligands, affinity partitioning was found to be an effective technique for the purification of commercial papain with higher extraction efficiency and degree of purification.

  13. Aggregation number-based degrees of counterion dissociation in sodium n-alkyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Nataly V; Shahine, Antoine; Bales, Barney L

    2005-10-27

    Values of the degree of counterion dissociation, alpha, for sodium n-alkyl sulfate micelles, denoted by SN(c)S, where N(c) is the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, are defined by asserting that the aggregation number, N, is dependent only on the concentration, C(aq), of counterions in the aqueous pseudophase. By using different combinations of surfactant and added salt concentrations to yield the same value of N, alpha can be determined, independent of the experimental method. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of the hyperfine spacings of two nitroxide spin probes, 16- and 5-doxylstearic acid methyl ester (16DSE and 5DSE, respectively), are employed to determine whether micelles from two samples have the same value of N to high precision. The EPR spectra are different for the two spin probes, but the values of alpha are the same, within experimental error, as they must be. In agreement with recent work on S12S and with prevailing thought in the literature, values of alpha are constant as a function of N. This implies that the value of alpha is constant whether the surfactant or added electrolyte concentrations are varied. Interestingly, alpha varies with chain length as follows: N(c) = 8, alpha = 0.42 +/- 0.03; N(c) = 9, alpha = 0.41 +/- 0.03; N(c) = 10, alpha = 0.35 +/- 0.02; N(c) = 11, alpha = 0.30 +/- 0.02 at 25 degrees C and N(c) = 13, alpha = 0.22 +/- 0.02; and N(c) = 14, alpha = 0.19 +/- 0.01 at 40 degrees C. A simple electrostatic theoretical description, based on the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the ion distribution around a charged sphere, was compared with the experimental results. The theory predicts values of alpha that are in reasonable agreement with experiment, nicely predicting the decrease of alpha as N(c) increases. However, the theory also predicts that, for a given value of N(c), alpha decreases as N increases. Moreover, this decrease is predicted to be different if N is increased by adding salt or by increasing

  14. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  16. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Aytekin, E-mail: apolat@nigde.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100 (Turkey); Makaraci, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Usta, Metin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2010-08-20

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R{sub a}) and critical load (L{sub c}) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 {mu}m, and 4.4 to 6.58 {mu}m, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  17. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen

  18. Salt effect on the (polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate) aqueous two-phase system: Relative hydrophobicity of the equilibrium phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luisa A., E-mail: laferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Teixeira, Jose A. [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Gibbs free energy of transfer of a methylene group on PEG 8000 - Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} ATPS. > Influence of salt additive on the hydrophobic character of the coexisting phases. > Partitioning behavior of a series of five sodium salts of DNP-amino acids. > A relationship between {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}), TLL and I of the salt additive was established. - Abstract: The relative hydrophobicity of the phases of several {l_brace}polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 + sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){r_brace} aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs), all containing 0.01 mol . L{sup -1} sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB, pH 7.4) and increasing concentration of a salt additive, NaCl or KCl, up to 1.0 mol . L{sup -1}, was measured by the free energy of transfer of a methylene group between the phases, {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}). The {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) of the systems was determined by partitioning of a homologous series of five sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP) - amino acids with aliphatic side chains in three different tie-lines of each biphasic system. The relative hydrophobicity of the phases ranged from -0.125 to -0.183 kcal . mol{sup -1}, being the NaCl salt the one to provide the more effective changes. The results show that, within each system, there is a linear relationship between the {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) and the tie-line length (TLL), and biphasic systems with high salt additive concentration present the most negative {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) values. Therefore, the feasibility of establishing a relationship between the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in a given TLL and the ionic strength of the salt additive was investigated and a satisfactory correlation was found for each salt.

  19. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-05

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (pstarch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment.

  20. Measuring the enthalpies of interaction between glycine, L-cysteine, glycylglycine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badelin, V. G.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Tyunina, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of solution Δsol H m for glycine, L-cysteine, and glycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with concentrations of up to 0.05 mol kg-1 are made. Standard enthalpy of solution Δsol H 0 and enthalpy of transfer Δtr H 0 of the dipeptide from water into mixed solvent are calculated. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of paired interactions of amino acids and dipeptide with SDS prove to be positive. Hydrophobic interactions between the biomolecules and SDS are found to have a major impact on the enthalpies of interaction in the three-component systems under study, within the indicated range of concentrations.

  1. Differential refractometric determination of binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate to protein using high-performance gel chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P F; Takagi, T

    1988-10-01

    When sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is added to a high-performance gel chromatographic column equilibrated with a buffer solution containing SDS at a level above the critical micelle concentration, the surplus SDS migrates as micelles giving a sharp peak. The presence of an unfolded protein in the sample solution gives a polypeptide peak in advance of the SDS micelle peak. As the result of SDS binding to the polypeptide, the SDS micelle peak is attenuated in comparison to that in the absence of protein. Thus the amount of SDS bound to the polypeptide can be determined accurately and simply from the decrease in the area of the SDS micelle peak. This approach is particularly useful for precise determination of bound SDS, which is pertinent to understanding the state of the protein polypeptide-SDS complex under the conditions of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λ(ex) 257 nm and λ(em) 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  3. Quantitation of antihistamines in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate and pentanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agustí, M; Monferrer-Pons, L; Esteve-Romero, J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2001-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic procedure with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), containing a small amount of pentanol, was developed for the control of 7 antihistamines of diverse action in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, and syrups): azatadine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproheptadine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, and tripelennamine. The retention times of the drugs were <9 min with a mobile phase of 0.15M SDS-6% (v/v) pentanol. The recoveries with respect to the declared compositions were in the range of 93-110%, and the intra- and interday repeatabilities and interday reproducibility were <1.2%. The results were similar to those obtained with a conventional 60 + 40 (v/v) methanol-water mixture, with the advantage of reduced toxicity, flammability, environmental impact, and cost of the micellar-pentanol solutions. The lower risk of evaporation of the organic solvent dissolved in the micellar solutions also increased the stability of the mobile phase.

  4. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays.

  5. Influence of sodium lauryl sulfate and tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Ke

    2013-10-11

    The influence of the surfactants of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and Tween 80 on carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) cocrystal solubility and dissolution behaviour has been studied in this work. The solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was determined by measuring the eutectic concentrations of the drug and the coformer. Evolution of the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal was monitored by the UV imaging dissolution system during dissolution. Experimental results indicated that SLS and Tween 80 had little influence upon the solubility of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal but they had totally opposite effects on the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal during dissolution. SLS significantly increased the IDR of the CBZ-NIC cocrystal while Tween 80 decreased its IDR.

  6. Astragalus polysaccharides protect against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κВ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Zhang, Yahong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fang; Shi, Ying; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan

    2017-05-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a bioactive extract of Astragalus membranaceus (AM), which possess a wide range of medicinal benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic effects. The present work evaluated the therapeutic effect of APS and its potential mechanisms in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The APS treatment led to significant improvements in colitis disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores, as well as significantly increased weight and colon length in mice as compared to the control group. Mechanically, reduced NF-κВ DNA phosphorylation activity and downregulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 expressions and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were associated with improvement in colitis observed in APS-treated mice. These findings suggest that APS may represent a natural therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis.

  7. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  8. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery.

  9. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  10. A molecular simulation probing of structure and interaction for supramolecular sodium dodecyl sulfate/single-wall carbon nanotube assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhen

    2010-03-10

    Here we report a larger-scale atomic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) surfaces and the interaction between supramolecular SDS/SWNT aggregates. We make an effort to address several important problems in regard to carbon nanotube dispersion/separation. At first, the simulation provides comprehensive direct evidence for SDS self-assembly structures on carbon nanotube surfaces, which can help to clarify the relevant debate over the exact adsorption structure. We also, for the first time, simulated the potential of mean force (PMF) between two SWNTs embedded in SDS surfactant micelles. A novel unified PMF approach has been applied to reveal various cooperative interactions between the SDS/SWNT aggregates, which is different from the previous electrostatic repulsion explanation. The unique role of sodium ions revealed here provides a new microscopic understanding of the recent experiments in the electrolyte tuning of the interfacial forces on the selective fractionation of SDS surrounding SWNTs.

  11. Analysis of partitioning of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-10-09

    Partition behavior of nine small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. It was found out that the partition coefficient of all compounds examined (including proteins) may be described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system differ from those in polyethylene glycol-dextran system.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of a combination of amikacin sulfate and penicillin G sodium for intravenous regional limb perfusion in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jorge E; Trela, Jan; Stanley, Scott D; Yamout, Sawsan; Snyder, Jack R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of amikacin and penicillin G sodium when administered in combination as an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) to horses. Seven healthy adult horses underwent an IVRLP in the cephalic vein with 2 g of amikacin sulfate and 10 mill IU of penicillin G sodium diluted to 60 mL in 0.9% saline. A pneumatic tourniquet set at 450 mmHg was left in place for 30 min. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint 35 min and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion of the antimicrobials. Concentrations of amikacin and penicillin in synovial fluid were quantitated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis. Therapeutic concentrations of amikacin and penicillin for equine-susceptible pathogens were achieved in the synovial fluid. Maximum synovial concentrations (Cmax) (mean ± SE) for amikacin and penicillin were 132 ± 33 μg/mL and 8474 ± 5710 ng/mL, respectively. Only 3 horses had detectable levels of penicillin at 6 h and 1 at the 12 h sample. The combination of amikacin with penicillin G sodium via IVDLP resulted in reported therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the synovial fluid. The Cmax:MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) ratio for amikacin was 8:1 and Time > MIC for penicillin was 6 h. At 24 h, the mean concentration of amikacin was still above 4 μg/mL. Terminal elimination rate constants (T1/2 lambdaz) were 13.6 h and 2.8 h for amikacin and penicillin, respectively. The use of IVDLP with penicillin may therefore not be practical as rapid clearance of penicillin from the synovial fluid requires frequent perfusions to maintain acceptable therapeutic concentrations.

  13. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  14. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, Elena N.; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.; Patsenker, Leonid D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Marynin, Andriy I.; Krasovitskii, Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR+ ⇄ R + H+) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R±. The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR+ with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKaapp = 5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators.

  15. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  16. A conductometric investigation of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sodium dodecyl sulfate/nonionic surfactant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant mixtures are very often used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because they commonly act in synergism and provide more favorable properties than the single surfactants. At the same time, the 9 presence of polymers in mixtures of surfactants may lead to molecular interactions thereby affecting product stability and activity. For these reasons it is very important to determine the surfactant interactions influence on 1micellization and mixed micellization, as well as polymer-surfactants mixed micelles interactions. In this work we examined self-aggregation of nonionic surfactants, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether (Triton X100 and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Pluronic F68 with ionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, in aqueous solution at 40ºC using conductometric titration method. It was found that concentration region for mixed micelle formation depends on nonionic surfactant characteristics and its concentration. Formation of surfactants mixed micelles in the presence of nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and their binding to polymer hydrophobic sites, were investigated too. Analysis of obtained results points to different kinds of interactions in investigated systems, which are crucial for their application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  17. Evaluation of the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate in suppressing inflammation in mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ichiro Hirata; Shingo Yasumoto; Ken Toshina; Takuya Inoue; Takashi Nishikawa; Naoko Murano; Mitsuyuki Murano; Fang-Yu Wang; Ken-ichi Katsu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; an NF-κB inhibitor) administered at low (50 mg/kg) and high (100 mg/kg) doses in suppressing colitis in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: Mice were divided into a DSS-untreated group (normal group), DSS-treated control group, DSS+PDTC-treated group Ⅰ (low-dose group), and DSS+PDTC-treated groupⅡ (high-dose group). In each group, the disease activity index score (DAI score), intestinal length, histological score, and the levels of activated NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in tissue were measured.RESULTS: The DSS+PDTC-treated group Ⅱ exhibited suppression of shortening of intestinal length and reduction of DAI score. Activated NF-kB level and IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly lower in DSS+PDTC-treated group Ⅱ.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that PDTC is useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Qi, Li; Jia, Mingjun; Wang, Hongyu

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) soft template (ST). Their physicochemical properties have been characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and nitrogen sorption measurements. Their electrocatalytic performances have been examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The obtained NiCo2O4 materials exhibit a typical nanoscale crystalline hexagonal morphology with specific surface area (SSA) and mesopore volume of 88.63 m2 g-1 and 0.298 cm3 g-1. Impressively, the SDS-assisted NiCo2O4 electrode shows a catalytic current density of 125 mA cm-2 and 72% retention for consecutive 1000 s at 0.6 V in 1 M KOH and 0.5 M CH3OH electrolytes towards methanol (CH3OH) electrooxidation, which is better than the one without SDS assistance. The pronounced electrocatalytic activity is largely ascribed to their higher surface intensities of Co and Ni species and superior mesoporous nanostructures, which provide the richer electroactive sites and faster electrochemical kinetics, leading to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

  19. Protective Effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. Against a Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Alterations in Liver and Kidney in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Jabri, Mohammed-Amine; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sebai, Hichem

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential protective role of Ceratonia siliqua L. against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in liver and kidney of rats. The hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were induced in rats by oral administration of synthetic DSS (5%) in the drinking water for over 7 days. However, carob pods aqueous extract (CPAE; 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) was given by oral administration for 21 days. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde, H2O2 content, as well as the levels of antioxidant enzymes in organs were measured to observe the possible mechanisms. As a result, the CPAE counteracted DSS-induced increase of MPO activity, lipoperoxidation, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT). DSS administration increased also in the organs hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and free iron levels, whereas the CPAE pretreatment reversed all intracellular mediator perturbations. It was concluded that the CPAE exerted a potential protective effect against DSS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in the rat organs. Consequently, it is essential that adequate care is taken when we use carob pods for patients with hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  20. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils.

  1. Small-angle neutron scattering from mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Santonicola, Gabriella; Kaler, Eric W; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2005-07-05

    This paper reports on the microstructures formed in aqueous solutions containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a photosensitive, bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA). By using quasi-elastic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined that aqueous solutions containing SDS and the trans isomer of BTHA (0.1 wt % total surfactant, 15 mol % BTHA, 85 mol % SDS) form vesicles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 1350 +/- 50 angstroms and bilayer thicknesses of 35 +/- 2 angstroms. The measured bilayer thickness is consistent with a model of the vesicle bilayer in which the trans isomer of BTHA spans the bilayer. Upon illumination with UV light, the BTHA underwent photoisomerization to produce a cis-rich photostationary state (80% cis isomer). We measured this photoisomerization to drive the reorganization of vesicles into cylindrical aggregates with cross-sectional radii of 19 +/- 3 angstroms and average hydrodynamic diameters of 240 +/- 50 angstroms. Equilibration of the cis-rich solution in the dark at 25 degrees C for 12 h or illumination of the solution with visible light leads to the recovery of the trans-rich photostationary state of the solution and the reformation of vesicles, thus demonstrating the potential utility of this system as the basis of a tunable fluid.

  2. Strawberry phytochemicals inhibit azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-03-10

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg-1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease.

  3. Nonlinear response of a batch BZ oscillator to the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Luciana; Lombardo, Renato; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria

    2007-02-15

    The response of the Belousov-Zhabotinsy (BZ) system to the addition of increasing amounts of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was monitored at 25.0 degrees C in stirred batch conditions. The presence of SDS in the reaction mixture influences the oscillatory parameters, i.e., induction period and oscillation period, to an extent that depends on the surfactant concentration. The experimental results have shown that the induction period increases slightly on increasing surfactant concentration and, then, a further increase in the [SDS] leads to an enhancement while the oscillation period increases monotonously on increasing SDS concentration. It has been proposed that the response of the oscillatory BZ system to the addition of SDS is due to the peculiar capability of the organized surfactant assemblies to affect the reactivity by selectively sequestering some key reacting species. Indeed, explanations of the experimental results have been given on the basis of the role played by the micellar shape, which in turn dictates the hydrophobic nature. The suggested perturbation effects have been supported by performing viscosity measurements on the aqueous SDS solutions and by the spectrophotometric estimation of the binding constant of the bromine species to the micellar aggregates. This study has indirectly corroborated the existence of two kind of micelles and unambiguously revealed that the bromine species show a different affinity toward the spherical and rod-like micelles.

  4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles–chitosan hydrogel (IVG improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution–chitosan hydrogel (ISG. In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Caifen; Xu, Jianghui; Singh, Vikramjeet; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-07-01

    In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles-chitosan hydrogel (IVG) improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution-chitosan hydrogel (ISG). In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  6. Effect of Compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Super Plasticizers on the Hydration of α-calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei; WANG Peiming

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition and its mechanism of sodium tripolyphosphate(STP)composited with super plasticizers(SPs)on hydration of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate were studied by setting time,strength,hydration heat,X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)measurements.The experimental results show that compared with STP addition,compositing STP with polycarboxylate(PC)plasticizer,the final setting time is prolonged from 0.5h to 2hs.While formulating STP with naphthalene-based plasticizer(NAP)or sulfonate melamine formaldehyde plasticizer(SMF),the final setting time is reduced to quarter of an hour Similar changes can also be found in the rate of exothermic hydration and hydration degree.Formulating STP with suitable addition of PC can enhance the strength,while compositing STP and NAP or SMF weakens the strength.Besides,adding STP or STP and SMF,obvious movement(more than lev)of binding energy of Ca2p1/2 and Ca2p3/2 is detected.Compared with STP addition,content of the characteristic element(P)of STP is cut down form 1.1% to 0.49% by compositing STP with SMF.Furthermore,as hydration age increases,hydration inhibition in the presence of admixtures weakens and even disappears within 56 h.

  7. To evaluate the change in release from solid dispersion using sodium lauryl sulfate and model drug sulfathiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Rutesh H; Patel, Hardikkumar H; Donahue, Edward; Patel, Ashwinkumar D

    2013-10-01

    The solubility of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of formulation development. There are numerous ways to improve the solubility of drugs amongst which the most promising strategy is solid dispersion. Different ratios of sulfathiazole: PVP-K29/32: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were prepared (1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:1) and various methods were employed to characterize the prepared solid dispersions, namely modulated differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and dissolution studies. Lack of crystallinity was observed in internal and external systems suggesting a loss of crystallinity, whereas the physical mixtures showed a characteristic peak of sulfathiazole. In vitro dissolution results clearly showed that the incorporation of a relatively small amount of surfactants (5, 20 or 33% w/w) into a solid dispersion can improve its dissolution rates compared to binary solid dispersion (SD) alone and pure sulfathiazole. In all ratios solid dispersion internal shows a higher dissolution rate compared to a physical mixture and solid dispersion external which suggests that the way that the surfactant is incorporated into the solid dispersion plays an important role in changing the solubility of a drug. The solubilization mechanism is mainly responsible for this higher dissolution rate when we incorporate the SLS in SD.

  8. Activation of intestinal human pregnane X receptor protects against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Qu, Aijuan; Tanaka, Naoki; Kimura, Shioko; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    The role of intestinal human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in colon cancer was determined through investigation of the chemopreventive role of rifaximin, a specific agonist of intestinal human PXR, toward azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon cancer. Rifaximin treatment significantly decreased the number of colon tumors induced by AOM/DSS treatment in PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. Additionally, rifaximin treatment markedly increased the survival rate of PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. These data indicated a human PXR-dependent therapeutic chemoprevention of rifaximin toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer. Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated inflammatory signaling was upregulated in AOM/DSS-treated mice, and inhibited by rifaximin in PXR-humanized mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also modulated by rifaximin treatment in the AOM/DSS model. In vitro cell-based assays further revealed that rifaximin regulated cell apoptosis and cell cycle in a human PXR-dependent manner. These results suggested that specific activation of intestinal human PXR exhibited a chemopreventive role toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer by mediating anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, and proapoptotic events.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  10. Photochemistry of "end-only" oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes: complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces solvent accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Eric H; Evans, Deborah G; Whitten, David G

    2013-08-06

    Cationic oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes are very effective light-activated biocides and biosensors but degrade upon exposure to light. In this study, we explore the photochemistry of a class of "end-only" compounds from this series, which have cationic moieties on the ends of the backbone. Product characterization by mass spectrometry reveals that the photoreactivity of these molecules is higher than that of a previously studied oligomer and that the primary products of photolysis result from the addition of water or oxygen across the triple bond. In addition, a product suggesting the addition of peroxide or other reactive oxygen species across the triple bond was observed. To explore avenues by which the photodegradation of these compounds can be mitigated, the effects of complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles on their photochemistry was explored. Classical molecular dynamics simulations revealed that compounds that were protected from photolysis by SDS buried their phenylene ethynylene backbones into the interior of the micelle, protecting it from contact with water. This work has revealed a molecular basis for the protection of a novel class of light-activated biocides from irradiation that is consistent with the proposed photochemistry of these compounds. This information can be useful for developing photodegradation-resistant biocidal materials and applications for current compounds and leads to new molecular design.

  11. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg((-1)) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg((-1)) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.

  12. A Microfluidic Approach to Investigating a Synergistic Effect of Tobramycin and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Lee, Eunwon; Choi, Jonghoon; Moon, Sangjun; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a microfluidic technology has contributed a significant role in biological research, specifically for the study of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are a source of infections and contamination in the environment due to an extra polymeric matrix. Inadequate uses of antibiotics make the bacterial biofilms antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it is important to determine the effective concentration of antibiotics in order to eliminate bacterial biofilms. The present microfluidic study was carried out to analyze the activities of tobramycin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with a continuous flow in order to achieve a greater delivery of the agents. The results show that a co-treatment of tobramycin and SDS significantly reduced the biomass of biofilms (by more than 99%) after 24 h. Tobramycin and SDS killed and detached bacteria in the cores of biofilms. Evidently, our data suggest that a microchannel would be effective for both quantitative and qualitative evaluations in order to test combinatorial effect of drugs and chemicals on a complexed biological system including biofilm.

  13. Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of quinine sulfate dication bound to sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Fluorescent complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D., E-mail: ddpant@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2014-01-15

    Interaction of quinine sulfate dication (QSD) with anionic, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been studied at different premicellar, micellar and postmicellar concentrations in aqueous phase using steady state, time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. At premicellar concentrations of SDS, the decrease in absorbance, appearance of an extra fluorescence band at lower wavelengths and tri-exponential decay behavior of fluorescence, are attributed to complex formation between QSD molecules and surfactant monomers. At postmicellar concentrations the red shift in fluorescence spectrum, increase in quantum yield and increase in fluorescence lifetimes are attributed to incorporation of solute molecules to micelles. At lower concentrations of SDS, a large shift in fluorescence is observed on excitation at the red edge of absorption spectrum and this is explained in terms of distribution of ion pairs of different energies in the ground state and the observed fluorescence lifetime behavior corroborates with this model. The temporal fluorescence anisotropy decay of QSD in SDS micelles allowed determination of restriction on the motion of the fluorophore. All the different techniques used in this study reveal that the photophysics of QSD is very sensitive to the microenvironments of SDS micelles and QSD molecules reside at the water-micelle interface. -- Highlights: • Probe molecule is very sensitive to microenvironment of micelles. • Highly fluorescent ion-pair formation has been observed. • Modulated photophysics of probe molecule in micellar solutions has been observed. • Probe molecules strongly bind with micelles and reside at probe–micelle interface.

  14. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. E. Halmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS- degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v, between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  15. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample.

  16. Propylene Glycol Alginate Sodium Sulfate Alleviates Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis by Modulating the MEK/ERK Pathway in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yueyue; Li, Linqiang; Liu, Hua; Hu, Liangkai; Dai, Ying; Chen, Jianqing; Xu, Shuqi; Chen, Weimin; Xu, Xiaorong; Xu, Xuanfu

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effects of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) against thrombosis, but the anti-inflammatory potential is unknown. Therefore, we specifically focused on the protective effects of PSS on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using a mouse model, and investigated the mechanism of PSS on autophagy and apoptosis via the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Cerulein (100 ug/kg) was used to induce AP by ten intraperitoneal injections at hourly intervals in Balb/C mice. Pretreatment with vehicle or PSS was carried out 1 h before the first cerulein injection and two doses (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) of PSS were injected intraperitoneally. The severity of AP was assessed by pathological score, biochemistry, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and MEK/ERK activity. Furthermore, pancreatic histological scores, serum amylase and lipase activities, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β interleukin (IL)-6 levels, and MPO activity were significantly reduced by PSS via up-regulated MEK/ERK activity. The representative molecules of apoptosis and autophagy, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Lc-3, Beclin-1, P62, were remarkably reduced. Taken together, these results indicate that PSS attenuates pancreas injury by inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis through a mechanism involving the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:28218693

  17. Impact of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 synthesis capacity on healing in rats with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağış, Erol R; Savaş, Berna; Melli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. This study evaluates the role of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) synthesis in an experimental rat model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls, DSS-induced colitis with no or vehicle therapy, misoprostol or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy groups. Disease severity and colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis was assessed specifically during the acute phase (day 5), chronic phase (day 15) and healing phases (day 19). Both misoprostol and 5-ASA reduced histopathologic score during the acute phase and reduced disease activity score at the healing phase. In addition, misoprostol reduced histopathologic score and colon weight/length ratio during the healing phase. Only misoprostol therapy increased colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis. Furthermore, LXA4 levels correlated negatively with disease progression (R=-0.953). Collectively, our findings suggest that misoprostol-induced LXA4 synthesis may be favorable for the healing of ulcerative colitis.

  18. A small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Borisov, Oleg; Lapp, Alain; François, Jeanne

    2006-03-15

    Mixed micelle of protonated or deuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and SDSd25, respectively) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) are studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In all the cases the scattering curves exhibit a peak whose position changes with the composition of the system. The main parameters which characterize mixed micelles, i.e., aggregation numbers of SDS and PPOMA, geometrical dimensions of the micelles and degree of ionisation are evaluated from the analysis of the SANS curves. The position q(max) of the correlation peak can be related to the average aggregation numbers of SDS-PPOMA and SDSd25-PPOMA mixed micelles. It is found that the aggregation number of SDS decreases upon increasing the weight ratio PPOMA/SDS (or SDSd25). The isotopic combination, which uses the "contrast effect" between the two micellar systems, has allowed us to determine the mixed micelle composition. Finally, the SANS curves were adjusted using the RMSA for the structure factor S(q) of charged spherical particles and the form factor P(q) of spherical core-shell particle. This analysis confirms the particular core-shell structure of the SDS-PPOMA mixed micelle, i.e., a SDS "core" micelle surrounded by the shell formed by PPOMA macromonomers. The structural parameters of mixed micelles obtained from the analysis of the SANS data are in good agreement with those determined previously by conductimetry and fluorescence studies.

  19. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight. One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05. The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease.

  20. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Miranda, A.; Lopez-Valdivieso, A., E-mail: alopez@uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia (Mexico); Viramontes-Gamboa, G. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ciencia Fisico-Matematicas (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +}) by sulfite ions (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag{sup +} turned to Ag{sup 0} in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 Degree-Sign C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 {mu}mol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low {+-}5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  1. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miranda, A.; López-Valdivieso, A.; Viramontes-Gamboa, G.

    2012-09-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by sulfite ions (SO3 2-), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag+ turned to Ag0 in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 °C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 μmol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low ±5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  2. Nicotine-induced neurogenic relaxation in the mouse colon: changes with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Ikuo; Hamada, Yuri; Yamane, Satoshi; Fujino, Hiromichi; Horie, Shunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine has been shown to reduce both tone and muscular activity in the human colon by releasing nitric oxide (NO) from nerves. To our knowledge, however, the effect of nicotine on mouse colon has not been elucidated, and the response in tissue from ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been investigated. We examined nicotine-induced responses in colon from control mice and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC. In controls, bath application of nicotine caused a transient relaxation in longitudinal preparations from the transverse and distal colons but not from the rectum. The response was observed in the presence of bethanechol, abolished by treatment with tetrodotoxin and hexamethonium, and mediated partially (>50%) by the NO pathway. In longitudinal preparations of the distal colon from DSS-treated mice, spontaneous contractions decreased markedly, and nicotine caused contraction without relaxation in half of the preparations tested. Nicotine-induced relaxation in the presence of bethanechol was significantly decreased in the DSS-treated distal colon without changing bethanechol-induced contractions. These data suggest that 1) responses to nicotine differ dependent on colon regions, 2) DSS treatment predominantly caused nicotine-sensitive neurogenic changes in distal colon, and 3) DSS treatment may reverse the direction of nicotine-evoked responses in the colon, in mice.

  3. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic and DFOD (neutral and the ligand EDTA (anionic onto goethite (α-FeOOH at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition.

  4. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection.

  5. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  6. The Catalysis of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/1-Pentanol/Water W/O Microemulsion on the Photoisomerization of trans-Stilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia GUO; Ling LIN; Rong GUO

    2004-01-01

    The photoisomerization of trans-stilbene was studied in the water in oil (W/O) micro- emulsion formed by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), n-C5H11OH (1-pentanol) and H2O. The experimental results show that after 2-minute UV-irradiation, the yield of cis-stilbene is higher in W/O microemulsion than in homogeneous solvent-n-C5H11OH.

  7. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M.; Krstonošić Veljko S.; Milanović Maja Lj.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail s...

  8. Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

    2014-12-01

    Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL-1β and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators.

