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Sample records for aluminum sodium sulfate

  1. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  4. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbin Yu; Daming Yong; Shaojun Dong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants,an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant.Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study,which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal,resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity.We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucoseglutamic acid as an exogenous material.Under oxygen restriction,the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0,37℃ and reaction for 3 hr).The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method,using ferricyanide as a mediator.The current signal obtained represents the re oxidation of ferrocyanide,which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency,IC50,as a quantitative measure of toxicity.The IC50 values measured were 410,570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite,borax and aluminum potassium sulfate,respectively.The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods.Furthermore,the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be:sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate >blank,according to the atomic force microscopy images of E.coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions.The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  5. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  8. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.

  9. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  10. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  13. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.L.

    1977-08-01

    A flow microcalorimeter system was assembled and is being used in a thermodynamic study of surfactant systems as part of the ERDA enhanced oil recovery program. Enthalpies of dilution and demicellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate were measured over a temperature range of 20 to 35/sup 0/C. This surfactant was also studied with cosurfactant and salt backgrounds. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined and are in excellent agreement with those in the literature. Studies below the cmc suggest the possible formation of a dimer. 17 tables, 9 figures.

  14. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by....1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  15. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  16. Hydration and properties of sodium sulfate activated slag

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Rashad; Bai, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Basheer, P. A. M.; Milestone, N.B.; Collier, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in alkali-activated slag as a construction material is increasing, primarily due to its environmentally friendly nature. Although strong alkaline activators, such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution, are preferred for high strength, none of them exists naturally and their manufacturing process is quite energy intensive. Whilst sodium sulfate (NaSO ) can be obtained from natural resources, the early strength of NaSO activated slag is usually low. In this paper, the effect...

  17. Role of sodium tetradecyl sulfate in venous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf Sanjay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous malformations are one of the commonest anomalies of the vascular tree and their management has always remained a major challenge. Surgery and other treatment modalities are not always satisfactory and have a higher morbidity, recurrence and complication rate. The author retrospectively analyzed 40 patients of venous malformations who underwent sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate solely or as an adjunct to surgery. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy in the treatment of venous malformations.

  18. Study on Properties and Synthesize of a new Polymeric Aluminum Sulfate-silicate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shu-rong; Wang Qing-ning; Zhang Fei-long; Ye Qi-zhi

    2004-01-01

    The polymeric basic aluminum silicate-sulfate can be made from three substances, such as aluminum sulfate, sodium silicate and sodium aluminates. Adoption sort neote ric one synthesis,under high shear mixing condition to produce polymeric Aluminum Sulfate-silicate--inorganic macromolecule flocculants, that is liquid, PH is 3.0, molecular formula: AlA (OH) B (SO4) C (SiOx)Because inorganic macromolecule have capability of electricity neutralized, bigger molecular mass,strong capability of adsorption, and products are relative stabilize, more economical than organic macromolecule flocculants, innocuity and high effect compared with tradition flocculants.We can use the flocculants to make sewages purified .The sewages contain sulfur, oiliness, which are treated sewages of oil refining to organism treatment sump in parturition course of oil refining,and the sewages of dark and white in parturition course of paper mill. We study the properties of the flocculants, change of CODCr and effect of sewerage decolouring and so on.Thus fig. Can be seen to add the flocculants(0.1ml) to the sewages of the oil refining and the paper mill that effect is not distinctly. Yet increase of quantity to remove turbidity and floccules effect is distinctness. When the flocculants (0.5mi) be added to the dark sewage of, the penetrate light rate attain 90~98%, the sewage of the oil refining is about 90%, but when we make floccules experiment, the color of dark green and auras of the sewages of oil refining and the paper mill are all disappear, the PASS that add to the sewage will have certainly time to flocculate. When use pay attention to quantity and horary the connection.As a result in the sewages purified, those products form quickly, granule density is big, and subsided velocity is quickly, Floccules effect and capability of removing turbidity, removing CODCr are ascendancy than tradition flocculants - aluminates, and the remained aluminum of water treatment is little. It has

  19. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  20. Zirconium sulfate interaction with sodium carbonate in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium sulfate interaction with sodium carbonate is studied in aqueous solution. By pH-metry and infrared spectroscopy it is stated that depending on the carbonate concentration Zr(OH)2x(CO3)22-, ZrOH(CO3)33- and Zr(CO3)44- compounds can be formed in sulfatocarbonate solutions. pH range in which soluble carbonate complexes exist also depends on the concentration of sodium carbonate. Calculated is the fourth stability constant

  1. Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose, S11(:

  2. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetinger M.R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control, but enhanced it in liver (31.2 ± 15.0%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05. The concentrations of aluminum in the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminum concentrations increased significantly in the liver (527 ± 3.9%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and kidney (283 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 but did not change in the brain of aluminum-exposed mice. One of the most important and striking observations was the increase in hepatic aluminum concentration in the mice treated only with 1 g% sodium citrate (34 mM (217 ± 1.5%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control. These results show that aluminum interferes with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of this element was in the order: liver > kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  3. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  4. Distribution of aluminum species and the characteristics of structure of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS), which have different basicities (γ) and Al3+/SO42- molar ratio, have prepared and dried at 105℃ and 65℃, respectively. The distribution of aluminum species of PACS was examined, and the effect of γ value, Al3+/SO42- molar ratio, dilution on the distribution of aluminum species of PACS was also investigated by using Al-ferron timed complex calorimetric method. The IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to study the effect of γvalue, Al3+/SO42- molar ratio and the drying temperature on the structure of PACS. The experimental results show that Al3+/SO42-molar ratio has a great effect on the distribution of aluminum species, but the dilution has a little effect on the distribution of aluminum species. The lower the Al3+/SO42- molar ratio, the higher the proportions of the polymer and colloidal species in PACS. The polymeric degree of PACS was related to value and Al3+/SO42- molar ratio. Drying temperature has an influence on the structure and thesolubility of solid PACS products.

  5. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  6. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  7. Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G; Glidden, David V.; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Scott, Michael; Stephen J DeArmond; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperat...

  8. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-06-12

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3-5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3-5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2-30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  11. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  12. Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiozer, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

  13. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  14. Synthesis of Renewable Energy Materials, Sodium Aluminum Hydride by Grignard Reagent of Al

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-qin Wang; Jian-feng Gao; Zhi-gang Wu; Guo-li Ou; Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    The research on hydrogen generation and application has attracted widespread attention around the world. This paper is to demonstrate that sodium aluminum hydride can be synthesized under simple and mild reaction condition. Being activated through organics, aluminum powder reacts with hydrogen and sodium hydride to produce sodium aluminum hydride under atmospheric pressure. The properties and composition of the sample were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and so forth. The results showed that...

  15. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... in a buffer without propan-2-ol but containing sodium dodecyl sulfate....

  16. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-02-04

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly comprising ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease, are complex and multifactorial diseases with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, a number of murine models of colitis have been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate a number of potential therapeutics. Among various chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when employed. This protocol describes the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on details and factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology.

  17. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari

    2011-11-01

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  18. Location of ethanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Tian-Qing; YU, Wei-Li; GUO, Rong

    2000-01-01

    The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase of SDS ( Sodium dodecyl sulfate)/H2O system changes into lamellar liquid crystal and the effective length of surfactant molecule d0/2 in the lamellar liquid crystal decreases with the addition of ethanol.The micellar aggregation number N of SDS decreases and the micellar diffusion coefficient increases with the added ethanol.Under a constant concentration of SDS, the molecule number ratio of ethanol to SDS in the micelle increases with the concentration of ethanol and even exceeds 10 when ethanol concentration is 1.085 mol/L. All these results show that ethanol, even though a short chain alcohol and soluble in water, can partly exist in the interphase of the amphiphilic aggregates showing some properties of co-surfactant.

  19. Complexation between sodium dodecyl sulfate and amphoteric polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2007-09-27

    The complexation between negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and positively charged amphoteric polyurethane (APU) self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) containing nonionic hydrophobic segments is studied by dynamic light scattering, pyrene fluorescent probing, zeta-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the present paper. With increasing the mol ratio of SDS to the positive charges on the surface of APU NPs, the aqueous solution of APU NPs presents precipitation at pH 2, around stoichiometric SDS concentration, and then the precipitate dissociates with excess SDS to form more stable nanoparticles of ionomer complexes. Three stages of the complexation process are clearly shown by the pyrene I1/I3 variation of the complex systems, which only depends on the ratio of SDS/APU, and demonstrate that the process is dominated by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic aggregation.

  20. Synthesis of Renewable Energy Materials, Sodium Aluminum Hydride by Grignard Reagent of Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on hydrogen generation and application has attracted widespread attention around the world. This paper is to demonstrate that sodium aluminum hydride can be synthesized under simple and mild reaction condition. Being activated through organics, aluminum powder reacts with hydrogen and sodium hydride to produce sodium aluminum hydride under atmospheric pressure. The properties and composition of the sample were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and so forth. The results showed that the product through this synthesis method is sodium aluminum hydride, and it has higher purity, perfect crystal character, better stability, and good hydrogen storage property. The reaction mechanism is also discussed in detail.

  1. Sodium arsenite reduces severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua J. MALAGO; Hortensia NONDOLI

    2008-01-01

    The histopathological features and the associated clinical findings of ulcerative colitis (UC) are due to persistent inflammatory response in the colon mucosa. Interventions that suppress this response benefit UC patients. We tested whether sodium arsenite (SA) benefits rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis. The DSS-colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water. SA (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) was given 8 h before DSS treatment and then every 48 h for 3 cycles of 7,14 or 21 d. At the end of each cycle rats were sacrificed and colon sections processed for histological examination. DSS induced diarrhea, loose stools, hemoccult positive stools, gross bleeding, loss of body weight, loss of epithelium, crypt damage, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The severity of these changes increased ir the order of Cycles 1,2 and 3. Treatment of rats with SA significantly reduced this severity and improved the weight gain.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

  3. Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Haider, I. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-08-15

    Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate ({sup 99m}Tc) becomes {<=}17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain imaging and {sup 99m}Tc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% {sup 99m}Tc in first 2 ml solution.

  4. Ion exchange reactions in interaction of basic zirconium sulfate with sodium carbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic zirconium sulfates, extracted from basic zirconium chloride solution and zirconium disulfate solution, as well as products of their interaction with sodium carbonate solution, which was exposed and not exposed to hydrolysis, were investigated by chemical and NMR spectroscopy methods. It has been established that the process of interaction of the basic zirconium sulfate with sodium carbonate solutions sulfatocarbonatozicrconates and carbonatozirconates of sodium are sequentially formed. In this case carbonate groups, due to different strenght of addition of hydroxogroups in initial basic sulfates, substitute either SOsub(h)sup(2)-)- groups and H2O or SO42--and OH--groups, and sodium ions substitute H3O+-groups. Carbonate groups, if they have substituted sulfato- or hydroxogroup, during hydrolysis of carbonatozirconates are splitted out to a less degree

  5. In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminum corrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Turu, Lluis; Candela Soto, Angélica Maria; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Casado Giménez, Juan

    2009-01-01

    A new process to obtain hydrogen from water using aluminum in sodium aluminate solutions is described and compared with results obtained in aqueous sodium hydroxide. This process consumes only water and aluminum, which are raw materials much cheaper than other compounds used for in situ hydrogen generation, such as hydrocarbons and chemical hydrides, respectively. As a consequence, our process could be an economically feasible alternative for hydrogen to supply fuel cells. Results showed an i...

  6. Chitosan and sodium sulfate as excipients in the preparation of prolonged release theophylline tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarra, Ibrahim A; El-Bagory, Ibrahim; Bayomi, Mohsen A

    2005-05-01

    The major objectives of this study were to monitor the effect of cross-linking of cationic chitosan in acidic media with sulfate anion during granules preparation by wet granulation method prior to tableting using theophylline (TPH) as a model drug. The prepared granules and the compressed tablets were subjected to in vitro evaluation. The properties of the prepared matrix granules and the compressed tablets were dependent on chitosan:sodium sulfate weight ratios, chitosan content, and molecular weight of chitosan. The prepared granules of all batches showed excellent to passable flowability and were suitable for compression into tablets. Most of the granules were hard and expected to withstand handling during the subsequent compression into tablets. Granules with high friabilities were only those prepared with a high amount of sodium sulfate or low amount of chitosan. Compression of granule batches yield nondisintegrating tablets that showed a decrease in tensile strength with the increase of sodium sulfate content at high chitosan:sodium sulfate weight ratio or with decrease of chitosan content. On the other hand, friability of tablets was increased in the presence of an excessive amount of sodium sulfate and low chitosan content as observed with granules. Slow TPH release from the formulated tablets was achieved at 1:0.5 and 1:1 chitosan:sodium sulfate weight ratios where all or most of the cationic chitosan and sulfate anions were used in a cross-linking reaction during wet granulation. Ratios of 1:2 and 1:3 showed fast drug release, which support the hypothesis that excessive unreacted water-soluble sodium sulfate might increase the porosity of the nondesintegrating tablets during dissolution. Slow drug release was also obtained with high molecular weight chitosan, whereas changing the hardness of the tablets did not significantly change the release profile of the drug as long as the tablets are intact during dissolution. Furthermore, slow drug release was

  7. Chromium, aluminium and titanium effect on nickel corrosion resistance in sodium sulfate and chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to determine corrosion resistance of binary nickel alloys, alloyed with aluminium, titanium and chromium, in sodium sulfate and chloride melts. The content of aluminium, titanium and chromium varied from 0 up to 13,2; 21.4 and 36%, respectively. It was estabslished that resistance against slulfide corrosion grows in chromium-alloyed nickel and deoreases in nickel alloyed with aluminium and titanium. Nickel-chronium solid solutions containing > 16 to 17% Cr are characterized by the maximal stability in sodium sulfide melt and Ni3Al and Ni3Ti intermetallics -by the minimal one. Alloying nickel with aluminium titanium (up to 6 to 8%) and chromium (up to 10 to 12%) increases its resistance aginst sodium chloride melt. Binary Ni-Al-, Ni-Ti- and ternary Ni-Al-Ti-alloys possess a lower corrosion resistance in sodium sulfate as compared to sodium chloride

  8. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  9. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 Section 436.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  10. Improved method for silver staining of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Poulsen, J H

    1995-01-01

    A method for detection of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels was developed by a combination of (i) initial periodic acid oxidation/Alcian blue staining and (ii) subsequent staining with silver nitrate. The procedure allowed detection of as little as 1.6 ng of alpha 1...

  11. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  12. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES wit

  13. The Electrooxidation of Tetracycline at Acetylene Black Electrode in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ping DANG; Cheng Guo HU; Ying Liang WEI; Sheng Shui HU

    2004-01-01

    The electrooxidation of tetracycline (TC) at acetylene black electrode has been studied in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Tetracycline (TC) exhibited very sensitive oxidation peak in this system. The peak current was proportional to TC concentration, and the detection limit was 1.2 × 10-8 mol/L. The system was used to the determination of TC in pharmaceuticals.

  14. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  15. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  16. Quantification of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate in danaparoid sodium by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and PLS regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustün, B; Sanders, K B; Dani, P; Kellenbach, E R

    2011-01-01

    Danaparoid sodium (the active pharmaceutical ingredient in Orgaran; Merck Sharp and Dohme) is a biopolymeric non-heparin drug used as anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep-vein thrombosis, which may lead to pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing, e.g., elective hip replacement surgery. It consists of a mixture of three glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Currently, the CS and DS content are quantified by means of a time-consuming enzymatic method. In this paper the use of (1)H NMR in combination with multivariate regression (partial least-squares, PLS) is proposed as a new method. In order to evaluate the proposed method, a series of danaparoid sodium samples were analyzed and the results were compared with those obtained by the enzymatic method (reference method). The results showed that the proposed (1)H NMR method is a good alternative for analysis of CS and DS in danaparoid sodium. Accuracy of ±0.7% (w/w) and ±1.1% (w/w) for CS and DS was obtained by the (1)H NMR method and accuracy of ±1.0% (w/w) and ±1.3% (w/w) by the enzymatic method. Furthermore, the use of (1)H NMR in combination with PLS results in a fast quantification. The analysis time is reduced to 35 min per sample instead of 60 h for a maximum of 16 samples. PMID:20862579

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  18. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  19. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate%一种新的芒硝制碱法实验室研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash.A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate,complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate,regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution,processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate,and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate.The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  20. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-07-01

    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Electrochemical Oxidation of L-Cysteine in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Admicelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中春; 刘天晴; 郭荣

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of L-cysteine can be catalyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) admicelles. The catalytic efficiency increases hardly when SDS concentration is lower than the critical admicelle concentration (CAC) and increases rapidly when SDS concentration is between CAC and the critical micelle concentration (CMC), but decreases when SDS concentration is higher than CMC. Both results of rate constant k0 and Gibbs free energy ΔGck accord with that of catalytic efficiency.