  9. Optical and Thermal Properties of Zn/Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite Intercalated with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn/Al-LDH-SDS nanocomposites have been prepared using a coprecipitation method in different molar ratio of Zn2+/Al3+ = 2, 3, and 4 at pH = 10 and different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M. The XRD and FTIR data show the successful intercalation of SDS into the LDH interlayer. The XRD diffractogram showed that the basal spacing for Zn/Al–NO3- is 0.89 nm compared to 2.54–2.61 nm for the Zn/Al-SDS nanocomposite. Optical band gap of the samples was calculated using Kubelka-Munk model. Due to the presence of LDH phase, two band gap energies (Eg1 and Eg2 were observed. The values of Eg1 and Eg2 were found around 4.8 eV and 3.75 eV for Zn/Al-LDH (r = 2, 3, and 4. The values of band gap of LDH-SDS nanocomposites were found to increase to around 4.2 eV and 5.2 eV. For Zn4Al-LDH-SDS with 0.4 M and 0.8 M of SDS, only one energy gap at around 3.23 eV was observed. The optical band gap of SO42- phase increased as the amount of SDS increases. Thermal diffusivity of the resulted nanocomposite was also investigated.

  10. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Recombinant IL-25 on the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Salum Mchenga; Danan Wang; Cheng Li; Fengping Shan; Changlong Lu

    2008-01-01

    The role of interleukin 25 (IL-25) in a number of human diseases still has not been extensively studied, here we attempt to evaluate the role of recombinant IL-25 (rIL-25) in the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)induced experimental colitis. Acute colitis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum. At the same time as the start of DSS exposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.4 μg of rIL-25 or PBS. Then disease activity index (DAI), histological changes and survival rate were observed. The levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 in colon tissues were determined by ELISA, and the production of IL-17 by CD4+/CD8+ T cells was detected by intracellular flow cytometry. In contrast to the DSS treated mice, DSS + rIL-25 treated mice displayed a lower DAI, limited histological changes and prolonged survival. The levels of IL-23 and TGF-β1 were significantly elevated in the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice compared to the DSS treated mice. There was no significant difference in the production of IL-17 in colon tissues and CD4+/CD8+ T cells between the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice and DSS treated mice. Our findings suggest the role of IL-25 in inhibiting development and progression of acute colitis in DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(6):425-431.

  12. Sarcodon aspratus Extract Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mouse Colon and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kim, Jin Hee; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms have been previously investigated for their immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory properties. We examined whether the anti-inflammatory properties of Sarcodon aspratus ethanol extract (SAE) could elicit protective effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. Male C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: control (CON; n = 8), DSS-treated (DSS; n = 9), DSS+SAE at 50 mg/kg BW (SAE50; n = 8), and DSS+SAE at 200 mg/kg BW groups (SAE200; n = 9). DSS treatment induced significant weight loss, which was significantly recovered by SAE200. Although SAE did not affect DSS-mediated reductions in colon length, it improved diarrhea and rectal bleeding induced by DSS. SAE at 200 mg/kg BW significantly attenuated IL-6 and enhanced IL-10 expression in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and significantly reduced IL-6 levels in splenocytes. SAE200 also significantly attenuated DSS-induced increase in IL-6 and IL-1β, and reductions in IL-10 in colon tissue. High levels of SAE were also observed to significantly decrease inflammatory COX-2 expression that was upregulated by DSS in mice colon. These findings may have relevance for novel therapeutic strategies to mitigate inflammatory bowel disease-relevant inflammatory responses, via the direct and indirect anti-inflammatory activity of SAE. We also found that SAE harbors significant quantities of total fiber and β-glucan, suggesting a possible role for these components in protection against DSS-mediated colitis.

  13. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  14. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  15. Stability of Reference Genes for Messenger RNA Quantification by Real-Time PCR in Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate Experimental Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eissa

    Full Text Available Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE in DSS-experimental murine colitis.Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle.Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh, β-actin (Actb, or β2-microglobulin (β2m showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2 were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or β2m were used.This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or β2m as reference genes.

  16. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Pant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80% having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1% (P = 0.004. Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80% and severe (100% proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25% (P <0.001. Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  17. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pragya; Singh, R G; Singh, Santosh K; Singh, Vijay P; Doley, Prodip K; Sivasankar, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs) in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80%) having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1%) (P = 0.004). Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80%) and severe (100%) proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25%) (P <0.001). Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  18. Dramatic Changes of Matrix Metalloproteinases-7 and Lysozyme in the Ulcerative Colitis of Mice Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jing-jing; YANG Yu-rong; LIANG Hong-de; ZHAO De-ming; TENG Ke-dao; JIAO Xi-lan; WANG Ping-li; SUN Zhe; NI Pei-pei; WANG Zhi-feng; ZHANG Rui

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a lifelong illness with profound emotional and social impacts, and could cause serious damage to large intestine, especially in colon. However, the pathogenesis of UC remained unclear. The present study attempts to ifnd out the role of matrix metalloproteinases-7 (MMP-7) and lysozyme in the pathogenesis of UC through a mice model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The UC model was evaluated both by disease activity index (DAI) and the intestinal histopathology. The results show that there is a high correlation between the DAI score and the pathological changes of colon. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum levels and large intestinal lfuids levels in UC mice are always higher than that of the control groups, which might be associated with the degree of the inlfammation damage in the colon. The change tendency of the MMP-7 mRNA and protein expressions are both up-regulated ifrstly and then down-regulated from 1 to 5 d in the colon, but only the MMP-7 protein is up-regulated at 7 d again. The up-regulated MMP-7 levels in the early stage of UC may play a protective role through the activated defensins, while the down-regulated levels in the mid-later stage of UC may be connected with the severe lesions in the colon. However, the up-regulated MMP-7 levels in the later stage of UC in the colon may also contribute to the tissue repair or be served as a marker to CRC (colorectal cancer). The distribution of lysozyme protein indicates that there may be Paneth-like cells in the colon. Both the changes of MMP-7 and lysozyme in the small intestine may play a protective role for the safe environment of the whole gut, especially to the colon of UC.

  19. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margie Lee CLAPPER; Harry Stanley COOPER; Wen-Chi Lee CHANG

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both charac-terize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflam-marion and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic admin-istration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological fea-tures that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen(azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc),p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a pre-ventable disease.

  20. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent.

  1. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Trompette, Jean-Luc; Vergnes, Hugues

    2009-01-01

    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ionswere particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were o...

  2. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  3. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  4. Investigation of dynamic processing on aluminum floc aggregation:Cyclic shearing recovery and effect of sulfate ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The floc formation and re-aggregation potential and the effects of sulfate on coagulation by AlCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and Al13 species using a photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA) are in- vestigated. It is found that the recovery level from shearing is the highest for the Al13 species. This is likely a result of increased collision efficiency due to more effective charge neutralization. The ex- perimental results show that sulfate has a significant effect on coagulation and promoting aggregation of hydrolyzed species for the Al13 species. It results in significant improvement of the coagulation effi- ciency through an electrostatic patch effect. The results further indicate that zeta potential of the parti- cle suspension is not the only indicator for the coagulant efficiency when precipitate formation sig- nificantly improves coagulation.

  5. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Tween 80 on Cell Viability in an Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Fregoso, Luisa

    2011-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate current via electrochemical reactions produced by bacteria attached to the anode that oxidize organic matter. Due to their high volume use in household products, some concentration of surfactant will reach wastewater treatment plants. The average surfactant concentration in wastewater ranges from 10 to 20 mg L-1, and up to 300 mg L-1, for domestic and industrial wastewaters, respectively. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing power production by adding Tween 80 and SDS surfactants to air-cathode MFCs, and their effect in cell viability at the anodic biofilm. In order to analyze the effect of anionic and nonionic surfactants in MFCs performance, eight MFCs were spiked with two types of surfactants, the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant Tween® 80 at two different concentrations 10 and 100 mg L-1. Cell viability at the anodic biofilms was examined using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability assay and images were visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The electrochemical results demonstrate that, for an air-cathode MFC operating on 1 g L-1 acetate in a fed-batch mode, reactors where SDS was added show a lower overall performance, maximum PD of 544 mW m-2, CE of 12.3%, Rint of 322 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 265 mW m-2, CE of 9.4%, Rint of 758 Ω (100 mg L-1). Reactors where Tween 80 was added show quite stable performance, maximum PD of 623 mW m-2, CE of 15.4%, Rint of 216 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 591 mW m-2, CE of 10.8%, Rint of 279 Ω (100 mg L-1), compared with reactors operating at only acetate as a substrate, maximum PD of 574 mW m-2. Confocal microscopy images confirm this observation and biofilm viability appeared severely compromised in SDS reactors, especially at high concentrations. This study has opened up a whole new research area in determining which types of surfactants are toxic to the anodic biofilm and to further investigate the

  6. Possible Role of Mast Cells and Neuropeptides in the Recovery Process of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhao; Lei Dong; Jin-yan Luo; Hai-tao Guan; Hui Ma; Xue-qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of mast cells and neuropeptides substance P (SP),somatostatin (SS),and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods Experimental colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g,n=20) by oral in-gestion of 4% (w/v) DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Control rats (n=5) drank water and were sacrificed on day 0. Mast cell number,histamine levels in whole blood and tissue,tissue levels of SP,SS and,VIP in the dis-tal colon of the rats were measured on day 8,day 13,and day 18 of experimentation. Results Oral administration of 4% DSS solution for 7 days resulted in surface epithelial loss and crypt loss in the distal colon. Mast cell count increased on day 8 (1.75±1.09/mm vs. 0.38±0.24/mm,P<0.05) and day 13 (1.55±1.01/mm vs. 0.38±0.24/mm,P<0.05) after DSS treatment. Whole blood his-tamine levels were increased on day 8 (266.93±35.62 ng/mL vs. 76.87±32.28 ng/mL,P<0.01) and gradu-ally decreased by day 13 and day 18 after DSS treatment. Histamine levels in the distal colon were decreased on day 8 (1.77±0.65 ng/mg vs. 3.06±0.87 ng/mg,P<0.05) and recovered to control levels by day 13 after DSS treatment. SP level in the distal colon gradually increased and were raised significantly by day 13 (8777.14±3056.14 pg/mL vs. 4739.66±3299.81 pg/mL,P<0.05) after DSS treatment. SS and VIP levels in the distal colon were not changed. Conclusions Mast cell degranulation followed by histamine release may play an important role in the pathogenesis of colitis induced by DSS. SP may be a significant substance in the progression of inflamma-tion and the recovery process of DSS-induced colitis.

  7. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  8. Sodium Prasterone Sulfate in the application of induced abortion of midtrimester pregnancy%硫酸普拉酮钠在中孕引产前的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 洪珊儿

    2009-01-01

    Objective The observation of Sodium Prasterone Sulfate used in pregnant cervical ripening before induction of labor, the impact of the birth process. Methods Selected in January 2006 to December 2008 treated at our hospital 160 cases of benefit in pregnancy induced rivanol (hereinafter referred to in the primers), which cited 80 cases before the application of Sodium Prasterone Sulfate intravenous injection three days as the observation group , in the primer before the application is not using one of sodium sulfate Pula 80 cases of intravenous injection as a control group, the birth process were observed. Result Observer Group capacity, journey time 1.88 hours for the 9 people in the control group 1.21 hours for 17 people, there is significant difference. Conclusions Sodium Prasterone Sulfate and progesterone in the induction of labor before the application can be cervical ripening, so that to shorten the birth process, it is worth to promote the application of clinical.%目的 观察硫酸普拉酮钠应用于中孕引产前促宫颈成熟,对产程的影响. 方法 选取在2006年1月~2008年12月在本院收治的160例利凡诺尔中孕引产 (以下简称中引),其中80例中引前应用硫酸普拉酮钠静脉推注3天作为观察组,中引前未应用硫酸普拉酮钠静脉推注80例做为对照组,观察两组的产程.结果 观察组产程时间为9±1.88小时,对照组为17±1.21小时,有显著差异. 结论 硫酸普拉酮钠在中孕引产前应用,可促宫颈成熟,使产程缩短,值得临床推广应用.

  9. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  10. Isoelectric focusing of human hair keratins: correlation with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and effect of cosmetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvo, M S; Carracedo, A; Muñoz, I; Concheiro, L

    1992-03-01

    A new isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique in polyacrylamide gels with 6M urea and 1.5% Nonidet P40 has been developed to characterize human hair samples. The phenotypes demonstrated with this procedure has been correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns described by other authors. The method described can be applied in the forensic science analysis of a single human hair. Using the same IEF technique we have studied the changes in electrophoretic patterns of cosmetically treated hair. The characteristics of the modifications observed and its utility in forensic science work are also discussed in this paper.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-shuang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  12. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS induces colitis in mice by forming nano-lipocomplexes with medium-chain-length fatty acids in the colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Laroui

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, primarily ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are inflammatory disorders caused by multiple factors. Research on IBD has often used the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis mouse model. DSS induces in vivo but not in vitro intestinal inflammation. In addition, no DSS-associated molecule (free glucose, sodium sulfate solution, free dextran induces in vitro or in vivo intestinal inflammation. We find that DSS but not dextran associated molecules established linkages with medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs, such as dodecanoate, that are present in the colonic lumen. DSS complexed to MCFAs forms nanometer-sized vesicles ~200 nm in diameter that can fuse with colonocyte membranes. The arrival of nanometer-sized DSS/MCFA vesicles in the cytoplasm may activate intestinal inflammatory signaling pathways. We also show that the inflammatory activity of DSS is mediated by the dextran moieties. The deleterious effect of DSS is localized principally in the distal colon, therefore it will be important to chemically modify DSS to develop materials beneficial to the colon without affecting colon-targeting specificity.

  13. Use of capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate to monitor disulfide scrambled forms of an Fc fusion protein during purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Fodor, Szilan; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

    2011-07-15

    Overexpression of recombinant Fc fusion proteins in Escherichia coli frequently results in the production of inclusion bodies that are subsequently used to produce fully functional protein by an in vitro refolding process. During the refolding step, misfolded proteins such as disulfide scrambled forms can be formed, and purification steps are used to remove these product-related impurities to produce highly purified therapeutic proteins. A variety of analytical methods are commonly used to monitor protein variants throughout the purification process. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based techniques are gaining popularity for such applications. In this work, we used a nonreduced capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (nrCE-SDS) method for the analysis of disulfide scrambled forms in a fusion protein. Under denatured nonreduced conditions, an extra post-shoulder peak was observed at all purification steps. Detailed characterization revealed that the peak was related to the disulfide scrambled forms and was isobaric with the correctly folded product. In addition, when sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used during the CE-SDS peak characterization, we observed that the migration order of scrambled forms is reversed on CE-SDS versus SDS-PAGE. This illustrates the importance of establishing proper correlation of these two techniques when they are used interchangeably to guide the purification process and to characterize proteins.

  14. Adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on a C18 column under micellar and high submicellar conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2015-02-01

    Micellar liquid chromatography makes use of aqueous solutions or aqueous-organic solutions containing a surfactant, at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration. In the mobile phase, the surfactant monomers aggregate to form micelles, whereas on the surface of the nonpolar alkyl-bonded stationary phases they are significantly adsorbed. If the mobile phase contains a high concentration of organic solvent, micelles break down, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed on the stationary phase is reduced, giving rise to another chromatographic mode named high submicellar liquid chromatography. The presence of a thinner coating of surfactant enhances the selectivity and peak shape, especially for basic compounds. However, the risk of full desorption of surfactant is the main limitation in the high submicellar mode. This study examines the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate under micellar and high submicellar conditions on a C18 column, applying two methods. One of them uses a refractive index detector to obtain direct measurements of the adsorbed amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the second method is based on the retention and peak shape for a set of cationic basic compounds that indirectly reveal the presence of adsorbed monomers of surfactant on the stationary phase.

  15. 浅淡盐硝联产无闪发罐专利工艺的应用%Brief Discussion on the Application of Patented Process in the Co-Production of Salt and Sodium Sulfate without Flash Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙国平

    2012-01-01

    According to the process analysis of the imported facility of co-production of salt and sodium sulfate in vacuum salt making and in combination with the process of the co-production of salt and sodium sulfate in Xuzhou Fengcheng Salt and Chemical Co.,Ltd,this paper briefly discusses the patented process of the co-production of salt and sodium sulfate without flash evaporator which is of references for colleagues.%根据国内引进的真空制盐盐硝联产工艺分析,结合徐州丰成盐化工有限公司真空制盐盐硝联产工艺,浅淡取消闪发罐的盐硝联产专利工艺,仅供同行参考。

  16. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-08

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules.

  17. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate, Hydromorphone Hydrochloride, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Midazolam, Morphine Sulfate, and Pentobarbital Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Anderson; Mark MacKay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, morphine 1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, and pentobarbital 50 mg/mL when stored as single drug entities at room temperature in polypropylene syringes. Methods: Four 5 mL samples of each drug and concentra...

  18. Synthesis of a new electrolyte by co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application on PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, J.R.A.; Boaventura, F.J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Bresciani, D. [Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) use polymer membranes as electrolytes and protons as conductors. This paper reported on a study in which co-polyesters were doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The co-polymers were synthesized by a copolymerization process that used terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. A reactor was used to process the material, which was then hot-pressed to produce homogenous and flexible plates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric, direct scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses were conducted. Results of the analyses demonstrated that the composite material was stable up to a temperature of 250 degrees C. A micrographics study showed that MDS was homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. It was concluded that with an electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S per cm, the copolymers were suitable for use in PEMFC applications.

  19. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on immuno-electrosyneresis between normal human erythrocyte membrane and sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arimori,Shigeru

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-membrane antibody was present in the sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in immunoelectrosyneresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solubilized erythrocyte membrane as antigen. The SDS bound to protein was detected by chromatography at 10(-3M concentration under U.V. light, at 10(-5M concentration by the distilled water spray method and at 10(-6M concentration by using rosaniline hydrochloride colorimetry. SDS was removed from the membrane protein at a concentration of 10(-3M by the first gel filtration of Sephadex G-25 column and at a concentration of 10(-6M by rechromatography of the same column. More than 99% of SDS in the solubilized erythrocyte membrane was removed by gel filtration. The antigenicity was still positive in the refiltrated fractions of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Therefore, all precipitates in the gels were antigen-antibody aggregates.

  20. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  1. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés;

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study...... of two aquaporins with high structural homology SoPIP2;1 and AqpZ using identical reconstitution conditions. Our CD results indicate that SDS, when added to membrane-reconstituted aquaporins in concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration (CMC, ~8mM), causes helical rearrangements of both...... reconstituted SoPIP2;1 as well as AqpZ is associated with initial increased hydrophobic interactions in protein transmembrane (TM) spanning regions up to a concentration of 0.1× CMC. At higher SDS concentrations TM hydrophobic interactions, as reported by Badan, decrease and reach a plateau from SDS CMC up...

  2. Micellar copolymerization of associative polymers: study of the effect of acrylamide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; François, Jeanne

    2005-09-15

    Mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) have been studied in the presence of acrylamide using conductimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under the following conditions: (i) the SDS-acrylamide binary system in water; (ii) the SDS-acrylamide-PPOMA ternary system in water. The addition of acrylamide in SDS solutions perturbs the micellization of the surfactant by decreasing the aggregation number of the micelles and increasing their ionization degree. The variations of the various micellar parameters versus the weight ratio R=PPOMA/SDS are different in the presence of acrylamide or in pure water. These differences are much more pronounced for the lower than for the higher PPOMA concentrations. There is competition between acrylamide and PPOMA and at higher PPOMA concentration, acrylamide tends to be released from SDS micelles and is completely replaced by PPOMA.

  3. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 3. The Role of Tackiness and the Tack Stokes Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first and second parts of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1893 and 1905], agglomeration tendencies were studied for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. Results showed that the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt...... coating process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions, because of differences in stickiness, not because of differences in bulk viscosities. It was further shown that it is possible to optimize the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency...... of agglomeration, similar to the salt coating process. With the PVA-TiO2, coating liquid layer thicknesses encountered during these fluid-bed coating processes, agglomeration seems to be governed primarily by liquid surface phenomena. A modification to the original viscous Stokes number is suggested in the present...

  4. The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG, FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

  5. 卤水中去除硫酸钠的技术浅析%Technic Aanlysis for Removing Sodium Sulfate from Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云

    2012-01-01

    卤水中除去硫酸钠是制碱行业的一项重要工艺.而在采卤前期,一般不进行除硝工艺,为了提高原料卤水的质量和价格,通过纳滤膜技术,使原料卤水达到碱厂一次原卤达标.此次试验是采输卤处理现场试验.%It is very important to remove sodium sulfate from the brine in soda industry. In order to improve the quality and the price of brine, nanofiltration membrane experiment is done after brine is mined. The brine after nanofiltration can meet the initial grade requirement of the soda factory.

  6. 水杨酸正戊酯的催化合成研究%Synthesis of n-Amyl Salicylate Catalyzed by Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 马荣萱

    2009-01-01

    n-Amyl salicylate was synthesized from salicylic acid and n-pentanol using sodium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst. Factors influencing the ether yield,such as molar ratio of alcohol to acid,catalyst dosage,reaction time,water carrier dosage were discussed. Experimental results showed that sodium hydrogen sulfate was an excellent catalyst. The optimum synthetic conditions were as follows: molar ratio of salicylic acid to n-pentanol was 1∶1.5,catalyst dosage was 4.7% of mass of the reactants,using 10 mL of cyclohexane as water carrier,reaction temperature was 120~140℃ and reaction time was 4.5 h.Under above conditions, the yield of n-amyl salicylate achieved 93.3%.%以水杨酸和正戊醇为原料,用一水合硫酸氢钠催化合成水杨酸正戊酯.研究了酸醇摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应时间及带水剂用量等因素对酯收率的影响.结果表明,一水合硫酸氢钠是合成水杨酸正戊酯的良好催化剂.最佳反应条件如下:酸醇摩尔比为1∶1.5,催化剂用量为反应物总质量的4.7%,带水剂环己烷用量为10 mL,反应时间为4.5 h,反应温度为120~140℃.在此条件下,水杨酸正戊酯的收率可达93.3%.

  7. Interaction of quinine sulfate with anionic micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate: A time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.

    2015-09-01

    Photophysical behavior and rotational relaxation dynamics of quinine sulfate (QS) in anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH have been studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It has been observed that the cationic form of quinine sulfate (at pH 2) forms a fluorescent ion pair complex with the surfactant molecules at lower concentrations of surfactant. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, the probe molecules bind strongly with the micelles and reside at the water-micelle interface. At pH 7, QS is singly protonated in bulk aqueous solution. At lower concentrations of SDS aggregation between probe and surfactant molecules has been observed. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, an additional fluorescence peak corresponding to dicationic form of QS appears and this has been attributed to double protonation of the QS molecule in micellar solution. At pH 7, in the presence of SDS micelles, the photophysical properties of QS showed substantial changes compared to that in the bulk water solution. At pH 12, an increase in fluorescence intensity and lifetime has been observed and this has been attributed to the increase in radiative rate due to the incorporation of QS at the micelle-water interface. The local pH at micellar surface has been found different from the pH of bulk solution.

  8. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.;

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  9. Evaluation of DLVO theory with disjoining-pressure and film-conductance measurements of common-black films stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Heather D; Newman, John; Radke, C J

    2003-06-15

    We develop a unique film holder combining a thin-film balance with AC impedance spectroscopy to measure disjoining pressure, film conductance, and film thickness simultaneously. Foam films stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are investigated with and without added sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte. Classical colloidal theory, Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory, is tested rigorously over a wide range of solution conditions by comparing the surface charge densities fit to disjoining-pressure isotherms with those estimated independently from film-conductance and surface-tension data. Film-conductance measurements strongly suggest that the adsorbed anionic surfactant is partially complexed with counterions. Therefore, to reconcile the different values of charge densities calculated from surface tension and film conductance with those from disjoining pressure, we propose a simple ion-binding electrostatic model. The ion-complexation framework predicts increased ion complexing with increasing solution ionic strength, in agreement with surface-tension and film-conductance data. Unfortunately, it is not possible to describe similarly the trends of the measured disjoining-pressure isotherms because the diffuse-layer charge density increases, or equivalently, the ion complexation decreases with increasing ionic strength. Accordingly, the ion-binding extension of classical DLVO theory does not permit agreement between theory and independent experimental data from surface tension, disjoining pressure, and film conductance.

  10. Effect of carbon chain on the performance of sodium fatty alcohol sulfate%碳链对脂肪醇硫酸钠性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方灵丹; 夏雄燕; 孔令鸟; 雷小英; 余新林

    2012-01-01

    测定不同碳链脂肪醇硫酸钠的物化性能,如表面张力、cmc值、乳化、接触角、耐硬水性和泡沫等。结果表明,C12~14醇硫酸钠降低表面张力的效果最佳。随着烷基碳链变长,脂肪醇硫酸钠的接触角变大且耐硬水性能也变差。C8~10醇硫酸钠的发泡力最差,且C16~18醇硫酸钠因其耐硬水性能差,其发泡力随着水硬度的增加而下降。以C16~18醇硫酸钠的乳化性能最好。%The chemical properties of sodium fatty alcohol sulfate with different carbon chains,such as surface tension,cmc,emulsification,contact angle,resistance to hard water,foaming power,etc.were determined.The results illustrated the longer carbon chain,the bigger contact angle and the poorer resistance to hard water.The sodium C12~14 alcohol sulfate showed the best property in reduction of surface tension.The sodium C8~10 alcohol sulfate showed the worst foaming property.The foam of sodium C16~18 alcohol sulfate decreased with the increasing hardness of water due to its bad resistance to hard water.The sodium C16~18 alcohol sulfate showed the best emulsifying performance.

  11. Ion Association in Hydrothermal Sodium Sulfate Solutions Studied by Modulated FT-IR-Raman Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joachim; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Wambach, Jörg M; Vogel, Frédéric

    2015-07-30

    Saline aqueous solutions at elevated pressures and temperatures play an important role in processes such as supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water gasification (SCWG), as well as in natural geochemical processes in Earth and planetary interiors. Some solutions exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of solubility at high temperatures, thereby leading to salt precipitation with increasing temperature. Using modulated FT-IR Raman spectroscopy and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD), we studied the solute speciation in solutions of 10 wt % Na2SO4, at conditions close to the saturation limit. Our experiments reveal that ion pairing and cluster formation are favored as solid saturation is approached, and ionic clusters form prior to the precipitation of solid sulfate. The proportion of such clusters increases as the phase boundary is approached either by decreasing pressure or by increasing temperature in the vicinity of the three-phase (vapor-liquid-solid) curve.

  12. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  13. 硫酸铝改良苏打盐碱土后各离子的变化%The Change of Adding Aluminum Sulfate on Saline Alkali Soil's Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇男; 耿玉辉; 赵兰坡

    2011-01-01

    为了更好地利用苏打盐碱土,对其进行更好地开发和改良,通过室内模拟,分析施用不同含量硫酸铝对土壤中可溶性盐及pH的影响.结果表明,添加硫酸铝后,使土壤溶液中钠离子、碳酸根和碳酸氢根明显增加,土壤溶液pH值明显下降,土壤性质明显改善.随着硫酸铝的增加,土壤颗粒释放出的可溶性盐也大量增加,明显减少土壤中的盐类物质.在加入不同浓度硫酸铝和不同淋洗次数的比较后,淋洗次数对苏打盐碱土中的盐类也有明显的影响,综合多项指标,加入硫酸铝浓度为0.8%时,淋洗2次,效果最佳.同时,苏打盐碱土理化性质的改良也为作物生长创造了良好的土壤环境.%In order to make better use of saline alkali soil, it should have better improvement. In this paper, effect of different concentrations of aluminum sulfate on soluble salts and pH value of the soil was studied through indoor simulation experiments. The results indicated that after a table 1 aluminum sulfate, Na+, CO32-and HCO3- contents of the soil solutions increased significantly, pH value of the soil solutions decreased significantly and properties of the soil had remarkable improvement. With the aluminum sulfate amount increasing, the soluble salt contents released from the soil particles increased, the salt contents in the soil reduced. Different density and washed times of aluminum sulfate influenced the outcome. At the same time, the improvement of physics-chemical properties of soda alkali-saline soils had created the good soil environment for the crops growth.

  14. EDTA complexometric titration for determination of aluminum in copper sulfate waste solution%EDTA 络合滴定法测定硫酸铜废液中的铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小叶; 迟爱玲

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate waste solution generated in metallurgical process is studied in determining aluminum . Ammonia (1+1) is used to separate aluminum in the form of aluminum hydroxide precipitation from the principal part of the solution ,and then the aluminum mass concentration is determined by EDTA complexometry .A series of ex-periments are conducted on the parameters such as copper and iron ionic interference ,solution acidity and the temper-ature of the EDTA complexation reaction ,solving the problems of the determination of the aluminum in this copper sul-fate waste solution .This method compared with spectrophotometry is simple , rapid and has lower analysis cost .The method through the determination in copper sulfate solution with different mass fraction ,obtains a relative standard de-viation of 0.071 %-0.930 %(n=6),and sample measurements are consistent with the azure S value determined by spectrophotometry .%实验研究了冶金工艺过程产生的硫酸铜废液中铝的测定方法。采用氨水(1+1)使铝以氢氧化铝沉淀的形式与主体溶液分离,然后用EDTA络合法测定铝的质量浓度;对该硫酸铜废液中铜、铁干扰离子、溶液的酸度、EDTA络合反应温度等条件进行了一系列的实验,解决了硫酸铜废液中铝的测定难题。该方法与分光光度法比较,简单快速,分析成本低廉;通过对不同硫酸铜废液中铝的质量浓度测定,相对标准偏差为0.071%~0.930%(n=6),样品测定值与络天青S分光光度法测定值相符合。

  15. 硫酸钠在蛋鸡饲粮中的安全性评价%Safety Evaluation of Sodium Sulfate in Laying Hens Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊平文; 刘兵; 陈娜娜; 余东游

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the safety of high doses of sodium sulfate supplementa-tion in laying hens diet by determining performance, egg quality, hymnological indices and histopathological changes. Four hundred and fifty 20-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 15 birds per replicate. Birds were fed basal diets supplemented with 0 ( control) , 0.3% ( the recommended available dose, RAD) , 0.6% ( two fold of RAD) , 1.5% ( five fold of RAD) and 3.0% ( ten fold of RAD) sodium sulfate for 10 weeks, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) dietary sodium sulfate supplemental levels had no significant effects on daily egg mass, average egg mass, average daily feed intake, laying rate, the ratio of feed to egg (P>0.05). 2) Compared with the control group, 0.3% and 0.6% groups had a trend of improving egg quality (P>0.05);and compared with 0.6% group, the egg quality of high dose groups (1.5% and 3.0%) was significantly de-creased (P0.05) . 4) Compared with the control group, 0.3% and 0.6% groups had no significant effects on the contents of glucose, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, usea nitrogen, total bilirubin and the activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase in plasma (P>0.05);compared with 0.6% group, high dose groups (1.5% and 3%) significantly increased plasma glu-tamic-pyruvic transaminase activity ( P0.05).2)与对照组相比,0.3%和0.6%组各项蛋品质指标有改善趋势( P>0.05);与0.6%组相比,高剂量(1.5%和3.0%)组的蛋品质各项指标均显著降低(P0.05). 4)与对照组相比,0.3%和0.6%组血浆葡萄糖、尿酸、肌酐、总蛋白、白蛋白、尿素氮和总胆红素含量及谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶和碱性磷酸酶活性均无显著差异(P>0.05);与0.6%组相比,高剂量(1.5%和3.0%)组极显著提高了

  16. 硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液致肾损害%Renal injury caused by etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珲; 赵冠人; 李国栋; 冯端浩

    2012-01-01

    患者,男性,57岁,因腹膜后纤维化、双肾积水、泌尿系感染等症,给予硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液0.3 g静脉滴注,每天1次,连续用药9d后,尿素氮由6.74 mmol·L-1上升至9.85 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐由103.0μmol·L-1升至373.9 μmol·L-1.停药6d后尿素氮降至5.11 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐降至122.1 μmol·L-1.随后的20多天里,仍按上述方案间断使用该药,用药过程中尿素氮及血清肌酐随用药或停药而上升或下降.在停药2周并针对原发病治疗后尿素氮恢复至2.94 mmol·L-1,肌酐恢复至76.0μmol·L-1.调整给药方案为硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液,静脉滴注,0.15 g,每天2次,连续使用6d,尿素氮及血清肌酐未见明显升高.%One 57-year-old man with retroperitoneal fibrosis, bilateral hydronephrosis and urinary system infection was administrated with intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.3 g once daily. Nine days later, his urea nitrogen increased from 6.74 mmol·L-1 to 9.85 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine increased from 103.0 μmol·L-1 to 373.9 umol·L-1. Six days after etimicin withdrawal, his urea nitrogen decreased to 5.11 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 122.1 μmol·L-1. About 20 days after etimicin withdrawal, etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection was given again intermittently, urea nitrogen and serum creatine increased or decreased following the etimicin administration or withdrawal. After 2 weeks withdrawal combined with original disease treatment, his urea nitrogen decreased to 2.94 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 76.0 umol·L-1. And then the dosage regimen was regulated to intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.15 g twice daily. After six days of continuous administration, his urea nitrogen and serum creatine did not increase obviously.

  17. Effects of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the cross-linking reaction of cassava starch%氯化钠及硫酸钠对木薯淀粉交联反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小雅; 叶为标; 高群玉

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was designed to determine the relationships between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution,and the viscosity characteristics of the starch samples. Brabender viscometer was used for the determination of cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure. When sodium chloride was used as osmotic pressure enhancer in cross–linking reaction,with the increase of osmotic pressure,the initial gelatinization temperature increased,and the peak viscosity and the final viscosity decreased. As the osmotic pressure reached high,the retrogradation value and the breakdown value both tended to zero. When sodium sulfate was used instead of sodium chloride,as the osmotic pressure increased,the initial gelatinization temperature didn’t change significantly,the peak viscosity leveled off following decrease,the final viscosity increased(not significant)after decrease,the breakdown value was in contrast with the final viscosity,and the retrogradation decreased. The degree of crosslinking increased with the increase of osmotic pressure that produced by sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. In addition,we utilized polarizing microscope and FTIR to analyze the cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure,and measured their transparency,shear resistance and retrogradation resistance,the results showed that the corresponding properties of the cross–linked starch changed.%旨在确定渗透压与交联取代度和所得淀粉糊黏度间的关系。应用Brabender连续黏度计对渗透压处理交联木薯淀粉进行了测定。当氯化钠作为交联反应渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压增大,所得淀粉样品的起始糊化温度增加,峰值黏度和最终黏度减小;高渗透压时,凝沉值和崩解值都趋于0。而硫酸钠作渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压的增大,起始糊化温度变化不明显,峰值黏度先下降后缓慢下降,最终黏度先减后增(增加不显著),崩解值先增

  18. The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1* Volker Behrendt,1* Jonas Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,3 Christoph Hilgert,1 Ingo Stricker,2 Thomas Herdegen,3 Monika S Janot,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik1 1Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Pathology, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 3Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *The two authors Sabine Kersting and Volker Behrendt contributed equally to this work Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%. Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS. As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not

  19. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, J L; Vergnes, H

    2009-04-30

    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ions were particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were observed to have a neutral role. The results indicate that electrocoagulation can be realized at low anodic potential even in the presence of sulfate ions when the [Cl(-)]/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio is around or greater than 1/10. The detrimental effect of sulfates on electrocoagulation efficiency can be thwarted by the use of the ammonium salt thanks to its related buffer effect.

  20. Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghui; Ling, Qinjie; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yibo; Hoffmann, Peter R; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD.

  1. Colonic and Hepatic Modulation by Lipoic Acid and/or N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation in Mild Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabiana Andréa; de Andrade, Kívia Queiroz; de Araújo, Orlando Roberto Pimentel; Santos, Juliana Célia de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents that have not yet been tested on mild ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aims to evaluate the action of LA and/or NAC, on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in colonic and hepatic rat tissues with mild UC, induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (2% w/v). LA and/or NAC (100 mg·kg·day−1, each) were given, once a day, in the diet, in a pretreatment phase (7 days) and during UC induction (5 days). Colitis induction was confirmed by histological and biochemical analyses (high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, and Multiplex®). A redox imbalance occurred before an immunological disruption in the colon. NAC led to a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. In the liver, DSS did not cause damage but treatments with both antioxidants were potentially harmful, with LA increasing MDA and LA + NAC increasing H2O2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and transaminases. In summary, NAC exhibited the highest colonic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, while LA + NAC caused hepatic damage. PMID:27957238

  2. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  3. Augmented activity of the pelvic nerve afferent mediated by TRP channels in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makimura, Yukitoshi; Ito, Koichi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Enteritis has been recognized as a major symptom in domestic animals and human patients suffering from feed and food poisonings. The aim of the present study was to clarify the excitatory mechanism of the pelvic nerve afferent which may influence the occurrence of enteritis in response to nociceptive chemical stimuli of the colon in normal and abnormal rats with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The pelvic nerve afferent activity was markedly increased by colonic instillation of solution (0.5 ml) of acetic acid (5-25%) and capsaicin (100 μg/ml). The nerve activity was augmented by colonic instillation of capsaicin to a greater extent in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in normal control rats. This augmented activity by capsaicin was more prominent at one day (DSS-1) than at 8 day (DSS-8) after the administration of DSS. The increased nerve activity caused by capsaicin in DSS-1 and DSS-8 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ruthenium red, which is a nonselective inhibitor of TRP channels of unmyelinated C-fibers (nociceptors). In conclusion, it was elucidated that the nociceptive function of the pelvic nerve was largely elevated at one day after DSS-induced colitis and such increased function was mostly mediated by TRP channels.

  4. Self-aggregation of synthesized novel bolaforms and their mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Kajari; Mitra, Debolina; Mitra, Rajendra N; Panda, Amiya K; Das, Prasanta K; Rakshit, Animesh K; Moulik, Satya P

    2010-06-10

    Bolaforms B(1), B(2), and B(3) of the formulas, Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)N(+)Me(3)Br(-), Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)OH, and Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)COO(-)Na(+), respectively, were synthesized, and their properties in the bulk as well as at the air/aqueous NaBr (10 mM) solution interface have been studied. Their interactions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) also have been investigated. Tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, and microcalorimetry techniques were used for characterization and estimation. Both pure bolaforms and their mixtures with SDS and CTAB have been found to self-aggregate, forming micelles in solution. The mixed systems of bolaform and SDS have been observed to form both micelles and vesicles. Their mutual interactions were synergistic, which at the interface was more spontaneous than in the bulk. The interfacial and bulk compositions of the mixed binary systems (bolaform and SDS or CTAB) with their associated interaction parameters have been estimated from the Rosen interaction model and the regular solution theory of Rubingh, respectively. The formed vesicles have been found to entrap the water-soluble dye, bromophenol blue, and the dye solubilized vesicles of B(1)-SDS and B(2)-SDS completely eluted out of the sephadex column proving their formation. A rough estimation of the size and polydispersity index of the formed micelles and vesicles has been made from DLS measurements.

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-ethoxylated polyethylenimine adsorption at the air-water interface: how the nature of ethoxylation affects the pattern of adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Stephen N; Tucker, Ian; Petkov, Jordan T; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K

    2014-08-19

    The strong interaction between ionic surfactants and polyelectrolytes of opposite charge results in enhanced surface adsorption at the air-water interface down to low surfactant concentrations and in some cases in the formation of ordered surface structures. A notable example which exhibits such properties is the mixture of polyethylenimine, PEI, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS. However, the electrostatic interaction, around charge neutralization, between the surfactant and polymer often results in precipitation or coacervation. This can be mitigated for PEI-surfactant mixtures by ethoxylation of the PEI, but this can also result in a weaker surface interaction and a significant reduction in the adsorption. It is shown here that by localizing the ethoxylation of the PEI into discrete regions of the polymer precipitation upon the addition of SDS is suppressed, the strong surface interaction and enhanced adsorption of the polymer-surfactant mixture is retained. The adsorption of SDS in the presence of ethoxylated PEI is greatly enhanced at low SDS concentrations compared to the adsorption for pure SDS. The adsorption is equally pronounced at pH 7 and 10 and is largely independent of the degree of ethoxylation. Surface ordering, more than monolayer adsorption, is observed over a relatively narrow range of SDS concentrations and is most pronounced at pH 10 and for the polymers with the lower degree of ethoxylation. The results show that ethoxylated PEI's reported here provide a suitable route to enhanced surfactant adsorption while retaining favorable solution properties in which precipitation effects are minimized.

  6. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion.

  7. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on stress response in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis): regulatory volume decrease (Rvd) and modulation of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Faggio, Caterina; Laudicella, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Trischitta, Francesca; Santulli, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effects of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are assessed on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed for 18 days at a concentration ranging from 0.1 mg/l to 1 mg/l. The effects are monitored using biomarkers related to stress response, such as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous antioxidant systems and Hsp70 levels. The results demonstrate that cells from the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis, exposed to SDS were not able to perform the RVD owing to osmotic stress. Further, SDS causes oxidative stress in treated organisms, as demonstrated by the increased ROS production, in comparison to the controls (p<0.05). Consequently, two enzymes involved in ROS scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) have higher activities and the proportion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is higher in hepatopancreas and mantle of treated animals, compared to untreated animals (p<0.05). Furthermore Hsp70 demonstrates an up-regulation in all the analyzed tissues of exposed animals, attesting the stress status induced by the surfactant with respect to the unexposed animals. The results highlight that SDS, under the tested concentrations, exerts a toxic effect in mussels in which the disruption of the osmotic balance follows the induction of oxidative stress.

  8. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs. PMID:23841050

  9. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS- Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM grown on germinated soybeans (GSC in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS- induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  10. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction.

  11. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  12. Effect of the Wetting Agent Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on the Pharmacokinetics of Alectinib: Results From a Bioequivalence Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Peter N; Parrott, Neil; Banken, Ludger; Timpe, Carsten; Lindenberg, Marc; Guerini, Elena; Dall, Georgina; Bogman, Katrijn; Sturm, Carolina; Zeaiter, Ali; Martin-Facklam, Meret; Phipps, Alex

    2016-08-22

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib is an effective treatment for ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. This bioequivalence study evaluated the in vivo performance of test 3 formulations with the reduced wetting agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) content. This randomized, 4-period, 4-sequence, crossover study compared alectinib (600 mg) as 25%, 12.5%, and 3% SLS hard capsule formulations with the reference 50% SLS clinical formulation in healthy subjects under fasted conditions (n = 49), and following a high-fat meal (n = 48). Geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for Cmax , AUC0-last , and AUC0-∞ of alectinib, its major active metabolite, M4, and alectinib plus M4 were determined for the test formulations versus the reference formulation. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90%CIs were within the 80% to 125% boundaries. The 25% SLS formulation demonstrated bioequivalence to the reference 50% SLS formulation for Cmax , AUC0-last , and AUC0-∞ of alectinib, M4, and alectinib plus M4 under both fasted and fed conditions. Further reductions in SLS content (12.5% and 3% SLS) did not meet the bioequivalence criteria. Cross-group comparisons showed an approximately 3-fold positive food effect. Reducing SLS to 25% resulted in a formulation that is bioequivalent to the current 50% SLS formulation used in alectinib pivotal trials.

  13. Interrelationship between partition behavior of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luisa A; da Silva, Nuno R; Wlodarczyk, Samarina R; Loureiro, Joana A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2016-04-22

    Partition behavior of adenosine and guanine mononucleotides was examined in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG-sodium sulfate two-phase systems. The partition coefficients for each series of mononucleotides were analyzed as a functions of the number of phosphate groups and found to be dependent on the nature of nucleic base and on the type of ATPS utilized. It was concluded that an average contribution of a phosphate group into logarithm of partition coefficient of a mononucleotide cannot be used to estimate the difference between the electrostatic properties of the coexisting phases of ATPS. The data obtained in this study were considered together with those for other organic compounds and proteins reported previously, and the linear interrelationship between logarithms of partition coefficients in dextran-PEG, PEG-Na2SO4 and PEG-Na2SO4-0.215M NaCl (all in 0.01M Na- or K/Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 or 6.8) was established. Similar relationship was found for the previously reported data for proteins in Dex-PEG, PEG-600-Na2SO4, and PEG-8000-Na2SO4 ATPS. It is suggested that the linear relationships of the kind established in ATPS may be observed for biological properties of compounds as well.

  14. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Chen, Lihua; Rui, Tianqi; Wang, Jingxian; Chen, Ting; Fu, Tingming; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS) were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3), respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp) of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (Pnanosuspensions could act as an effective delivery device for ADG to enhance its oral bioavailability and biological efficacy. PMID:28223797

  15. An Investigation of Structure Transition in Sodium Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/n-Octane/Water System by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jian-hai; ZHAO Kong-shuang; WEI Su-xiang; LI Ying; LI Gan-zuo

    2004-01-01

    The phase diagram of the quaternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate(SDES)/n-butanol/n-octane/water was obtained at (30.0±0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which can be divided into W/O, bi-continuous(B.C.) and O/W microemulsions by conductivity measurement results. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy(DRS) measurements, including permittivity, conductivity, relaxation strength, characteristic relaxation time, dielectric parameters, phase parameters, etc., were applied to investigating the microstructures of the system mentioned above. For the samples with a fixed SDES/n-butanol mass ratio of 4/6 including 20%(mass fraction) of n-octane, DRS indicated a structure transition from a W/O to an O/W via a B.C. microemulsion with the increase of the water content. For the samples with a fixed (SDES/20%n-octane)/H2O mass ratio of 5/5, DRS presented that there only exists a onefold structure of a W/O microemulsion as the (n-butanol/20%n-octane) content increases. The results obtained from DRS are in good agreement with those from the phase diagram.

  16. ADSORPTION STUDY OF RHODAMIN B DYE ON IRAQI BENTONITE AND MODIFIED BENTONITE BY NANOCOMPOUNDS TIO2, ZNO, AL2O3 AND SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Salman AL-Jobouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Rhodamin B on Iraqi bentonite at the concentration range from 50 to 250 μg mL-1 was studied, Nano compounds; ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 m and SDS in different amounts 0.01-0.1 g 10-1 g of Bentonite were used to modified the adsorption capacity of bentonite to remove the Rhodamin B from aqueous solutions. The study indicated that using 0.05 g and 0.1 of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS lead to increase the percentage removal (%R from 79.3% for pure bentonite to 99.3%. While using 0.05 g TiO2 lead to increase the %R to 98.9%, 0.05 of ZnO to 98.6%. The other amount additives and Al2O3 using was not success to increase the %R for the Rhodamin B on bentonite surface. SEM measurement was achieved to discover the Nanoparticl exists in the bentonite surfaces.

  17. 硫酸软骨素钠的比浊法测定%Determination of Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate by Turbidimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬胜利; 崔慧斐; 谢清毅; 王凤山

    2001-01-01

    Sodium chondroitin sulfate (CS-Na) reacts with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) to produce a stable and homogeneous emulsion. The emulsion was stable from 0.5 to 2 h, and the absorbancy at 680nm had a good linearity with the concentration of CS-Na in the range of 12.5~250 μg/ml, r=0.9992. The average recovery was 99.98%, RSD was 0.33%. Its result was comparable to that of HPLC method.%建立了硫酸软骨素钠含量的比浊测定法。硫酸软骨素钠与氯化十六烷基吡啶鎓结合形成的乳浊液在680 nm处的吸收度与硫酸软骨素钠浓度在12.5~250 μg/ml范围内具良好的线性关系,r=0.9992,方法平均回收率为99.98%,RSD为0.33%,乳浊液在0.5~2 h内稳定。测定结果与国际常用的HPLC法一致,较国内用的氨基己糖测定法和葡萄糖醛酸测定法简便,重现性好。

  18. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yang, Guan; Xion, Yan; Su, Dingding; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (Parginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (Parginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  19. Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Electroless Nickel Plating%十二烷基硫酸钠对化学镀镍的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线东升; 李喜太; 李艳玲

    2012-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an indispensable pinhole preventive in the electroless nickel plating. During the electroless nickel plating process, white attachments can be easily produced on the surface of larger solid steel parts, which affects the quality of electroless nickel plating. But no white attachments were found on the surface of test pieces in the same plating bath. The producing reasons and solving methods of the produced white attachments have been found after years of exploration and analysis.%十二烷基硫酸钠是化学镀镍不可缺少的防针孔剂,较大实心钢铁零件化学镀镍过程中,很容易在零件表面产生白色附着物,影响化学镀镍的质量,而在同一镀槽的化学镀镍试片表面不产生白色附着物;经过多年的探索和分析,找到了白色附着物产生的原因和解决方法.

  20. Oral administration of the anti-proliferative substance taurolidine has no impact on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromik Ansgar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: New chemopreventive strategies for ulcerative colitis (UC-associated dysplasia and cancer have to be evaluated. Taurolidine (TRD has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-neoplastic properties with almost absent toxicity. The aim of the study was to determine whether TRD decreases dysplasia in the well-characterized Dextran Sulfate Sodium - Azoxymethane (DSS-AOM animal model for UC-associated carcinogenesis. Material and Methods: The DSS-AOM model of carcinogenesis was induced in female inbred C57BL/6 mice. Half of the mice were treated with TRD, the other served as control. After 100 days macroscopic, histological and immunhistochemical (β-Catenin, E-Cadherin, SOX9, Ki-67, Cyclin-D1 examination of the colon was performed. Results: Incidence, multiplicity, grading and growth pattern of adenomas did not differ significantly between TRD and control group. In all animals, inflammatory changes were absent. Immunhistochemistry revealed increased expression of Ki-67, β-catenin, SOX9 and Cyclin-D1 in adenomas compared to normal mucosa - without significant difference between TRD and control treatment. Conclusion: Oral administration of TRD has no impact on DSS-induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis. However, SOX9 and Cyclin-D1 representing key members of the Wnt pathway have not yet been described in the DSS-AOM model of carcinogenesis - underlining the importance of this oncogenic pathway in this setting.

  1. Micellization, interaction and thermodynamic study of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous-ethanol solution at 25, 30 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Bhardwaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are found to enhance the diffusion significantly depending on hydrophobic/hydrophilic group lengths and the structure of the surfactant molecule. Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in the presence of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant, at a range of temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C have been measured by the conductometric study in aqueous-ethanolic composite solution. The experimental data of aqueous-ethanolic solutions as a function of SDS concentration ranging from 1 to 14 mM dm−3 show the presence of inflexion points indicating micellization and interaction mechanisms. Effect of temperature was also observed in increasing the CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration in the narrow composition. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated viz: (a the standard enthalpy change (ΔHm°, (b standard entropy change (ΔSm°, and (c standard Gibbs energy change (ΔGm°. The results showed that the presence of alcohol, as well as the composition of water + ethanol may have effect on thermodynamic parameters. The variation in these parameters with the concentration of surfactant or with the change in temperature suggests the manifestation of hydrophobic interactions in the studied system.

  2. Synergistic effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the corrosion inhibition behavior of l-methionine on mild steel in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition behavior of amino acid l-methionine (LMT separately and in combination with very low concentration of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB on mild steel in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution was studied, using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurement techniques. The studies were carried out in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The surface morphology of the corroded steel samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.The results show that LMT is an effective inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in 0.1 M H2SO4 which is synergistically improved in the presence of SDS and CTAB. The mixed LMT and CTAB is more effective as an inhibitor than mixture of LMT and SDS. The SEM and AFM photographs show a clearly different surface morphology in the presence of additives. LMT alone and in combination with surfactants obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm from the fit of the experimental data of all concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the trend of the IE with temperature and also the values of activation energy (Ea, standard enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHads, and standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGads obtained. The results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization measurements are consistent with the results of the weight loss measurements. LMT acts as a mixed type inhibitor.

  3. Temperature-dependent phase transition and desorption free energy of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the water/vapor interface: approaches from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun

    2014-09-09

    Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories.

  4. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  5. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  6. Colonic and Hepatic Modulation by Lipoic Acid and/or N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation in Mild Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andréa Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid (LA and N-acetylcysteine (NAC are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents that have not yet been tested on mild ulcerative colitis (UC. This study aims to evaluate the action of LA and/or NAC, on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in colonic and hepatic rat tissues with mild UC, induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS (2% w/v. LA and/or NAC (100 mg·kg·day−1, each were given, once a day, in the diet, in a pretreatment phase (7 days and during UC induction (5 days. Colitis induction was confirmed by histological and biochemical analyses (high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, and Multiplex®. A redox imbalance occurred before an immunological disruption in the colon. NAC led to a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. In the liver, DSS did not cause damage but treatments with both antioxidants were potentially harmful, with LA increasing MDA and LA + NAC increasing H2O2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and transaminases. In summary, NAC exhibited the highest colonic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, while LA + NAC caused hepatic damage.

  7. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating...... process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions. This is investigated further in this second part and concluded to be due to differences in coating solution stickiness, rather than differences in bulk viscosities. Furthermore, results show that it is possible to optimize...... the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating...

  8. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption on the Behavior of Water inside Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Vo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations were utilized to investigate the ability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to adsorb inside a single-walled, arm-chair carbon nanotube (SWCNT, as well as the effect of surfactant on the properties of water inside the SWCNT. The diameter of the SWCNT varied from 1 to 5 nm. The radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNTs were computed and compared with published molecular dynamics results. The average residence time and diffusivity were also calculated to show the size effect on mobility of water inside the SWCNT. It was found that nanotubes with diameter smaller than 3 nm do not allow SDS molecules to enter the SWCNT space. For larger SWCNT diameter, SDS adsorbed inside and outside the nanotube. When SDS was adsorbed in the hollow part of the SWCNT, the behavior of water inside the nanotube was found to be significantly changed. Both radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNT fluctuated strongly and were different from those in bulk phase. In addition, SDS molecules increased the retention of water beads inside SWCNT (d ≥ 3nm while water diffusivity was decreased.

  9. Orally administered lactoperoxidase ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating colonic interleukin-10 and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2009-11-01

    We previously demonstrated orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Here, we examine the mechanism of action of LPO. Three days after colitis induction, expression of interferon-gamma mRNA in colonic tissue was significantly decreased in mice administered LPO; while mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and regulatory T cell (Treg) marker, Foxp3, were significantly increased. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral CD4+ T cells was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. Nine days after colitis induction, the severity of colitis symptoms, including body weight loss and colon shortening, was reduced and expression of IL-10 mRNA was increased in mice administered LPO. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral leukocytes was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. These results suggest LPO ameliorates colitis by up-regulating colonic anti-inflammatory cytokines and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

  10. Acetylsalicylic Acid reduces the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases the formation of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhnke, Thomas; Gomolka, Beate; Bilal, Süleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Sun, Yanping; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C; Weylandt, Karsten H

    2013-01-01

    The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  11. Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

  12. Characterization of dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation and colonic tumorigenesis in Smad3(-/- mice with dysregulated TGFβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Seamons

    Full Text Available There are few mouse models that adequately mimic large bowel cancer in humans or the gastrointestinal inflammation which frequently precedes it. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS-induces colitis in many animal models and has been used in combination with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM to induce cancer in mice. Smad3(-/- mice are deficient in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling molecule, SMAD3, resulting in dysregulation of the cellular pathway most commonly affected in human colorectal cancer, and develop inflammation-associated colon cancer. Previous studies have shown a requirement for a bacterial trigger for the colitis and colon cancer phenotype in Smad3(-/- mice. Studies presented here in Smad3(-/- mice detail disease induction with DSS, without the use of AOM, and show a Smad3(-/- mice develop a spectrum of lesions ranging from acute and chronic colitis, crypt herniation, repair, dysplasia, adenomatous polyps, disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC and squamous metaplasia; b the colon lesions have variable galactin-3 (Mac2 staining c increased DSS concentration and duration of exposure leads to increased severity of colonic lesions; d heterozygosity of SMAD3 does not confer increased susceptibility to DSS-induced disease and e disease is partially controlled by the presence of T and B cells as Smad3(-/- Rag2(-/- double knock out (DKO mice develop a more severe disease phenotype. DSS-induced disease in Smad3(-/- mice may be a useful animal model to study not only inflammation-driven MAC but other human diseases such as colitis cystica profunda (CCP and pseudomyxomatous peritonei (PMP.

  13. Measurement of neonatal equine immunoglobulins for assessment of colostral immunoglobulin transfer: comparison of single radial immunodiffusion with the zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum electrophoresis, refractometry for total serum protein, and the sodium sulfite precipitation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, G E; Ardans, A A; Ginno, D; Trommershausen-Smith, A

    1978-02-01

    Four procedures for assessment of adequacy of colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) transfer in foals were evaluated. Results of zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum electrophoresis, total serum protein refractometry, and sodium sulfite precipitation test were compared with immunoglobulin G content determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The zinc sulfate turbidity test gave acceptable results for IgG, except that hemolyzed serum samples gave higher than expected values. A correction factor for hemolyzed serum was found to be useful. Serum electrophoresis was a satisfactory method of estimating IgG content. Total serum protein values may not be a valid basis for estimating IgG content, inasmuch as postsuckling total protein values were found to decrease in some foals in which passive transfer of IgG had been adequate. Sodium sulfite precipitation reactions were too unpredictable to be of value for determination of neonatal IgG concentration.

  14. Microstructural Origins of Cement Paste Degradation by External Sulfate Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pan; Garboczi, Edward J.; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    A microstructure model has been applied to simulate near-surface degradation of portland cement paste in contact with a sodium sulfate solution. This new model uses thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to guide both compositional and microstructure changes. It predicts localized deformation and the onset of damage by coupling the confined growth of new solids with linear thermoelastic finite element calculations of stress and strain fields. Constrained ettringite growth happens primarily at the expense of calcium monosulfoaluminate, carboaluminate and aluminum-rich hydrotalcite, if any, respectively. Expansion and damage can be mitigated chemically by increasing carbonate and magnesium concentrations or microstructurally by inducing a finer dispersion of monosulfate. PMID:26722191

  15. 芒硝型卤水精制过程中超滤膜的污染与清洗%Ultrafiltration Membrane Polution and Cleaning of Sodium Sulfate Type Brine Refining Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为之; 宫维; 徐卫华

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies on the assessmen t of pollution situation analysis of complex ultrafiltration membrane and cleaning effect in sodium sulfate type brine refining process.%研究芒硝型卤水在精制工艺过程中,用于除杂的超滤膜的污染情况分析及清洗效果评价。

  16. 展进新法方定测素骨软酸硫化酸硫多中钠素肝染污%Research Progress of the Determination Methods for Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate in Contaminated Heparin Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟培升; 高照明; 张玉冰

    2011-01-01

    The structure, properties and source of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate(OSCS), which exists in contaminated heparin sodium, are introduced. And the research progress of its determination methods are re-viewed.%介绍了污染肝素钠中多硫酸化硫酸软骨素的结构、性质及来源,并对其测定方法进行了综述.