  2. Solubility of phenytoin in aqueous mixtures of ethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate at 298 k

    OpenAIRE

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Fakhree, Mohammad; Ahmadian, Somaieh

    2014-01-01

    The solubility of phenytoin in binary mixtures of ethanol + water at 298.2 K in the presence of three different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) was reported. The Jouyban-Acree model was used for correlating the generated data and the obtained mean relative deviation was 7.3%. When all data points of phenytoin in binary solvents at various sds concentrations were fitted to the model, the obtained mean relative deviation was 10.1%.

  3. Effects of Sodium Sulfate as Electrolyte Additive on Electrochemical Performance of Lead Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-yu; QIAN Zhao-hong; ZHAO Meng; WANG Yu-jie; NIU Lin

    2013-01-01

    Sodium sulfate as an electrolyte additive was studied via electrochemical methods including linear sweep voltammetry(LSV),cyclic voltammetry(CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) to deeply understand its effect on the hydrogen evolution current and overpotential as well as the formation and structure of anodic passivation films on lead surface during the redox processes.The results achieved will be valuable to improve the cycle life and maintenance-free properties of lead-acid batteries.

  4. Comparison between sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate reducer in lightening of overexposed working length radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to test whether lightening of the overexposed radiographs improve determination of endodontic files length and whether lightened radiographs are comparable with ideally exposed radiographs. Material and Methods: Four dried human skull coated with soft tissue-equivalent wax used for exposing radiographs of the upper molars. First, the endodontic file was placed in full length of the root and four series of radiographs obtained. The time to expose the first series was unchanged (standard group but increased for the other three series.  Two series of overexposed radiographs set as test groups (one lightened with copper sulfate reducer and the other lightened with sodium hypochlorite and one series set as control group. Then the endodontic file placed 2mm short in the root and four series of radiographs obtained like the former. A viewer evaluated radiographs. ROC curves were obtained and areas under the curves were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was calculated. Results: The average area under ROC curves was 1, 0.995,1 and 0.643 for the standard, Copper sulfate, sodium hypochlorite and the control group, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite show a better performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to Copper sulfate. Differences between the test radiographs and standard and control radiographs were significant (p

  5. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  6. [A 13-week toxicity study of simultaneous administration of cochineal and aluminum potassium sulfate in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Umemura, T; Sai, K; Hasegawa, R; Momma, J; Saitoh, M; Matsushima, Y; Nakaji, Y; Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Cochineal (C), a scarlet material extracted from the powdered pregnant insect, Dactylopius Coceus Costa, is used as a color food additive in the form of aluminum lakes. A 13 week subchronic toxicity study was conducted to investigate the effects of simultaneous administration of C and aluminum potassium sulfate (A). Male and female Wistar rats (5-weeks-old, 15 rats/group) were given diets containing 0.75%A and 0.75%C (1.5%AC), 1.5%A and 1.5%C (3%AC), 3%C alone or 3%A alone. The following results were obtained. 1) No toxic symptoms or death occurred in any treated group. Body weight gain in male rats of the 3%A group decreased significantly. 2) Serum levels of phospholipids, triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol in male rats and TG in female rats fed 3%C, 3%A or 3%AC were significantly decreased at the 13th week. The serum level of glutamate dehydrogenase (GIDH) in male rats treated with 1.5% or 3%AC was increased at the 4th week but no difference from control was observed at the 13th week. 3) No histopathological changes attributable to A and/or C administration were observed. In this 13-week oral toxicity study, no dose-dependent synergistic effects of simultaneous administration of C and A were found except for an increase in serum GIDH. PMID:8854902

  7. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  8. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelfus, Tatiane; da Costa, Paula Moiana; Scherer, Marcos; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure. PMID:26692157

  9. The Revision of Aluminum-containing Food Additive Provisions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Wang, Hua Li; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to revise the provisions for aluminum-containing food additives in GB 2760-2011 (The National Food Safety Standard for Use of Food Additives), in order to reduce aluminum exposure among the Chinese population. According to the latest risk assessment results of JECFA and China on aluminum and the actual use of aluminum-containing food additives in certain products, the aluminum-containing food additive-related provisions in GB 2760-2011 were revised. Those revisions included narrowing down the applicable food categories and adjusting the maximum use level of aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate, repealing nine aluminum-containing food additives in puffed food and repealing the use of sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminosilicate and starch aluminum octenylsuccinate in all food. After revision of the use of aluminum food additive provisions, the weekly dietary intake of aluminum in the Chinese population can be reduced to a safe level. PMID:27470109

  10. 由废铝制备明矾及其组成测定%Preparation and determination of potassium aluminum sulfate from waste aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程相春

    2011-01-01

    以生活废铝易拉罐为原料,采用不同的方法制备明矾,通过XRD、TG、EDTA配位法、重量法等对产物进行了表征,获得了很好的结果.%Potassium aluminum sulfate were prepared by different ways used pop can as material, the complexes were characterized by XRD,TG and EDTA coordination and weight method, and the result is satisfying.

  11. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: quina@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos

    2013-02-15

    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  12. Investigating the fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Helm, Richard F; Novak, John T

    2008-12-01

    The fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion was investigated using three different cation-associated extraction methods and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Extraction methods used were the cation exchange resin (CER) method for extracting calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), sulfide extraction for removing iron, and base treatment (pH 10.5) for dissolving aluminum. Extracellular polymeric substances extracted were then subjected to SDS-PAGE, and the resultant protein profiles were examined before and after sludge digestion. The SDS-PAGE results showed that three methods led to different SDS-PAGE profiles for both undigested and digested sludges. The results further revealed that CER-extracted proteins remained mainly undegraded in anaerobic digestion, but were degraded in aerobic digestion. While the fate of sulfide- and base-extracted proteins was not clear for aerobic digestion, their changes in anaerobic digestion were elucidated. Most sulfide-extracted proteins were removed by anaerobic digestion, while the increase in protein band intensity and diversity was observed for base-extracted proteins. These results suggest that activated sludge flocs contain different fractions of proteins that are distinguishable by their association with certain cations and that each fraction undergoes different fates in anaerobic and aerobic digestion. The proteins that were resistant to degradation and generated during anaerobic digestion were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification results and their putative roles in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are discussed in this study. PMID:19146099

  13. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  15. Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate as Activating Agents for Hydration of Natural Anhydrite%硫酸钠与硫酸氢钠对天然硬石膏水化激发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫勇; 高孝钱; 吴小俊; 檀杰; 郑翠红

    2011-01-01

    Sodium sulfate and sodium hydrogen sulfate were attempted to be used as activating agents for hydration of natural anhydrite. The activating efficiency of the two activating agents, as well as the mechanism of hydration of natural anhydrite was characterized by the means of scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrum, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and determination of three-day hydration rate. The results showed that the efficiency of sodium hydrogen sulfate is notably superior to that of sodium sulfate. The three-day hydration rate of the natural anhydrite was determined to be as high as 41.8 % when 3 % sodium hydrogen sulfate was added, while the maximum three-day hydration rate of 32.7 % is achieved when 5 % sodium sulfate was applied. The activating mechanism for sodium sulfate and sodium hydrogen sulfate is based on the dissolution of calcium sulfate anhydrate and the subsequent re-crystallization of calcium sulfate dehydrate.%采用扫描电镜、X射线衍射、红外光谱、热重-差热分析以及3d水化率的测定技术,研究硫酸钠和硫酸氢钠两种不同激发剂对天然硬石膏水化的激发效果以及水化机理.结果表明:硫酸氢钠对天然硬石膏水化的激发效果明显优于硫酸钠;当硫酸钠加入量达到5%时,3d水化率值最大,为32.7%,而硫酸氢钠加入量为3%时,3d水化率高达41.8%.硫酸钠和硫酸氢钠对天然硬石膏水化激发机理基于硬石膏溶解和二水硫酸钙析出.

  16. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Colitis in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme C; Bériou, Gaëlle; Josien, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex multifactorial disease thought to result from inappropriate immune responses to the gut microbiota, in genetically susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors. Among the different animal models developed to help in understanding IBDs pathophysiological mechanisms as well as to achieve pharmacological preclinical studies, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most widely used because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and similarity with human IBDs. This section provides with a detailed protocol that we validated in our laboratory to perform DSS-induced acute colitis in the Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rat.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Se Young Choi; Sun Jin Hur; Chi Sun An; Yun Hui Jeon; Young Jun Jeoung; Jong Phil Bak; Beong Ou Lim

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 ± 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The exp...

  18. Adsorption characteristics of zinc ions on sodium dodecyl sulfate in process of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To separate zinc ions from aqueous solution efficiently, micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration(MEUF) of hollow ultrafiltration membrane was used with sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as surfactant. The formation of micellar and the adsorption mechanism were investigated, including the influence of the ratio of SDS to zinc ions on the micelle quantity, the micelle ratio, the gross adsorptive capacity, the rejection of zinc ions and the adsorption isotherm law. The results show that the rejection rate of zinc ions reaches 97% and the adsorption of zinc ions on SDS conforms to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the adsorption is a chemical adsorption process.

  19. Effect of Arctium lappa L.in the dextran sulfate sodium colitis mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzou-Chi; Huang; Shinn-Shyong; Tsai

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the possible protective role of Arctium lappa L.(AL)in a murine model of ulcerative colitis(UC).METHODS:BALB/c mice were administered 100 mg/kg AL powder orally each day.After 7 d,colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)(5% W/V)in drinking water for a further 8 consecutive days.Diarrhea and bloody stools as well as colonic histology were observed.The level of interleukin-6(IL-6)and tu-mor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in colonic sections were detected by immunohistochemi...

  20. Effects of sodium sulfate on the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii: implications for the optimization of algal culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    The study of the microalgal growth kinetics is an indispensable tool in all fields of phycology. Knowing the optimal nutrient concentration is an important issue that will help to develop efficient growth systems for these microorganisms. Although nitrogen and phosphorus are well studied for this purpose, sulfur seems to be less investigated. Sulfate is a primary sulfur source used by microalgae; moreover, the concentration of this compound is increasing in freshwater systems due to pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sodium sulfate concentrations in the culture medium on growth and growth kinetics of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Production of biomass, chl content, kinetic equations, and a mathematical model that describe the microalgal growth in relation with the concentration of sodium sulfate were obtained. The lowest concentration of sodium sulfate allowing optimal growth was 0.1 mM. Concentrations higher than 3 mM generated a toxic effect. This work demonstrates that this toxic effect was not directly due to the excess of sulfate ion but by the elevation of the ionic strength. An inhibition model was successfully used to simulate the relationship between specific growth rate and sodium sulfate in this microalga.

  1. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  2. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. PMID:26641344

  3. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment. PMID:26437662

  4. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  5. Orally delivered β-glucans aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Williams, David L; Welting, Olaf; Meijer, Sybren L; Gordon, Siamon; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucans have beneficial health effects due to their immune modulatory properties. Oral administration of β-glucans affects tumour growth, microbial infection, sepsis, and wound healing. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with orally delivered soluble and particulate β-glucans could ameliorate the development of aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced intestinal inflammation. To study this, mice were orally pre-treated with β-glucans for 14 days. We tested curdlan (a particulate β-(1,3)-glucan), glucan phosphate (a soluble β-(1,3)-glucan), and zymosan (a particle made from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contains around 55% β-glucans). Weight loss, colon weight, and feces score did not differ between β-glucan and vehicle treated groups. However, histology scores indicated that β-glucan-treated mice had increased inflammation at a microscopic level suggesting that β-glucan treatment worsened intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, curdlan and zymosan treatment led to increased colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, compared to vehicle. Glucan phosphate treatment did not significantly affect cytokine and chemokine levels. These data suggest that particulate and soluble β-glucans differentially affect the intestinal immune responses. However, no significant differences in other clinical colitis scores between soluble and particulate β-glucans were found in this study. In summary, β-glucans aggravate the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation at the level of the mucosa.

  6. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  7. Involvement of lymphocytes in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Woon Kim; Jae Nam Seo; Young Ho Suh; Hyo Jin Park; Ju Hyun Kim; Ji Young Kim; Kwon Tk Oh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of lymphocytes in the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.METHODS: Using various doses of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we induced colitis in wild-type B6control and Rag-1 knockout (H-2b haplotype) mice,and evaluated the colitis in terms of symptomatic and histologic parameters, such as weight loss, survival,severity of diarrhea, shortage of colon length and histological changes. Symptomatic parameters were checked daily and histological changes were scored.RESULTS: Although development of colitis in Rag-1knockout mice treated with high dose (5%) of DSS was comparable to that in B6 control mice, colitis progression was much more tolerable in Rag-1 knockout mice compared to than in B6 mice treated with low dose (1.5%)DSS. Symptomatic parameters as well as histopathologic changes were improved in Rag-1 knockout mice.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the presence of lymphocytes contributes to colitis progression at low dose of DSS stimulation. Lymphocytes may play roles as an aggravating factor in DSS-induced colitis.

  8. Study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Khoukh, Abdel; François, Jeanne

    2004-07-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) (of molecular weight M(w) = 434 g x mol(-1)) mixtures have been studied using conductimetry, static light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR. It has been shown that SDS and PPOMA form mixed micelles, and SDS and PPOMA aggregation numbers, N(ag SDS) and N(ag PPOMA), have been determined. Total aggregation numbers of the micelles (N(ag SDS) + N(ag PPOMA)) and those of SDS decrease upon increasing the weight ratio R = PPOMA/SDS. Localization of PPOMA inside the mixed micelles is considered (i) using 1H NMR to localize the methacrylate function at the hydrophobic core-water interface and (ii) by studying the SDS-PPO micellar system (whose M(w) = 400 g x mol(-1)). Both methods have indicated that the PPO chain of the macromonomer is localized at the SDS micelle surface. Models based on the theorical prediction of the critical micellar concentration of mixed micelles and structural model of swollen micelles are used to confirm the particular structure proposed for the SDS-PPOMA system, i.e., the micelle hydrophobic core is primarily composed of the C12 chains of the sodium dodecyl sulfate, the hydrophobic core-water interface is made up of the SDS polar heads as well as methacrylate functions of the PPOMA, the PPO chains of the macromonomer are adsorbed preferentially on the surface, i.e., on the polar heads of the SDS.

  9. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  10. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer.

  11. INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL, PROPYLENE GLYCOL, POLYSORBATE-80 AND SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE ON THE PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Mbah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 and sodium lauryl sulfate on the lipophilic character of quetiapine fumarate by studying their effects on the partition coefficient of the drug. The partition coefficient was evaluated in n-hexane-water system at room temperature. Of the vehicles investigated, it was found that glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 decreased the partition coefficient of quetiapine fumarate, while an increase in partition coefficient of the drug was observed with sodium lauryl sulfate. The findings suggest that sodium lauryl sulfate in contrast to glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 has the potential of enhancing absorption and pharmacological activity of quetiapine fumarate.