  17. The degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate based on graphene-modified MFC%石墨烯修饰微生物燃料电池降解十二烷基磺酸钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜倩利; 杨胜科; 张倩; 周扬

    2016-01-01

    以十二烷基磺酸钠为阳极电子供体,同时以石墨烯为催化剂对电极进行修饰。将修饰前后微生物燃料电池的产电性能和十二烷基磺酸钠的降解情况进行对比,经过修饰的电极装置产电效率明显增大,最大电压增加了1倍,并使十二烷基磺酸钠的降解率从49.85%提高到65.11%。这说明用石墨烯修饰后的微生物燃料电池在稳定产电的同时降解十二烷基磺酸钠是可行的,为废水中阴离子表面活性剂的去除提供了新的方法与研究方向。%With sodium dodecyl sulfate as anode electron donor and graphene as catalyst to modify the electrodes,the production performance of MFC and the degradation rate of sodium dodecyl sulfate are compared before and after modification.The treatment effect of modified MFC is two times as the unmodi-fied and the degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate rate can reach 65 .1 1% from 49 .85%.The perform-ance of MFC with graphene modify electrode and the rate of degradation of SDS was tested.It indicates a good effect with graphene modified MFC to degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate and provides a new orientation for removal of the kind of anionic surfactant in organic wastewater treatment.

  18. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Glazkova, I. S.; Kadyko, M. I.; Stefanovsky, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na2O, (20-x) Al2O3, x Fe2O3, 40 P2O5 (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60-75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  19. Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Yan; Dou, Yannong; Ye, Jun; Bian, Difei; Wei, Zhifeng; Tong, Bei; Kong, Lingyi; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

  20. Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice via reducing IL-6/STAT3 and IL-23/IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Lin, Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice. 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, Ginaton group, Ginaton treatment group, and DSS group. After 7 days administration, mice were sacrificed and colons were collected for H-E staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot. By observing clinical disease activity and histological damage, we assessed the effect of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice and observed the effect of Ginaton on normal mice. We also explored the specific mechanism of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice through examining the expression of inflammatory related mediators (gp130, STAT3, p-STAT3, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). Ginaton-treated DSS mice showed significant improvement over untreated DSS mice. Specifically, Ginaton improved clinical disease activity (DAI score, weight closs, colon shortening, and bloody stool) and histological damage, and reduced the expression of inflammatory-related mediators (p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). In addition, clinical disease activity, histological damage, the expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-t) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23) in mice of Ginaton group were similar to normal control group. In conclusion, Ginaton ameliorates DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice by reducing IL-17 production, which is at least partly involved in inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and IL-23/IL-17 axis. Moreover, Ginaton itself does not cause inflammatory change in normal mice. These results support that Ginaton can be as a potential clinical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC).

  1. Effect of light on self-assembly of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2007-04-24

    We report light and small-angle neutron scattering measurements that characterize microstructures formed in aqueous surfactant solutions (up to 1.0 wt % surfactant) containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the light-sensitive bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA) as a function of composition, equilibration time, and photostationary state (i.e., solutions rich in cis-BTHA or trans-BTHA). We observed formation of vesicles in both SDS-rich and trans-BTHA-rich regions of the microstructure diagram, with vesicles present over a particularly broad range of compositions for trans-BTHA-rich solutions. Illumination of mixtures of BTHA and SDS with a broadband UV light source leads to formation of photostationary states where the fraction of BTHA present as cis isomer (75-80% cis-BTHA) is largely independent of the mixing ratio of SDS and BTHA. For a relatively limited set of mixing ratios of SDS and BTHA, we observed UV illumination of SDS-rich vesicles to result in the reversible transformation of the vesicles to micellar aggregates and UV illumination of BTHA-rich vesicles to result in irreversible precipitation. Surprisingly, however, for many mixtures of trans-BTHA and SDS that formed solutions containing vesicles, illumination with UV light (which was confirmed to lead to photoisomerization of BTHA) resulted in only a small decrease in the number of vesicles in solution, relatively little change in the sizes of the remaining vesicles, and coexistance of the vesicles with micelles. These observations are consistent with a physical model in which the trans and cis isomers of BTHA present at the photostationary state tend to segregate between the different microstructures coexisting in solution (e.g., vesicles rich in trans-BTHA and SDS coexist with micelles rich in cis-BTHA and SDS). The results presented in this paper provide guidance for the design of light-tunable surfactants systems.

  2. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  3. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkai Ren

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment. Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5% or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK-myosin light chain (MLC20, were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05. Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05 influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  4. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings.

  5. Effects of aggregates on mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonigold, Katrin; Varga, Imre; Nylander, Tommy; Campbell, Richard A

    2009-04-07

    We have exploited the spatial and kinetic resolution of ellipsometry to monitor the lateral movement of inhomogeneous patches of material in mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface. We show that the choice of sample preparation methods can have a profound effect on the state of the interface for chemically equivalent samples. The extent of aggregation in the bulk solution on relevant time scales is affected by specific details of the polymer/surfactant mixing process, which produces varying numbers of aggregates that can become trapped in the interfacial layer, resulting in an enhanced and fluctuating ellipsometry signal. It can be beneficial to apply the surface-cleaning method of aspiration prior to physical measurements to remove trapped aggregates through the creation of a fresh interface. At low pH, the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning is remarkably constant over a factor of >500 in the bulk composition below charge equivalence, which is discussed in terms of possible adsorption mechanisms. At high pH, through observing temporal fluctuations in the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning, we reveal two important processes: there is the spontaneous adsorption of aggregates > 0.2 microm in diameter into the interfacial layer, and with time there is the fusion of smaller aggregates to generate new large surface aggregates. We attribute the favorability of the adsorption and fusion processes at high pH to reduced electrostatic barriers resulting from the low surface charge density of the aggregates. It is inappropriate in this case to consider the interface to comprise a homogeneous adsorption layer that is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk solution. Our work shows that it can be helpful to consider whether there are macroscopic particles embedded in molecular layers at the air/liquid interface for systems where there is prior knowledge of

  6. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices with sodium lauryl sulfate and Tween as surfactants: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Venu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and Tween as surfactants. Materials and Methods: It is a double-blind cross over the study, a total of 20 children within their mixed dentition period (7-13 year having Streptococci mutans count more than 10 6 were selected for the main study. Three types of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices were used with a washout period of 1 week. Out of the three toothpastes, one was without surfactant and other two toothpastes contained SLS and Tween as surfactants respectively. 20 volunteers brushed for 1 min during the study day with their assigned toothpaste. Saliva samples were collected before brushing, immediately after brushing and 1, 3, 5, and 7 hand sent for microbial analysis. The culture carried out by inoculating saliva sample onto Mitis salivarius agar for selective isolation of S. mutans followed by counting of colony forming unit. Results: Group I and III (Chlorhexidine and CHX + Tween had shown statistically significant reduction in bacterial count until 7 h when compared to their baseline values ( P < 0.001. Group II toothpaste (CHX + SLS had shown significant reduction in bacterial count until 3 h only. On inter group comparison, Group III had shown good amount of percentage reduction in bacterial count when compared to other groups. Conclusion: CHX + Tween toothpaste had shown statistically significant reduction in antibacterial activity and substantivity than other groups. These findings show chlorhexidine containing toothpaste with non-ionic surfactant will be able to maintain the antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine.

  7. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Hu

    Full Text Available It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1 cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation.

  8. Conformation of Sodium Microcrystalline Cellulose Sulfate in Aqueous Solution%微晶纤维素硫酸钠溶液的构象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 熊文雯; 王兆梅

    2006-01-01

    Sodium microcrystalline cellulose sulfate ( NaCSMC) is a new type of effective anti-coagulant, whose anti-coagulant activity is closely related to the conformation in solution. In order to reveal the anti-coagulant activity of NaCSMC, the conformation of NaCSMC in aqueous solution was investigated by the optical rotation measurement, the viscosity analysis and the Congo red helix-coil transition analysis. The measurement results of optical rotation show that the conformation of NaCSMC is regular in neutral or weak alkaline solution. The same results can also be obtained by means of viscosity analysis. Moreover, it is indicated by the Congo red helix-coil transition analysis that the conformation of NaCSMC in aqueous solution is of not only regular conformation but also single helix and multi-helix structures.%微晶纤维素硫酸钠是一种具有显著抗凝血活性的物质,其抗凝活性与其在溶液中的构象密切相关.为了解其抗凝活性,文中通过旋光度分析、粘度分析和刚果红螺旋-线团过渡分析,研究了微晶纤维素硫酸钠溶液的构象.旋光度分析表明,微晶纤维素硫酸钠在水溶液或弱碱溶液中具有规则的空间构象;由粘度分析也可得出同样的结果;刚果红螺旋-线团过渡分析表明,微晶纤维素硫酸钠在溶液中具有规则的空间构象,同时具有单螺旋结构与高级螺旋结构.

  9. Mangiferin attenuates the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice via NF-κB and MAPK signaling inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ren, Gaiyan; Ding, Lili; Sun, Aning; Deng, Chao; Wu, Xiaojun; Wei, Xiaohui; Mani, Sridhar; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and currently no curative treatment is available. Mangiferin, a natural glucosylxanthone mainly from the fruit, leaves and stem bark of a mango tree, has a strong anti-inflammatory activity. We sought to investigate whether mangiferin attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of chemically induced IBD. Pre-administration of mangiferin significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced body weight loss, diarrhea, colon shortening and histological injury, which correlated with the decline in the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the colon. DSS-induced degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 as well as the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (inducible NO synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6) in the colon were also downregulated by mangiferin treatment. Additionally, the phosphorylation/activation of DSS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins was also inhibited by mangiferin treatment. In accordance with the in vivo results, mangiferin exposure blocked TNF-α-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Transient transfection gene reporter assay performed in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells indicated that mangiferin inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. The current study clearly demonstrates a protective role for mangiferin in experimental IBD through NF-κB and MAPK signaling inhibition. Since mangiferin is a natural compound with little toxicity, the results may contribute to the effective utilization of mangiferin in the treatment of human IBD.

  10. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy.

  11. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography with sodium dodecyl sulfate as a pseudo α(1)-acid glycoprotein to the prediction of protein-drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Salary, Mina

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast method is of urgent need to measure protein-drug binding affinity in order to meet the rapid development of new drugs. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC), a mode of micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) using micellar mobile phases in adequate experimental conditions, can be useful as an in vitro system in mimicking the drug-protein interactions. In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-micellar liquid chromatography (SDS-MLC) was used for the prediction of protein-drug binding based on the similar property of SDS micelles to α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The relationships between the BMC retention data of a heterogeneous set of 14 basic and neutral drugs and their plasma protein binding parameter were studied and the predictive ability of models was evaluated. Modeling of logk(BMC) of these compounds was established by multiple linear regression (MLR) and second-order polynomial models obtained in two different concentrations (0.07 and 0.09M) of SDS. The developed MLR models were characterized by both the descriptive and predictive ability (R(2)=0.882, R(CV)(2)=0.832 and R(2)=0.840, R(CV)(2)=0.765 for 0.07 and 0.09M SDS, respectively). The p values <0.01 also indicated that the relationships between the protein-drug binding and the logk(BMC) values were statistically significant at the 99% confidence level. The standard error of estimation showed the standard deviation of the regression to be 11.89 and 13.87 for 0.07 and 0.09M, respectively. The application of the developed model to a prediction set demonstrated that the model was also reliable with good predictive accuracy. The external and internal validation results showed that the predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental value.

  12. Efficacy of intravenous administration of hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David D; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Werpy, Natasha M

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of a product containing hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses. ANIMALS 32 healthy 2- to 5-year-old horses. PROCEDURES The study involved 2 portions. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy of the test product, horses received 5 mL of the product (n = 8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (8; placebo) IV every fifth day, starting on day 0 (when osteoarthritis was induced in the middle carpal joint of 1 forelimb) and ending on day 70. To evaluate treatment efficacy, horses received either the product or placebo (n = 8/treatment) on days 16, 23, 30, 37, and 44 after osteoarthritis induction. Clinical, diagnostic imaging, synovial fluid, gross anatomic, and histologic evaluations and other tests were performed. Results of each study portion were compared between treatment groups. RESULTS Limb flexion and radiographic findings were significantly worse for horses that received the test product in the prophylactic efficacy portion than for placebo-treated horses or product-treated horses in the treatment efficacy portion. In the prophylactic efficacy portion, significantly less articular cartilage erosion was identified in product-treated versus placebo-treated horses. In the treatment efficacy portion, joints of product-treated horses had a greater degree of bone edema identified via MRI than did joints of placebo-treated horses but fewer microscopic articular cartilage abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that caution should be used when administering the evaluated product IV to horses, particularly when administering it prophylactically, as it may have no benefit or may even cause harm.

  13. Effect of β-Cyclodextrin Upon the Sol-gel Transition of Methylcellulose Solutions in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-yu Li; Xiang Hao; Yong-jun Xie; Hai-yang Yang; He Liu; Jian-hui Luo

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel transition temperature of methylcellulose (MC) solution in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as the mixtures of SDS andβ-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was measured,and the effect of the two competing interactions,the hydrophobic interaction between SDS and MC and the inclusion interaction between SDS and β-CD,upon the sol-gel transition of MC solution was studied.It has been found that the inclusion interaction between SDS and β-CD is much greater than the hydrophobic interaction between SDS and MC.As a result,in the coexistence of SDS and β-CD,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solution keeps the same value,independent of the concentration of SDS in solution on condition that the concentration of SDS is less than β-CD.Our experimental results not only suggest that the effect of SDS upon the sol-gel transition of MC solution can be screened by β-CD completely but also indicate the inclusion ratio of SDS to β-CD can be determined quantitatively by using rheological measurement.The inclusion ratio of SDS toβ-CD is 1:1,which is in good agreement with the inclusion ratio of SDS to β-CD in the presence of poly(vincyl pyrrolidone) determined by the viscosity measurement but is critically different from the inclusion ratio of SDS toβ-CD in the presence of the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte by using the rheological measurement,mainly due to the reason that the mechanism of the interaction between SDS and MC is critically different from the mechanism of the interaction between SDS and the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte.

  14. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  15. Oroxyloside prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Ding, Youxiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-04-15

    Oroxyloside, as a metabolite of oroxylin A, may harbor various beneficial bioactivities which have rarely been reported in the previous studies. Here we established the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of oroxyloside in vivo. As a result, oroxyloside attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, oroxyloside inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities as well. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by oroxyloside. We unraveled the underlying mechanisms that oroxyloside inhibited NF-κB pathway by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of oroxyloside in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Oroxyloside decreased several LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264.7 and BMDM. We also found that oroxyloside inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway via activating PPARγ in RAW 264.7 and BMDM. Docking study showed that oroxyloside could bind with PPARγ. GW9662, the inhibitor of PPARγ, and PPARγ siRNA transfection blocked the effect of oroxyloside on PPARγ activation. Our study suggested that oroxyloside prevented DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation. Therefore, oroxyloside may be a promising and effective agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  16. Calcitriol analog ZK191784 ameliorates acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis by modulation of intestinal dendritic cell numbers and phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ZK1916784, a low calcemic analog of calcitriol on intestinal inflammation.METHODS: Acute and chronic colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) according to standard procedures. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with ZK1916784 or placebo and colonic inflammation was evaluated. Cytokine production by mesenterial lymph node (MLN) cells was measured by ELISA.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) within the colonic tissue,and the effect of the calcitriol analog on DCs was investigated.RESULTS: Treatment with ZK191784 resulted in significant amelioration of disease with a reduced histological score in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. In animals with acute DSS colitis, down-regulation of colonic inflammation was associated with a dramatic reduction in the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and a significant increase in intereleukin (IL)-10 by MLN cells.Similarly, in chronic colitis, IL-10 expression in colonic tissue increased 1.4-fold when mice were treated with ZK191784, whereas expression of the Th1-specific transcription factor T-beta decreased by 81.6%. Lower numbers of infiltrating activated CD11c+ DCs were found in the colon in ZK191784-treated mice with acute DSS colitis, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by primary mucosal DCs was inhibited in the presence of the calcitriol analog.CONCLUSION: The calcitriol analog ZK191784 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties in experimental colitis that were at least partially mediated by the immunosuppressive effects of the derivate on mucosal DCs.

  17. Effects of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] on the element contents, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle [Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Yaldiz

    2017-01-01

    Abbreviations used: AlCl3: aluminum chloride, Ca+2: calcium, Cl-: chloride, Cr: chromium CE: catechol equivalents, DPPH: 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, DAP: diamonyum fosfat, F-: fluoride, Fe: iron, K2SO4: potassium sulfate, K+ : potassium, Li+: lithium, Mg+2 : magnesium, NH4+ : amonyum, Na+: sodium, NO2-: nitrite, NO3-: nitrate, Ni: nickel, NaNO2: sodium nitrite, NaOH: sodium hidroksit. ND: Not detectable, PO4-3: phosphorus, Zn: zinc

  18. Absorption of silicon and aluminum by hens fed sodium zeolite A with various levels of dietary cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabon, H W; Roland, D A; Bryant, M M; Smith, R C; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 1) serum Si and Al is increased in hens intubated with sodium zeolite A (SZA); and 2) dietary cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) influences the absorption of Si or Al by hens fed SZA. In Experiment 1, hens were intubated at oviposition with 0, 1, or 2 g of SZA. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein at oviposition, and 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h postoviposition. Serum samples were analyzed for Si and Al. Peak serum Si and Al were observed at 4 and 8 h postoviposition, respectively. In Experiment 2, hens consumed commercial layer diets ad libitum containing five levels of dietary cholecalciferol (100 to 500 IU/kg) with or without .75% SZA for 6 wk. Blood samples were collected at the end of the 6-wk period by cardiac puncture at oviposition. When dietary cholecalciferol was increased from 100 to 200 IU/kg of diet there was an increase (P < .05) in serum Si but not Al. Levels of cholecalciferol above 200 IU/kg did not produce an additional increase in serum Si. The results showed increased (P < .01) serum concentrations of Si and Al for hens intubated with or fed SZA. It was concluded that Si and Al from SZA are absorbed by commercial Leghorn hens, and a possible involvement of Si or Al should be considered in the mechanism of action of SZA associated with improved eggshell quality and bone development.

  19. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard;

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... and product distribution under high temperature conditions. In the present work, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer for deriving a kinetic model to describe the process. The yields of SO2 and SO3...... of different sulfates indicated that ammonium sulfate has clearly strongest sulfation power towards KCl at temperatures below 800oC, whereas the sulfation power of ferric and aluminum sulfates exceeds clearly that of ammonium sulfate between 900 and 1000oC. However, feeding gaseous SO3 was found to be most...

  20. 乙二醇与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰火山灰活性影响的研究%Study on the Effect of Glycol Sodium Sulfate Compound on the Pozzolanic Activity of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东忠; 王成勇; 林春莺

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ethylene glycol combined with sodium sulfate on the pozzolanic activity of fly ash in different stage were investigated The results show that the pozzolanic activity of fly ash at the early stage , the middle stage and the later stage can be improved in different extent by adding proper content of ethylene glycol combined with sodium suffate to cement. The exciting effect of ethylene glycol combined with sodium sulfate in the early stage is the best and that in the later stage is the worst. The compressive strength ratio at 3d , 7d and 28d of each cement sample can be improved obviously , but the increasing rate of those of each cement sample are reduced with the increasing of grinding time. Whether each cement sample is grinded or nor and how long grinding time is, the exciting effect of ethylene glyeol combined with sodium sulfate in different stage is better than that of ethylene glycol or sodium sulfate. When the content of 1% sodium sulfate and O. 03% ethylene glycol is admixed and grinding time is 15 minutes,the exciting effect of ethylene glycol combined with sodium sulfate on the pozzolanic activity of fly ash in different stag is the best.%探讨乙二醇与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰不同时期火山灰活性的影响.结果表明:将一定掺量的乙二醇与硫酸钠复合掺入可以不同程度地提高粉煤灰早期、中期与后期的火山灰活性,其中早期的激发作用效果最大,后期的激发作用效果最小.且随着粉磨时间的延长,各水泥试样的3d、7d及28d抗压强度比值均有明显的提高但增幅下降.无论是否粉磨及粉磨时间长短,将一定掺量的乙二醇与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰不同时期火山灰活性的激发作用效果均优于单掺乙二醇或硫酸钠;当硫酸钠掺量为1%,乙二醇掺量为0.03%进行复掺且粉磨时间15min时其对粉煤灰不同时期火山灰活性的激发作用效果最大.

  1. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1998-11-03

    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses.

  2. Characterization of Glycan Structures of Chondroitin Sulfate-Glycopeptides Facilitated by Sodium Ion-Pairing and Positive Mode LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas; Noborn, Fredrik; Gomez Toledo, Alejandro; Nasir, Waqas; Sihlbom, Carina; Larson, Göran

    2016-11-01

    Purification and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) characterization of glycopeptides, originating from protease digests of glycoproteins, enables site-specific analysis of protein N- and O-glycosylations. We have described a protocol to enrich, hydrolyze by chondroitinase ABC, and characterize chondroitin sulfate-containing glycopeptides (CS-glycopeptides) using positive mode LC-MS/MS. The CS-glycopeptides, originating from the Bikunin proteoglycan of human urine samples, had ΔHexAGalNAcGlcAGalGalXyl-O-Ser hexasaccharide structure and were further substituted with 0-3 sulfate and 0-1 phosphate groups. However, it was not possible to exactly pinpoint sulfate attachment residues, for protonated precursors, due to extensive fragmentation of sulfate groups using high-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD). To circumvent the well-recognized sulfate instability, we now introduced Na+ ions to form sodiated precursors, which protected sulfate groups from decomposition and facilitated the assignment of sulfate modifications. Sulfate groups were pinpointed to both Gal residues and to the GalNAc of the hexasaccharide structure. The intensities of protonated and sodiated saccharide oxonium ions were very prominent in the HCD-MS2 spectra, which provided complementary structural analysis of sulfate substituents of CS-glycopeptides. We have demonstrated a considerable heterogeneity of the bikunin CS linkage region. The realization of these structural variants should be beneficial in studies aimed at investigating the importance of the CS linkage region with regards to the biosynthesis of CS and potential interactions to CS binding proteins. Also, the combined use of protonated and sodiated precursors for positive mode HCD fragmentation analysis will likely become useful for additional classes of sulfated glycopeptides.

  3. Characterization of Glycan Structures of Chondroitin Sulfate-Glycopeptides Facilitated by Sodium Ion-Pairing and Positive Mode LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas; Noborn, Fredrik; Gomez Toledo, Alejandro; Nasir, Waqas; Sihlbom, Carina; Larson, Göran

    2017-02-01

    Purification and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) characterization of glycopeptides, originating from protease digests of glycoproteins, enables site-specific analysis of protein N- and O-glycosylations. We have described a protocol to enrich, hydrolyze by chondroitinase ABC, and characterize chondroitin sulfate-containing glycopeptides (CS-glycopeptides) using positive mode LC-MS/MS. The CS-glycopeptides, originating from the Bikunin proteoglycan of human urine samples, had ΔHexAGalNAcGlcAGalGalXyl- O-Ser hexasaccharide structure and were further substituted with 0-3 sulfate and 0-1 phosphate groups. However, it was not possible to exactly pinpoint sulfate attachment residues, for protonated precursors, due to extensive fragmentation of sulfate groups using high-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD). To circumvent the well-recognized sulfate instability, we now introduced Na+ ions to form sodiated precursors, which protected sulfate groups from decomposition and facilitated the assignment of sulfate modifications. Sulfate groups were pinpointed to both Gal residues and to the GalNAc of the hexasaccharide structure. The intensities of protonated and sodiated saccharide oxonium ions were very prominent in the HCD-MS2 spectra, which provided complementary structural analysis of sulfate substituents of CS-glycopeptides. We have demonstrated a considerable heterogeneity of the bikunin CS linkage region. The realization of these structural variants should be beneficial in studies aimed at investigating the importance of the CS linkage region with regards to the biosynthesis of CS and potential interactions to CS binding proteins. Also, the combined use of protonated and sodiated precursors for positive mode HCD fragmentation analysis will likely become useful for additional classes of sulfated glycopeptides.

  4. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael E Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6-12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study (case series of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013. TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival were evaluated. Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days. After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6-50 months

  5. Identification of Contaminations Hiding Beneath the α- and β-Subunits of Partially Purified Nitrogenase MoFe Protein on the Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Na ZHOU; Ying ZHAO; Shao-Min BIAN; Jian-Feng ZHAO; Fei REN; Huang-Ping WANG; Ju-Fu HUANG

    2005-01-01

    To identify the unknown proteins that would contaminate the α- and β-subunits of nitrogenase MoFe protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the partially purified MoFe protein (Av 1) preparation was obtained from Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann OP by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (DE52) and Sephacryl S-200 columns and analyzed by PAGE and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The Av 1 preparation was shown to have two main bands at the position of the α- and β-subunits of crystalline Avl on the SDS gel. However, on the anoxic native PAGE, in addition to the Ay 1 band, the preparation was shown to have three other main bands that migrated slower than Avl. Of these three main bands, the protein with the fastest migration was identified as bacterioferritin elsewhere. The proteins on the other two bands, termed Upper and Middle, were suggested to be two different homopolymers with the same apparent subunit electrophoretic mobilities as the α- and β-subunits of Avl, respectively. By analysis of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the Upper was identified as GroEL, which belongs to the heat shock protein 60 family, and the Middle was identified as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). In our preparation, anoxic native electrophoresis indicated that GroEL was composed of 14 identical subunits and that PGI was composed of 10 identical subunits. This is the first report of PGI, with so many subunits. The contaminating proteins in the Av 1 preparation, mainly GroEL and PGI, could be totally or partially removed from Av1 if the shoulders and center of the elution peak were collected separately from the Sephacryl S-200 column and the center fraction was purified further by Q-Sepharose developed with an NaCl concentration gradient. Thus, Avl with more than 90% purity was obtained. Obviously, this modified method is useful for the purification of mutant MoFe proteins with a high purity.

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid increases SLC26A3 expression in inflamed intestine and reduces diarrheal severity in C57BL/6 mice with dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lihong; Xiao Fang; He Jiayi; Lan Xiaoqin; Ding Qiang; Li Junhua; Ursula Seidler

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a common clinical feature of ulcerative colitis resulting from unbalanced intestinal fluid and salt absorption and secretion.The Cl-/HCO3-exchanger SLC26A3 is strongly expressed in the mid-distal colon and plays an essential role in colonic Cl-absorption and HCO3-secretion.Sic26a3 expression is up-regulated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in vitro.Our study was designed to investigate the effects of LPA on SLC26A3 expression and the diarrheal phenotype in a mouse colitis model.Methods Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by adding 4% of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to the drinking water.The mice were assigned to LPA treatment DSS group,phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treatment DSS group,DSS only group and untreated mice with a completely randomized design.Diarrhea severity was evaluated by measuring mice weight,disease activity index (DAI),stool water content and macroscopic evaluation of colonic damage.The effect of LPA treatment on Sic26a3 mRNA level and protein expression in the different groups of mice was investigated by quantitative PCR and Western blotting.Results All mice treated with DSS lost weight,but the onset and severity of weight loss was attenuated in the LPA treatment DSS group.The increases in stool water content and the macroscopic inflammation score in LPA treatment DSS group were significantly lower compared to DSS control group or PBS treatment DSS group ((18.89±8.67)% vs.(28.97±6.95)% or (29.48±6.71)%,P=0.049,P=0.041,respectively and 2.67±0.81 vs.4.5±0.83 or 4.5±0.54,P=0.020,P=0.006,respectively),as well as the increase in DAI (P=0.004,P=0.008,respectively).LPA enema resulted in higher Slc26a3 mRNA and protein expression levels compared to PBS-treated and untreated DSS colitis mice.Conclusion LPA increases Slc26a3 expression in the inflamed intestine and reduces diarrhea severity in DSS-induced colitis,suggesting LPA might be a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of colitis associated diarrhea.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of the two novel anti-inflammatory substances, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on DSS-induced colitis in rats. For this purpose, rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 animals in each group as follows: i) the control group, which received 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; vehicle), ii) rats that received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DTCM-G group), and iii) rats that received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DHMEQ group). The animals were sacrificed after the 5-day treatment period, and tissue samples were taken from their colons and sectioned for histological evaluation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The disease activity index (DAI), histological grading of colitis, and densities of several types of submucosal immune cells were compared between the controls, and the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups. The DAI values were significantly lower in both the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The total scores for the histological grading of colitis were also significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The submucosal densities of leucocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. Our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of DTCM-G and DHMEQ, and the absence of any associated toxicity render them excellent therapeutic candidates for clinical use in the treatment of colitis.

  8. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ{sub 1}) and the slow (τ{sub 2}) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na{sup +} counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs

  9. Ion Chromatography Determination of Sodium Sulfate in Water Reducing Agent%离子色谱法测定减水剂中硫酸钠含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学灵; 林瑛

    2012-01-01

    建立了离子色谱法测定减水剂中硫酸钠含量的方法。减水剂试样溶于水中,采用201×7(717)强碱性阴离子交换树脂去除溶液中的有机物,进样量为20μL。在Metrosep A SUPP 5-250型阴离子分离柱上,以3.2mmol/L Na2CO3和1.0mmol/L NaHCO3混合溶液作为淋洗液,抑制型电导检测,以0.6mL/min流量洗脱,按峰面积定量。方法检出限(3S/N)为0.05mg/L。用标准加入法,以实体为基体进行回收试验,测得回收率为96.3%~104.3%。%Ion chromatography was applied to the determination of sodium sulfate (as SO42) in water reducing agent. The water reducing agent was dissolved in water. 201×7(707) strongly basic anion exchange resin was used to remove organic substances from the sample solution. An aliquot (20 μL) of the eluate from 201×7(707) strongly basic anion exchange resin was taken for IC determination. The Metrosep A SUPP 5-250 column was used for separation, 3.2 mmol/L Na2CO3 and 1.0 mmol/L NaHCO3 solutions were used as mobile phase with flow-rate of 0.6 mL/min, and SO42- ion was determined by suppressed conductance detection through measuring values of peak area. Detection limit (3S/D) found was 0.05 mg/L. Values of recovery found by standard addition method were in the range from 96.3%- 104.3%.

  10. Effect of Sodium Molybdate Inhibitor on Corrosion Resistance of 5083 Aluminum Alloy Used for Drone%钼酸钠对靶用5083铝合金耐蚀性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志成; 周宽; 田志强

    2016-01-01

    目的:提高靶用5083铝合金材料的耐蚀性。方法分别运用阳极极化、交流阻抗及EDS等试验技术研究钼酸钠对5083铝合金在3%氯化钠溶液中的耐蚀性能影响。结果钼酸钠加入3%氯化钠溶液以后,该铝合金的腐蚀电位下降,点蚀电位与腐蚀电位分离,维钝电流减小,阻抗值增大,抗点蚀能力提高。结论钼酸钠对5083铝合金产生缓蚀作用。%Objective To improve the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy used for drone.Methods The polariza-tion, electrochemical impedance spectrum and energy dispersive spectrometer were employed to study the effect of sodium mo-lybdate inhibitor on the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy in 3% NaCl solution.Results After addition of sodium molybdate in the 3% NaCl solution, the corrosion potential was decreased and separated from the pitting potential, the passi-vated current was reduced, the impedance was increased, and the capability of inhibiting pitting was promoted.Conclusion So-dium molybdate had corrosion inhibition effect on 5083 aluminum alloy.

  11. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongzhi Qiao,1,2,* Lihua Chen,3,* Tianqi Rui,1,2 Jingxian Wang,1,2 Ting Chen,1,2 Tingming Fu,1,2 Junsong Li,1,2 Liuqing Di1,2 1College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Efficient Delivery System of TCM, Nanjing, 3Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Andrographolide (ADG is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS, a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3, respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01. Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax

  12. 光度法研究十二烷基硫酸钠的临界胶束浓度%Determination of critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate by using spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新红; 戴兢陶; 顾云兰

    2011-01-01

    Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution of io dine and I-3 solution were determined, and two salts, sodium sulfate and potassium chloride on the impact of CMC of SDS in the aqueous solution of iodine in different concentrations of iodine were also discussed.The CMC of SDS obtained in two different systems are different by using spectrophotometry. Sodium sul fate salts on the impact of the surface activity of SDS are greater than potassium chloride in I-3 solution, and with the increasing concentration of iodine, the CMC of SDS show the trend of increasing in the aqueous so lution of iodine.%在碘的水溶液和I-3溶液2种体系中测定了十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)的临界胶束浓度(CMC),讨论了在I-3体系中,不同硫酸钠和氯化钾对测定结果的影响,在碘的水溶液中研究了不同碘浓度对SDS的CMC的影响.采用分光光度法求得SDS在两种体系中的CMC值,硫酸钠与氯化钾对CMC的值有影响,且硫酸钠对SDS的表面活性影响大于氯化钾;在碘的水溶液中,随碘的浓度增大,CMC呈增大趋势.

  13. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  14. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  15. Intra-articular hyaluronate sodium and oral glucosamine sulfate for the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis%联合治疗老年踝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国帅

    2013-01-01

    目的观察联合应用玻璃酸钠和硫酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊治疗老年踝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效。方法对60例诊断为踝关节骨性关节炎的老年患者常规关节腔内注射玻璃酸钠(SH),每周一次,5周一疗程。联合应用硫酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊,连续服用6周为一疗程。采用t检验比较治疗前后踝关节疼痛、功能及活动度改善的差异性。结果治疗后,踝关节疼痛、肿胀及功能障碍均较治疗前明显改善,总有效率为93%。结论联合应用酸钠和硫酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊对踝关节骨性关节炎具有良好的临床疗效。%Objecitive:To observe the therapeutic effect of hyaluronate sodium intra-articular injection and glucosamine sulfate on the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis.Methods:In our study, 60 patients(70 ankles) with osteoarthritis were treated with intra-articular hyaluronate sodium and oral glucosamine sulfate, the ankle pain, range of motion and function were evaluated after treatment with Mazur system. Results: Compared with pre-treatment, the pain, range of motion and function were improved significantly (P<0.05).All the patients were satisfactory with the clinical effect. Conclusion: Intra-articular hyaluronate sodium and oral glucosamine sulfate can alleviate the pain and improve the function of ankle having a good clinical effect for osteoarthritis.

  16. 秸秆碳和硫酸铝对富营养化水体中氮磷的吸收去除效应及其影响因素%Adsorption and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Eutrophic Water by Straw Carbon and Aluminum Sulfate and Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽; 赵兰坡

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of eutrophication in China, straw carbon and aluminum sulfate as an effective adsorbent used to absorption of total phosphorus and total nitrogen in water. Through the laboratory simulation test,by equilibrium adsorption method, the author investigated the effect on the adsorption under different environmental factors as the dosage of aluminum sulfate, pH, shaking time, temperature, disturbance, straw carbon size and so on. The results showed that with the dosage of aluminum sulfate and straw carbon was 0. 2 mg/L,the shock time was 120 min, the best adsorption of the removal rate could reach 80% or more. Among different factors, aluminum sulfate and straw carbon the tatal phosphorus and nitrogen of adsorption analysis indicated that adding an appropriate amount of aluminum sulfate and straw carbon could reduce the total nitrogen and total phosphorus content in water, the adsorption on temperature, pH, shock time was sensitive. That was to provide a favorable basis for solving the problem of water environment in China.%为解决中国水体富营养化问题,将秸秆碳与硫酸铝作为一种有效吸附水体中总氮,总磷的吸附剂,通过室内模拟试验,采用平衡吸附法,考察了秸秆碳和硫酸铝投加量、pH值、振荡时间、温度、扰动、秸秆碳粒径等不同环境因素条件下对吸附效果的影响.结果表明:在秸秆碳和硫酸铝投加量为0.2 mg/L、振荡时间为120 min的条件下,吸附效果最好,去除率可达80%以上.通过对各因素与秸秆碳、硫酸铝对总氮和总磷的吸附效果分析得知,加入适量的秸秆碳和硫酸铝,可以降低水体中总氮、总磷的含量,吸附效果对温度、振荡时间、pH值变化敏感,这也为解决水体富营养化问题提供了基础依据.

  17. 基于膜分离技术的脱硝原理及工艺%The Principles and Process about Sodium Sulfate Removal Base on Membrane Separation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭康贤; 莫新来; 谭子斌; 英明光

    2011-01-01

    文章介绍了膜元件应用于氯碱工业中淡盐水脱硝的工作原理,在实验的基础上,进行了二级膜分离脱除淡盐水中的硫酸钠的工艺设计和制造,使硫酸钠浓度和结晶温度大大提高。%The principles and proces of sodium sulfate removal from salt brine in chlor-alkali industry,the process be designed and the equipments be manufactured to used two grades Nano membrane separate method according to experiments was introduced.

  18. 不同硫酸铝施用条件下对苏打盐碱地水稻吸肥规律的研究%Research on Soda Saline-Alkali Soil Rice Absorb Fertilizer Rule in Conditions of Different Aluminum Sulfate Apply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马巍; 王鸿斌; 赵兰坡

    2011-01-01

    The text of soda saline-alkali soil rice apply to the improvement of aluminum sulfate which the study, the effects of the different aluminum sulfate use level to rice absorb N, P and K nutritional and rice production. The experiment results showed that the soda saline-alkali in the rice fields which to apply for aluminum sulfate, rice absorbing capacity of the N, P and K fertilizer increased. The P increased the most obvious. The maximum value of rice absorbed N and P content in the mature period. There was no laws about the different to use level of aluminum sulfate to rice absorb nutrition. In the condition of aluminum sulfate used level for 300 kg/hm2, the rice production highest. The soda saline-alkali soil provided for fertilizer a low ability. In this fertilizer nitrogen the time was to improve the utilization rate apply to the important measures to increase the output was also an important guarantee. Aluminum sulfate application of increase apparent P recovery rates. In the rice grown in soda saline-alkali soil attention should be improved with aluminum sulfate reasonable application and strengthen the effectiveness of the study in the future.%通过对苏打盐碱地水稻施用硫酸铝改良剂的研究,阐明了不同硫酸铝施用量对水稻氮、磷、钾素营养吸收及产量的影响.试验结果表明,在重度盐碱化稻田上,施用硫酸铝可使水稻对氮、磷、钾的吸收量增加,水稻吸收养分能力分别提高40%、100%、40%.吸磷量增加最明显.其中吸氮量、吸磷量最大值均出现在成熟期.不同硫酸铝施用量对水稻吸收养分的影响无规律性.但在硫酸铝施用量为300kg/hm2的情况下,水稻产量可较不施用硫酸铝处理增加近8倍,是盐碱地水稻产量最大时硫酸铝的施用量.盐碱地稻田土壤供肥能力较低,氮肥分次施用是提高其利用率的重要措施,也是提高产量的重要保障.硫酸铝的施用提高了磷肥的利用率,因此,今后在盐碱地

  19. Progress of marine drug propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) and inspiration%海洋药物藻酸双酯钠研究进展及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春霞; 孙杨; 管华诗

    2012-01-01

    通过总结我国自主研发的第一个海洋药物藻酸双酯钠(propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate,PSS)近30年的生产和临床应用情况,对其生产工艺和质量标准、药理活性、临床用药和不良反应等进行系统深入的探讨,阐明PSS的构效关系和作用机制,以期进行PSS产品的更新换代,提高市场竞争力,扩大PSS临床新的适应症等,从而实现对PSS的技术改造和升级,进一步为广大患者提供更加安全有效的海洋药物,为海洋多糖类药物的研究与开发提供参考.%Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), the first marine drug independently developed in China, had been in the clinical application for nearly three decades. In this paper production process and quality standards, pharmacological activities, clinical use and adverse reactions of the PSS were discussed thoroughly for clarification of its structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action. It is enlightened to upgrade the PSS and expand its new clinical indications to achieve the technological innovation and upgrade, which will provide our patients with more safe and effective marine drugs, provide a reference for drug research and development of marine polysaccharides.

  20. 聚合硫酸铁铝在污水处理厂二级出水处理中的应用%Application of polymeric aluminum ferric sulfate to the treatment of secondary effluent in a wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋贞贞; 朱俊任

    2014-01-01

    The secondary effluent of Dadukou Wastewater Treatment Plant in Chongqing has been investigated. The effects of the dosage of self-made polymeric aluminum ferric sulfate (PAFS),and initial pH of water body on the re-moving effectiveness of total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) from the secondary effluent in the wastewater treatment plant are studied. The research results show that when the mass concentration of PAFS is 13 mg/L,the residual TP mass concentration is 0.094 mg/L,the first class A wastewater discharge standard can be reached. Meanwhile NH3-N removing rate reaches 24.8%. Compared with PAFC ,PAC and PFS which are sold in markets,PAFC has higher coagulation effectiveness,and lower dosages. Furthermore,PAFC has stronger charge neutralization and adsorption bridging capacities.%以重庆大渡口污水处理厂的二级出水为考察对象,研究了自制聚合硫酸铝铁(PAFS)投加量、水体初始pH对污水处理厂二级出水的TP、NH3-N去除效果的影响。研究表明:当PAFS投加质量浓度为13 mg/L时,剩余TP质量浓度为0.094 mg/L,达到污水排放一级A标准,同时NH3-N去除率为24.8%。与市售混凝剂PAFC、PAC、PFS相比,PAFS具有较好的混凝效果和较低的投加量,同时PAFS还具有更强的电荷中和和吸附架桥能力。

  1. Effect of Aluminum Sulfate on the F Migration Regularity in Soda Alkali-Saline Soil%硫酸铝对苏打盐碱土中氟迁移规律的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金华; 赵兰坡; 王鸿斌; 张忠庆; 张志丹

    2012-01-01

    The paper researched F migration regularity and the change of pH in soda alkali-saline soil at different ratio of Al3+ and F-by leaching method.The results showed that,pH of eluent was decreased obviously by applying aluminum sulfate to soda alkali-saline soil which showed extremely significant difference compared with the blank control.And a decreasing tendency of pH was found when leaching times and the relative content of Al3+ were increasing.There were great differences in the dynamic migration and total leaching loss rate of F under the action of different ration of Al3+ and F-in the soil.The leaching loss rate of each time changed little for 1∶1 treatment,decreased slightly after an increase for treatments of(1∶2)~(1∶4),decreased obviously for treatments of(1∶5)~(1∶7).Compared to the control,the total leaching loss rate was decreased in soda alkali-saline soil by applying aluminum sulfate.So it could decrease F migration from soil body to groundwater and reduce daily fluoride intake for people and animals by drinking groundwater.But the degreased degree of total F leaching loss rate was relevant to the relative content of Al3+.It was relative higher for 1∶4 treatment and lower for 1∶1 treatment due to the change of pH,quantity of Al oxide and hydroxide,electric charge of soil colloid and aluminum releasing by soil itself.%采用土柱淋洗法,研究不同铝氟摩尔比下苏打盐碱土中氟的迁移过程及pH值变化情况。结果表明,苏打盐碱土施铝后,能够明显降低淋洗液的pH值,与空白相比,差异均达极显著水平。并且随着淋洗次数和铝相对含量的增加,pH值呈现逐渐降低的趋势。不同铝氟摩尔比作用下,氟在碱土中的迁移动态及总淋失率存在较大的差别。随着淋洗次数的增加,1∶1处理的每次淋失率变化较缓,(1∶2)~(1∶4)处理呈先增加后降低的趋势,而(1∶5)~(1∶7)处理明显下降。与对照

  2. 大黄加芒硝对危重病患者胃肠功能障碍的疗效观察%Clinical effect of rhubarb combined with sodium sulfate on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critical care patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凌鸿; 郑贵军; 王君梅; 袁亚松; 蒋佳维

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨大黄加芒硝对危重病患者胃肠功能保护和治疗作用.[方法]纳入研究的患者均满足消化功能障碍和慢性健康状况评分系统(APACHEⅡ)≥16分并排除有器质性胃肠疾病的患者.治疗组:用生大黄50 g,开水100 mL浸泡15 min至深褐色,经胃管缓慢鼻饲,每8h1次,外用芒硝100 g,双层敷料包裹,平敷于肚脐处,待纱布袋潮湿后及时更换,每日更换2~3次;对照组:枸橼酸莫沙必利片10 mg,鼻饲,每8h1次.观察两组腹胀缓解时间、开始排便时间、肠内营养开始时间及消化道出血的发生率.[结果]治疗组在腹胀缓解的时间,顺利开始给予肠内营养的时间及开始排便时间均短于对照组,P<0.05或P<0.01.消化道出血发生率,治疗组显著低于对照组.[结论]大黄加芒硝能明显保护危重病患者胃肠功能,减少消化道出血的发生率,明显改善患者的预后.%[Objective] To observe the protective and treatment effects of rhubarb combined with sodium sulfate in critical care patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. [Methods] The enrolled patients in the study had digestive disorders and APACHE II ≥ 16 scores and the patients with organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded. In treatment group: the 50 mg of crude rhubarb was inserted in 100 mL of water at 100 t for 15 minutes till dark brown was found. After that the drug was infused into the treatment patients by stomach tube feeding slowly, 3 times a day. At the same time 100 g of sodium sulfate in double dressing package was flatly masked on belly button, changed a time when the gauze bag became wet and changed 2-3 times a day. In control group: 10 mg of mosanpride tablets was given by nasal feeding, 3 times a day. The time of abdominal distension relieving, time of beginning to defecate, time of starting enteral nutrition and the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding were observed in both groups. [Results] In treatment group the time of

  3. [Aluminum induces chromosome aberrations in wheat root meristem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, N V; Synzynys, B I; Koz'min, G V

    2001-12-01

    The yield and pattern of chromosome structure aberrations in wheat seedlings treated with aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulfate at various concentrations have been determined by the anaphase method. Aluminum has a genotoxic effect causing genome, chromatid, and chromosome aberrations in apical root meristem cells. The relationship between the total yield of structural mutations and the aluminum concentration follows a bell-shaped curve. The mutagenic activity of aluminum nitrate peaks at 10(-3) mg/ml, which is twice as high as the permissible concentration limit (PCL) of aluminum in potable water. The maximum of the mutagenic activity of aluminum sulfate is observed at 5 x 10(-4) mg/ml, i.e., one PCL. Tap water boiled for 2 h in an aluminum vessel has virtually no genotoxic effect on wheat cells.

  4. Interaction between amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Z.; Saini, M.; Amdouni, N.; Pal, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micellization of an aqueous solution of the surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsufate (C4mim)(C8OSO3) and its interaction with an anionic polymer sodium polystyrene sulfonate, (NaPSS) were studied using conductimetry, tensiometry and fluorimetry. Surface tension profile shows a more dramatic increase in the value of surface tension of aqueous (C4mim)(C8OSO3) before the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of IL. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of this surfactant was found out from conductance measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, i.e., Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization of the IL in aqueous solution have been calculated. Behavior of fluorescence probe confirms the binding interactions between SAIL and the polyelectrolyte.

  5. Resistance of different materials used in sewers systems:Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, polypropylene (PP and High density polyethylene (HDPE, to sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LASFAR Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of PVC, PP and HDPE used in sewer systems exposed to acid and sulfate solutions was investigated at 25°C and 40°C. Gravimetric characterization proves that PVC has a fickian behavior. It shows also, that PP has a non-fickian behavior, characterized by a rapid acceleration of water absorption, and the HDPE has a fickian behavior at 25°C, while it has a non-fickian behavior at 40°C, characterized by a weight loss after a certain aging period. The prolongation of the time of exposure to sulfuric acid solution leads to a progressive increase in tensile strength followed by a slight decrease at 40°C. The unaged samples of all materials have a much lower tensile strength than those of the aged samples, and a drop in elongation at break could be observed. These results can be explained by the increase of crystallinity, followed by the increase of crosslinking density due to the diffusion of the solvent and the effect of the temperature as the exposure time increases. These results prove that there is a correlation between the diffusion of the solvent as well as the increased exposure time and temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer.

  6. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  7. Downregulation of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in the secondary inflammatory response of mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and its contribution to cyclosporine A blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Shoji; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Miki, Ikuya; Inoue, Jun; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Mizuno, Shigeto

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) play important roles in drug metabolism and excretion; however, their functions in pathological conditions remain unclear. Hepatobiliary abnormalities have been described in patients with ulcerative colitis, which may affect drug metabolism and excretion in the liver and small intestine. We examined the functions of CYP3A and P-gp in the liver and small intestine of mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Up to day 7, inflammatory markers were significantly increased in the livers of DSS-treated mice, accompanied by decreased CYP3A. Additionally hepatobiliary transporters and Pregnane X receptor, which regulates the transcriptional activation of CYP3A, were reduced. Both CYP3A and P-gp were significantly decreased in the upper small intestine of DSS-treated mice on day 7. This was associated with the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, but not changes in nuclear receptor expression. On day 7 of DSS treatment, the concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA), a substrate of both CYP3A and P-gp, were significantly higher than controls. These results indicated the existence of a second inflammatory response in the liver and upper small intestine of mice with DSS-induced colitis, and bioavailability of CsA was increased by the dysfunction of CYP3A and P-gp in these organs.

  8. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-an; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-qiong; Zheng, Chun-hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix.

  9. 碳酸钠焙烧铝系钒铁炉渣共提取钒与铝%Recovery of Vanadium and Aluminum in Ferrovanadium Slag from Thermite Method by Sodium Carbonate-roasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明磊; 陈东辉; 石立新; 李兰杰; 周冰晶; 祁健

    2012-01-01

    通过对铝系钒铁炉渣碳酸钠焙烧-水浸全过程的矿物分析、热力学计算及对比实验,研究了炉渣中钒、铝同步转化、溶出的机理与规律.结果显示,焙烧进程中渣中镁铝尖晶石MgO·Al2O3相、CaO·2Al2O3相逐渐消失,MgO相生成,并生成碱熔相Na2O·Al2O3和钒酸盐.随焙烧温度及时间增加,Na2O·Al2O3和钒酸盐相明显增多,钒、铝溶出率增加.焙烧熟料经水浸后,液相呈碱性,钒、铝分别以可溶性钒酸钠和铝酸钠的形式进入水相,固相残留物为少量未反应的镁铝尖晶石及新生成的MgO和Ca(OH)2.在磨矿粒度<75μm、配碱系数1.0、焙烧温度1 000℃及焙烧时间4h的优化条件下,钒的溶出率可达90%,铝的溶出率可达75%.%By mineralogical analysis, thermodynamic calculation, and comparative experiments, the synchronous conversion of vanadium and aluminum was studied, and dissolving mechanism in the process of sodium carbonate roasting and water leaching on ferrovanadium slag. The results showed that magnesia-alumina spinel (MgO-Al2O3) and CaO-2Al2O3 phases gradually disappeared, and MgO phase, alkali melting phase of Na2O-Al2O3 and phase vanadate were generated in the roasting process. Na2O-Al2O3 and vanadate phases increased obviously with the increase of roasting temperature and time, resulting in the dissolution increase of vanadium and aluminum. Vanadium and aluminum, in vanadate and sodium aluminate, could be dissolved into water solution, as the solution was alkaline when the clinker was leached by water. The solid residues were a small amount of unreacted magnesia-alumina spinel and new generated MgO and Ca(OH)2. The optimum roasting conditions were obtained as follows: grinding particle size below 75 μm, molar ratio of Al2O3 and V2O5 to Na2CO3 1:1, roasting temperature 1000 ℃and roasting time 4 h. Under these conditions, the leaching rates of vanadium and aluminum were up to 90% and 75%, respectively.

  10. Adsorption of High Fluoride in Drinking Water by Aluminum Sulfate Impregnated Activated Alumina Granules%硫酸铝浸渍活性氧化铝球吸附饮水中的高浓度氟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴代赦; 刘容; 杜俊逸; 李萍

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate impregnated activated alumina granules (AIAA) are the common adsorbent for high fluoride (F) drinking water, the adsorption properties of AIAA were influenced by sorts of factors. In batch adsorption experiments, the adsorption performance of AIAA in high fluoride drinking water was investigated by examining the effects of different factors, including AIAA amount to fluoride solution volume (m(AIAA): V) (2 -40 g · L-1) ,fluoride mass concentration (ρ(F)) (2 - 100 mg · L-1) ,pH (4 - 10) ,temperature ( 11 -33 ℃ ) and time on fluoride adsorption. Under the conditions of 11 -33 ℃ ,pH of 4 - 10,m(AIAA) : V at 20 g · L-1 ,AIAA could remove more than 90% F- for fluoride-containing water (10 mg · L-1) after 3 h,which satisfied sufficiently with the hygienic standard for F in drinking water. Langmuir and Freundlich models were adopted to fit the adsorption data. The results showed that the linear Langmuir model was the best fitting method at ρ(F) from 2 to 100 mg · L-1 ,pH from 5 to 10 and temperature from 11 to 33 ℃ ; and the non-linear Freundlich model was the best fitting method at ρ(F) from 2 to 1 000 mg· L-1 or at ρ(F) from 2 to 100 mg ·L -1 ,and pH at 4. With the increasing of ρ(F) in solution and temperature, the decreasing of solution pH, the adsorption capacity of AIAA was increased gradually.%硫酸铝浸渍活性氧化铝球(AIAA)是饮水除氟领域常用的吸附剂,它对氟的吸附性能受各种因素的影响.静态吸附通过改变AIAA质量与氟溶液体积比(m(AIAA):V)(2~40g·L-1)、氟的质量浓度(p(F))(2~100mg·L-1)、pH值(4~10)、温度(11~33℃)和时间等实验参数,研究这些因素对AIAA吸附除氟的影响.在11~33℃的温度范围内、pH值变化为4~10之间时,当m(AIAA):V为20 g·L-1,3 h内处理ρ(F)为10 mg·L-1水溶液其氟的去除率可达90%以上,足以保证其满足饮用水的含氟标准.利用Langmuir和Freundlich模型对吸附数据进行了拟合研

  11. Lead recovery by flotation with sodium lauryl sulfate Recuperação de chumbo por flotação com sulfato lauril de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gorette de Morais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead recoverable slag is of economic and environmental importance. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of its recovery by flotation with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS. The similar nature of the lead and iron particles formed by solidification of the melted slag impairs selectivity during the flotation process. In order to verify the most favorable conditions for selectivity, SLS adsorption mechanisms for lead and iron particles were studied. The adsorption was monitored by means of zeta potential and surface tension determinations. Flotation tests were conducted under the most promising conditions identified for selectivity. The results suggest that SLS adsorption in lead particles is of a chemical nature. It was observed that the formation of lead lauryl sulfate is easier in alkaline medium. A 79% lead recovery was obtained at pH 10 using only 10-3 M collector concentration. Nevertheless, the best selectivity conditions were obtained in an acid medium.O processo metalúrgico para reciclagem de chumbo, a partir de baterias automotivas usadas, gera uma escória constituída, basicamente, por ferro e chumbo. A recuperação do chumbo contido nesse material descartado é de grande interesse econômico e ambiental. O trabalho teve, como objetivo, estudar a possibilidade de recuperar o chumbo através de flotação com sulfato lauril de sódio (SLS. A fim de se verificarem as condições mais favoráveis para a seletividade, procurou-se identificar o mecanismo de adsorção do SLS, nas partículas de chumbo e de ferro. A adsorção foi monitorada por meio de determinações de potencial zeta e tensão superficial. Foram realizados testes de flotação nas condições identificadas como mais promissoras para a seletividade. Os resultados sugerem que o SLS adsorve-se, quimicamente, à superfície das partículas de chumbo. O aumento do pH favorece a adsorção, possibilitando uma recuperação de 79% do chumbo contido com apenas 10-3M do

  12. 月桂酸二聚甘油酯硫酸酯钠盐的制备与表面性能%Preparation and surface properties of sodium lauric dimerized glyceryl sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史鸿鑫; 张辉; 武宏科; 陈立军; 项菊萍

    2012-01-01

    Lauric dimerized glycerol ester was synthesized from lauric acid and glycerol dimer,and then the intermediate ester was sulfated by chlorosulfonic acid and neutralized by NaOH solution to get the product sodium lauric dimerized glyceryl sulfate (SLDGS). The intermediate and product were characterized by FTIR. The surface chemical properties were investigated at 298 K. The surface tensions of SLDGS aqueous solution increase with the increasing esterification degree of glycerol dimmer with lauric acid. When its esterification degree is 25% ,the cmc is 1.15 mmol · L-1 and γcwc is 28. 5 mN · m-1. When esterification degree is 30% , emulsifying property of SLDGS aqueous solution with kerosene and benzene is the best,and the emulsification time is 168 s. Foaming performance of SLPGS is not good.%以二聚甘油和月桂酸为原料进行酯化反应得到月桂酸二聚甘油酯,再与氯磺酸反应,经氢氧化钠中和制得月桂酸二聚甘油酯硫酸酯钠盐(SLDGS).对中问体和产物进行了红外光谱分析,测定了产物在298 K下的表面化学性能.发现SLDGS水溶液的表面张力随着月桂酸酯化度的升高而增大,酯化度为25%时,最低表面张力为28.5 mN·m-1,临界胶束浓度为1.15 mmol·L-1;在煤油和苯中,当酯化度为30%时,SLDGS水溶液的乳化性能达到最大值,乳化时间为168 s;SLDGS水溶液的泡沫性能不佳.

  13. 旋光法测定硫酸西索米星氯化钠注射液中西索米星的含量%Content Determination of Sisomicin in Sisomicin Sulfate and Sodium Chloride Injection by Polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴月华; 邰顺章; 王冲

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立测定硫酸西索米星氯化钠注射液(SSJ)中西索米星含量的方法.方法:采用旋光度-标准曲线法(旋光法)测定SSJ中西索米星的含量.以钠光谱的D线(589.3 nm)测定旋光度,测定管长度为2 dm,测定温度为20℃,并与标准方法——微生物检定法测定结果进行比较.结果:西索米星检测浓度线性范围为0.4~2.0 mg·mL- 1(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为97.6%,RSD=0.80%(n=6);旋光法与微生物检定法含量测定结果一致,RSD分别为0~0.07%、0.57%~1.2%.结论:旋光法测定SSJ中西索米星含量的方法简便、准确,且重现性优于微生物检定法.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for content determination of sisomicin in Sisomicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection (SSJ). METHODS: The optical rotation-standard curve method (polarimetry) was adopted for the content determination of sisomicin in SSJ. The D line of sodium spectrum (589.3 nm) was adopted to determine the optical rotations with the length of determination tube of 2 dm and determination temperature of 20 ℃, and it was compared with standard method--microbial method. RESULTS: The linear range of sisomicin was 0.4~2.0 mg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 97.6% (RSD= 0.80%, n=6); results of polarimetry (RSD=0~0.07%) was in line with that of microbial method (RSD=0.57%~1.2%). CONCLUSION : The method is simple and accurate, and the reproducibility of it is better than microbial method.

  14. Dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis leads to bone loss in mice%葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导的小鼠肠炎中骨质丢失的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凡华; 胡志华

    2014-01-01

    建立小鼠葡聚糖硫酸钠肠炎(DSS)模型,并分析肠炎小鼠中骨质丢失的发生情况.C57BL/6小鼠口服DSS溶液2周以建立肠炎模型,第1周饮用2% DSS溶液,第2周饮用1% DSS溶液.饮用蒸馏水的C57BL/6小鼠作为对照.记录每组小鼠体质量变化,观察粪便和血便状况,μCT分析股骨骨质丢失的情况.结果表明DSS处理组小鼠和对照组相比,出现了明显的骨质丢失,骨量减少,骨小梁数目下降.说明DSS诱导的小鼠肠炎模型可以作为研究肠炎引发骨质丢失的良好模型.%To establish a colitis model induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and analyzed bone loss in colitic mice. Colitis was induced by administration of DSS solution for 2 weeks, 2%DSS and 1%DSS solution was administrated on the first week and second week, respectively. Body weight, stool and blood score of each group mice was recorded, and femoral bone loss were examined by micro computed tomography (μCT). The results demonstrate that DSS-treated mice exhibited a lower bone mass and decreased trabecular numbers as compared with the controls. Collectively, DSS-induced colitis model can be used to study pharmacological interventions for bone loss in mice.