  12. A novel solubilization of phenanthrene using Winsor I microemulsion-based sodium castor oil sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baowei; Zhu, Lizhong; Gao, Yanzheng

    2005-03-17

    Problems associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. Ex situ soil washing is commonly used for treating contaminated soils by separating the most contaminated fraction of the soil for disposal. Surfactant-enhanced soil washing is being considered with increasing frequency to actually achieve soil-contaminant separation. In this research, a novel solubilization of phenanthrene and extraction of phenanthrene from spiked soil by sodium castor oil sulfate (SCOS) microemulsion was presented and compared with the conventional surfactants, Triton X-100 (TX100), Tween 80 (TW80), Brij35, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Unlike conventional surfactants, SCOS forms stable microemulsion in water and thus behaves much like a separate bulk phase in concentrating organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement is linearly proportional to the concentration of SCOS microemulsion, in contrast with the effect of a conventional surfactant in which a sharp inflection occurs in the vicinity of the measured critical micelle concentration. SCOS microemulsion exhibits the largest mass solubilization ratio among the selected surface active agents (SAAs) in both soil-free system and soil-water system. The partitioning coefficients of phenanthrene between the emulsified phase and the aqueous phase, Kem, is slightly larger than those between the micellar pseudo phase and the aqueous phase, Kmc. The extraction experiments demonstrate high and fast desorption of phenanthrene from spiked soil by SCOS microemulsion perhaps due to its high solubilization capacity compared with the conventional surfactant solutions. The results show that SCOS could be an attractive alternative to synthetic surfactants in ex situ washing for PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:15752867

  13. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. PMID:26864607

  14. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年

    2015-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  15. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali, E-mail: abdullah2803@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University, Dhamar 87246 (Yemen); Talib, Zainal Abidin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  16. Synthesis and surface-active property of bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate Gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qiuling; Gao Zhinong

    2006-01-01

    N,N-dimethyldodecylamine,hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin (molar ration is 2:1:1) were used to synthesize bis-quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactant with a hydroxyl in its spacer group by the one-pot method.This hydroxyl was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid and then neutralized to bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate zwitterionic Gemini surfactant.The yield of the final product was 78%,and the melting point was 231-233℃.Its structure was characterized by IR,1H-NMR,MS,and elemental analyses.The critical micelle concentration (cmc)and surface tension of the novel zwitterionic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution at 15℃ are 7.2×10-5 mol/L and 34.5 mN/m,respectively.

  17. Prospective randomized comparison of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol as variceal sclerosing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, D K; Singh, B; Dogra, R; Dasarathy, S; Sharma, M P

    1992-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate differences in efficacy and complication rate between the two most commonly used sclerosing agents, sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STD) and polidocanol. Of 52 patients with esophageal variceal bleeding, 26 were randomized to receive sclerotherapy with 1.5% STD and 26 to receive 1% polidocanol at weekly intervals. Eradication of varices was achieved in 88% patients each of the STD and polidocanol group. There was no significant difference between patients injected with STD and polidocanol with regard to re-bleeding (27% vs. 15%) and mortality (11.5% in both). The use of STD, in contrast to polidocanol, was associated with a higher incidence of complications in terms of severe retrosternal pain (27% vs. 4%), deep ulceration (53% vs. 23%), dysphagia (88% vs. 46%), and stricture formation (27% vs. 8%). It was concluded that these two agents were similar in efficacy. However, polidocanol was superior due to a lower incidence of complications.

  18. Examination of dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation in experimentally produced cerebral edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation were used for experimentally produced cerebral edema for the examination of the water content of the brain and cerebrovascular permeability using 203Hg as the tracer. Although dexamethasone starts lowering vascular permeability of the edematous brain at one hour after the intravenous injection, a lapse of 24 hours is required until the water content returns to normal. Although hyperbaric oxygenation dose not reduce cerebrovascular permeability, it brings back the water content of the brain to normal immediately after pressurization. Since the combination of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygenation maintains the water content of the brain almost normal throughout the entire process, it is ideal for the treatment of cerebral edema. (Chiba, N.)

  19. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on flow and electrokinetic properties of Na-activated bentonite dispersions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Günıster; S İşçı; A Alemdar; N Güngör

    2004-06-01

    The present study reports the effect of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, C12H25 OSO3Na) upon the electrokinetic (electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential) and rheological (viscosity, yield value) properties of the Ca-bentonitic clay found in Turkey and its Na-activated form. The SDS dispersant was added in different concentrations in the range of 1 × 10-5-5 × 10-2 mol/l. The results show that the viscosity and zeta potential values of bentonite dispersion are affected by the addition of anionic surfactant. The obtained data are analysed by considering the kind of exchangeable cations. Thixotropic property effect was observed in bentonite dispersions.

  20. Modulating effects of oatmeal extracts in the sodium lauryl sulfate skin irritancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, K; Cours-Darne, S; Vienne, M P; Boyer, F; Fabre, B; Dupuy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of two topically applied oatmeal extracts, i.e. Avena sativa and Avena Rhealba, using the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation model. At baseline, test areas on the volar surface of the upper arms of 12 healthy individuals were pretreated with the two extracts and their vehicle (petrolatum ointment) under occlusion for 2 h, and one site was left untreated. Then a patch with a 1% SLS solution was applied to the test sites for 24 h. Irritation was determined at each period by measuring by chromametry and laser-Doppler. In a dose-ranging study with the Avena Rhealba extract alone, the 20 and 30% concentrations exerted a slight inhibition of the a* parameter increase and a marked reduction of the blood flow increase (p oatmeal extracts on skin irritation in the SLS model.

  1. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Scutellariae Radix extract (SRE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats induced by dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS).METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-180 g) by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, wt/v; MW 54000) in drinking water for 8 d. The treated rats received 4% DSS and SRE orally (100 mg/kg per day). Control rats received either tap water or SRE only. Macroscopic assessment which included body weight changes, fecal occult blood and stool consistency were determined daily. At the appointed time, the rats were sacrificed and the entire colons were removed. The colon length and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The severity of colitis was graded by morphological and histological assessments. The ion transport activity of the colonic mucosa was assessed by electrophysiological technique. RESULTS: Rats treated with oral administration of 4% DSS regularly developed clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis. Treatment with SRE relieved the symptoms, including the reduction in body weight, shortening and ulceration of the colon. Administration of SRE also significantly reduced the histological damage induced by DSS. Moreover, the Isc responses of the colonic mucosa to forskolin were suppressed after the induction of colitis. The stimulated ion transport activity of DSS-rats treated with SRE displayed significant improvement in the secretory responsiveness.CONCLUSION: SRE was effective in treating acute DSS -induced ulcerative colitis, as gauged by reduced clinical disease, improved macroscopic and histological damage scores, and enhanced recovery of normal colonic secretory function.

  2. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of low-molecular-weight propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Meng; Ren, Li; Sun, Yang; Li, Hai-hua; Guan, Hua-Shi; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-05-23

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action. PMID:26974373

  3. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of fluorescence labeled propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengli; Li, Chunxia; Xue, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hongbing; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence labeling method was developed and validated for the microanalysis of a sulfated polysaccharide drug,namely propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), in rat plasma. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was selected to label PSS, and 1, 6-diaminohexane was used to link PSS and FITC in order to prepare FITC-labeled PSS (F-PSS) through a reductive amination reaction. F-PSS was identified by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The cell stability and cytotoxicity of F-PSS were tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results indicated that the labeling efficiency of F-PSS was 0.522% ± 0.0248% and the absolute bioavailability was 8.39%. F-PSS was stable in MDCK cells without obvious cytotoxicity. The method was sensitive and reliable; it showed a good linearity, precision, recovery and stability. The FITC labeling method can be applied to investigating the absorption and metabolism of PSS and other polysaccharides in biological samples.

  4. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by nonoxynol-9, C31G, or an alkyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, F C; Miller, S R; Malamud, D; Howett, M K; Wigdahl, B

    1999-10-01

    A highly desirable approach to prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission during sexual intercourse is the development of nontoxic, topical, broad spectrum microbicides effective against transmission of cell-associated and cell-free virus. Toward this end, the HIV-1 inactivation potential of surface active agents C31G and an alkyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was assessed. Because of its extensive use as a microbicidal agent, nonoxynol-9 (N-9) was used as a reference against which C31G and SDS were compared. Viral inactivation was measured using HIV-1 LTR-beta-galactosidase indicator cells (expressing CD4 or CD4/CCR5) derived from HeLa cells, a cell line of human cervical adenocarcinoma origin. In experiments which examined inactivation of cell-free HIV-1, C31G was generally more effective than N-9. Viral inactivation by SDS occurred at twice the concentration necessary to achieve similar levels of inactivation using either N-9 or C31G. Using HeLa and HeLa-derived cells in cytotoxicity studies, it was demonstrated that SDS is as much as 11 and five times less cytotoxic than N-9 or C31G, respectively, during 48 h of continuous exposure. SDS (unlike C31G and N-9) can inactivate non-enveloped viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) [Howett, M.K., Neely, E.B., Christensen, N.D., Wigdahl, B., Krebs, F.C., Malamud, D., Patrick, S.D., Pickel, M.D., Welsh, P.A., Reed, C.A., Ward, M.G., Budgeon, L.R., Kreider, J.W., 1999. A broad-spectrum microbicide with virucidal activity against sexually transmitted viruses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43(2), 314-321]. Since addition of SDS to C31G or N-9 may make the resulting microbicidal mixtures broadly effective against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, several surface active agent combinations were evaluated for their abilities to inactivate HIV-1. Addition of SDS to either C31G or N-9 resulted in mixtures that were only slightly less effective than equivalent concentrations of C31G

  5. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. II. Coarsely sandblasted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2003-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to investigate the corrosion resistance of coarsely sandblasted implant alloys, commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. Coarsely sandblasted samples have a heterogeneous surface constituted by a large number of protrusions and recessions. Impedance spectra collected in sodium sulfate present two time constants (maxima in the phase-angle of the bode plot) associated with the total surface and with the tips, respectively. In bovine serum, the two maxima in the impedance spectra cannot be distinguished because of the formation of an adsorption layer of organic molecules, which causes a decrease in the values of both the total and tips' capacitances as well as an increase in the polarization resistance. Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb show the highest corrosion rate both in serum and in sodium sulfate. Based on the capacitance values obtained in sodium sulfate, the real surface area of the coarsely sandblasted electrodes has been estimated relative to mechanically polished surfaces. The values of the effective electrode area correlate with the mechanical properties of the samples: in fact, the softest electrode (commercially pure titanium) shows the largest effective electrode area, whereas the hardest material (CoCrMo alloy) shows the smallest surface area.

  6. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of bleeding stomal varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Chang; Yang, Po Sang; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Gun [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A small varix is an uncommon complication with a high mortality rate occurring secondary to portal hypertension in patients with a stoma. We describe a case of recurrent stomal varix bleeding successfully managed by balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam.

  7. Disposition, accumulation and toxicity of iron fed as iron (II) sulfate or as sodium iron EDTA in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    A study was performed to provide data on the disposition, accumulation and toxicity of sodium iron EDTA in comparison with iron (II) sulfate in rats on administration via the diet for 31 and 61 days. Clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, food conversion efficiency, hematology, clinical che

  8. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  9. Skin reaction and regeneration after single sodium lauryl sulfate exposure stratified by filaggrin genotype and atopic dermatitis phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, J; Carlsen, B C; Rasmussen, M A;

    2015-01-01

    and AD phenotype on irritant response and skin regeneration. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of FLGnull and AD groups for skin reaction and recovery after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation. METHODS: This is a case-control study comprising 67 subjects, including healthy controls and patients...

  10. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of bleeding stomal varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small varix is an uncommon complication with a high mortality rate occurring secondary to portal hypertension in patients with a stoma. We describe a case of recurrent stomal varix bleeding successfully managed by balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam.

  11. Evaluation of using aluminum sulfate and water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin to reduce turbidity and toxicity of polluted stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, José Henrique Edmilson Souza; de Santana, Keissy Vanderley; do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Claudina; de Paiva, Sérgio Carvalho; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Aluminum salts are used as coagulants in water treatment; however, the exposure to residual aluminum has been associated with human brain lesions. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL), which is extracted with distilled water and isolated by chitin chromatography, has coagulant activity and is able to reduce the concentration of metal ions in aqueous solutions. This study evaluated the potential of using aluminum sulfate and WSMoL to reduce the turbidity and toxicity of water from the Cavouco stream located in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The water sample used (called P1) was collected from the stream source, which was found to be strongly polluted based on physicochemical and water quality analyses, as well as ecotoxicity assays with Artemia salina and seeds of Eruca sativa and Lactuca sativa. The assays combining WSMoL and aluminum sulfate were more efficient than those that used these agents separately. Furthermore, the greatest reduction in turbidity (96.8%) was obtained with the treatment using aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL, compared to when they were applied simultaneously (91.3%). In addition, aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL treatment resulted in residual aluminum concentration (0.3 mg/L) that was much lower than that recorded after the treatment using only the salt (35.5 mg/L). The ecotoxicity of P1 was also strongly reduced after the treatments. In summary, the combined use of aluminum sulfate and WSMoL was efficient in promoting a strong reduction of turbidity and ecotoxicity of a polluted water sample, without resulting in a high residual aluminum concentration at the conclusion of the treatment.

  12. Electrolytic preparation of vanadium(5) oxide from oxovanadium(4) sulfate solution in the presence of sodium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of anodic current density, pH value and reagents concentration on the character of anodic processes, current efficiency and properties of deposits during electrolytic deposition of vanadium(5) oxide from aqueous solutions of oxovanadium(4) sulfate in the presence of sodium ions was studied. It was ascertained that in the presence of sodium ions some deposits are formed on the anode, which differ qualitatively from the ones prepared from solutions without additions. According to data of X-ray phase analysis the sediments after annealing at 500 deg C for 5-7 h were sodium-vanadium bronze of NaxV2O5 composition, featuring elevated electrochemical activity

  13. A recovery installation for sodium sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides from waste water resulting from hydrogen sulfide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An installation for recovery of sodium sulfate and sulfur suspensions from waste water was conceived. It consists from a preheater, vacuum evaporator and a refrigerating system with drum and scraper. This equipment concentration the solution by eliminating in the first stage the water in the vacuum evaporator. The water resulting at this stage is chemically pure and can be discharged in the sewage sludge system. The concentrated solution is then directed to the refrigerating system with drum and scrapper. Here the sodium sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides get crystallized onto the drum surface. The resulting aqueous solution to be discharged in the sewage sludge system is previously analyzed as in case of the absent of the recovery installation, but the amount of pollutants will be much lower because sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides were already recovered as scales from the drum. These solid scales can be used in detergent industry

  14. In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminum corrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Lluis; Candela, Angelica Maria; Munoz, Maria; Casado, Juan [Centre Grup de Tecniques de Separacio en Quimica (GTS), Unitat de Quimica Analitica, Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Macanas, Jorge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS-INPT-UPS, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2009-07-01

    A new process to obtain hydrogen from water using aluminum in sodium aluminate solutions is described and compared with results obtained in aqueous sodium hydroxide. This process consumes only water and aluminum, which are raw materials much cheaper than other compounds used for in situ hydrogen generation, such as hydrocarbons and chemical hydrides, respectively. As a consequence, our process could be an economically feasible alternative for hydrogen to supply fuel cells. Results showed an improvement of the maximum rates and yields of hydrogen production when NaAlO{sub 2} was used instead of NaOH in aqueous solutions. Yields of 100% have been reached using NaAlO{sub 2} concentrations higher than 0.65 M and first order kinetics at concentrations below 0.75 M has been confirmed. Two different heterogeneous kinetic models are verified for NaAlO{sub 2} aqueous solutions. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of the process with NaAlO{sub 2} is 71 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming a control by a chemical step. A mechanism unifying the behavior of Al corrosion in NaOH and NaAlO{sub 2} solutions is presented. The application of this process could reduce costs in power sources based on fuel cells that nowadays use hydrides as raw material for hydrogen production. (author)

  15. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  16. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  17. H +, Na +, and K + ion sensing properties of sodium and aluminum coimplanted LPCVD silicon oxynitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Paik-Kyun; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Three different silicon oxynitride layers were fabricated by varying NH 3/N 2O flow rate ratios in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process. Sodium and aluminum were then coimplanted by implanting sodium ions with the energy of 100 keV and dose of 5×10 16 cm -2 into an aluminum buffer layer on silicon dioxide and three different silicon oxynitride layers. The composition of the as-deposited silicon oxynitride layers was analyzed by sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS). Sodium, potassium and pH-sensing properties of the layers were investigated on an electrolyte-isolator-silicon (EIS) structure using high frequency capacitance-voltage (HF-CV) measurements. Differences of pH, sodium and potassium sensing properties between the as-deposited silicon oxynitride layers and the coimplanted silicon oxynitride layers were investigated. The sodium and aluminum coimplanted layers showed better sodium and potassium sensitivity as well as a lower sensitivity towards hydrogen ions. The effect is more pronounced for higher oxygen concentration in the layers. On the other hand the stability of ion response of the layers, in contrast, is better for the higher nitrogen content of the layers.