  15. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. The aim of the study was in vivo evaluation of the skin irritation potential and the efficacy of Alpine Rose stem cells incorporated into li-posomes and olive oil squalene as ingredients of moisturizing creams, with respect to the novel emulsifier used for creams’ stabilization. Methods. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration (EC, transepi-dermal water loss (TEWL, erythema index (EI and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a 24-hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams (a 21-day study on healthy skin were evaluated. Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. Results. After a 24-hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample. In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Conclusion. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  16. Changes in the Expression and Distribution of Claudins, Increased Epithelial Apoptosis, and a Mannan-Binding Lectin-Associated Immune Response Lead to Barrier Dysfunction in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Rat Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bosi; Zhou, Shuping; Lu, Youke; Liu, Jiong; Jin, Xinxin; Wan, Haijun; Wang, Fangyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims This animal study aimed to define the underlying cellular mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction. Methods Rats were fed 4% with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce experimental colitis. We analyzed the sugars in 24-hour urine output by high pressure liquid chromatography. The expression of claudins, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), and MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP-2) were detected in the colonic mucosa by immunohistochemistry; and apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelium were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method assay. Results The lactulose and sucralose excretion levels in the urine of rats with DSS-induced colitis were significantly higher than those in the control rats. Mannitol excretion was lower and lactulose/mannitol ratios and sucralose/mannitol ratios were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). Compared with the controls, the expression of sealing claudins (claudin 3, claudin 5, and claudin 8) was significantly decreased, but that of claudin 1 was increased. The expression of pore-forming claudin 2 was upregulated and claudin 7 was downregulated in DSS-induced colitis. The epithelial apoptotic ratio was 2.8%±1.2% in controls and was significantly increased to 7.2%±1.2% in DSS-induced colitis. The expression of MBL and MASP-2 in the intestinal mucosa showed intense staining in controls, whereas there was weak staining in the rats with colitis. Conclusions There was increased intestinal permeability in DSS-induced colitis. Changes in the expression and distribution of claudins, increased epithelial apoptosis, and the MASP-2-induced immune response impaired the intestinal epithelium and contributed to high intestinal permeability. PMID:25717051

  17. Soy protein diet, but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, decreases mucin-1, trefoil factor-3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyi; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Mitra, Debjani; Becker, Chad; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Tentinger, Amy; MacDonald, Ruth S

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased during recent decades. Within the colon, the families of mucins (MUC) and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Probiotic administration influences the intestinal MUC layer. Additionally, food components may affect gut microflora or have direct effects on the MUC barrier. Our objective was to determine whether diet and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) would mediate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 20% (wt:wt) casein, soy, or whey proteins with or without LGG for 12 d. Seven days after starting LGG diets, the mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 4 d. Two additional casein groups with or without LGG were given tap water, for a total of 8 groups. One day after the DSS treatment, the mice were killed and the colon and cecum tissues and cecum contents were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. Whey protein significantly increased cecal LGG content compared with the other diets. In the casein diet groups, MUC1 and TFF-3 expression in colon was significantly induced by DSS independent of LGG. Compared with other DSS-treated groups, soy protein decreased MUC-1 and TFF-3 in the colon. Similarly, soy protein decreased the impact of DSS on inflammatory scores, TNFα gene expression, and colon shortening. There was no overall effect of LGG on these measurements. In conclusion, soy protein suppressed the DSS-induced inflammatory stimulation of MUC, TFF, and TNFα gene expression independently of LGG.

  18. Response of Atmospheric Methane Consumption by Maine Forest Soils to Exogenous Aluminum Salts†

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric methane consumption by Maine forest soils was inhibited by additions of environmentally relevant levels of aluminum. Aluminum chloride was more inhibitory than nitrate or sulfate salts, but its effect was comparable to that of a chelated form of aluminum. Inhibition could be explained in part by the lower soil pH values which resulted from aluminum addition. However, significantly greater inhibition by aluminum than by mineral acids at equivalent soil pH values indicated that inhi...

  19. Characterization of alumina obtained from the synthesis of gelatinous precipitates of aluminum hydroxide obtained from the reaction of aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydroxide in different temperatures; Caracterizacao de aluminas obtidas a partir da sintese de precipitados gelatinosos de hidroxido de aluminio obtidos pela reacao de sulfato de aluminio e hidroxido de amonio em diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercury, Jose Manuel Rivas [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao (CEFET), Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil); Freitas Neves, R. de [Para Univ., Belem, Pa (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    1996-07-01

    Aluminum hydroxide was obtained by synthesis through neutralization of solutions aluminum sulphate solutions with ammonium hydroxide at different level of temperatures of synthesis (30, 60, 90 deg C) on the molar [OH]/[Al{sup +3}] of 6,5. All products was burned at 950 deg C during two hours of dried aluminum hydroxide powder. Alumina obtained and A-16SG, APC-2011, produced by Alcoa Co. was characterized by Bulk Density, Tap density, Real Density, Particle Size Distribution, X-Ray Diffractions and Chemical Analysis and both compared. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Dali

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of sulfate attack on geopolymer concrete, made from an alkali activated natural pozzolan (AANP) has been studied in this paper. Changes in the compressive strength, expansion and capillary water absorption of specimens have been investigated combined with phases determination by means of X-ray diffraction. At the end of present investigation which was to evaluate the performance of natural alumina silica based geopolymer concrete in sodium and magnesium sulfate solution, the l...

  1. Pharmacokinetic study on compound aluminum sulfate injection after i.v. and in situ administration in rabbits%复方硫酸铝注射液新西兰兔静脉注射和局部注射药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐风华; 陈宜鸿; 方翼; 高秀云

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究复方硫酸铝注射液静脉注射后的药代动力学以及肌肉和皮下注射后的全身吸收.方法:兔耳静脉、股四头肌和背部皮下注射,耳静脉采血,采用等离子体质谱法测定血铝浓度,DAS药代动力学程序处理血药浓度数据.结果:静脉注射复方硫酸铝注射液1 mg·kg-1 (剂量均以无水硫酸铝计),硫酸铝体内药代动力学过程符合二房室模型,t1/2β为 1.08±0.46 h,AUC0-12h为 1.52±0.92 mg·h·L-1(n=5).股四头肌注射复方硫酸铝注射液80 mg·kg-1,血铝浓度略有升高,但不明显,采用梯形法计算曲线下面积,平均AUC0-24h为 2.93±1.82 mg·h·L-1(n=5),相对生物利用度约为 2.41%.皮下注射160 mg·kg-1,血铝浓度没有明显的峰值,平均AUC0-24h为 0.88±1.14 mg·h·L-1(n=5),相对生物利用度约为 0.36%.结论:复方硫酸铝注射液静脉注射后血液中清除速率快,局部注射后全身吸收量很低,是一种安全的新制剂.%AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of compound aluminum sulfate injection after i.v. administration and aluminum absorption after i.m. and s.c. administration in New Zealand rabbits. METHODS: Compound aluminum sulfate injection was administrated i.v. to the left-ear at the dose of 1 mg·kg-1, i.m. in quadriceps at the dose of 80 mg·kg-1 or s.c. under back skin at the dose of 160 mg·kg-1 (anhydrous aluminum sulfate/body weight). Blood samples were collected at different time after injection from the right-ear vein. ICP-MS assay was used to determine the aluminum (Al) concentration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS program. RESULTS: The blood Al concentration-time profiles after i.v. injection fitted to a two-compartment model, with t1/2β 1.08±0.46 h and AUC0-12h 1.52±0.92 mg·h·L-1 (n=5). There was no obvious increase in Al concentration after i.m. injection of 80 mg·kg-1 or s.c. injection of 160 mg·kg-1 aluminum sulfate. The average AUC0-24h of i.m. injection was 2.93±1.82 mg·h·L-1

  2. 煤矸石酸浸渣-硫酸钠碳热法制备水玻璃的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Preparation Water Glass by Carbothermic Method Using Acid Leaching Slag of Coal Gangue and Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    自桂芹; 夏举佩; 刘成龙

    2015-01-01

    In order to easily prepare sodium silicate by dry method using coal gangue and sodium sulfate, 98% sulfuric acid as acid medium, silica-rich acid leaching residue is obtained using microwave heating method to extract acid soluble substances from coal gangue. silicon dioxide of acid leaching slag with Sodium oxide of sodium sulfate are mixed according to the modulus of 1.0 to produce low modulus sodium silicate. Coke mass, the calcining temperature, calcining time, cooling method, melting temperature, dissolving time, liquid-solid ratio on the inlfuence of silica dissolution rate are studied. The results show that, under the optimal process conditions: Coke mass is 17.0% of the sodium sulfate, the calcining temperature of 1100℃, the melting time of 1 h, water quenching for cooling, liquid-solid ratio of 10∶1, dissolution temperature of 80℃, dissolution time of 90 min, dissolution rate of silica reaches 72.56%, modulus of liquid water glass is 1.24.%为了便于利用煤矸石酸浸渣-硫酸钠干法制备水玻璃,用98%硫酸作酸浸介质、微波进行辅助加热直接浸取煤矸石中酸溶物,制备富含硅的酸浸渣。按酸浸渣中二氧化硅与硫酸钠中氧化钠摩尔比1.0配料干法生产低模数水玻璃。研究了焦炭量、煅烧温度、煅烧时间、冷却方式、溶解温度、溶解时间、液固比对二氧化硅溶出率的影响。结果表明,最佳工艺条件为:焦炭量为硫酸钠质量的17.0%,煅烧温度1100℃,熔融时间1 h,冷却方式为水淬骤冷,液固质量比为10∶1,溶解温度80℃,溶解时间90 min,此条件下二氧化硅溶出率为72.56%,液体水玻璃模数为1.24。

  3. Knockout of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 aggravates the development of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium colitis independently of expression of intestinal cytokines TNFα, TGFB1, and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,2 Christoph Hilgert,1 Monika S Janot,1 Elisabeth Haarmann,1 Martin Albrecht,1 Annette M Müller,3 Thomas Herdegen,2 Ulrich Mittelkötter,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik11Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany; 3Department of Pediatric Pathology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhems-University of Bonn, Bonn, GermanyIntroduction: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs are involved in signal transduction of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the function of JNKs by using a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model in JNK1 knockout mice (Mapk8–/–, JNK2 knockout mice (Mapk9–/–, and wild-type controls (WT1, WT2.Methods: The animals were evaluated daily using a disease activity index. After 30 days, the intestine was evaluated histologically with a crypt damage score. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were quantified using immunofluorescence. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFB1 expression was carried out using LightCycler® real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Cyclic administration of low-dose DSS (1% was not able to induce features of chronic colitis in Mapk8–/– WT2 mice. By contrast, DSS administration significantly increased the disease activity index in WT1 and Mapk9–/– mice. In Mapk9–/– mice, the crypt damage score and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells as features of chronic colitis/inflammation were also significantly elevated. Expression of TNFα, IL-6, and TGFB1 was not altered by the JNK knockout.Conclusion: Administering DSS at a defined low concentration that is unable to induce colitis in WT animals leads to clinically and histologically detectable chronic colitis in Mapk9–/– mice. The reason for this disease

  4. Catalytic synthesis of cyclohexanone ethylene ketal by polyaniline doped with sodium hydrogen sulfate%硫酸氢钠掺杂聚苯胺催化合成环己酮缩乙二醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕俊江; 乔艳辉; 张庆

    2012-01-01

    以聚苯胺PAn和硫酸氢钠为原料,制备了硫酸氢钠掺杂率为20%(质量分数)的催化剂PAn- NaHSO4,并用于催化合成环己酮缩乙二醇,探讨了PAn- NaHS04的催化活性,系统考察了醇酮摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应时间和带水剂用量对环己酮缩乙二醇收率的影响,并且用正交试验对反应条件进行了优化.在环己酮用量为0.1 mol,n(乙二醇)∶n(环己酮)=1.6∶1,催化剂用量占反应物总质量的1.2%,带水剂环己烷用量为9mL,反应时间为2.5h的条件下,产品收率可达96.79%,产品经红外光谱、气-质联用定性分析确定为环己酮缩乙二醇,经气相色谱检测纯度大于99.0%,催化剂重复使用5次后,产品收率仍大于90.0%.%Cyclohexanone ethylene ketal was synthesized from cyclohexanone and ethylene glycol as starting materials using polyaniline ( PAn) doped with 20% ( mass fraction) of sodium hydrogen sulfate ( PAn -NaHSO4) as catalysl. Catalytic activity of PAn - NaHSO4 was investigated. Effect of factors such as mole ratio of ethylene glycol to cyclohexanone, dosage of the catalyst, reaction time, dosage of water stripping agent on product yield were examined systematically and optimum reaction conditions were identified by orthogonal designed experiment. Under optimal conditions; based on amount of cyclohexanone 0. 1 mol, mole ratio n(ethylene glycol): re (cyclohexanone) = 1. 6: 1 ,mass fraction of PAn - NaHSO4 1. 2% of the total reactants, water stripping agent cyclohexane 9 mL and reaction time 2. 5 h,yield of the product achieves 96. 79%. The product was identified as cyclohexanone ethylene ketal by IR and GC - MS. Purity of product achieves 99. 0%. After reusing the catalyst for 5 times,yield of the product is still higher than 90. 0%.

  5. Sulfate inhibition effect on sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al Zuhair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the potential of bacterial sulfate reduction as an alternative method for sulfate removal from wastewater. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB utilize sulfate to oxidize organic compounds and generate sulfide (S2-. SRB were successfully isolated from sludge samples obtained from a local petroleum refinery, and used for sulfate removal. The effects of initial sulfate concentration, temperature and pH on the rate of bacterial growth and anaerobic sulfate removal were investigated and the optimum conditions were identified. The experimental data were used to determine the parameters of two proposed kinetic model, which take into consideration substrate inhibition effect. Keywords: Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Sulfate, Kinetic Model, Biotreatement, Inhibition Received: 31 August 2008 / Received in revised form: 18 September 2008, Accepted: 18 September 2008 Published online: 28 September 2008

  6. 硫酸氨基葡萄糖结合关节腔内注射透明质酸钠治疗膝骨关节炎的疗效观察%Clinical observation on knee osteoarthritis treated with glucosamine sulfate and sodium hyaluronate injecting into knee joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of knee osteoarthritis treated with glucosamine sulfate and hyaluronate injecting into knee joint. Methods Divided 98 cases of patient with knee osteoarthritis into two groups. 49 cases in each group, treatment group was treated with oral glucosamine sulfate and articular cavity injection of sodium hyaluronate, control group was treated with sodium hyaluronate alone, clinical effects of two groups were observed. Results The clinical effect of treatment group and control group were 93.9%and 81.6%, there was a significant difference between these two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Combined glucosamine sulfate with sodium hyaluronate injecting into knee joint can improve the clinical effect of knee osteoarthritis.%目的:探讨硫酸氨基葡萄糖结合关节腔内注射透明质酸钠对治疗膝骨关节炎的临床效果。方法膝骨关节炎患者98例,随机分成两组,治疗组和对照组,治疗组49例给予口服硫酸氨基葡萄糖加关节腔内注射透明质酸钠,对照组49例单纯给予关节腔内注射透明质酸钠,观察两组的临床疗效。结果治疗组总有效率93.9%,对照组总有效率81.6%,治疗组高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论硫酸氨基葡萄糖结合关节腔内注射透明质酸钠可以提高膝骨关节炎的疗效。

  7. Kinetics Analysis on Mixing Calcination Process of Fly Ash and Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Laishi Li; Dezhou Wei

    2014-01-01

    abstract The further development of the extraction of alumina that is produced in the calcination process of ammonium sulfate mixed with fly ash was limited because of the lack of systematic theoretical study. In order to aggrandize the research of the calcination process, the kinetics and reaction mechanism of the calcinations were studied. The result suggests that there are two stages in the calcination process, and the alumina extraction rate increases swiftly in the initial stage, but slows down increasing in the later stage. The apparent activation energy of the initial and later stages equals to 13.31 and 35.65 kJ·mol-1, respectively. In the initial stage, ammonium sulfate reacts directly with mullite in the fly ash to form ammonium aluminum sulfate, while in the later stage, alumi-num sulfate is formed by the reaction between ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium sulfate.

  8. Aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  9. Study on the Characteristics of Seed Germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides Under the Condition of Different Concentrations of Sodium Sulfate%不同浓度的硫酸钠条件下光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子的萌发特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马义·巴拉提

    2012-01-01

    It studied the effects of seed germination of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides under the condition of different concentrations of sodium sulfate. The results showed that it decreased for germination power,the percentage of germination,germination index,vigor index and the growth length of radical and germ with the increase of concentration of sodium sulfate. But it remained 91.7% for Glycyrrhiza glabra and zero for Sophora alopecuroides at the concentration of 2.4% sodium sulfate. The optimization of sodium sulfate concentration was 2.4% or above,and this without critical concentration and limit concentration for Glycyrrhiza glabra. And it was the optimal concentration of 1. 8% , 1. 9% critical concentration and 2.4% of limit concentration for Sophora alopecuroides. And the germination index and vigor index of Glycyrrhiza glabra was higher than that of Sophora alopecuroides, but the rate of salt injury of Glycyrrhiza glabra was lower than that of Sophora alopecuroides. And the rate of salt injury of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Sophora alopecuroides were 8% and 100% at the 2.4% concentration of sodium sulfate,respectively. So,it deduced that the competence of Na2SO4-resistance was stronger for Glycyrrhiza glabra and could adapt the hostile ecological environment of 2. 4% concentration of sodium sulfate. But it was of poor competence of Na2SO4-resistance and only apt to the 1.8% concentration of sodium sulfate. It was of lower effects on the growth length of radical and germ and the former was larger than tbe latter under different concentration of sodium sulfate.%用不同浓度的Na2SO4对光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子萌发的影响进行了研究.结果表明:在不同浓度的Na2SO4条件下,光果甘草种子和苦豆子种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数和胚根胚芽生长长度均随着盐浓度的增加而下降.但在浓度为2.4%时,光果甘草种子仍能保持91.7%的发芽率,而苦豆子种子发芽率为0.

  10. The Comparative Observation of the Clinical Efficacy of Glucosamine Sulfate and Diclofenac Sodium Sustained-Release Tablets in the Treatment of Forty Cases with Osteoarthritis%硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片治疗骨性关节炎40例临床疗效对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To comparatively observe the clinical efficacy of glucosamine sulfate and diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Method:40 patients of our hospital from May 2011 to May 2013 were randomly divided into two groups according to different treatment:the group A treated with the glucosamine sulfate and the group B treated with the diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets. Efficacy was observed comparatively after a course of treatment and the number of cases of side effects such as gastrointestinal reactions was recorded. Result:The total effective rate of group A was 95%and the total effective rate of group B was 90%,and there was no difference between group A and group B in total effective rate(P>0.05). The side effect rate of group A(5%)was significantly lower than that of group B(30%)(P0.05);A组副作用率(5%)明显低于B组(30%),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:硫酸氨基葡萄糖和双氯芬酸钠缓释片对治疗骨性关节炎均有效,硫酸氨基葡萄糖的副作用更小,值得临床推广应用。

  11. Highly Viscoelastic Worm-Like Micelle Solution of Sodium Hexadecyl Sulfate Induced by Bolaform Counterions%Bola反离子诱导的高粘弹十六烷基硫酸钠蠕虫胶束溶液

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑曦; 杨铎平

    2012-01-01

    利用稳态和频率扫描研究了十六烷基硫酸钠(SHS)与Bola盐(N,N'-双乙基二甲基-α,ω-乙烷溴化铵(Bola2Et)或N,N'-三甲基-α,ω-丁烷溴化铵(Bola4)混合体系的流变行为.实验结果表明两个体系均在45℃时形成了长蠕虫胶束,溶液呈现出高粘弹性,尤其是SHS/Bola2Et溶液表现出很高的弹性,零剪接粘度高达2520 Pa·s,表观上呈现胶状.这些结果归因于在Bola反离子诱导下,表面活性剂SHS与Bola反离子形成了静电吸引的2:1结构复合物.由于这两个Bola反离子的联接链长度均短于季铵离子的静电平衡距离,因此形成的复合物在形状上有利于蠕虫胶束生成.作为对比,添加简单的四甲基铵反离子无法诱导SHS形成蠕虫胶束,溶液仅呈现低粘度.%The rheological behaviors of mixed aqueous solutions of sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS) and a bolaform salt,either N,N'-ethanediyl-α,ω-bis(ethyldimethylammonium bromide) (Bola2Et) or N,N'-propanediyl-α,ω-bis(trimethylammonium bromide) (Bola4),were investigated by steady-state and frequencysweep measurements.The results showed that long worm-like micelles were formed in both systems at 45 ℃,and the solutions exhibited high viscoelasticities,especially the SHS/Bola2Et system in which the solution had very high elasticity.The zero-shear viscosity of SHS/Bola2Et was as high as 2520 Pa· s,and the system was gel-like.These results were attributed to the formation of 2:1 complexes by electrostatic attraction.Since the spacers of both Bola counterions were shorter than the distance between quaternary ammonium ions under electrostatic equilibrium,the generated complex in shape favored formation of worm-like micelles.In comparison,it was difficult to induce SHS to form worm-like micelles by the addition of tetramethylammonium counterions,and the solution exhibited low viscosity.

  12. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  13. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...

  14. Effects of dietary Sodium Sulfate on ruminal fiber degradability of white cashmere goats in the north of Shaanxi%日粮中添加硫酸钠对陕北白绒山羊瘤胃纤维素降解率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬敏; 陈玉林; 寇慧娟; 曹宝红; 张恩平; 周光现; 张思慧

    2011-01-01

    【目的】研究含不同水平硫酸钠日粮对陕北白绒山羊瘤胃纤维素降解率的影响,为选择适宜的硫添加水平提供理论依据。【方法】选择4只健康、体质量(28~32 kg)相近且安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的陕北白绒山羊为试验动物,采用4×4拉丁方单因素试验设计,试验分4个时期进行,每个时期14 d,分别饲喂硫酸钠添加水平为0(对照组),2.0,4.8,6.4 g/kg的4种日粮,测定瘤胃内青贮饲料干物质(DM)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)的动态降解率,计算青贮饲料瘤胃DM、NDF、ADF的有效降解率(PED),%【Objective】 This research aimed to explore the effects of different dietary sodium sulfate additions on ruminal fiber degradation of white cashmere goats of north Shaanxi to provide theoretical basis for the suitable sulfur addition.【Method】 4 male white cashmere goats of northern Shaanxi aged between 2 to 2.5 years and weighing 28 to 32 kg with permanent ruminal cannulaes were assessed in 4×4 Latin square experiments.The test was divided into 4 periods,14 days in every period,and dietary sodium sulfate was respectively 0,2.0,4.8,6.4 g/kg,to determine the dynamic degradation rate(P) of rumen dry matter siage(DM),neutral detergent fiber(NDF),acid detergent fiber(ADF),and calculate silage ruminal DM,NDF and ADF effective degradability(PED),and then carry out the significance test.【Result】 Compared with the control group,the outflow rate of rumen digesta(Kp) didn't change significantly,PED of ruminal DM NDF and ADF were improved.Moreover,when the dietary sodium sulfate levels were 4.8 and 6.4 g/kg,PED significantly or extremely significantly increased.【Conclusion】 Ruminal silage PED was enhanced after adding sodium sulfate in non-cashmere of white cashmere goat.And the PED grew with the increase of sodium sulfate;when it was 6.4 g/kg,the PED was the biggest,so silage was better used.

  15. The effect of triethanolamine combined with sodium sulfate on the performanceand structure of fly ash - cement system%三乙醇胺与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰-水泥体系性能与结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东忠; 杜育红; 林春莺

    2012-01-01

    探讨三乙醇胺与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰-水泥体系的抗压强度、凝结时间等性能与结构的影响.结果表明:将适量的硫酸钠与三乙醇胺复合掺入可以不同程度地提高粉煤灰-水泥早期与后期的抗压强度、缩短凝结时间,其水化产物中C -S-H凝胶与钙矾石晶体含量较多;粉煤灰-水泥早期与后期的抗压强度随着粉磨时间的增加均有所增加但增幅下降,其凝结时间随着粉磨时间的增加有所缩短;复合掺人后早期与后期的抗压强度均高于单掺,而其凝结时间短于单掺;当复合掺人量为三乙醇胺0.03%、硫酸钠2%、粉磨时间为15min时,粉煤灰-水泥早期与后期的抗压强度均为最高.%The effect of triethanolamine combined with sodium sulfate on the compressive strength, the setting time and structure of fly ash - cement system were investigated . The results show that the compressive strength of fly ash - cement in the early and later stage can be improved in different extent but the setting time of fly ash - cement is shortened by adding proper content of sodium sulfate combined with triethanolamine to the cement. The content of C - S - H gel and ettringite crystal in the hydration product of fly ash cement is much higher. When the grinding time is prolonged, the compressive strength of By ash - cement in the early and later stage can be unproved in different extent but the increasing rate of that are reduced; and the setting time of fly ash - cement is shortened in different extent but the reducing rate of that are reduced. The compressive strength in the early and later stage by adding proper content of sodium sulfate combined with triethanolamine to the cement is higher but the setting time is shorter than that by adding triethanolamine or sodium sulfate only. When the content of 0.03% triethanolamine and 2% sodium sulfate is admixed and grinding time is 15 minutes, the compressive strengths of fly ash - cement in the

  16. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. Learn more and ... sodium with these printable and sharable infographics. The Salty Six – Common Foods that Add the Most Sodium ...

  17. ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF SYNTHETIC HEPARAN SULFATE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES VARYING IN DEGREE OF SULFATION AND HEXURONIC ACID STEREOCHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2012-12-15

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates provide a challenging analytical target for structural determination due to their polydisperse nature, non-template biosynthesis, and labile sulfate modifications. The resultant structures, although heterogeneous, contain domains which indicate a sulfation pattern or code that correlates to specific function. Mass spectrometry, in particular electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (EDD FT-ICR MS), provides a highly sensitive platform for GAG structural analysis by providing cross-ring cleavages for sulfation location and product ions specific to hexuronic acid stereochemistry. To investigate the effect of sulfation pattern and variations in stereochemistry on EDD spectra, a series of synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) tetrasaccharides are examined. Whereas previous studies have focused on lowly sulfated compounds (0.5-1 sulfate groups per disaccharide), the current work extends the application of EDD to more highly sulfated tetrasaccharides (1-2 sulfate groups per disaccharide) and presents the first EDD of a tetrasaccharide containing a sulfated hexuronic acid. For these more highly sulfated HS oligomers, alternative strategies are shown to be effective for extracting full structural details. These strategies inlcude sodium cation replacement of protons, for determining the sites of sulfation, and desulfation of the oligosaccharides for the generation of product ions for assigning uronic acid stereochemistry.

  18. Clinical Observation on Glucosamine Sulfate Versus Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Tablets for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis%硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片治疗骨性关节炎临床疗效对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宝铁; 周振东; 费良健

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comparatively analyze the clinical efficacy of Glucosamine sulfate versus diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets for the treatment of osteoarthritis.Methods 46 cases of osteoarthritis patients who treated in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2014 were selected, and divided into observation group ( n=23, treated with Glucosamine sulfate) and the control group ( n=23, treated with diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets) according to different treatment drugs.The clinical efficacy and safety of the two groups were analyzed comparatively.Results There was no significant difference in effective rate between two groups ( P>0.05).The incidence of side effects in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusions Glucosamine sulfate and diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets has the quite effect in the treatment of osteoarthritis, but the toxic and side effects of Glucosamine sulfate are less than those of diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets, Glucosamine sulfate has significant safety which is worthy of application and promotion.%目的:对比分析硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片在治疗骨性关节炎过程中的临床疗效。方法将2012年12月~2014年12月收治的骨性关节炎患者46例按照治疗药物的不同分为接受硫酸氨基葡萄糖治疗的观察组(n=23)和接受双氯芬酸钠缓释片治疗的对照组(n=23),对比分析两组患者的临床效果和安全性。结果观察组患者治疗有效率与对照组无明显差异,无统计学意义( P>0.05);观察组患者副作用的发生率明显低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论在对骨性关节炎患者实施治疗的过程中硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片的效果相当,但是硫酸氨基葡萄糖的毒副作用与双氯芬酸钠缓释片相比较小,具有更为显著的安全性。

  19. 新型茶皂素硫酸钠合成及其修复土壤重金属污染研究%Preparation of New-type Tea Saponin Sodium Sulfate and Its Remediation Study on Soil Heavy Metal Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 傅丽君; 沈金瑞

    2012-01-01

    The neotype green tea-saponin chelate(tea saponin sodium sulfate) were prepared by the tea saponin as raw material extracted through aqueous extract-alcohol precipitation from tea seed cake.After the research to its superficial performance,the results showed the surface tension of tea saponin sodium sulfate was lower than the TS's,but HLB value and foaming and stable foam ability were higher than TS's.Meanwhile the effect of the oscillation time,chelating agent concentration,pH and ionic strength on removing heavy metal rate was investigated.The results showed that the removal rate of heavy metal ions increased with oscillation time and chelating agent concentration increasing,reduced with ionic strength and pH increasing.The optimum technologies of removal of Pb2+,Cd2+ were as follows:Oscillation time was 12 h,chelating agent mass concentration was 7%,pH was 5.0,concentration of Ca(NO3)2 was 0.01 mol/L.On the conditions,removal rate of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions in the soil by chelating agent was the highest.Removal rate of Cd2+ of tea-saponin sodium sulfate was higher than Pb2+'s.Removal rate of Pb2+ and Cd2+ of tea-saponin sodium sulfate was better than tea saponin's respectively.Especially,removal rate of Pb2+ of tea-saponin sodium sulfate was significantly improved.%经水提-沉淀法从茶籽饼提取茶皂素,以其为原料设计合成了新型绿色茶皂素基螯合剂(茶皂素硫酸钠)。对其表面性能进行研究发现,其表面张力低于茶皂素,而HLB值、起泡力及稳泡性均优于茶皂素。同时考察了振荡时间、螯合剂浓度、pH及离子强度对螯合剂去除重金属率的影响。结果表明,重金属去除率随振荡时间和浓度增加而升高,随pH、离子强度增加而降低。得出去除Pb^2+、Cd^2+离子的最佳工艺:振荡时间为12h,质量分数为7%,pH为5.0,Ca(NO3)2浓度为0.01mol/L,此条件下螯合剂对土壤中Pb^2+、Cd^2+离子去除率

  20. Chronic aluminum intake causes Alzheimer's disease: applying Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized societies produce many convenience foods with aluminum additives that enhance various food properties and use alum (aluminum sulfate or aluminum potassium sulfate) in water treatment to enable delivery of large volumes of drinking water to millions of urban consumers. The present causality analysis evaluates the extent to which the routine, life-long intake, and metabolism of aluminum compounds can account for Alzheimer's disease (AD), using Austin Bradford Hill's nine epidemiological and experimental causality criteria, including strength of the relationship, consistency, specificity, temporality, dose-dependent response, biological rationale, coherence with existing knowledge, experimental evidence, and analogy. Mechanisms that underlie the risk of low concentrations of aluminum relate to (1) aluminum's absorption rates, allowing the impression that aluminum is safe to ingest and as an additive in food and drinking water treatment, (2) aluminum's slow progressive uptake into the brain over a long prodromal phase, and (3) aluminum's similarity to iron, in terms of ionic size, allows aluminum to use iron-evolved mechanisms to enter the highly-active, iron-dependent cells responsible for memory processing. Aluminum particularly accumulates in these iron-dependent cells to toxic levels, dysregulating iron homeostasis and causing microtubule depletion, eventually producing changes that result in disconnection of neuronal afferents and efferents, loss of function and regional atrophy consistent with MRI findings in AD brains. AD is a human form of chronic aluminum neurotoxicity. The causality analysis demonstrates that chronic aluminum intake causes AD.

  1. 大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的临床研究%Clinical study of the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宇; 周静; 潘立茹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of the fat liquefaction of abdominal incision. Methods 101 patients with the fat liquefaction of abdominal operative inci-sion who underwent abdominal operation in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. SO patients in the treatment group were treated by rhubarb and sodium sulfate for external application in combination with infrared rays once daily ;51 patients in the control group were treated by changing dry dressing once daily and squeezing. Results There was statistic difference on healing time, frequency of dressing replacement, the use of butterfly sterile adhesive tape, and the rate of second debridement between the treatment group and the control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rhubarb and sodi-um sulfate in combination with infrared rays can promote the absorption of inflammatory exudates and accelerate the concrescence of the wounds.%目的 观察大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的治疗效果.方法 将我院2009年1月-2010年10月期间术后腹部手术切口发生脂肪液化的101例患者随机分为两组.试验组(n =50例)脂肪液化之切口,用大黄、芒硝混匀后外敷,并给予红外线治疗,每日1次.对照组(n=51例)应用普通换药及挤压方法,每日换药1次.结果 试验组的切口愈合时间、更换敷料及应用无菌蝶形胶布固定切口次数、二次清创缝合术的几率,与对照组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 中药外敷加红外线治疗能促进脂肪液化伤口炎症渗出物的吸收,加快切口愈合.

  2. Effect of folate deficiency on experimental colitis in mice induced by dextran sodium sulfate%叶酸缺乏对葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导的小鼠实验性结肠炎的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉萍; 肖锐; 方维丽; 李海东; 刘文天

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether folate deficiency cause high expression level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) resulted from IFN-γ gene ( IFNG) hypomethylation and then promote the pathogenesis and development of ulcerative colitis (UC ) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS )-induced experimental colitis model in mice .Methods A total of 24 female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups ,six mice in each group , including folate deficient/DSS+ group , standard diet/DSS+ group , standard diet/DSS - group and folate deficient/DSS- group .At the beginning of the sixth week since fed , the mice of model groups were treated with 5% DSS to establish experimental colitis .By the end of the sixth week ,disease activity index (DAI) of colitis and histological changes were evaluated .The folate level of peripheral blood serum of mice were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) . The expression of IFN-γ in colonic mucosa of mice was examined by immunohistochemistry . The methylation level of CpG island in the promoter region of IFNG was determined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) .The t test was used for measurement data .Chi square test was performed for comparison between groups of count data . Spearman correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis .Results The folate levels of peripheral blood serum of folate deficiency/DSS+ group and folate deficiency/DSS- group ((2 .70 ± 0 .19) and (2 .80 ± 0 .25)μg/L) were significantly lower than those of standard diet/DSS+ group and standard diet/DSS- group ((13 .62 ± 0 .38 ) and (13 .52 ± 0 .77)μg/L ,t= -63 .33、32 .27 ,both P< 0 .05) ,resepectively .The expression of IFN-γ in colonic mucosa of folate deficiency/DSS+ group and standard diet/DSS+ group were significantly higher than those of folate deficiency/DSS- group and standard diet/DSS- group (χ2 = 22 .18 ,P< 0 .05 ) . And the expression of IFN-γ in colonic mucosa of folate deficiency/DSS+ group was also higher than that of

  3. 全反式维甲酸治疗葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导的小鼠结肠炎%All-trans retinoic acid protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪凯; 张翼; 郭媛; 白爱平

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨全反式维甲酸(all-trans retinoic acid,ATRA)对葡聚糖硫酸钠(dextran sulfate sodium,DSS)结肠炎治疗作用的机制.方法:将小鼠随机分成4组:正常对照组、DSS组、DS S+AT RA组和DSS+LE135组.建立小鼠DSS结肠炎的急性模型,从小鼠饮用DSS第3天开始,DSS+ATRA组、DSS+LE135组分别给予ATRA 0.5 mg/d、LE135 0.1 mg/d腹腔注射至实验结束.每天观察各组小鼠疾病活动指数(disease activity index,DAI),第8天颈椎脱臼处死小鼠取肠组织匀浆检测各组小鼠炎症肠段中髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase,MPO)的含量,ELISA检测肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)的含量,免疫组织化学测定小鼠结肠CD68和核因子κB(nuclear factor κB,NF-κB) P65的表达,结果:(1)DAI评分:DSS+ATRA组小鼠的DAI评分为4.63±2.20,与DSS组、DSS+LE135组相比评分明显较低(P<0.05);对照组小鼠的DAI评分均为0;(2)组织学评分:DSS+ATRA组小鼠的组织学评分为7.63±1.19,与DSS组(10.13±1.36)、DSS+LE135组(10.38± 1.30)相比得分明显降低(P<0.05),但明显高于正常对照组(0.25±0.463);(3)MPO活性:DS S+ATRA组小鼠的MPO活性为7.88± 0.68,与空白对照(3.52±0.58)、DSS组(11.36 ±0.96)、DSS+LE135组(12.65±0.77)相比均有明显差异(P<0.05);(4)组织匀浆TNF含量:DSS+ATRA组(178.63±39.37),明显低于DSS组(316.67±43.68)、DSS+LE135组(362.45±62.75)这2组;(5)结肠组织CD68的表达:DSS+ATRA组肠黏膜固有层CD68阳性细胞数明显低于DSS组、DSS+LE135组(P<0.05),与对照组小鼠的CD68表达量相比明显增高(P<0.05);(6)结肠组织NF-κB的表达:DS S+ATRA组肠黏膜固有层NF-κB阳性细胞数明显低于DSS组、DSS+LE135组(P<0.05),与对照组NF-κB的表达量相比增高(P<0.05).结论:ATRA对DSS诱导的小鼠结肠炎具有治疗作用,机制为抑制结肠炎作用肠道免疫反应,及外周巨噬细胞向肠黏膜浸润.

  4. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC: CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20–220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650–1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5–1.0 L min−1 aerosol flow rate, 20–30°C inlet temperature, 4–34 K m−1 temperature gradient. For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations.

    High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5–7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature.

    To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05–2%, the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH42SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH42SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff

  5. 硝酸酯在小鼠急性实验性结肠炎中的治疗作用%Therapeutic effect of nitrate on dextran sulfate sodium induced acute experimental colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军华; 沈佳庆; 宋允娜; 郑萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察硝酸酯对小鼠急性实验性结肠炎的疗效.方法 将40只BALB/c小鼠均分为模型组和治疗组,模型组予4%葡聚糖硫酸钠(DSS)溶液,治疗组予4%DSS溶液和1.5 g/L硝酸酯溶液,均连续饮用7d.对小鼠疾病活动指数(DAI)进行评分.取小鼠结肠组织进行苏木精-伊红染色和髓过氧化物酶(MPO)免疫组织化学染色并进行观察.分别用MPO和一氧化氮检测试剂盒检测结肠组织MPO和一氧化氮活性.统计学处理采用t检验.结果 第6和第7天治疗组和模型组的DAI差异有统计学意义(t=5.12和6.72,P=0.012和0.008).第7天时模型组组织学评分(2.5±0.5)高于治疗组(1.9±0.4),差异有统计学意义(t=3.82,P<0.01).与模型组相比,治疗组小鼠结肠组织病理损伤明显减轻,中性粒细胞浸润减少.第7天时模型组MPO活性、NO2-浓度、NO3-浓度分别为(2.8±0.6) U/g、(10.4±4.3) mmol/g、(100.3±50.1)mmol/g,治疗组则分别为(1.5±0.3)U/g、(17.5±7.0)mmol/g、(190.7±85.3) mmol/g,差异均有统计学意义(t=11.23、3.81、4.50,P均<0.01).结论 硝酸酯可减轻DSS诱导的小鼠急性实验性结肠炎.%Objective To investigate the effect of nitrate on acute experimental colitis in mice.Methods A total of 40 BALB/c mice were evenly divided into model group and treatment group.Model group were fed with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) solution and treatment group were given 4% DSS solution and nitrate (1.5 g/L) for seven days.The disease activity index (DAI) of mice was scored.The colon tissue of mice was taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining and myeloperoxidase (MPO)immunohistochemical staining observation.The MPO and activity of nitric oxide in colon tissue were measured by MPO and nitric oxide detecting kit.The data were analyzed by t test.Results At the 6th day and 7th day,the difference of DAI between treatment group and model group was statistically significant (t=5.12 and 6.72,P=0.012 and 0.008).At the 7th day,the tissue

  6. Effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted aluminum sulfate coagulation on the removal of humic acid and the formation potentials of tri-halomethanes and haloacetic acids in chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinming Duan; Xiaoting Cao; Cheng Chen; Dongrui Shi; Genmao Li; Dennis Mulcahy

    2012-01-01

    The effects of addition of calcium hydroxide on aluminum sulphate (or alum) coagulation for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and its subsequent effect on the formation potentials of two major types of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs),haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs),have been examined.The results revealed several noteworthy phenomena.At the optimal coagulation pH (i.e.6),the coagulation behavior of NOM water solutions versus alum dose,showed large variation and a consequent great change in the formation potentials of the DBPs at certain coagulant doses.However,with addition of a relatively small amount of Ca(OH)2,although the zeta potential of coagulated flocs remained almost the same,NOM removal became more consistent with alum dose.Importantly,also the detrimental effect of charge reversal on NOM removal at the low coagulant dose disappeared.This resulted in a steady decrease in the formation potentials of DBPs as a function of the coagulant dose.Moreover,the addition of Ca(OH)2 broadened the pH range of alum coagulation and promoted further reduction of the formation potentials of the DBPs.The enhancement effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted alum coagulation are especially pronounced at pH 7 and 8.Finally,synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the reduction in DBPs formation potential by Ca(OH)2-assisted alum coagulation was connected to an enhanced removal of small hydrophobic and hydrophilic HA molecules.Ca(OH)2-assistance of alum coagulation appeared to increase substantially the removal of the hydrophilic HA fraction responsible for HAAs formation,prompting further reduction of HAA formation potentials.

  7. 分子动力学模拟研究盐离子对十二烷基硫酸钠胶束溶液中亲水亲油协调机制的影响%Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Effect of Salt on the Compromise of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Interactions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 任瑛; 葛蔚

    2009-01-01

    The presence of salt has a profound effect on the size, shape and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. There have been a great number of experiments on SDS micelles in the presence and absence of salt to study this complex problem. Unfortunately, it is not clear yet how electrolyte ions influence the structure of micelles. By describing the compromise between dominant mechanisms, a simplified atomic model of SDS in presence of salt has been developed and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two series of systems with different concentrations of salt and charges of ion have been performed. Polydispersity of micelle size is founded at relatively high concentration of SDS and low charge of cation. Although the counter-ion pairs with head groups are formed, the transition of micelle shape is not observed because the charge of cation is not enough to neutralize the polar of micelle surface.

  8. Synthesis of protons exchange polymeric membranes via co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application in PEM fuel cells; Sintese de membranas polimericas condutoras de protons por imobilizacao de MDs em copoliesteres para aplicacao em PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Brioude, M.M.; Bresciani, D.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are largely studied for use in PEM-type fuel cell (Proton Exchange membrane, PEMFC). These fuel cells are based on polymer membranes as electrolyte, also called protons conductor. This work developed co-polyesters made electrical conductors by doping with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The copolymers were synthesized from the copolymerization of terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. The material was processed in a reactor and shaped by hot pressing, yielding homogeneous and flexible plates, with excellent surface finish. The co-polyesters were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TG, DSC, and XRD. The thermal analysis showed that the composites were thermally stable up to about 250 deg C. The micrographics revealed the MDS homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. These copolymers showed electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S/cm, suggesting strong potential use in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  9. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  11. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  12. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  13. Study on the Comprehensive Utilization of Sodium Sulfate from Preparation of Chlorine Dioxide Based on Methanol Method%甲醇法二氧化氯制备中副产物酸性芒硝的综合利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹磊; 聂双喜; 宋海农; 班飞; 杜春晖

    2012-01-01

    为满足国家13益严格的环保要求,制浆厂采用ECF漂白成为当今纸浆漂白的一种主流趋势,二氧化氯制备及副产物利用相关技术成为亟待解决的问题。文章介绍了二氧化氯副产物酸性芒硝的综合利用方法,首先探讨了酸性芒硝复分解反应制备中性芒硝工艺,重点对中性芒硝真空过滤脱水与短程干燥技术进行了研究,即先将中性芒硝浆料送至真空过滤机洗涤过滤脱水,再经流化床干燥器干燥制得无水硫酸钠粉末(元明粉),通过芒硝干燥实验,对比循环流化床与振动流化床干燥效率,为流化床干燥器的选型提供了依据。采用该工艺制得的元明粉,产品指标符合GB/T6009—2003II类优等品标准,产品质量高,能源消耗少,具有工艺简单,操作方便,成本低的优点。%In order to meet the country's ever-strict demands for environmental protection, ECF bleaching becomes a mainstream trend in pulp bleaching, preparation of chlorine dioxide and the using technology of its by-products become serious problems needed to be solved. This paper introduced the comprehensive utilization of sodium sulfate from preparation of chlorine dioxide, discussed the metathetical reaction process of acidic sodium sulfate, focused on neutral sahcake vacuum filtration and dewatering short seqnence drying technology. The neutral saltcake slurry was sent to vacuum filter for filtration and dewatering, then dried in a fluidized bed dryer to obtain anhydrous sodi- um sulfate powder (anhydrous sodium sulfate). By saltcake drying experiment, circulating fluidized bed was com- pared with vibration fluidized bed in drying efficiency for the selection of the fluidized bed dryer,which provides a theoretical basis. After treatment, the indexes of the product are in accord with the product standards of GB/T6009 -2003 Ⅱ superior class. The process produces a high quality product and needs less energy

  14. Thermodynamics of Micellization of n-Alkyl Sulfates in an Alkaline Medium at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso; Taboada; Mosquera; Sarmiento

    1999-06-15

    Critical micelle concentrations (cmc) have been calculated from conductivity measurements at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K for sodium n-decyl sulfate (SDES), sodium n-undecyl sulfate (SUNDS), and sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a medium of pH 10.0 and ionic strength 0.0312. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization, standard Gibbs energies (), standard enthalpies (), and standard entropies (), have been obtained by application of the model of Evans and Ninham in terms of hydrophobic and surface contributions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. The influence of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker on the properties of liquid silicone rubber%碱式硫酸镁晶须对液体硅橡胶性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓颖; 王国辉; 李倩; 邓新华

    2012-01-01

    以双组份加成型液体硅橡胶(LSR)为基胶,白炭黑为补强填料,通过测试分析,对比氢氧化铝、氢氧化镁、碱式硫酸镁晶须、经硬脂酸钠表面处理的碱式硫酸镁晶须4种阻燃剂复合液体硅橡胶的燃烧性能和力学性能.结果表明,经表面处理后的碱式硫酸镁晶须提高了LSR的拉伸强度,并在改善LSR的防火性能方面具有独特的优势.%Taking two-component additional liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as base rubber, silica white carbon black was as reinforcing packing material. Analyzis and comparison of the combustion performance and mechanical properties of four flame retardant liquid silicone rubber compound, including aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker,and the stearic acid sodium surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker. The results showed that the stearic acid sodium surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker could improve the tensile strength of LSR, and had a unique advantage in improving the flame resistance of LSR.

  16. Estudio Comparativo de Sulfato de Aluminio y Semillas de Moringa oleifera para la Depuración de Aguas con Baja Turbiedad Comparative Study of Aluminum Sulfate and Moringa oleifera seeds as Coagulants in the Clarification of Water with Low Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia G.S Lédo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar la eficiencia de dos coagulantes, el sulfato de aluminio y semillas de Moringa oleifera, para remoción de turbiedad en muestras del agua provenientes de la Laguna de Jiqui, estado del Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brasil. Las dosificaciones y pH de los coagulantes fueron variados entre límites establecidos. Se realizaron pruebas, en tubos de ensayo Jar-Test y medidas de movilidad electroforética para determinar el potencial Zeta y para determinar los posibles mecanismos involucrados en el proceso de coagulación. Los mecanismos de coagulación con semillas de Moringa oleifera son adsorción y neutralización de cargas y adsorción y formación de puentes. Los resultados sugieren que para aguas de baja turbiedad, las semillas de Moringa oleifera pueden ser un sustituto potencialmente viable al sulfato de aluminio para la clarificación de dichas aguas.The objective of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of a coagulant prepared from Moringa oleifera seeds, for clarifying water samples with low turbidity from the Jiqui Lake, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brazil. The dosages and pH of the coagulants were changed within defined limits. Jar-test essays and measurements of electrophoretic mobility were done to determine the Zeta potential and the possible mechanisms involved in the coagulation process. The mechanisms of coagulation with Moringa oleifera are absorption and neutralization of charges and absorption and bridging. The results suggest that for low turbidity waters, Moringa oleifera seeds represent a potentially viable substitute of aluminum sulfate for water clarification.

  17. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Tyrosine Sulfation of Statherin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kasinathan, N. Gandhi, P. Ramaprasad, P. Sundaram, N. Ramasubbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST, responsible for the sulfation of a variety of secretory and membrane proteins, has been identified and characterized in submandibular salivary glands (William et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 338: 90-96. In the present study we demonstrate the sulfation of a salivary secretory protein, statherin, by the tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase present in human saliva. Optimum statherin sulfation was observed at pH 6.5 and at 20 mm MnCl2. Increase in the level of total sulfation was observed with increasing statherin concentration. The Km value of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase for statherin was 40 μM. Analysis of the sulfated statherin product on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed 35S-labelling of a 5 kDa statherin. Further analysis of the sulfated statherin revealed the sulfation on tyrosyl residue. This study is the first report demonstrating tyrosine sulfation of a salivary secretory protein. The implications of this sulfation of statherin in hydroxyapatite binding and Actinomyces viscosus interactions are discussed.

  19. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  20. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  1. Model identification with BPNN on restrictive ecological factors of SRB for sulfate-reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The model of back-propagation neural network(BPNN)was presented to demonstrate the effect of restrictive ecological factors,COD/SO42-ratio,pH value,alkalinity(ALK)and SO42-loading rate(Ns),on sulfate-reduction of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria(SRB)in an acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor supplied with molasses as sole organic carbon source and sodium sulfate as electron acceptor.The compare of experimental results and computer simulation was also discussed.It was shown that the method of BPNN had a powerful ability to analyze the ecological characteristic of acidogenic sulfate-reducing ecosystem quantitatively.

  2. Roles of heparan sulfate sulfation in dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-06

    Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix.

  3. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  4. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco cloridrato de fluoxetina e do surfactante dodecil sulfato de sodio quando submetidos a tratamento por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes Rafael Alves dos

    2011-07-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-4{sub 8h} found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE50{sub 48h} 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE50{sub 96h} found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE50{sub 15min} of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  5. The Blocking And Heat Transfer -Flow Characteristics Coupling Analysis In Plate Heat Exchanger For MVR Sodium Sulfate Crystallization System%MVR硫酸钠结晶系统中宽通道板式换热器的堵塞特性与传热流动特性耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚君磊; 韩东; 叶莉; 顾昂

    2011-01-01

    MVR系统中WPHE蒸发结晶过程中液固两相流常涉及堵塞影响流动传热的现象.本文以MVR硫酸钠结晶系统中WPHE为研究对象,在对不同流速且未堵塞条件下的传热流动特性进行实验分析并验证.然后对影响堵塞与传热流动特性的关键参数:如硫酸钠溶液浓度、晶浆液固比、板间距和流速等影响进行分析.研究结果表明:随着液固两相流中固相体积分数的增加,总传热系数呈现下降趋势,下降幅度较小,在硫酸钠晶浆板间流速7 m3/h,固相体积分数比10%的工况下,板片角孔处出现了颗粒黏结导致的堵塞问题.随着硫酸钠溶液浓度的升高,总传热系数呈现上升趋势,上升幅度较小.在相同雷诺数下,当板间距增加2 mm时,WPHE的换热率降低9%左右.%In the present study, the liquid - solid two phase flow characteristics inside a wide gap plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. Flow and heat transfer mechanism are analyzed at different concentration of sodium sulfate solution, circulation, solid-to-liquid ratio and plate spacing through comparing the results between ASPEN HTFS numerical simulation and experimental study. Based on the research data, heat transfer efficiency of the wide gap plate heat exchanger get worse with the solid liquid ratio getting higher. The clogging casued by particle-cementation occurred at the comer of the plates, under the working conditions : the circulating velocity of working fluid being heated 7 m3 · h -1 and the solid liquid ratio 10%. Heat transfer efficiency of the wide gap plate heat exchanger get better with concentration of sodium sulfate solution getting higher. At the same of Reynolds number , heat transfer efficiency of the wide gap plate heat exchanger getting worse 10% with plate spacing getting higher 2mm.

  6. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  7. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  8. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  9. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  10. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  11. Dynamic fluorescence quenching of quinine sulfate dication by chloride ion in ionic and neutral micellar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunita; Varma Y, Tej Varma; Pant, Debi D.

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Quinine sulfate dication (QSD) by chloride-ion (Cl-) in micellar environments of anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral, triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous phase has been investigated by time-resolved and steady- state fluorescence measurements. The quenching follows linear Stern-Volmer relation in micellar solutions and is dynamic in nature.

  12. The Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in the Course of Sulfate-Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Acid-producing phase reactor of two-phase anaerobic treatment process has remarkable advantages treating sulfate-laden wastewater. In order to investigate SRB population's capability of utilizing substrate and the microbial acidification type formed during the course of sulfate reduction, continuous-flow and batch tests were conducted in a continuous stirred tank bio-film reactor supplied with sodium sulfate as electron acceptor. The experimental results demonstrated that the acidification type formed b...

  13. Conditioned aversion of aluminum sulfate in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if reduced consumption of foods with elevated Al levels by black ducks (Anas rubripes) was due to taste aversion, conditioned taste aversion or malaise. Black ducks preferred a diet with 1,000 ppm Al over a control diet but ate less of a diet with 5,000 ppm Al. Prior experience with the high Al diet enhanced preference for the control diet. Changes in body weight and food consumption through time suggested that aversion to the high Al diet was a conditioned response to mild malaise.

  14. Estudo microcalorimétrico da interação de tensoativos n-alquil-sulfato de sódio com tripsina a 298 k Microcalorimetric study of sodium N-alkyl sulfate interactions with trypsin at 298 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi A. Silva Filho

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic study of the interactions of ionic surfactants with protein trypsin in buffer solution pH 3.5, 7.0 and 9.0, ionic strength 10 mM at 298 K was done using the microcalorimetric technique. In this study, anionic surfactant solutions of the sodium n-alkyl sulfates series (C8, C10, C12 and C14 were used. The enthalpy of interaction (ΔintHº shows that the interaction of the surfactants C8, C10, C12 and C14 with trypsin in the solution pH 3.5 is an endothermic process with the value of ΔintHº decreasing linearly with increasing carbon chain length, which is attributed to the unfolding of the polypeptide chain. In the solution pH 7.0, we observed the same trend except for C14. In the solution pH 9.0, from C10 the enthapy of interaction didn't change with the increasing of the carbon chain length due to unfolding of the polypeptide. We concluded that when trypsin is folded, the enthalpy of interaction shows a linear relationship with the surfactant's hydrophobicity, in agreement with Traube's rule.

  15. Sulfation and Cation Effects on the Conformational Properties of the Glycan Backbone of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic “backbone” has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high resolution, high precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All ten disaccharides (β1-3 vs. β1-4 linkage x five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA –COO− moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to –COO− can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to –COO− results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing

  16. Sodium - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  17. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate on chondrocytes and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in dogs with degenerative joint disease Efeitos do sulfato de condroitina e do hialuronato de sódio nos condrócitos e na matriz extracelular na cartilagem articular de cães com doença articular degenerativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Samples of articular cartilage of femur, tibia and patella of 15 dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD were microscopically analyzed. Animals were distributed into three groups (n=5: the control group received no medication; the second group was treated with chondroitin sulfate and the third received sodium hyaluronate. Samples were processed and stained with HE and toluidine blue for morphological evaluation. The metabolic and proliferative activity of the chondrocytes was evaluated by the measurement of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs after impregnation by silver nitrate. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05 in the morphology among the groups, however, the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had a higher score suggesting a trend to a greater severity of the lesions. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05 in the measurement of NORs, cells and NORs/cells among the groups. Although differences were not significant, sodium hyaluronate group showed higher NOR and cell counts which suggested an increase of the proliferation rate of chondrocytes. In addition, a higher NOR/cell ratio in the group treated with chondroitin sulfate suggested that this drug may have stimulated the metabolic activity of the chondrocytes, minimizing the lesions resulting from DJD.Foram utilizadas amostras de cartilagem articular do fêmur, tíbia e patela de 15 cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD, induzida experimentalmente. Foram constituídos três grupos de cinco animais: grupo 1 - controle, não medicado; grupo 2 - tratado com sulfato de condroitina e grupo 3 - tratado com hialuronato de sódio. As amostras foram processadas e coradas pelas técnicas de HE e de azul de toluidina para avaliação das alterações morfológicas, e impregnadas pelo nitrato de prata para análise da atividade metabólica e/ou proliferativa dos condrócitos, por meio da visualização e quantificação de regiões organizadoras

  18. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  19. Electrochemical Coupling between Active Particulates and Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Sodium Vanadate (M) Sodium Stannate (M) Catechol (M) Pyrrole (M) Ammonium Persulfate (M) Phosphate Composite 3.00 3.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1 0.2...Days Immersion in DHS Phosphate Vanadate Molybdate Sulfate 16 Summary  The polypyrrole (PPy) Al flake composite (PAFC...Novel Routes to Synthesis of Nano-Particulates of Polypyrrole 18 Thank You. 19

  20. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  1. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  2. Swelling Studies of Chitosan-Gelatin Films Cross-Linked by Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling; Yu Zu-yu; Yang Chao; Zhu Hua-yue; Du Yu-min

    2004-01-01

    Swelling properties of chitosan-gelatin films cross-linked by sulfate were investigated. Sulfate cross-linked chitosan-gelatin films (SCG) were prepared simply by dipping chitosan-gelatin films into sodium sulfate solution. The swelling behavior of SCG was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Under acidic conditions pH less than 4, SCG swelled less than 120%, while under the conditions pH larger than 7.4, SCG swelled very significantly, the swelling ratio was over 350%. Sodium chloride weakened the electrostatic interaction between sulfate and amine ions of chitosan and gelatin, therefore facilitated the film swelling. The swelling ratio increased with increasing sodium chloride concentration, the SCG dissociated in the sodium chloride concentration of 0.20 mol·L-1. The parameters of film preparation such as sulfate concentration, dipping time, sulfate solution pH, influenced the film swelling behavior. The lower concentration and the higher pH of sulfate solution resulted in a larger swelling ratio.