  18. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  19. EIS study on pitting corrosion of 7150 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, G.S; Chen, K.H.; Fang, H.C.; Chao, H.; Chen, S.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Hunan (China)

    2010-09-15

    The pitting corrosion behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution. Based on EIS features and corrosion morphologies as well as corrosion potential, the process of pitting corrosion could be clearly divided into four stages: at the first stage, the Nyquist diagram was composed of two overlapping capacitive loops at the high-medial frequency and one inductive loop at the low frequency. At the second stage (metastable pits developing stage), there existed one small capacitive loop at the high frequency and one big capacitive loop at the medial frequency. At the third stage (stable pits developing stage), two time constants were more clearly distinguished, corresponding to two obvious capacitive loops. At the fourth stage, there appeared one capacitive loop, attributing to uniform corrosion. An equivalent circuit was designed to fit EIS, and the experimental results and the fitted results had good correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE ANALYSIS OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  1. Improved Synthesis of 1,3-Diaryl-2-propen-1-one Oxime in the Presence of Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate%Improved Synthesis of 1,3-Diaryl-2-propen-1-one Oxime in the Presence of Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓亚; 李记太; 杜超; 宋亚丽

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one oxime via the condensation of 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate was carried out in refluxing EtOH for 2-4 h in 83%-93% yields. The significant features of the present procedure include higher yield, shorter reaction time, reduced molar ratio of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to substrate, compared to the reported literature method.

  2. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.

  3. Hyperbranched exopolysaccharide-enhanced foam properties of sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanhua; Li, Haiping; Sun, Haoyang; Sun, Yange; Li, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The foam properties, such as the foamability, foam stability, drainage, coalescence and bulk rheology, of aqueous solutions containing an eco-friendly exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by a deep-sea mesophilic bacterium, Wangia profunda SM-A87, and an anionic surfactant, sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES), were studied. Both the foamability and foam stability of the EPS/AES solutions are considerably higher than those of single AES solutions, even at very low AES concentrations, although pure EPS solutions cannot foam. The improved foamability and foam stability arise from the formation of the EPS/AES complex via hydrogen bonds at the interfaces. The synergism between the EPS and AES decreases the surface tension, increases the interfacial elasticity and water-carrying capacity, and suppresses the coalescence and collapse of the foams. The EPS/AES foams are more salt-resistant than the AES foams. This work provides not only a new eco-friendly foam with great potential for use in enhanced oil recovery and health-care products but also useful guidance for designing other environmentally friendly foam systems that exhibit high performance. PMID:26852104

  4. Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Å; Tormo-Badia, N; Baridi, A; Xu, J; Molin, G; Hagslätt, M-L; Karlsson, C; Jeppsson, B; Cilio, C M; Ahrné, S

    2015-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis.

  5. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 ± 1.6 g were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A, a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS (B, Inonotus obliquus (IO administration (C, and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D. IO treatment (C, D decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B. The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B. The serum immunoglobulin (IgE level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells. Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced, TNF-α, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells.

  8. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  9. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  10. Complement component 6 deficiency increases susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peipei; Li, Ling; Huang, Tianbao; Yang, Chaoqun; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Zhang, Long; Gu, Hongyu; Yao, Xudong; Zhou, Xuhui; Hu, Weiguo

    2016-11-01

    As a potent effector of innate immunity, the complement system has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the role of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in the development of IBD is still largely unknown. Here, we used C6-deficient mice in which MAC formation was blocked due to the absence of C6 to develop an acute colitis model by the administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The results showed that DSS-induced colitis was aggravated in C6-deficient mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, as represented by the markedly greater weight loss, higher disease activity index (DAI), shortened colon length, more severe histological injury with increased epithelial ulcerations, and massively increased infiltration of leukocytes accompanied by much higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in local inflammatory colonic sites. In addition, the DSS-induced colitis in C6-deficient mice could be significantly ameliorated by the exogenous C6 from WT sera. Furthermore, the significantly enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, CCL-3, TGF-β1 and IL-17F, was also observed in C6-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, the aggravated colitis in C6-deficient mice may be not due to the increase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in serum. Overall, we demonstrated that MAC exerts a protective role in acute colitis, strongly highlighting the host defense function of the complement system. PMID:27316715

  11. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  12. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ceren [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Unal, Ugur [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Yagci Acar, Havva, E-mail: fyagci@ku.edu.tr [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  13. Antibody to eosinophil cationic protein suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Shichijo; Kazuya Makiyama; Chun-Yang Wen; Mutsumi Matsuu; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima; Makoto Ihara; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To produce an antibody against rat eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and to examine the effects of the antibody in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: An antibody was raised against rat ECP. Rats were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 d and received the antibody or normal serum. The colons were exarmined histologically and correlated with clinical symptoms.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were estimated as a grade of inflammation.RESULTS: The ECP antibody stained the activated eosinophils around the injured crypts in the colonic mucosa.Antibody treatment reduced the severity of colonic ulceration and acute clinical symptoms (diarrhea and/or blood-stained stool). Body weight gain was significantly greater and the colon length was significantly longer in anti-ECP-treated rats than in normal serum-treated rats. Expression of ECP in activated eosinophils was associated with the presence of erosions and inflammation. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in the regenerated surface epithelium increased in anti-ECP-treated rats compared with normal serum-treated rats. Western blot analysis revealed reduced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in anti-ECP-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with ECP antibody, improved DSS-induced colitis in rats, possibly by increasing the regenerative activity of the colonic epithelium and downregulation of the immune response,and suggest that anti-ECP may promote intestinal wound healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

  14. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang;

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethy......Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene......-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...... in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability....

  15. Toxicity Biosensor for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Using Immobilized Green Fluorescent Protein Expressing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein (GFP is suitable as a toxicity sensor due to its ability to work alone without cofactors or substrates. Its reaction with toxicants can be determined with fluorometric approaches. GFP mutant gene (C48S/S147C/Q204C/S65T/Q80R is used because it has higher sensitivity compared to others GFP variants. A novel sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS toxicity detection biosensor was built by immobilizing GFP expressing Escherichia coli in k-Carrageenan matrix. Cytotoxicity effect took place in the toxicity biosensor which leads to the decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The fabricated E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has a wide dynamic range of 4–100 ppm, with LOD of 1.7 ppm. Besides, it possesses short response time (0.98, and long-term stability (46 days. E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has been applied to detect toxicity induced by SDS in tap water, river water, and drinking water. High recovery levels of SDS indicated the applicability of E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor in real water samples toxicity evaluation.

  16. Atomistic Simulation of Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Marchi, Massimo; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi; Abel, Stéphane

    2016-04-19

    Solubilization of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene-ring PAH) and pyrene (PYR, 4-benzene-ring PAH), into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle was studied through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that NAP as well as PYR could move between the micelle shell and core regions, contributing to their distribution in both regions of the micelle at any PAH concentration. Moreover, both NAP and PYR prefer to stay in the micelle shell region, which may arise from the greater volume of the micelle shell, the formation of hydrogen bonds between NAP and water, and the larger molecular volume of PYR. The PAHs are able to form occasional clusters (from dimer to octamer) inside the micelle during the simulation time depending on the PAH concentration in the solubilization systems. Furthermore, the micelle properties (i.e., size, shape, micelle internal structure, alkyl chain conformation and orientation, and micelle internal dynamics) are found to be nearly unaffected by the solubilized PAHs, which is irrespective of the properties and concentrations of PAHs.

  17. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization. PMID:27399145

  18. Nature of large aggregates in supercooled aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1980-09-18

    Preparations of 2.0 and 5.5 wt % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 3.5 wt % (0.6 M) aqueous NaCl are equilibrium micellar solutions above 28/sup 0/C, the Krafft point of the surfactant at this salinity. These systems can be supercooled and remain transparent for hours and days. At 25/sup 0/C at equilibrium they are biphasic, a hydrated crystal phase and an aqueous salt solution phase containing only 0.01/sub 2/ wt % SDS. Conductimetry and /sup 13/C NMR show that these transparent supercooled systems are indeed supersaturated solutions and not microdispersions of the hydrated crystal. The time lag for the onset of nucleation of the crystals depends strongly on stirring details and probably on presence of gas-liquid interface. The big nonequilibrium aggregates present in the supersaturated systems resemble micelles in conductivity and molecular motion, and are likely to be metastable micelles as is presumed by Mazer, Benedek, and Carey. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  19. A new insight on the dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous micellar solutions by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Leandro; Carlà, Marcello; Lanzi, Leonardo; Gambi, Cecilia M C

    2009-02-01

    Aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solutions were investigated by a recently developed double-differential dielectric spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 100 MHz-3 GHz at 22 degrees C, in the surfactant concentration range 29.8-524 mM, explored for the first time above 104 mM. The micellar contribution to dielectric spectra was analyzed according to three models containing, respectively, a single Debye relaxation, a Cole-Cole relaxation and a double Debye relaxation. The single Debye model is not accurate enough. Both Cole-Cole and double Debye models fit well the experimental dielectric spectra. With the double Debye model, two characteristic relaxation times were identified: the slower one, in the range 400-900 ps, is due to the motion of counterions bound to the micellar surface (lateral motion); the faster one, in the range 100-130 ps, is due to interfacial bound water. Time constants and amplitudes of both processes are in fair agreement with Grosse's theoretical model, except at the largest concentration values, where interactions between micelles increase. For each sample, the volume fraction of bulk water and the effect of bound water as well as the conductivity in the low frequency limit were computed. The bound water increases as the surfactant concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the micellar properties. The number of water molecules per surfactant molecule was also computed. The conductivity values are in agreement with Kallay's model over the whole surfactant concentration range.

  20. Effects of ulinastatin in experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Ulinastatin has been reported to be beneficial for maintenance of steroid-refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanism underlying remains uncertain. Leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory site plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD, analysis of leukocyte and endothelium interaction may provide new avenues for treatment of IBD. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Ulinastatin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis rat model using intravital video microscopy. METHODS: Rats were given drinking water containing 3.5% (W/V) DSS for 10 days then 1% for 14 days. DSS induced colitis rats were treated Ulinastatin 3 000 unit*kg-1*d-1 via intraperitoneum during 1% DSS feeding. Controls received distilled water for 24 days. Body weight was determined for all groups. Colitis severity was assessed using histological scoring systems by H&E sections. Intravital microscopic techniques were used to quantitate leukocyte adhesion (LA), leukocyte emigration (LE) and venular protein leakage (VPL) in rat mesentery. RESULTS: DSS induced loss of body weight, whereas Ulinastatin-treated rat showed a significant increase in body weight. Histological analysis revealed improvement of colitis such as leukocyte infiltration, loss of goblet cells, transmural edema. DSS intake elicited increase in LA, LE, and VPL compared to control group. Ulinstatin significantly reversed the increase in LA, LE, and VPL induced by DSS. CONCLUSION: Administration of Ulinastatin effectively ameliorates experimental colitis by interfering with leukocyte recruitment, and may become a potential candidate for control of inflammation of IBD.

  1. Effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on dextran sulfate sodium colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yue; Zhe Shen; Chao-Hui Yu; Hua Ye; Yue-Fang Ye; You-Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the concomitant effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on colitis. METHODS: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was investigated at a 7-d interval after ovalbumin (OVA) administration and immunization under normal and colitis conditions in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Pathological scores for the colon were graded after ingestion of colon-extracted protein (CEP) and induction of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Thereafter, Th1 and Th2 in Peyer's patches and spleen lymphocytes were detected in CEP-treated and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-treated control mice. RESULTS: In appendectomized mice, DTH was not inhibited at day 7 after OVA administration and at the initial phase of DSS colitis, whereas it was inhibited at day 14 and day 21. However, in sham-operated mice, it was inhibited during the whole procedure and the onset of DSS colitis. The protective role of CEP against DSS colitis was present in sham-operated mice, with predominant improvement of colonic pathological changes, while vanished in the appendectomized mice. A shift from Th1 to Th2 in Peyer's patches resulted from a decrease of Th1 cells with the ingestion of CEP. Compared with BSA in the sham-operated group, no predominant changes were observed in the appendectomized mice. CONCLUSION: Appendectomy interferes with the protective role of CEP in DSS colitis via a shift from Th2 to Th1 during oral tolerance induction.

  2. Efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration with sodium tetradecyl sulfate liquid sclerotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Kwon, So Young; Cheo, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Shim, Chan Sup; Lee, Tae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Han [Digestive Disease Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44-86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6-33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices.

  3. An investigation of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate interactions in acetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/surfactant association is a cooperative phenomenon where surfactant binds to the polymer in the form of aggregates, usually through electrostatic or hydrophobic forces. As already known, polyelectrolytes may interact with oppositely charged surfactants through electrostatic attraction that results in polymer/surfactant complex formation. This behavior could be desirable in wide range of application of polymer/surfactant mixtures, such as improving colloid stability, gelling, emulsification and microencapsulation. In the present study surface tension, turbidity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to investigate interactions of cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (Ch and oppositely charged anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, in buffered water. Obtained results show the presence of interactions that lead to Ch/SDS complexes formation at all investigated pH and for all investigated polymer concentrations. Mechanisms of interaction, as well as characteristics of formed Ch/SDS complexes, are highly dependent on their mass ratio in the mixtures, while pH has no significant influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. II46010

  4. Amelioration of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Man-Chin; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can produce some compounds in response to their environment. These compounds are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Some probiotics have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Autoimmune diseases represent a complex group of conditions that are thought to be mediated through the development of autoreactive immunoresponses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is common autoimmune disease that affects many individuals worldwide. Previously, we found that the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen) inhibited nitric oxide production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages. In this study, the effect of Lycogen, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, was evaluated in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of Lycogen reduced the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in female BABL/c mice. In addition, the increased number of bacterial flora in the colon induced by DSS was amelirated by Lycogen. The histological score of intestinal inflammation in 5% DSS-treated mice after oral administration of Lycogen was lower than that of control mice. Meanwhile, Lycogen dramatically prolonged the survival of mice with severe colitis. These findings identified that Lycogen is an anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis. PMID:23159923

  5. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-01

    Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm-2, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO2 ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO2 particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO2 reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si-O-C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a new modification route.

  6. Phase Behavior of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-n-Butanol-Kerosene-Water Microemulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会娥; 张孝坤; 丁传芹; 陈爽; 齐选良

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the influences of cation from electrolytes and acidity/alkalinity on the phase behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate-n-butanol-organics-water (with electrolytes) microemulsion sys-tem. The organics used is commercial kerosene. The volume ratio of water to organics is 1︰1. The results show that the type and valence of electrolyte cations are important factors influencing the microemulsion behavior. Biva-lent Ca2+is more effective than monovalent K+and Na+for the formation of Winsor type III and II microemulsion. For electrolytes with the same monovalent cation Na+, i.e. NaCl and Na2CO3, anions in the electrolyte have some effect. Bivalent anion 23CO - leads to a lower activity of cation Na+than monovalent anion Cl-. NaOH (or KOH) behaves similar with NaCl (or KCl). When HCl is used as electrolyte, its acidity plays an important role. Phase in-version of microemulsion from type III (or II) to type I is observed through precipitation of Ca2+using Na2CO3, neutralization of HCl by NaOH, and addition of water to the system, which releases the oil from the microemulsion.

  7. 分光光度法测定氟硅酸钠中的硫酸盐%Spectrophotometric Determination of Sodium Sulfate in Sodium fluosilicate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓红; 晋方卉; 袁美兰

    2015-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of sodium sulfate in sodium fluosilicate was studied.SO4 2 - reacted with BaCl2 giving out precipitate BaSO4a s hanging (floating)gel,by measuring the absorbance at 440nm,the sodium sulphate content in sodium fluosilicate can be accurately measured.In 10 ~200 mg /L range,sulfate has a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.996,and the re-covery of 97.21% ~104.75%.%研究了分光光度法测定氟硅酸中硫酸盐含量的方法。SO42-与 BaCl2反应生成悬胶(浮)液沉淀物 BaSO4,在440 nm 波长处测量其吸光值,可以准确测定出氟硅酸钠中硫酸盐的含量。硫酸盐在10~200 mg/L 范围内线性关系良好,线性相关系数为0.996,回收率为97.21%~104.75%。

  8. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  9. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and C31G as Microbicidal Alternatives to Nonoxynol 9: Comparative Sensitivity of Primary Human Vaginal Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Fred C.; Miller, Shendra R.; Catalone, Bradley J.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Malamud, Daniel; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian

    2000-01-01

    A broad-spectrum vaginal microbicide must be effective against a variety of sexually transmitted disease pathogens and be minimally toxic to the cell types found within the vaginal epithelium, including vaginal keratinocytes. We assessed the sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes to potential topical vaginal microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Direct immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses demonstrated that primary va...

  10. Enhancing the transdermal delivery of rigid nanoparticles using the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Renata F. V.; Seto, Jennifer E.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) was evaluated as a skin pre-treatment method for enhancing the passive transdermal delivery of nanoparticles. We utilized inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an improved application of confocal microscopy to compare the delivery of 10- and 20-n...

  11. Analysis of cell wall extracts of Candida albicans by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponton, J; J. M. Jones

    1986-01-01

    Cell walls of intact yeast- and mycelial-phase Candida albicans B311 were extracted with different compounds: dithiothreitol, dithiothreitol with protease, dithiothreitol with lyticase, and dithiothreitol with protease followed by beta-glucuronidase with chitinase. Extracts were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot techniques. Dithiothreitol extracts contained the most satisfactory array of components for study. Analysis of these extracts demo...

  12. Photo Catalytic Removal of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate From Aquatic Solutions With Prepared ZnO Nanocrystals and UV Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi; Mir Saeid Sayed Dorraji; Zolykha Atashi; Ali Reza Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ZnO Nano catalyst has been synthesized and examined as photo catalyst for UV-induced removal of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) from aquatic solutions. This anionic surfactant was selected based upon its toxicity, wide use in industrial laundry and as a primary pollutant in municipal waste water systems.This study aimed to investigate removal of surfactant, SDS, in a batch photo catalytic reactor under various operating conditions including ZnO suspension concentration, initial su...

  13. INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL, PROPYLENE GLYCOL, POLYSORBATE-80 AND SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE ON THE PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, C. J.; C. E. Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 and sodium lauryl sulfate on the lipophilic character of quetiapine fumarate by studying their effects on the partition coefficient of the drug. The partition coefficient was evaluated in n-hexane-water system at room temperature. Of the vehicles investigated, it was found that glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 decreased the partition coefficient of quetiapine fumarate, whi...

  14. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background and aims: Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.Methods: Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.Results: Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.Conclusion: Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: preclinical, oral iron treatment, tolerability, colonic tissue erosion

  15. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. I. Mechanically polished samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2002-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to monitor the long-term stability (up to 150 days) of mechanically polished commercial pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo alloys in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. A capacitive spectrum in the frequency range from 10(-3) to 10(5) Hz is always found and the impedance spectra can be fitted by a simple parallel RC circuit with a constant phase element. The open circuit potential observed in serum is always more cathodic and the polarization resistance (R(p)) is higher than that recorded in sodium sulfate solutions. The observed variation of the equivalent capacitance in serum bovine suggests that an adsorption layer of organic molecules develops on the electrode surface and it is responsible for both the decrease in open circuit potential and the higher R(p), because it hinders the oxygen evolution reaction and the charge transfer responsible for the passive film dissolution (or growth). Among the alloys studied, Ti6Al4V displayed the highest steady-state values of R(p) both in serum and in sodium sulfate.

  16. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  17. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginova, T. P., E-mail: tlg@ineos.ac.ru; Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Matyushin, A. A. [Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, First Moscow State Medical University (Russian Federation); Khotina, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Shtykova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  18. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene- block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, T. P.; Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A.; Matyushin, A. A.; Khotina, I. A.; Shtykova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene- block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  19. Technical modification and benefits analysis for production of sodium fiuosilicate from sodium sulfate instead of sodium chloride%硫酸钠代替氯化钠生产氟硅酸钠的技改及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀梅

    2012-01-01

    分析以氯化钠为原料生产氟硅酸钠存在的问题,提出用硫酸钠代替氯化钠生产氟硅酸钠,并从工艺、设备、仪表和土建等方面介绍装置技改情况,以及改造后的经济效益。%The existing problems in production of sodium fluosilicate with sodium chloride as raw material are analyzed, using sodium sulfate instead of sodium chloride for production of sodium fluosilicate is put forward, the technical modification from process, equipment, instrument and civil engineering etc., and the economic benefit after the transformation are introduced.

  20. Histopathological and morphometric changes induced by a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-05-01

    Oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used as an inducer of enteric inflammation in rodents. However, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding appropriate dosage, timing, or ageresponses in broilers for this potential inducer of inflammation without necrosis. Two experiments were conducted in day-of-hatch chicks to analyze clinical parameters and enteric histological changes induced by DSS when administered via drinking water ( DW: ). In both experiments, birds were distributed into nontreated control or varying concentrations of DSS in DW. For both experiments, only 0.75% DSS in DW was histologically evaluated. In Experiment 1, chicks received DSS from day 3 to 11, and at 3, 6, and 8 d of treatment, chicks were weighed, and sections of the duodenum, ileum, and ceca were formalin fixed. The addition of 0.75% DSS caused depression, anemia, and watery bloody diarrhea, plus significantly (P DSS administration (P DSS from days 10 to 16 and were sampled at 3 and 6 d of treatment. Similar changes were found in ceca of treated birds. There was no significant change in the duodenal villus height and goblet cell density by 6 d of treatment, suggesting that 6 d of 0.75% DSS in DW was not sufficient for the reproduction of duodenal symptoms in these older birds. However, there was a significant decrease in ilealvillus height and decreased ileal epithelial cell height at 3 and 6 d of treatment, as well as a significant decrease in BW compared to the control group. These findings indicate that DW administration of 0.75% DSS caused generalized mild and non-necrotic enteritis in broilers and that this compound may be useful for enteric inflammation modeling in poultry.

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate monomers induce XAO peptide polyproline II to α-helix transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhenmin; Damodaran, Krishnan; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-09-11

    XAO peptide (Ac-X2A7O2-NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, -CH2CH2NH3(+); O: ornithine side chain, -CH2CH2CH2NH3(+)) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable α-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of α-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO-SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO-SDS aggregate α-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ψ angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved α-, π- and 3(10)-helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4-SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables α-helix formation. Four XAO-SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the α-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  2. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India."nMaterials and Methods: Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM, SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis."nResults: Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 μmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3."nConclusion: This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding of rutin deca (H-) sulfate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-jun; Lu, Si-jie; Yao, Tong-wei; Zeng, Su

    2009-11-01

    Rutin deca (H-) sulfate sodium (RDS) possesses very good activity as an inhibitor of the complement system of warm-blooded animals and HIV. An ion-pair coupled with solid-phase extraction technique (IP-SPE) was developed to extract RDS from rat plasma, urine, bile and protein solution samples. The assay was applied to pharmacokinetics of RDS, including plasma pharmacokinetics, excretion and protein binding studies. After i.v. 5, 20 and 100 mg x kg(-1) RDS via tail vein in rats, the plasma concentration-time profiles were fitted using 3P97 software. The average terminal half-life (t(1/2)) was 3.432 +/- 0.185 2 h. The relationship of dose and AUC of RDS was linear within the dosage range. This suggested that the disposition of RDS in rats belong to linear kinetics and the pharmacokinetic parameters of RDS were dose independent. After iv RDS 20 mg x kg(-1) in rats, the biliary excretion amount of parent drug amount was only 0.3181% +/- 0.2087% of given dosage, and the urinary excretion was 86.0% +/- 6.1% in 36 h. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to determine the protein binding of RDS in plasma (from SD rat, Beagle dog and human), human serum albumin (HSA) and human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The mean protein binding rate in plasma of SD rat, Beagle dog and human plasma of RDS were 80%-90%, in which the range of concentration of RDS was 5 to 100 microg x mL(-1). The protein binding to HSA was 85.7% +/- 1.3% and 14.0% +/- 3.2% to AGP. PMID:21351726

  4. Bifidobacterium breve attenuates murine dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases regulatory T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    Full Text Available While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition.

  5. Balsalazine decreases intestinal mucosal permeability of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chang LIU; Qiao MEI; Jian-ming XU; Jing HU

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of balsalazine treatment on intestinal mucosal permeability in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and to determine the mechanism of the balsalazine-induced changes.Methods:Experimental colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the administration of 5% DSS.Balsalazine was administered intragastrically at doses of 42,141,and 423 mg/kg.The disease activity index (DAI) score was evaluated and colon tissue was collected for the assessment of histological changes.The amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the colon was determined,along with the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).Mucosa from the small intestine was collected to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-Y.The mucosa was ultrastructurally examined with transmission electron microscopy and intestinal permeability was assayed using Evans blue.Results:Balsalazine was found to reduce the DAI score and the histological index (HI) score,decrease the MDA content and the activity of MPO,and increase the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in colitis mice.At the same time,balsalazine ameliorated microvillus and tight junction structure,resulting in a decrease in the amount of Evans blue permeating into the intestinal wall and the levels of TNF-α and IFN-Y in colitis mice.Conclusion:In colitis mice,the anti-colitis effect of balsalazine results in a decrease in intestinal mucosal permeability.The mechanism of this effect is partly associated with balsalazine's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zheng; Feng-Li Niu; Wen-Zhong Liu; Yao Shi; Lun-Gen Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by giving 2% DSS orally in drinking water for 8 d. Twenty-six male rats were randomized into oxymatrine-treated group (group A, 10rats), DSS control (group B, 10 rats) and normal control (group C, 6 rats). The rats in group A were injected from d 1 to 11 and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11.The rats in group B were treated with 0.9% saline in an equal volume as group A and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11. The rats in group C were treated with 0.9% saline as group B from d 1 to 11 and drank water normally. Diarrhea and bloody stool as well as colonic histology were observed. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)activity and the expression of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in colonic mucosa were detected by immunohistochernistry method.RESULTS: Compared with DSS control group, the inflammatory symptoms and histological damages of colonic mucosa in oxymatrine-treated group were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB, ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa were significantly reduced.CONCLUSION: The fact that oxymatrine can reduce the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa in DSS-induced colitis of rats indicates that oxymatrine may ameliorate the colonic inflammation and thus alleviate diarrhea and bloody stool.

  7. Effect of natural dissolved organic carbon on phosphate removal by ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate treatment of wetland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Robert G.; Sherwood, Lindsay J.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    2009-09-01

    The use of wetlands for the removal of excess N and P has become widespread. Some sensitive P-limited ecosystems, however, may require additional reductions in the concentration of P entering the system. It has been proposed that the treatment of wetlands through addition of ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate can augment the natural P removal mechanisms. However, high concentrations of natural dissolved organic matter may interfere with the removal of P by metal addition. We evaluated the doses of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate necessary to reduce total P concentrations below 0.32 μM (10 μg/L) in water from the Northern Everglades, and we determined the effect of various concentrations (21, 38, and 60 mg/L) of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the removal of PO4 and total P. High concentrations of natural DOC inhibited both the short-term removal of PO4 and the longer-term removal of total P from the water column. Similar results were observed using 15 μM citric acid in an experiment to determine whether citric acid could effectively mimic the inhibition of phosphorus removal associated with natural DOC. Stoichiometry of these experiments indicates that the mechanism of natural DOC interference was not complexation of the metal ions by the DOC; we hypothesize that it could be adsorption to the terminal hydroxyl groups on a polynuclear Fe or Al colloid, effectively blocking the adsorption sites from a phosphate molecule. Also, the ability of citric acid to mimic the inhibitory effects also suggests that the results of the study are broadly applicable to wetland and other waters with high natural organic acid concentrations.

  8. Investigation of dynamic processing on aluminum floc aggregation: Cyclic shearing recovery and effect of sulfate ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU YongBao; GAO BaoYu; YUE QinYan; WANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    The floe formation and re-aggregation potential and the effects of sulfate on coagulation by AlCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and Al13 species using a photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA) are in-vestigated. It is found that the recovery level from shearing is the highest for the Al13 species. This is likely s result of Increased collision efficiency due to more effective charge neutralization. The ex-perimental results show that sulfate has a significant effect on coagulation and promoting aggregation of hydrolyzed specie8 for the Al13 species. It results in significant improvement of the coagulation effi-ciency through an electrostatic patch effect. The results further indicate that zeta potential of the psrti-cle suspension is not the only indicator for the coagulant efficiency when preoipitate formation sig-nificantly Improves coagulation.

  9. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING PITTING CORROSION OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  11. Safety assessment of non-animal chondroitin sulfate sodium: Subchronic study in rats, genotoxicity tests and human bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Niccolò; Bianchi, Davide; Trentin, Antonella; Volpi, Nicola; Soni, Madhu G

    2016-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate, an amino sugar polymer made of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-galactosamine, is used in dietary supplements to promote joint health. Commonly used chondroitin sulfate is of animal origin and can pose potential safety problems including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of microbial derived chondroitin sulfate sodium (CSS) in subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity and bioavailability studies. In the toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were gavaged with CSS at dose levels of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90-days. No mortality or significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, body weight gain or feed consumption were noted. Similarly, no toxicologically relevant treatment-related changes in hematological, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and organ weights were noted. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. In vitro mutagenic and clastogenic potentials as evaluated by Ames assay, chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay did not reveal genotoxicity of CSS. In pharmacokinetic study in human, CSS showed higher absorption as compared to chondroitin sulfate of animal origin. The results of subchronic toxicity study supports the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for CSS as 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. PMID:27108107

  12. 稻壳灰制备聚硅酸硫酸铝絮凝剂及其结构性能%Preparation of poly aluminum silicate sulfate flocculant from rice husk ash and its structure performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 刘龙; 李哲; 宋蔺娜; 武文洁

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步充分利用稻壳灰中的硅和碳,该文提出由稻壳灰制备水玻璃并进一步制备聚硅酸硫酸铝(poly aluminum silicate sulfate,PASS)絮凝剂,对PASS进行结构表征,并考察了PASS处理有机废水的絮凝效果。结果表明,由稻壳灰制备水玻璃,可通过碱处理稻壳灰获得模数为3.3的水玻璃并联产活性炭;再由上述水玻璃制备PASS。通过考察二氧化硅质量分数、铝硅摩尔比、pH 值对其絮凝性能的影响,得到较佳工艺条件:二氧化硅质量分数7%,铝硅摩尔比1∶2,pH值为2.0,此条件下投量(以Al2O3计)60 mg/L时有机废水(油墨废水)的除浊率和脱色率分别为97.29%、94.26%,相同投量下处理有机废水(油墨废水和油脂废水),PASS的除浊率和脱色率高于聚合氯化铝(poly aluminum chloride)10%~20%左右;X射线衍射(x-ray diffraction)、傅里叶红外光谱(Fourier transform infrared spectrometer)的结构分析表明PASS是由硅和铝组成的无定型聚合物。研究结果为稻壳灰资源的应用开辟一条新途径,为絮凝剂的原料来源提供参考。%Rice husk ash was a kind of resource, but it was often wasted. In order to better use rice husk ash, the process of poly-generation of sodium silicate and activated carbon from rice husk ash, and the further production of poly aluminum silicate sulfate (PASS)from sodium silicate were reported in this paper. In addition, the flocculation performance of PASS for the treatment of organic waste water was investigated, and the structure of PASS was also characterized with several different analysis methods. As is well known, the ash-alkali ratio has a significant influence on the modulus of sodium silicate and methylene blue adsorption value of activated carbon in the process of poly-generation of sodium silicate and activated carbon from rice husk. In this paper, the reaction of rice husk ash and sodium hydroxide