  3. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25

    formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional

  4. 化学增强铝硅酸盐玻璃扩散性能研究%The Diffusion Performance of Potassium and Sodium in Ion Exchanged Aluminum Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金树; 赵薇; 肖子凡

    2012-01-01

    了解碱金属离子在玻璃表面的扩散对生产高强度铝硅酸盐系统离子交换玻璃具有重要意义.通过外加Al,讨论不同Al/Na对碱离子扩散影响.采用EPMA测得玻璃断面K+、Na+分布曲线,根据Boltzmann- Matano计算方法得到K+、Na+的扩散系数,根据Arrhenius公式计算得到K+、Na+的扩散活化能.实验证明,随着Al/Na的增加,K+、Na+扩散深度逐渐增加,互扩散系数逐渐增加,K+、Na+平均活化能逐渐增加.讨论玻璃体内Al/Na比例是研究高强度离子交换玻璃的一个重要方向.%In the production of ion exchanged aluminum silicate system glass, the alkali ion diffusion on the glass surface is an important process which must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the impact of additional Al on the diffusion of alkali ions. The penetration depth profiles of alkali ions were obtained by EPMA methods. The diffusion coefficients of alkali ions were calculated by Boltzmann-Matano equation. And the active energy of alkali ions were gotten by Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the penetration depth, the interdiffusion coefficient and the average active energy increased with the increase of Al/Na ratios. It means the Al/Na ratios have a great effect on the diffusion of alkali i-ons.

  5. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  6. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  7. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  8. 晶形助长剂对磷石膏制硫酸钙晶须性能的影响%Influence of crystal growing agent on properties of calcium sulfate whisker with phosphogypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 周杰; 李贺军; 曹建新

    2012-01-01

    借助X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜等分析方法,研究了晶形助长剂对以磷石膏为原料水热法制备硫酸钙晶须生长行为的影响.结果表明,以磷石膏为原料制备硫酸钙晶须适宜的晶形助长剂为氯化镁(掺量为磷石膏质量的1.0%),其次为十二烷基磺酸钠,效果最差的是硫酸铝.%Influence of crystal growing agent on growth behavior of calcium sulfate whisker,which was prepared by hydrothermal method with phosphogypsum as raw material, was studied and analyzed by means of XRD and SEM etcResults showed that when the calcium sulfate whisker was prepared from phosphogypsum, the proper crystal growing agent was magnesium chloride (doping amount was 1.0% of phosphogypsum) .The next-proper crystal growing agent was sodium dodecyl sulfonate and the worst was aluminum sulfate.

  9. Preparing of Manganese Sulfate From Manganiferous Wastewater Yielded in Cobalt Salt Production%钴盐生产过程中含锰废水制备硫酸锰的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺剑明; 李婵君; 肖利; 庄建华; 定强

    2014-01-01

    In the process of preparing of cobalt salt using heterogenite ,the wastewater which contains heavy metal ions such as M n2+ ,Cu2+ ,Co2+ ,Zn2+ was produced .By four-stages purification and solvent extracting ,manganese sulfate which could be applied in battery materials was obtained .In the first stage ,Cu2+ ,Co2+ ,Zn2+ are precipitated by sodium sulphide ,the optimum amounts of sodium sulphide is 60 g/L .In the second stage ,ammonium bicarbonate is used to adjust pH for hydrolytic precipitation aluminum .In the third stage ,sodium sulphate is used to remove Ca2+ ,the ideal amounts of sodium sulphate is 110 g/L .In the fourth stage ,Al3+ ,Ca2+ can be further purified by adding sodium fluoride , the best amount of sodium fluoride is 0 .45 g/L .After the above four steps ,manganese sulfate was obtained by P204-extraction and H2 SO4 anti-extraction ,evaporation and crystallization ,manganese sulfate used as battery materials can be obtained .%针对水钴矿制备钴盐生产过程中含锰、铜、钴、锌等重金属离子废水,通过4步除杂、P204萃取富集锰,制备电池材料用硫酸锰。第1步用硫化钠去除铜、钴、锌离子,硫化钠最佳加入量为60 g/L ;第2步用碳酸氢铵调pH去除铝,最佳pH为4.5;第3步用硫酸钠去除Ca2+,硫酸钠最佳用量为110 g/L ;第4步用氟化钠进一步去除Al3+和Ca2+,氟化钠最佳用量为0.45 g/L。4步除杂后的废水用P204萃取、硫酸反萃取,得到硫酸锰溶液,硫酸锰溶液经蒸发结晶得到电池材料用硫酸锰。

  10. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm.

  11. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Theodore I

    2014-05-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust.

  12. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  13. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  14. Determination of Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(Iin different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS-coated alumina as their 2,3 Di Hydro 2,3 paratolylQinazoline (1 H- 4 one (DPTQO by Flame atomic absorption spectrometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farveh Raoufi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of traces of Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(I ions has been developed. An alumina-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS coated on with 2,3 Di Hydro 2,3 paratolylQinazoline (1 H- 4 one (DPTQO. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH and sample volume were investigated.Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of analytes under study. The adsorbed analytes were desorbed by using 6mL of 4 mol L−1 nitric acid. The responses are linear 0.02–0.85 µg mL-1 for Cd2+ ion0.01–0.90 µg mL-1 for Zn2+and0.02–0.92µg mL-1for Ag+ detection limit for Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(I ions were found to be 1.4, 1.3 and1.12(ng mL-1, respectively.It was found that the recovery for Cd2+, Zn2+and Ag+ ions were 97.7, 98.2 and 98.0 with RSD of 1.9, 1.8 and 1.7. It was also observed that recovery for repeated recovery on the same solid phase not varies more than 3%. The presented procedurewas successfully applied for determination of analytes in radiology wastewater, amalgam, natural water and blood samples.

  15. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  16. Organic Electrolytes for Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    mL) and stirring vigorously the dithiocarbamate was dissolved, and we got 2 yellow phases. Dimethyl sulfate (282 g, 2.24 mole) was added from a funnel...Yield 216 g (90 %) methyl dithiocarbamate . The methyl dithiocarbamate (216 g, 2.02 mole), together with 96% ethanol (250 mL), 50 % Chloroacetaldehyde...The glass beaker cell (Figure 3.5.2.3.1) was constructed with 2 screens of nickel (10-10-0.06 mm) and tungsten current collectors. Freshly cut sodium

  17. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  18. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Revet, A. [Kalium Canada, ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  19. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  20. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  1. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    -state diffusion. The nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product, and this mixed control mechanism provide satisfactory explanations of the various phenomena related to the direct sulfation of limestone, such as porosity in the product layer, the variation of the apparent reaction orders of SO2, O-2...

  2. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  3. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  4. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  5. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  6. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  7. Application of Image Analysis Based on SEM and Chemical Mapping on PC Mortars under Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cheng; SUN Wei; Scrivener Karen

    2014-01-01

    The degradation mechanisms of cementitious materials exposed to sulfate solutions have been controversial, despite considerable research. In this paper, two methodologies of image analysis based on scanning electron microscope and chemical mapping are used to analyse Portland cement mortars exposed to sodium sulfate solution. The effects of sulfate concentration in solution and water to cement ratio of mortar, which are considered as the most sensitive factors to sulfate attack, are investigated respectively by comparing the macro expansion with microstructure analysis. It is found that the sulfate concentration in pore solution, expressed as sulfate content in C-S-H, plays a critical role on the supersaturation with respect to ettringite and so on the expansion force generated.

  8. Management of chronic parotid fistula with sodium tetradecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Agrawal, Aviral

    2013-01-01

    A parotid fistula is a rare, extremely unpleasant disease. It may be due to chronic pathologies of the facial soft tissues, trauma (tangential injury to face), infection or congenital. Various treatment modalities including surgical and conservative management are present to treat this disease. Conservative management plays a vital role in patients who are systemically compromised and unfit for surgery. In the present case report an alternative conservative technique of parotid fistula management has been described in a 28-year-old girl who was severe anemic with parotid fistula since last 25 yrs.

  9. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    µg mL-1, except the highest potassium application [120 kg ha -1 extract, all extracts showed high and similar DPPH scavenging activity. The highest phenolic compounds were obtained with 30 kg ha -1 of K2SO4, whereas the use of 60 kg ha -1 caused the highest total flavonoid content. This plant is a good source of K+, Ca+2, PO4-3, and Cl-1. Conclusion: In this study, increasing doses of potassium sulfate had significant effect on element, polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the milk thistle. SUMMARY All tested extracts were active against all tested microbial species.All extracts have shown high and similar DPPH scavenging activity.There was a gradual increase in the biological properties of the milk thistle seeds with rising levels of potassium sulfate.The milk thistle seeds are rather rich sources of K+, Ca+2, PO4-3 and Cl-1 potentially bioavailable for human consumption. Abbreviations used: AlCl3: aluminum chloride, Ca+2: calcium, Cl-: chloride, Cr: chromium CE: catechol equivalents, DPPH: 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, DAP: diamonyum fosfat, F-: fluoride, Fe: iron, K2SO4: potassium sulfate, K+ : potassium, Li+: lithium, Mg+2 : magnesium, NH4+ : amonyum, Na+: sodium, NO2-: nitrite, NO3-: nitrate, Ni: nickel, NaNO2: sodium nitrite, NaOH: sodium hidroksit. ND: Not detectable, PO4-3: phosphorus, Zn: zinc PMID:28216891

  10. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  11. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  12. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  13. Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region%四磺基铝酞菁-十四烷基二甲基乙基氯化铵离子缔合物红色荧光探针用于硫酸软骨素的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 黄萍; 杨惠卿; 邓雅斌; 郭梦林; 李东辉

    2015-01-01

    sur‐factants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4 Pc) ,a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region ,with high efficiency .But ,the fluorescence of the above‐mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits .Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most effi‐cient quenching effect .It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4 Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4 Pc and TDBAC .Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the ad‐dition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association , leading to the release of AlS4 Pc ,thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system .Based on this phenome‐non ,a novel method with simplicity ,accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS .Factors inclu‐ding the reaction time ,influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed .Under opti‐mum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0 .20~10 .0μg · mL -1 .The detection limit for CS was 0 .070 μg · mL -1 .The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results .This work expands the applica‐tions of AlS4 Pc in biomedical area .

  14. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has...... not been carried out in a detailed way using high-resolution microscopy. We have begun this process, using well-known markers for the various Golgi compartments, coupled with the use of characterized antibodies and cDNA expression. Laser scanning confocal microscopy coupled with line scanning provides high......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  15. Controlling barium sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, R.

    Even though for several years success has been realized in controlling barium sulfate scale deposition in relatively shallow, low pressure oil wells--by squeezing an organic phosphonate scale inhibitor into the producing zone--barium sulfate scale depositon in deep, high pressure/high temperature wells usually meant an expensive workover operation. A case history of a deep (16,000 ft) well in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, and the scale inhibitor squeeze operation are described. Based on the successful results obtained in treating this well, a generalized treating procedure for combating downhole scale deposition in high pressure/high temperature gas wells is presented. Formation squeezing with such an inhibitor represents a significant breakthrough for the oil and gas industry.

  16. Physicochemical Study on the Interface Zone of Concrete Exposed to Different Sulfate Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the visual observations and micro-analysis of concrete core samples after 6 and 12 months of their exposure to sodium, ammonium and magnesium sulfate solutions with the same concentration of sulfate ions. XRD, SEM and EDS were used for micro-analysis of the microstructure and the composition of the interface zone in the samples. The results indicate that the deterioration of concrete by different sulfate solutions could proceed differently with regard to the mechanism and the mode of damage caused. The damage of concrete exposed to sodium sulfate solution is mainly caused by the gypsum crystals formed in the interface zone, which lead to expansion and cracking. In the case of concrete immersed in magnesium sulfate solutions, a layer of brucite (magnesium hydroxide) and gypsum was produced in the interface zone, which reduces the cohesiveness of the interface zone in concrete. For the concrete immersed in ammonium sulfate solutions, the conversation of mortar to some mush mass by ammonium ions and the formation of a large of gypsum occurred in the interface zone, consequently, serious softening of hydrated cement pastes and expansion and cracking of concrete are the characteristics of the attack by ammonium sulfate solutions. Also, it is considered that using drilled concrete core as samples to evaluate the sulfate resistance of concrete is a good and accelerated method.

  17. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  18. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  19. A Self-Assembled Nano-Structrured Peroxidase Based on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Nano-Micelle and Cytochrome c%十二烷基磺酸钠纳米胶团-细胞色素c自组装高效纳米结构过氧化物酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琨; 洪军; 王玮; 肖保林; 赵莹雪; 杨卫云; 高云飞

    2012-01-01

    用阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基磺酸钠与细胞色素c自组装的方法构建了一种纳米超分子结构,观察到其具有显著的过氧化物酶活性,且在pH为10.5时达到最高.这种纳米结构过氧化物酶的催化效率为0.0219μmol/L·s.电化学方法测得其电子传递速率常数ks为0.586 s-1.这种以自组装方法构建的超分子结构不仅具有较高活性,可在天然过氧化物酶自杀性失活底物浓度较高时运用,且可固定化于电极上,实现与电极间的直接电子传递.%A nano-structured supermolecule or artificial enzyme was built self-assembly based on sodium dodecyl sulfate nano-micelle and cytochrome c. A significant peroxidase activity was observed and reached the maximum value at pH 10.5. Its catalytic efficiency was evaluated to be 0.0219 μmol/L·s. The immobilized nano-structured peroxidase modified electrode showed quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behaviors with a formal potential of (-38 ± 5) mV (vs. Ag/AgCI) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The cathodic transfer coefficient and electron transfer rate constant were evaluated to be 0.51 and 0.59 s-1 respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp) was calculated to be 0.14 mmol/L. These results suggest that the nano-structured peroxidase not only perform a high activity as peroxidase and can be used in high concentration of hydrogen peroxide,but also can be immobilized on the electrode and realize direct electrochemical behavior.

  20. Correlation between HSP27 and CFL-1 in acute irritation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate in keratinocytes%HSP27和CFL-1在角质细胞急性刺激反应中相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩; 张齐好; 邹萍; 仝雷; 黄亚东

    2011-01-01

    研究急性刺激条件下,角质细胞中热休克蛋白27(heat shock protein 27,HSP27)和Cofilin-1(CFL-1)的表达是否具有相关性,初步探讨皮肤急性刺激反应的作用机理.通过免疫印迹法检测十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)诱发的急性刺激反应下,角质细胞中HSP27和CFL-1蛋白的表达,并通过RNAi技术验证两者之间的相关性.结果发现,急性刺激诱导HSP27表达显著下调,CFL-1显著上调;干扰HSP27后,CFL-1的表达也随着下调,SDS刺激后,则表达上调.在急性刺激性条件下,HSP27和CFL-1的表达具有一定的浓度和时间依赖性;急性刺激能影响角质细胞骨架的改变,这些改变可能是通过HSP27和CFL-1的相互作用来调节的.%The correlation between heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and Cofilin-1 ( CFL-1 ) was studied in acute irritation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in keratinocytes, which would be helpful for the mechanistic understanding of the skin irritation.The expressions of HSP27 and CFL-1 were detected by immunoblotting in keratinocytes exposed to SDS.The correlation between HSP27 and CFL-1 was validated by RNAi technology.HSP27 was significantly downregulated and CFL-1 was significantly upregulated in response to the chemical challenge.The expression of CFL-1 was significantly reduced after interference of HSP27, but it was upregulated after exposure to SDS.The expressions of HSP27 and CFL-1 showed a time-and dose-dependent manner in acute irritation.The cute irritant may alter the cytoskeleton of keratinocyte, and these changes may be regulated by the interaction between HSP27 and CFL-1.

  1. Controlling Sulfate Attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    one of the materials that normally forms during the early setting of portland cement from a reaction between calcium aluminate and gypsum in the...such as calcium aluminates and calcium hydroxide, can influence the degree of damage observed. In all cases, the deterioration observed appears to be...counterions, such as calcium, magnesium , or sodium. Additionally, there are well-documented cases of concrete deterioration due to acid sulfate attack

  2. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. State-of-the-Art Procedures for Sealing Coastal Structures with Grouts and Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    sulfurous , boric, carbonic, and oxalic acid . Spe- cific salts include sodium bisulfate , sodium tetraborate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium-hydrogen oxalate...potassium bichromate, ferric chloride, sulfuric acid , aluminum sulfate (alum), aluminum chloride, ammonium persulfate, and copper sulfate. The bichromates... bisulfates , bicarbonates, sulfur dioxide, and sodium silico- fluoride. Sodium silicate also reacts with salts of some metals, such as 23 calcium

  3. 硫化氢通过抑制NF-κB信号通路对葡聚糖硫酸钠(DSS)诱导的炎症反应起到缓解效果%Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi CHEN; Xi-shuang LIU

    2016-01-01

    目的:硫化氢(H2S)具有抗氧化和抗炎反应的作用,但是在 DSS 诱导的结肠炎模型中的研究鲜有报道。因此,本文采用小鼠和人结肠上皮细胞系Caco-2为实验模型,研究了H2S在DSS诱导的炎症模型中的缓解效果。创新点:(1)本研究采用体内和体外模型分别对 H2S 对DSS诱导的炎症缓解效果进行了验证,结果发现H2S具有抗炎作用;(2)本研究发现H2S能够抑制核转录因子κB(NF-κB)信号通路,从而对炎症起到缓解作用。方法:采用 DSS 建立小鼠结肠炎模型,腹腔注射 H2S供体硫化氢钠(NaHS);采用DSS诱导Caco-2炎症,然后处理H2S供体NaHS。收集小鼠结肠组织和细胞,进行反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和蛋白质免疫印迹法(Western blot)分析炎症基因和NF-κB表达情况。结论:H2S对DSS诱导的体内和体外炎症反应具有一定的缓解作用,其机制可能是通过影响了 NF-κB信号通路。%This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-chalenged mice. NaHS (20μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cel viability in Caco-2 cells and aleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demon-strated that H2S aleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  5. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  6. 葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导C57BL/6J小鼠急性结肠炎模型的建立与评价%Establishment and evaluation of a model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in C57BL/6 mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽红; 肖芳; 兰小琴; 何嘉怡; 丁强; 田德安; 郑勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective The expression and impaired function of ion channels might be one of the pathophysiological mecha -nisms responsible for diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD) .Proper animal model is the key to explore detailed pathophysiolog-ical process.The purpose of this study was to build a rat model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice and evaluate diarrhea-associated clinical , histological , pathological parameters and expressions of ion channel protein . Methods C57BL/6J mice of model group were treated with 4%DSS solution for 7 days to induce acute colitis.Mice body weight, stool moisture, stool consistency and the degree of hematochezia were recorded .The histopathological changes of mice colon specimens were observed visually and microcosmically, and the ion channel SLC26A3 protein was detected by Western Blot . Results All experimental mice survived.In the experiment, compared with control group , bloody diarrhea and weight lose occurred in model group , along with increased stool moisture ([73.30 ±8.31]% after experiment vs [44.32 ±6.42]% before experiment, P=0.004), and rapidly in-creased disease activity index (DAI) of acute colitis ([3.50 ±0.87] after experiment vs [1.0 ±0.00] before experiment, P=0.000).At the end of this experiment , compared with control group , the model group resulted in higher colonic damage score and pathological inflammation score (P=0.00, P=0.002), significantly shortened co-lon (P=0.00) and decreased expression of SLC26A3. Conclusion The intestinal mucosal injury and phenotypic features of 4%DSS-induced acute colitis are very similar to those of human ulcerative colitis .Impaired expression of intestinal ion transporter SLC26 A3 coexists with diarrhea in model group mice , and this model can support the research on mechanism of functional changes of ion channels in inflammatory diarrhea .%目的:离子通道的表达和功能受损可能是引起炎症性肠病相关性腹泻的

  7. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium

  9. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF THE FLAKY ALUMINUM POWDER COATED BY EMULSION POLYMERIZATION%乳液聚合法包覆片状铝粉及其耐腐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 叶红齐; 陈玉琼; 刘秀云

    2011-01-01

    以丙烯酸丁酯、苯乙烯为单体,十二烷基硫酸钠为乳化剂,过硫酸铵为引发剂,通过乳液共聚包覆在片状铝粉的表面,并探讨单体配比、反应温度、反应时间对包覆铝粉耐酸腐蚀性能的影响.结果表明,在单体丙烯酸丁酯与苯乙烯的配比mBA/mSt为1∶1、反应温度为80℃、反应时间为4 h时,包覆铝粉的耐酸腐蚀性能较好.运用红外光谱和扫描电镜对包覆样品进行分析表征.%To improve the corrosion resistance of the flaky aluminum powder, the flaky aluminum powder was coated by emulsion polymerization, which used butyl acrylate and styrene as monomers, sodium dodecyl sulfate as emulsifier and ammonium persulfate as initiator. The effect of the proportion of butyl acrylate and styrene, reaction temperature and reaction time on the corrosion resistance of the coated aluminum powder was examined. The results show: its acid resistance is improved obviously; the coated aluminum powder obtained under the conditions that the proportion of butyl acrylate and styrene (mBA/mSt) is 1:1, reaction temperature is 80 ℃ and reaction time is 4 h has good acid resistance. Moreover, the encapsulated samples were analyzed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope and scanning electron microscope.

  10. Copper, aluminum, iron and calcium inhibit human acetylcholinesterase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important part of cholinergic nerves where it participates in termination of neurotransmission. AChE can be inhibited by e.g. some Alzheimer disease drugs, nerve agents, and secondary metabolites. In this work, metal salts aluminum chloride, calcium chloride, cupric chloride, ferric chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride were tested for their ability to inhibit AChE. Standard Ellman assay based on human recombinant AChE was done and inhibition was measured using Dixon plot. No inhibition was proved for sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. However, aluminum, cupric, ferric and calcium ions were able to inhibit AChE via noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. Though the inhibition is much weaker when compared to e.g. drugs with noncompetitive mechanism of action, biological relevance of the findings can be anticipated.

  11. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  12. China’s Aluminum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The aluminum industry makes one of the keyindustries in China’s industrial and agriculturalmodernization and features a high degree ofrelevance with all industries.Of all the 124existing industries in China,113 use aluminum,representing an industrial relevance rate of91%.The consumption of aluminum is also ofhigh relevance with China’s GDP.

  13. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  14. Aluminum for Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    in plasmon-enhanced light harvesting,14 photocatalysis ,511 surface- enhanced spectroscopies,1216 optics-based sensing,1722 nonlinear optics,2326...optical response of Al nanoparticles has appeared inconsistent relative to calculated spectra, even forwell-characterized geometries. Some studies have...model- ing their optical response. These results pro- vide a method for estimating the metallic purity of aluminum nanoparticles directly from their

  15. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate.

  16. Interaction of PACls with sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; WANG Dong-Sheng; TANG Hong-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the influential factors on Al13 separation considering the interaction of sulfate with various polyaluminum chloride(PACl). The experimental results showed that the basicity(B=[OH]/[Al]), the concentration of PACl and Al/SO4 ratio exhibited significant roles in the PACl-sulfate reaction. It indicated that different species in various PACl underwent different reaction pathway with sulfate. The Alc, colloidal species, formed precipitation quickly with sulfate, while Alb, oligomers and polymers, undergoes slow crystallization. And Ala, monomers, reacts with sulfate to form soluble complexes. The kinetic difference of reaction made it possible to realize the separation of Alb and further purification. The decrease of Ala resulted in the limit of ferron method was also mentioned.

  17. Investigation on the Interaction of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate with Poly(Ethylene Oxide) by Electron Spin Resonance and UV Spectrum%顺磁共振和紫外光谱法研究SDS-PEO体系的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海明潭; 韩布兴; 闫海科

    2001-01-01

    合成更疏水的自旋探针4-羰基2,2,6,6四甲基哌啶氮氧自由基2,4-二硝基苯腙.用顺磁共振(ESR)和紫外光谱法研究了十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)0.5%(w,质量分数)聚氧乙烯(PEO)体系的分子间相互作用.ESR结果表明,此水溶液体系的微极性随SDS浓度增大而减小,并且SDS与PEO聚集体具有更加紧密的堆积结构使其结合处具有较大的微粘性,SDS与PEO间的相互作用导致PEO分子链伸展.UV表明自旋探针分子可能靠近胶束的表面存在,2,4-二硝基苯肼基团可能位于靠近SDS的硫酸根基团,定向于SDS胶束的表面,氮氧自由基基团短距离渗透到SDS胶束的碳氢核.%ESR and UV spectrum of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)/poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) were measured at room temperature respectively, the concentration of PEO was 0.5% (mass fraction), and the concentration of SDS (mSDS) was up to 50 mmol· kg- 1. 2,4-dinitrophylhydrazone of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidine-1-oxyl (Tempone-DNPH) was synthesized and used as ESR probe. The binding site of SDS-PEO interaction, the micropolarity and microviscosity information of the microenvironments have been determined by ESR. UV spectrum gives information on the environment of 2,4-dinitrophylhydrazone group. The hyperfine coupling constant and the rotational correlation time of the spin probe reflect the microenvironment of the polymer-micelle aggregates. The micropolarity of the solutions decreases with increasing SDS concentration, the polymer-micelle aggregate forms a more compact structure at the binding site and the binding site between PEO and SDS micelles yields a strong increase of the microviscosity at the micelle-polymer interface. Spin probe is located near the surface of the micelle. 2,4-dinitrophylhydrazone group may be adjacent to the sulphate groups, and the nitroxide group penetrates a small distance into the hydrocarbon core of the micelle

  18. Electroless Growth of Aluminum Dendrites in NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1989-01-01

    The spontaneous growth of aluminum dendrites after deposition was observed and examined in sodium chloride-aluminumchloride melts. The concentration gradient of AlCl3 in the vicinity of the cathode surface resulting from electrolysisconstitutes a type of concentration cell with aluminum dendrites...... as electrodes. The short-circuit discharge of thecell is found to be the driving force for the growth of aluminum dendrites. Such a concentration gradient is proposed to beone of the causes for dendrite formation in the case of metal deposition....

  19. Enabling aqueous binders for lithium battery cathodes - Carbon coating of aluminum current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberdò, Italo; Löffler, Nicholas; Laszczynski, Nina; Cericola, Dario; Penazzi, Nerino; Bodoardo, Silvia; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this manuscript a novel approach to enable aqueous binders for lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes is reported. Producing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes using sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder and water as a solvent, in fact, results in serious aluminum corrosion during electrode manufacturing due to the high pH of the slurry. In order to prevent the direct contact of the corrosive slurry with aluminum foil, the latter is first coated with a thin carbon layer. The CMC-based electrodes formed on carbon coated aluminum foil show enhanced performance than those made using unprotected aluminum instead. In particular, electrodes using protected aluminum foil are able to deliver a capacity of 126 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, which is rather close to that delivered by polyvinylidene-di-fluoride (PVdF)-based electrode having the same composition.

  20. [Removal of Sulfate Ions from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption with Hydrotalcite- like Composite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-bing; Ma, Yong-wen; Wan, Jin-quan; Wang, Yan; Guan, Ze-yu

    2016-03-15

    Hydrotalcite-like composite synthesized by co-precipitation method was used as an adsorbent to remove the sulfate ions in aqueous solution. XRD, FT-IR , SEM and EDS elemental analysis were used to clarify the structure and composition of the hydrotalcite- like composite. The influences of time, initial pH value and coexisting ions on adsorption performance were investigated. The result showed the material was the composite of zinc aluminum nitrate hydrotalcite-like compounds and zinc aluminum phenylalanine hydrotalcite-like compounds. Hydrotalcite-like composite had a good performance in adsorption of sulfate ions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 52.75 mg · g⁻¹. The data fitted pseudo-second order kinetic model best, which indicated that chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Freundlich isotherm was more suitable to describe the adsorption process, and this meant the adsorption of sulfate ions by hydrotalcite-like composite was multilayered adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous at room temperature. Hydrotalcite-like composite adsorbed sulfate ions mainly through ion exchange, electrostatic force and physical adsorption. The experimental results showed that the hydrotalcite-like composite had potential for sulfate ion removal in the aqueous solution.

  1. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  2. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Peterson, Adam J; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m(-1) of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0.29 g P, 0.29 g K per pot) and high (3 g N, 0.85 g P, 0.86 g K per pot) fertilizer treatments. Seed protein content differed across soil salinity treatments, varieties, and fertilization levels. Protein content of quinoa grown under salinized soil ranged from 13.0 to 16.7%, comparable to that from non-saline conditions. NaCl and Na2SO4 exhibited different impacts on protein content. Whereas the different concentrations of NaCl did not show differential effects on protein content, the seed from 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 contained the highest protein content. Seed hardness differed among varieties, and was moderately influenced by salinity level (P = 0.09). Seed density was affected significantly by variety and Na2SO4 concentration, but was unaffected by NaCl concentration. The samples from 8 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 soil had lower density (0.66 g/cm(3)) than those from 16 dS m(-1) and 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4, 0.74 and 0.72g/cm(3), respectively. This paper identifies changes in critical seed quality traits of quinoa as influenced by soil salinity and fertility, and offers insights into variety response and choice across different abiotic stresses in the field environment.

  3. PHASE DIAGRAMS OF SODIUM SULFATE AND SODIUM CHROMATE TO 45 KBAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phase diagrams of NaSO4 and Na2CrO4 were determined to 45 kbar. Two new high-pressure phases were found for Na2SO4. Eight different solid... phase diagrams of Na2SO4 and Na2CrO4 are strikingly similar, and there are reasons for believing that every known polymorph of Na2CrO4 has an isostructural counterpart in the phase diagram of Na2SO4. (Author)

  4. Formation of ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide—calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Hanson, Jonathan C.

    2004-06-01

    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca 3Al 2O 6, Ca 12Al 14O 33 and CaSO 4·2H 2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca 4Al 2O 7·19H 2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO 4·2H 2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO 4·2H 2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170°C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection.

  5. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...

  6. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2010-03-01

    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such se