  13. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease via the pregnane X receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2015-12-01

    , Crohn’s disease, tanshinone IIA, pregnane X receptor, inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sodium sulfate

  14. Propionate Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling-Chang; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Wei-Ye; Sun, Sheng; Li, Ling; Su, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Li-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days. Animals in DSS+propionate (DSS+Prop) group were given 1% sodium propionate for 14 consecutive days and supplemented with 3% DSS solution on day 7-14. Intestinal barrier function, proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the colon were determined. It was found that sodium propionate ameliorated body weight loss, colon-length shortening and colonic damage in colitis mice. Sodium propionate significantly inhibited the increase of FITC-dextran in serum and the decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin expression in the colonic tissue. It also inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and phosphorylation of STAT3 in colitis mice markedly, reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase level in colon and serum compared with DSS group. Sodium propionate inhibited macrophages with CD68 marker infiltration into the colonic mucosa of colitis mice. These results suggest that oral administration of sodium propionate could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis mainly by improving intestinal barrier function and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress via the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27574508

  15. Speciation and Structural Properties of Hydrothermal Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Sulfate Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joachim; Vogel, Frédéric; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew

    2016-05-18

    Aqueous solutions of salts at elevated pressures and temperatures play a key role in geochemical processes and in applications of supercritical water in waste and biomass treatment, for which salt management is crucial for performance. A major question in predicting salt behavior in such processes is how different salts affect the phase equilibria. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate molecular-scale structures of solutions of sodium and/or potassium sulfate, which show contrasting macroscopic behavior. Solutions of Na-SO4 exhibit a tendency towards forming large ionic clusters with increasing temperature, whereas solutions of K-SO4 show significantly less clustering under equivalent conditions. In mixed systems (Nax K2-x SO4 ), cluster formation is dramatically reduced with decreasing Na/(K+Na) ratio; this indicates a structure-breaking role of K. MD results allow these phenomena to be related to the characteristics of electrostatic interactions between K(+) and SO4 (2-) , compared with the analogous Na(+) -SO4 (2-) interactions. The results suggest a mechanism underlying the experimentally observed increasing solubility in ternary mixtures of solutions of Na-K-SO4 . Specifically, the propensity of sodium to associate with sulfate, versus that of potassium to break up the sodium-sulfate clusters, may affect the contrasting behavior of these salts. Thus, mutual salting-in in ternary hydrothermal solutions of Na-K-SO4 reflects the opposing, but complementary, natures of Na-SO4 versus K-SO4 interactions. The results also provide clues towards the reported liquid immiscibility in this ternary system. PMID:26888426

  16. Speciation and Structural Properties of Hydrothermal Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Sulfate Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joachim; Vogel, Frédéric; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew

    2016-05-18

    Aqueous solutions of salts at elevated pressures and temperatures play a key role in geochemical processes and in applications of supercritical water in waste and biomass treatment, for which salt management is crucial for performance. A major question in predicting salt behavior in such processes is how different salts affect the phase equilibria. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate molecular-scale structures of solutions of sodium and/or potassium sulfate, which show contrasting macroscopic behavior. Solutions of Na-SO4 exhibit a tendency towards forming large ionic clusters with increasing temperature, whereas solutions of K-SO4 show significantly less clustering under equivalent conditions. In mixed systems (Nax K2-x SO4 ), cluster formation is dramatically reduced with decreasing Na/(K+Na) ratio; this indicates a structure-breaking role of K. MD results allow these phenomena to be related to the characteristics of electrostatic interactions between K(+) and SO4 (2-) , compared with the analogous Na(+) -SO4 (2-) interactions. The results suggest a mechanism underlying the experimentally observed increasing solubility in ternary mixtures of solutions of Na-K-SO4 . Specifically, the propensity of sodium to associate with sulfate, versus that of potassium to break up the sodium-sulfate clusters, may affect the contrasting behavior of these salts. Thus, mutual salting-in in ternary hydrothermal solutions of Na-K-SO4 reflects the opposing, but complementary, natures of Na-SO4 versus K-SO4 interactions. The results also provide clues towards the reported liquid immiscibility in this ternary system.

  17. A novel mouse model for colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sulfate sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Wang; Dong-Fei Wang; Bing-Jian Lv; Jian-Min Si

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To develop an efficient animal colitis-associated carcinogenesis model and to detect the expression of β-catenin and p53 in this new model.METHODS: Dysplasia and cancer were investigated in mice pretreated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg body mass of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine prior to three repetitive oral administrations of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium to give conditions similar to the clinically observed active and remission phases. Immunohistochemical staining of β-catenin and p53 was performed on paraffin-imbedded specimens of animals with cancer and/or dysplasia, those without dysplasia and the normal control animals.RESULTS: At wk 11, four early-invasive adenocarcinomas and 36 dysplasia were found in 10 (90.9%) of the 11 mice that underwent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-pretreatment with 3 cycles of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium-exposure. Dysplasia and/or cancer occurred as flat lesions or as dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM) as observed in humans. Colorectal carcinogenesis occurred primarily on the distal portion of the large intestine. No dysplasia and/or cancer lesion was observed in the control groups with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine pretreatment or 3 cycles of 30 g/L dextran sulfate sodium exposure alone. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that β-catenin was translocated from cell membrane to cytoplasm and/or nucleus in 100% of cases with dysplasia and neoplasm, while normal membrane staining was observed in cases without dysplasia and the normal control animals. Nuclear expression of p53 was not detected in specimens.CONCLUSION: A single dose of procarcinogen followed by induction of chronic ulcerative colitis results in a high incidence of colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Abnormal expression of β-catenin occurs frequently in dysplasia and cancer. This novel mouse model may provide an excellent vehicle for studying colitis-related colon carcinogenesis.

  18. Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

  19. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive...... staining with alcian blue and neutral silver. The method is developed for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; with ultrathin minigels in a semiautomated electrophoresis system, takes 1 1/2 h, and uses stable reagents. Preparations, electrophoresis, and staining of up to 24 samples...

  20. Methods of Treating Ten Water Sodium sulfate in Sodium persulfate Prodution%过硫酸钠副产物十水硫酸钠的处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛常艳; 闫文斌; 王新宽

    2012-01-01

    Ten water sodium sulfate is the side product of sodium persulfate ' s production.Handling it is the persulfate in- dustry problem.In order to solve the problem,to reasearch the methods of treating ten water sodium sulfate.It could pro- vide a theoretical basis for rational treating ten water sodium sulfate.%过硫酸钠生产过程中副产的十水硫酸钠的处理问题是过硫酸盐行业难题。为解决该问题,对过硫酸钠生产过程中副产的十水硫酸钠进行了研究,得出了两种处理方法,为合理处理十水硫酸钠提供了理论依据。

  1. Optimization for Preparation of Potassium Sulfate by Sodium Sulfate and Potassium Chloride%氯化钾与硫酸钠制硫酸钾工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠兰英; 赵启文

    2000-01-01

    根据K+,Na+∥Cl-,SO42-—H2O体系相图,提出了氯化钾与芒硝制备硫酸 钾工艺中新的工业化生产循环和解决钾芒硝富集问题的具体方案,取得良好效果。%Accordinh to the study and analysis on phase diagram of the Na+,K+∥Cl-, SO42--H2O system, new cycle for preparation of potassium sulfate by sodium sulfate and potassium chloride and treatment of surplus sodium sulfate.3p otassium sulfate (Na2SO4.3K2SO4) are presented, achieve good results.

  2. Induction of experimental acute ulcerative colitis in rats by administration of dextran sulfate sodium at low concentration followed by intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several models of experimental ulcerative colitis have been reported previously. However, none of these models showed the optimum characteristics. Although dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis results in inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis, an obvious obstacle is that dextran sulfate sodium is very expensive. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive model of colitis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 3 d followed by an intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol. The administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium followed by 30% ethanol induced significant weight loss, diarrhea and hematochezia in rats. Severe ulceration and inflammation of the distal part of rat colon were developed rapidly. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,lymphocytes and existence of cryptic abscesses and dysplasia. The model induced by dextran sulfate sodium at lower concentration followed by 30% ethanol is characterized by a clinical course, localization of the lesions and histopathological features similar to human ulcerative colitis and fulfills the criteria set out at the beginning of this study.

  3. Experimental investigation of aluminum complexing with sodium ion and of gallium and iron (III) speciation in natural solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to acquire thermodynamic data on the aqueous complexes forming between sodium and aluminum, gallium and hydroxide, and iron (III) and hydroxide. These data will provide for a better understanding of the transport and distribution of these elements in surface and hydrothermal fluids. Stability constants of the sodium-aluminate complex (Na Al(OH)4 deg.) were obtained from boehmite solubility measurements at temperatures from 125 to 350 deg. C in alkaline solutions containing from 0.1 to 1 mol/L sodium. Complementary potentiometric measurements were performed with a sodium selective electrode, between 75 and 200 deg C (the potentiometric study was carried out by Gleb Pokrovski). Analyses of these data within the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model allowed determination of the HKF parameters for Na Al(OH)4 deg. and calculation of its thermodynamic properties to 800 deg. C and 5 kb. The results of this work show that Na Al(OH)4 deg. complex formation increases significantly the solubility of aluminum-bearing minerals and consequently aluminum mobility in hydrothermal fluids. Gallium speciation in surface and hydrothermal fluids is dominated by the negatively charged species, Ga(OH)4-. The thermodynamic properties of this species were determined from of OEGaOOH solubility measurements as a function of pH and temperature from 25 to 250 deg. C. In general, the variation of gallium aqueous speciation with pH is similar to that of aluminum other than at temperatures less than 200 deg. C over the pH range 3 - 6. This difference can account for the independent behavior of gallium versus aluminum in numerous low temperature natural systems. The thermodynamic properties of Fe(OH)3 deg. which dominates the speciation of Fe(III) in surface waters and Fe(OH)4- were determined from hematite solubility measurements as a function of pH, oxygen pressure and temperature from 110 to 300 deg. C. The available thermodynamic data on other

  4. Effects of three additives on the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by coagulation using ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and its salts (PFOS) are emerging contaminants with long half-lives in water and human bodies. Accordingly, PFOS removal from water streams is required for controlling the PFOS pollution. To provide a simple PFOS separation technology, effects of three additives, powdered activated carbon (PAC), gelatin, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the PFOS removal by coagulation with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate were investigated in this study. As a result, coagulation with PAC or CTAB addition was effective in the PFOS removal, though the conventional coagulation and coagulation with gelatin addition were ineffective. A PFOS removal efficiency of over 90% was observed for the CTAB dose of over 1.6 μM (0.58 mg/L) and for the PAC dose of over 40 mg/L, and that of over 95% was achieved by the CTAB dose of over 2.4 μM (0.87 mg/L), when the initial PFOS concentration was 1.84 μM. The positive effect of CTAB would be caused by micelle formation, which was enhanced by both the association of hydrophobic tails and the electrostatic attraction of hydrophilic heads of PFOS and CTAB. Thus, a linear cationic surfactant of CTAB was concluded to be an effective additive for the PFOS removal by coagulation. PMID:27332843

  5. Effects of three additives on the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by coagulation using ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and its salts (PFOS) are emerging contaminants with long half-lives in water and human bodies. Accordingly, PFOS removal from water streams is required for controlling the PFOS pollution. To provide a simple PFOS separation technology, effects of three additives, powdered activated carbon (PAC), gelatin, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the PFOS removal by coagulation with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate were investigated in this study. As a result, coagulation with PAC or CTAB addition was effective in the PFOS removal, though the conventional coagulation and coagulation with gelatin addition were ineffective. A PFOS removal efficiency of over 90% was observed for the CTAB dose of over 1.6 μM (0.58 mg/L) and for the PAC dose of over 40 mg/L, and that of over 95% was achieved by the CTAB dose of over 2.4 μM (0.87 mg/L), when the initial PFOS concentration was 1.84 μM. The positive effect of CTAB would be caused by micelle formation, which was enhanced by both the association of hydrophobic tails and the electrostatic attraction of hydrophilic heads of PFOS and CTAB. Thus, a linear cationic surfactant of CTAB was concluded to be an effective additive for the PFOS removal by coagulation.

  6. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  7. Ion-exchange equilibria of tungsten in the ionite-sodium sulfate sulfuric acid solution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-exchange equilibrium in the system macroporous ionite-Na2WO4-Na2SO4-H2O(H2SO4) are studied by the methods of IR- and absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and mercury porometry to develop methods for tungsten selective extraction from solutions mentioned. It is ascertained that amine-containing macroporous anionites features a high exchange capacity towards tungsten ions in sulfate solutions at pH 2.5-5.5. The anionites permit a complete separation of tungsten ions from sulfate ions and preparation of pure tungsten salts

  8. Structure of double hafnium and sodium sulfate Hf(SO4)2x3Na2SO4xH2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studied is the structure of double hafnium and sodium sulfate. The Hf(SO4)2x3Na2SO4xH2O structure determined according to the difractometric data comprises complex anions [Hf(SO4)5xH2O]6-, bound with Na+ cations and with hydrogen bonds. Eight O atoms, encicling a hafnium atom (Hf-02x10-2.33A), belong to 5 sulfate groups in the water molecule. Three sulfate groups are monodentante, and two groups are bidentate-cycling in relation to Hf

  9. Room Temperature Synthesis of Gold Nanokites in Polyvinyl Alcohol-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Aggregations Aqueous Solution%Room Temperature Synthesis of Gold Nanokites in Polyvinyl Alcohol-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Aggregations Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren, Yueping; Liu, Jia; Feng, Feng; Chen, Tingzhong; Fang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Controlled synthesis of asymmetrical gold nanokites was realized by reducing HAuCl4 with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in PVA-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aggregations aqueous solution at room temperature without any addi- tional reducing agents. The crystal structures, optical property and growth process of the gold nanokites were inves- tigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vis-NIR spectrum and transmission electron microscope (TEM). HAuCl4 con- centration dramatically influenced the morphologies of the products. When HAuCl4 concentration was increased from 0.5 mmol·L^-1 to 2.2 mmol·L^-1, the products changed from network-like nanostructures to nanokites, nanoleaves and microplates. SDS was indispensable for the formation of gold nanokites and without SDS su- per-branched structures became the dominant products.

  10. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  11. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen

  12. Salt effect on the (polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate) aqueous two-phase system: Relative hydrophobicity of the equilibrium phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luisa A., E-mail: laferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Teixeira, Jose A. [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Gibbs free energy of transfer of a methylene group on PEG 8000 - Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} ATPS. > Influence of salt additive on the hydrophobic character of the coexisting phases. > Partitioning behavior of a series of five sodium salts of DNP-amino acids. > A relationship between {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}), TLL and I of the salt additive was established. - Abstract: The relative hydrophobicity of the phases of several {l_brace}polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 + sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){r_brace} aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs), all containing 0.01 mol . L{sup -1} sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB, pH 7.4) and increasing concentration of a salt additive, NaCl or KCl, up to 1.0 mol . L{sup -1}, was measured by the free energy of transfer of a methylene group between the phases, {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}). The {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) of the systems was determined by partitioning of a homologous series of five sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP) - amino acids with aliphatic side chains in three different tie-lines of each biphasic system. The relative hydrophobicity of the phases ranged from -0.125 to -0.183 kcal . mol{sup -1}, being the NaCl salt the one to provide the more effective changes. The results show that, within each system, there is a linear relationship between the {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) and the tie-line length (TLL), and biphasic systems with high salt additive concentration present the most negative {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) values. Therefore, the feasibility of establishing a relationship between the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in a given TLL and the ionic strength of the salt additive was investigated and a satisfactory correlation was found for each salt.

  13. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λ(ex) 257 nm and λ(em) 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  14. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  15. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Aytekin, E-mail: apolat@nigde.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100 (Turkey); Makaraci, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Usta, Metin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2010-08-20

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R{sub a}) and critical load (L{sub c}) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 {mu}m, and 4.4 to 6.58 {mu}m, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  16. Heme Oxygenase-1 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Acute Murine Colitis by Regulating Th17/Treg Cell Balance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liya; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Xia, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent investigations suggest that activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Treg) is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a protein with a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory function, which exerts significantly protective roles in various T cell-mediated diseases. In this study, we aim to explore the immunological regulation of HO-1 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of experimental murine colitis. BALB/c mice were administered 4% dextran sulfate sodium orally; some mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with HO-1 inducer hemin or HO-1 inhibitor stannum protoporphyrin IX. The results show that hemin enhances the colonic expression of HO-1 and significantly ameliorates the symptoms of colitis with improved histological changes, accompanied by a decreased proportion of Th17 cells and increased number of Tregs in mesenteric lymph node and spleen. Moreover, induction of HO-1 down-regulates retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt expression and IL-17A levels, while promoting Treg-related forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression and IL-10 levels in colon. Further study in vitro revealed that up-regulated HO-1 switched the naive T cells to Tregs when cultured under a Th17-inducing environment, which involved in IL-6R blockade. Therefore, HO-1 may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the murine model of acute experimental colitis via regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells, thus providing a possible novel therapeutic target in IBD. PMID:25112868

  17. Insights into the morphology of human serum albumin and sodium dodecyl sulfate complex: A spectroscopic and microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Surajit; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2016-09-15

    Exploring and understanding the fundamental interaction between protein and surfactant is utmost important for various pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. However, very less is known about the arrangement of individual negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules on the human serum albumin (HSA). Here, we have investigated the morphology and mechanistic insights of complexation between HSA and SDS by means of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and PL microscopy using amine-functionalized silicon quantum dot (Si QD) as an external luminescent marker. The present study is based on a unique and dynamic SDS-Si QD system. The synthesized allylamine-functionalized Si QDs show a distinct PL band centered at 455nm upon excitation at 375nm. At neutral pH, these Si QDs form ordered aggregates in the presence of 1mM SDS due to the hydrogen bonding interaction with the sulfate head groups of surfactants, which is manifested in the appearance of a large Stokes shifted luminescence band centered at 610nm. It has been observed that the PL intensity of SDS-Si QD aggregates at 610nm decreases gradually with concomitant increase in the PL intensity of monomeric Si QDs at 455nm upon increasing the concentration of HSA from 1 to 10μM. These observations combined with PL lifetime, PL microscopy and CD results reveal that SDS forms micelle-like aggregates on the partially unfolded HSA mainly via electrostatic interaction between negatively charged sulfate head groups and positively charged residues of partially unfolded HSA. For the present HSA-SDS system, our results fit a model with type I "necklace and bead"-like structures, where micelle-like SDS aggregates wrap around by the partially unfolded HSA backbone. PMID:27280537

  18. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  19. Efficacy and compatibility with mass spectrometry of methods for elution of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and polyvinyldifluoride membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Jagd, M.; Sørensen, B.K.;

    2004-01-01

    The resolving power of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) combined with isoelectric focusing in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has made it one of the most important techniques for resolving complex mixtures, and it is of great importance for proteome mapping...

  20. Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition of Thin Aluminum Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Yingchun

    2007-01-01

    Thin aluminum oxide films were deposited by a new and simple physicochemical method called chemical liquid phase deposition (CLD) on semiconductor materials. Aluminum sulfate with crystallized water and sodium bicarbonate were used as precursors for film growth, and the control of the system pH value played an important role in this experiment. The growth rate is 12 nm/h at room temperature. Post-growth annealing not only densifies and purifies the films, but results in film crystallization a...

  1. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  2. A molecular simulation probing of structure and interaction for supramolecular sodium dodecyl sulfate/single-wall carbon nanotube assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhen

    2010-03-10

    Here we report a larger-scale atomic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) surfaces and the interaction between supramolecular SDS/SWNT aggregates. We make an effort to address several important problems in regard to carbon nanotube dispersion/separation. At first, the simulation provides comprehensive direct evidence for SDS self-assembly structures on carbon nanotube surfaces, which can help to clarify the relevant debate over the exact adsorption structure. We also, for the first time, simulated the potential of mean force (PMF) between two SWNTs embedded in SDS surfactant micelles. A novel unified PMF approach has been applied to reveal various cooperative interactions between the SDS/SWNT aggregates, which is different from the previous electrostatic repulsion explanation. The unique role of sodium ions revealed here provides a new microscopic understanding of the recent experiments in the electrolyte tuning of the interfacial forces on the selective fractionation of SDS surrounding SWNTs.

  3. Exogenous expression of human SGLT1 exhibits aggregations in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei-Chien; Hsu, Sheng-Chie; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Chen, Yun-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Weihua; Isaiah J. Fidler; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1), which actively and energy-dependently uptakes glucose, plays critical roles in the development of various diseases including diabetes mellitus and cancer, and has been viewed as a promising therapeutic target for these diseases. Protein-protein interaction with EGFR has been shown to regulate the expression and activity of SGLT1. Exogenous expression of SGLT1 is one of the essential approaches to characterize its functions; however, exogenously express...

  4. Crystal structure and spectra properties of double neptunium(4) sodium, sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One managed to grow monocrystals and to investigate into the crystalline structure of Na10Np2(SO4)9 x 4 H2O (rhombic cell, a = 27.259(5), b 6.807(1), c = 17.721(4) A, space group-Pbcn, Z = 4). The crystalline structure of Np and Na double sulfates consisted of the doubled anion chains, [Np2(SO4)9(H2O)2]n10n-, extended along [010] direction, of Na+ cations and of the coordination water molecules. Np(4) central atom had CN equal to 9. Its environment included eight atoms of oxygen of five sulfate-ions and one molecule of water. Np4+ polyhedron did not belong to the regular polyhedrons typical for CN equal to 9. The lengths of Np-O bonds varied within 2.267-2.488 A limits (average one -2.400 A). Four of five independent SO4 - groups were bidentate ones, while one SO4 - group was monodentate one. Five crystallographical independent Na+ cations lying between the anion chains combined them in a three-dimension body. Na10Np2(SO4)9 x 4H2O electron spectrum of absorption demonstrated that the long-wave typical band reflecting coordination environment of the central atom was divided into two components (953.0 and 973.0 nm) with various intensities

  5. 硫酸钠溶液降温过程探析%Analysing of the cooling process of sodium sulfate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓明; 侯杨; 刘宝; 邹惠玲; 杜伯会

    2011-01-01

    通过模拟Na2SO4溶液的降温过程,确定了100g.L-1和50g.L-1Na2SO4溶液的冰点为-1.0℃.在Na2SO,溶液的降温过程中,Na2O4的析出率随温度的降低而不断升高,当温度为1.0℃时,100g.L-1Na2SO4溶液回收率可达84.3%.NaCI、KCI的加人使Na2SO4溶液的冰点降低.通过综合分析,在Na2SO4工业的提纯精制过程中,Na2SO4溶液降温温度控制比较合理的范围是-1.0~0.0℃.%In this paper, the cooling process of sodium sulfate solution was simulated.By this study, it is confirmed that the freezing point of 100g"L"' and 50g'L"' sodium sulfate solution are both -l.Ot.Precipitation rate of NajS04 is rising with the temperature decrease of sodium sulfate solution,it is up to 84.3% at l.Ot for lOOg'L"1 Na2SO4 solution.lt will lower the freezing point of sodium sulfate solution when NaCl.KCl are added. Through comprehensive analysis, the proper solution temperature range is -1.O~O.OT! During the purification and refining process of the sodium sulfate.

  6. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  7. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10−2 M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na2S2O5 concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms

  8. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators. PMID:27423469

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-48h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE5048h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE5096h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE5015min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    OpenAIRE

    Prawoto, Y.; Sumeru, K.; W.B. WAN NIK

    2012-01-01

    Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking) SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracki...

  11. Thermodynamic study of the n-octane-1-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic properties, PVTx (T S, P S, ρ S) (∂P/∂T) VX, and C V VTx, of three microemulsions (water + n-octane + sodium dodecylsulfate + 1-pentanol) with composition of solution-1: 0.0777 (H2O):0.6997 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1449 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction; solution-2: 0.6220 (H2O):0.1555 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1448 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction; and solution-3: 0.2720 (H2O):0.5054 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1449 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction were measured. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was used as an ionic surfactant, 1-pentanol used as stabilizer (cosurfactant), and n-octane as oil component in aqueous solution. A high-temperature, high-pressure, adiabatic, and nearly constant-volume calorimeter supplemented by quasi-static thermogram technique was used for the measurements. Measurements were made at eight densities (isochores) between 475.87 and 919.03 kg m-3. The range of temperature was from 275 to 536 K and pressure range was up to 138 bar. Uncertainty of the pressure, density, derivative (∂P/∂T) VX, and heat capacity measurements are estimated to be 0.25%, 0.02%, 0.12-1.5%, and 2.5%, respectively. Temperatures at liquid-gas phase transition curve, T S(ρ), for each measured densities (isochores) were determined using a quasi-static thermogram technique. The uncertainty of the phase transition temperature measurements is about ±0.02 K. The effect of temperature, density, and concentration on the heat capacity of the microemulsions is discussed. Along the isochore of 438.40 kg m-3 at temperatures above 525.44 K for the first solution the precipitation of the solid phase (SDS) was found

  12. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  13. A conductometric investigation of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sodium dodecyl sulfate/nonionic surfactant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant mixtures are very often used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because they commonly act in synergism and provide more favorable properties than the single surfactants. At the same time, the 9 presence of polymers in mixtures of surfactants may lead to molecular interactions thereby affecting product stability and activity. For these reasons it is very important to determine the surfactant interactions influence on 1micellization and mixed micellization, as well as polymer-surfactants mixed micelles interactions. In this work we examined self-aggregation of nonionic surfactants, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether (Triton X100 and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Pluronic F68 with ionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, in aqueous solution at 40ºC using conductometric titration method. It was found that concentration region for mixed micelle formation depends on nonionic surfactant characteristics and its concentration. Formation of surfactants mixed micelles in the presence of nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and their binding to polymer hydrophobic sites, were investigated too. Analysis of obtained results points to different kinds of interactions in investigated systems, which are crucial for their application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  14. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils.

  15. A Microfluidic Approach to Investigating a Synergistic Effect of Tobramycin and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Lee, Eunwon; Choi, Jonghoon; Moon, Sangjun; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a microfluidic technology has contributed a significant role in biological research, specifically for the study of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are a source of infections and contamination in the environment due to an extra polymeric matrix. Inadequate uses of antibiotics make the bacterial biofilms antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it is important to determine the effective concentration of antibiotics in order to eliminate bacterial biofilms. The present microfluidic study was carried out to analyze the activities of tobramycin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with a continuous flow in order to achieve a greater delivery of the agents. The results show that a co-treatment of tobramycin and SDS significantly reduced the biomass of biofilms (by more than 99%) after 24 h. Tobramycin and SDS killed and detached bacteria in the cores of biofilms. Evidently, our data suggest that a microchannel would be effective for both quantitative and qualitative evaluations in order to test combinatorial effect of drugs and chemicals on a complexed biological system including biofilm.

  16. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated alumina modified with a new Schiff's base as a uranyl ion selective adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and selective method was used for the preconcentration and determination of uranium(VI) by solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this method, a column of alumina modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a new Schiff's base ligand was prepared for the preconcentration of trace uranyl(VI) from water samples. The uranium(VI) was completely eluted with HCl 2 M and determined by a spectrophotometeric method with Arsenazo(III). The preconcentration steps were studied with regard to experimental parameters such as amount of extractant, type, volume and concentration of eluent, pH, flow rate of sample source and tolerance limit of diverse ions on the recovery of uranyl ion. A preconcentration factor more than 200 was achieved and the average recovery of uranyl(VI) was 99.5%. The relative standard deviation was 1.1% for 10 replicate determinations of uranyl(VI) ion in a solution with a concentration of 5 μg mL-1. This method was successfully used for the determination of spiked uranium in natural water samples.

  17. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg((-1)) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg((-1)) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.

  18. Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of quinine sulfate dication bound to sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Fluorescent complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D., E-mail: ddpant@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2014-01-15

    Interaction of quinine sulfate dication (QSD) with anionic, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been studied at different premicellar, micellar and postmicellar concentrations in aqueous phase using steady state, time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. At premicellar concentrations of SDS, the decrease in absorbance, appearance of an extra fluorescence band at lower wavelengths and tri-exponential decay behavior of fluorescence, are attributed to complex formation between QSD molecules and surfactant monomers. At postmicellar concentrations the red shift in fluorescence spectrum, increase in quantum yield and increase in fluorescence lifetimes are attributed to incorporation of solute molecules to micelles. At lower concentrations of SDS, a large shift in fluorescence is observed on excitation at the red edge of absorption spectrum and this is explained in terms of distribution of ion pairs of different energies in the ground state and the observed fluorescence lifetime behavior corroborates with this model. The temporal fluorescence anisotropy decay of QSD in SDS micelles allowed determination of restriction on the motion of the fluorophore. All the different techniques used in this study reveal that the photophysics of QSD is very sensitive to the microenvironments of SDS micelles and QSD molecules reside at the water-micelle interface. -- Highlights: • Probe molecule is very sensitive to microenvironment of micelles. • Highly fluorescent ion-pair formation has been observed. • Modulated photophysics of probe molecule in micellar solutions has been observed. • Probe molecules strongly bind with micelles and reside at probe–micelle interface.

  19. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  20. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight. One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05. The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease.

  1. Effect of Compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Super Plasticizers on the Hydration of α-calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei; WANG Peiming

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition and its mechanism of sodium tripolyphosphate(STP)composited with super plasticizers(SPs)on hydration of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate were studied by setting time,strength,hydration heat,X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)measurements.The experimental results show that compared with STP addition,compositing STP with polycarboxylate(PC)plasticizer,the final setting time is prolonged from 0.5h to 2hs.While formulating STP with naphthalene-based plasticizer(NAP)or sulfonate melamine formaldehyde plasticizer(SMF),the final setting time is reduced to quarter of an hour Similar changes can also be found in the rate of exothermic hydration and hydration degree.Formulating STP with suitable addition of PC can enhance the strength,while compositing STP and NAP or SMF weakens the strength.Besides,adding STP or STP and SMF,obvious movement(more than lev)of binding energy of Ca2p1/2 and Ca2p3/2 is detected.Compared with STP addition,content of the characteristic element(P)of STP is cut down form 1.1% to 0.49% by compositing STP with SMF.Furthermore,as hydration age increases,hydration inhibition in the presence of admixtures weakens and even disappears within 56 h.

  2. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. E. Halmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS- degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v, between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  3. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic and DFOD (neutral and the ligand EDTA (anionic onto goethite (α-FeOOH at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition.

  4. Protective Effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. Against a Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Alterations in Liver and Kidney in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Jabri, Mohammed-Amine; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sebai, Hichem

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential protective role of Ceratonia siliqua L. against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in liver and kidney of rats. The hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were induced in rats by oral administration of synthetic DSS (5%) in the drinking water for over 7 days. However, carob pods aqueous extract (CPAE; 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) was given by oral administration for 21 days. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde, H2O2 content, as well as the levels of antioxidant enzymes in organs were measured to observe the possible mechanisms. As a result, the CPAE counteracted DSS-induced increase of MPO activity, lipoperoxidation, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT). DSS administration increased also in the organs hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and free iron levels, whereas the CPAE pretreatment reversed all intracellular mediator perturbations. It was concluded that the CPAE exerted a potential protective effect against DSS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in the rat organs. Consequently, it is essential that adequate care is taken when we use carob pods for patients with hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  5. FABRICATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF 5-FLOROURACIL LOADED CHONDROITIN SULFATE-SODIUM ALGINATE MICROSPHERES FOR COLON SPECIFIC DELIVERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Hina; Ranjha, Nazar Muhammad; Razzaq, Rabia; Ansari, Mehvish; Mahmood, Asif; Rashid, Zermina

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate and sodium alginate were incorporated in different ratios to prepare glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinked microspheres by water-in-oil emulsion crosslinking method for delivery of 5-flurouracil (5-FU) to colon. Chemical interaction, surface morphology, thermal degradability, crystallinity evaluation, elemental analysis and drug release results were computed by using FTIR, SEM, DSC and TGA, PXRD, EXD and dissolution studies at pH 1.2, pH 6.8 and pH 7.4, respectively. Results revealed an acetal ring formation, non-porous surfaces, stability up to 450 degrees C with mass loss of 84.31%, variation in carbon and oxygen contents and targeted release at pH 7.4. Different kinetic models were applied on release studies i.e., zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas. Higuchi model was declared as best fit model based on r2 value (0.99) and mechanism of release was non-Fickian diffusion. A potential approach for colonic delivery of 5-FU was successfully developed. PMID:27180443

  6. A small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Borisov, Oleg; Lapp, Alain; François, Jeanne

    2006-03-15

    Mixed micelle of protonated or deuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and SDSd25, respectively) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) are studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In all the cases the scattering curves exhibit a peak whose position changes with the composition of the system. The main parameters which characterize mixed micelles, i.e., aggregation numbers of SDS and PPOMA, geometrical dimensions of the micelles and degree of ionisation are evaluated from the analysis of the SANS curves. The position q(max) of the correlation peak can be related to the average aggregation numbers of SDS-PPOMA and SDSd25-PPOMA mixed micelles. It is found that the aggregation number of SDS decreases upon increasing the weight ratio PPOMA/SDS (or SDSd25). The isotopic combination, which uses the "contrast effect" between the two micellar systems, has allowed us to determine the mixed micelle composition. Finally, the SANS curves were adjusted using the RMSA for the structure factor S(q) of charged spherical particles and the form factor P(q) of spherical core-shell particle. This analysis confirms the particular core-shell structure of the SDS-PPOMA mixed micelle, i.e., a SDS "core" micelle surrounded by the shell formed by PPOMA macromonomers. The structural parameters of mixed micelles obtained from the analysis of the SANS data are in good agreement with those determined previously by conductimetry and fluorescence studies.

  7. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  8. Puberty Is Delayed in Male Mice With Dextran Sodium Sulfate Colitis Out of Proportion to Changes in Food Intake, Body Weight, and Serum Levels of Leptin

    OpenAIRE

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Li, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the ...

  9. The Catalysis of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/1-Pentanol/Water W/O Microemulsion on the Photoisomerization of trans-Stilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia GUO; Ling LIN; Rong GUO

    2004-01-01

    The photoisomerization of trans-stilbene was studied in the water in oil (W/O) micro- emulsion formed by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), n-C5H11OH (1-pentanol) and H2O. The experimental results show that after 2-minute UV-irradiation, the yield of cis-stilbene is higher in W/O microemulsion than in homogeneous solvent-n-C5H11OH.

  10. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyz...

  11. Application of the Aqueous Porous Pathway Model to Quantify the Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Ultrasound-Induced Skin Structural Perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Baris E.; Seto, Jennifer E.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness skin (STS) treated with LFS/SLS and LFS were analyzed in the context of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify skin perturbation through changes in skin pore radius and porosity-to-tortuosity ratio (ε/τ). In addition, skin treatment times required to attain specific leve...

  12. Temporal study of staphylococcal species on the skin of human subjects in isolation and clonal analysis of Staphylococcus capitis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maggs, A F; Pennington, T H

    1989-01-01

    The staphylococcal skin floras of an isolated group of subjects were studied for 1 year. A wide variation in isolation patterns was found for different species. Staphylococcus intermedius, previously thought to be of veterinary origin, was found to be part of the resident flora of some subjects, and this may indicate a wider role for it in clinical infection. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of S. capitis isolates indicated persistent skin coloniza...

  13. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Increases the Efficacy of a Topical Formulation of Foscarnet against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Cutaneous Lesions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Cormier, Hélène; Lamontagne, Julie; Gourde, Pierrette; Juhász, Julianna; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on the efficacies of topical gel formulations of foscarnet against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cutaneous infection has been evaluated in mice. A single application of the gel formulation containing 3% foscarnet given 24 h postinfection exerted only a modest effect on the development of herpetic skin lesions. Of prime interest, the addition of 5% SLS to this gel formulation markedly reduced the mean lesion score. The improved efficacy of the...

  14. In vitro metabolism of sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro- andrographolide-19-yl sulfate in rat liver s9 by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method

    OpenAIRE

    Dongkun Zheng; Jun Shao; Weikang Chen; Yuehua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate (DHAS) is the active ingredient of Xiyanping injection, a traditional Chinese medicine in clinical use. However, there has been no report about the metabolic rate and metabolites of DHAS in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this article, DHAS was incubated with rat liver S9, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used for the metabolism study. The residual concentrations of substrate were determined by ultra-h...

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Recombinant IL-25 on the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Salum Mchenga; Danan Wang; Cheng Li; Fengping Shan; Changlong Lu

    2008-01-01

    The role of interleukin 25 (IL-25) in a number of human diseases still has not been extensively studied, here we attempt to evaluate the role of recombinant IL-25 (rIL-25) in the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)induced experimental colitis. Acute colitis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum. At the same time as the start of DSS exposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.4 μg of rIL-25 or PBS. Then disease activity index (DAI), histological changes and survival rate were observed. The levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 in colon tissues were determined by ELISA, and the production of IL-17 by CD4+/CD8+ T cells was detected by intracellular flow cytometry. In contrast to the DSS treated mice, DSS + rIL-25 treated mice displayed a lower DAI, limited histological changes and prolonged survival. The levels of IL-23 and TGF-β1 were significantly elevated in the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice compared to the DSS treated mice. There was no significant difference in the production of IL-17 in colon tissues and CD4+/CD8+ T cells between the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice and DSS treated mice. Our findings suggest the role of IL-25 in inhibiting development and progression of acute colitis in DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(6):425-431.

  16. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chil-Sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24204633

  17. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chil-Sung Kang

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.

  18. Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female ApcMin/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. In the ApcMin/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In ApcMin/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E2 and nuclear β-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant β-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism

  19. Supersaturated polymeric micelles for oral cyclosporine A delivery: The role of Soluplus-sodium dodecyl sulfate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dengning; Yu, Hongzhen; Tao, Jinsong; Zeng, Jianrong; Zhu, Quanlei; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that the retention of drug in the hydrophobic core of Soluplus micelle greatly impeded drug absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Using supersaturated polymeric micelles can improve drug release, however, insufficient maintaining of supersaturation of drug is still unfavorable for drug absorption. Here, we report adding small amount of small molecule, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), to Soluplus solution can form a Soluplus-SDS complex. This complex not only showed a higher solubilization capability for the model drug cyclosporine A (CsA), but also maintained a longer period of and higher supersaturation than was achieved with Soluplus alone. The Soluplus-SDS interactions were characterized by analyzing surface tension, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the formation of Soluplus-SDS complex via SDS adsorption on hydrophobic segments of Soluplus, which have more hydrophobic domain than that of Soluplus micelle, contributed significantly to the solubilization and stabilization of supersaturated CsA. Using this amphiphilic copolymer-small molecule surfactant system, the cellular uptake and rat in vivo absorption of CsA were more effectively achieved than pure Soluplus. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) achieved by CsA-loaded Soluplus-SDS complex were 1.58- and 1.8-times higher than the corresponding values for CsA-loaded pure Soluplus, respectively. This study highlighted the benefits of Soluplus-SDS complex for optimizing the solubilization and oral absorption of a drug with low aqueous solubility. PMID:26866892

  20. Sarcodon aspratus Extract Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mouse Colon and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kim, Jin Hee; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms have been previously investigated for their immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory properties. We examined whether the anti-inflammatory properties of Sarcodon aspratus ethanol extract (SAE) could elicit protective effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. Male C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: control (CON; n = 8), DSS-treated (DSS; n = 9), DSS+SAE at 50 mg/kg BW (SAE50; n = 8), and DSS+SAE at 200 mg/kg BW groups (SAE200; n = 9). DSS treatment induced significant weight loss, which was significantly recovered by SAE200. Although SAE did not affect DSS-mediated reductions in colon length, it improved diarrhea and rectal bleeding induced by DSS. SAE at 200 mg/kg BW significantly attenuated IL-6 and enhanced IL-10 expression in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and significantly reduced IL-6 levels in splenocytes. SAE200 also significantly attenuated DSS-induced increase in IL-6 and IL-1β, and reductions in IL-10 in colon tissue. High levels of SAE were also observed to significantly decrease inflammatory COX-2 expression that was upregulated by DSS in mice colon. These findings may have relevance for novel therapeutic strategies to mitigate inflammatory bowel disease-relevant inflammatory responses, via the direct and indirect anti-inflammatory activity of SAE. We also found that SAE harbors significant quantities of total fiber and β-glucan, suggesting a possible role for these components in protection against DSS-mediated colitis.

  1. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Pant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80% having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1% (P = 0.004. Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80% and severe (100% proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25% (P <0.001. Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  2. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pragya; Singh, R G; Singh, Santosh K; Singh, Vijay P; Doley, Prodip K; Sivasankar, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs) in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80%) having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1%) (P = 0.004). Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80%) and severe (100%) proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25%) (P <0.001). Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  3. MicroRNA-155 deletion promotes tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; McClellan, Jamie L; Cranford, Taryn L; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Fan, Daping; Murphy, E Angela

    2016-03-15

    Clinical studies have linked microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression in the tumor microenvironment to poor prognosis. However, whether miR-155 upregulation is predictive of a pro- or antitumorigenic response is unclear, as the limited preclinical data available remain controversial. We examined miR-155 expression in tumor tissue from colon cancer patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of this microRNA in proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory processes, immune cell populations, and transforming growth factor-β/SMAD signaling in a chemically induced (azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium) mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer. We found a higher expression of miR-155 in the tumor region than in nontumor colon tissue of patients with colon cancer. Deletion of miR-155 in mice resulted in a greater number of polyps/adenomas, an increased symptom severity score, a higher grade of epithelial dysplasia, and a decrease in survival. Surprisingly, these findings were associated with an increase in apoptosis in the normal mucosa, but there was no change in proliferation. The protumorigenic effects of miR-155 deletion do not appear to be driven solely by dysregulation of inflammation, as both genotypes had relatively similar levels of inflammatory mediators. The enhanced tumorigenic response in miR-155(-/-) mice was associated with alterations in macrophages and neutrophils, as markers for these populations were decreased and increased, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated a greater activation of the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD pathway in miR-155(-/-) mice, which was correlated with the increased tumorigenesis. Given the multiple targets of miR-155, careful evaluation of its role in tumorigenesis is necessary prior to any consideration of its potential as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in colon cancer. PMID:26744471

  4. Stability of Reference Genes for Messenger RNA Quantification by Real-Time PCR in Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate Experimental Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eissa

    Full Text Available Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE in DSS-experimental murine colitis.Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle.Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh, β-actin (Actb, or β2-microglobulin (β2m showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2 were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or β2m were used.This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or β2m as reference genes.

  5. Iron supplementation increases disease activity and vitamin E ameliorates the effect in rats with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Julie; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Cullen, Jim; Allard, Johane P

    2002-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is often associated with iron deficiency anemia and oral iron supplementation may be required. However, iron may increase oxidative stress through the Fenton reaction and thus exacerbate the disease. This study was designed to determine in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis whether oral iron supplementation increases intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress and whether the addition of an antioxidant, vitamin E, would reduce this detrimental effect. Four groups of rats that consumed 50 g/L DSS in drinking water were studied for 7 d and were fed: a control, nonpurified diet (iron, 270 mg, and dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 49 mg/kg); diet + iron (iron, 3000 mg/kg); diet + vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 2000 mg/kg) and the diet + both iron and vitamin E, each at the same concentrations as above. Body weight change, rectal bleeding, histological scores, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides (LPO), plasma 8-isoprostane, colonic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and plasma vitamin E were measured. Iron supplementation increased disease activity as demonstrated by higher histological scores and heavier rectal bleeding. This was associated with an increase in colonic and plasma LPO and plasma 8-isoprostane as well as a decrease in colonic GPx. Vitamin E supplementation decreased colonic inflammation and rectal bleeding but did not affect oxidative stress, suggesting another mechanism for reducing inflammation. In conclusion, oral iron supplementation resulted in an increase in disease activity in this model of colitis. This detrimental effect on disease activity was reduced by vitamin E. Therefore, the addition of vitamin E to oral iron supplementation may be beneficial. PMID:12368409

  6. Photo Catalytic Removal of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate From Aquatic Solutions With Prepared ZnO Nanocrystals and UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnO Nano catalyst has been synthesized and examined as photo catalyst for UV-induced removal of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS from aquatic solutions. This anionic surfactant was selected based upon its toxicity, wide use in industrial laundry and as a primary pollutant in municipal waste water systems.This study aimed to investigate removal of surfactant, SDS, in a batch photo catalytic reactor under various operating conditions including ZnO suspension concentration, initial surfactant concentration and initial pH of solution to find out the desired condition for removal of surfactant. ZnO Nano crystals were synthesized using the precipitation method and ZnSO4.7H2O was used as the starting material and NaOH as precipitant. The removal of SDS reactions by UV/ZnO process was performed into a batch photo reactor. In addition, various operating conditions including ZnO suspension concentration, initial surfactant concentration and initial pH of solution were investigated. In total, 98% of surfactant was removed at 40 minute and removal efficiency of SDS increased with increasing pH up to nine and after that with increase in pH, efficiency decreased. Possible roles of inorganic oxidant on the reaction were discussed. The removal of SDS follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Based on the results of this study, ZnO-UV photo catalytic process can be used as an efficient method for further study in detergents removal.

  7. Dramatic Changes of Matrix Metalloproteinases-7 and Lysozyme in the Ulcerative Colitis of Mice Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jing-jing; YANG Yu-rong; LIANG Hong-de; ZHAO De-ming; TENG Ke-dao; JIAO Xi-lan; WANG Ping-li; SUN Zhe; NI Pei-pei; WANG Zhi-feng; ZHANG Rui

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a lifelong illness with profound emotional and social impacts, and could cause serious damage to large intestine, especially in colon. However, the pathogenesis of UC remained unclear. The present study attempts to ifnd out the role of matrix metalloproteinases-7 (MMP-7) and lysozyme in the pathogenesis of UC through a mice model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The UC model was evaluated both by disease activity index (DAI) and the intestinal histopathology. The results show that there is a high correlation between the DAI score and the pathological changes of colon. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum levels and large intestinal lfuids levels in UC mice are always higher than that of the control groups, which might be associated with the degree of the inlfammation damage in the colon. The change tendency of the MMP-7 mRNA and protein expressions are both up-regulated ifrstly and then down-regulated from 1 to 5 d in the colon, but only the MMP-7 protein is up-regulated at 7 d again. The up-regulated MMP-7 levels in the early stage of UC may play a protective role through the activated defensins, while the down-regulated levels in the mid-later stage of UC may be connected with the severe lesions in the colon. However, the up-regulated MMP-7 levels in the later stage of UC in the colon may also contribute to the tissue repair or be served as a marker to CRC (colorectal cancer). The distribution of lysozyme protein indicates that there may be Paneth-like cells in the colon. Both the changes of MMP-7 and lysozyme in the small intestine may play a protective role for the safe environment of the whole gut, especially to the colon of UC.

  8. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margie Lee CLAPPER; Harry Stanley COOPER; Wen-Chi Lee CHANG

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both charac-terize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflam-marion and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic admin-istration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological fea-tures that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen(azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc),p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a pre-ventable disease.

  9. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine.

  10. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  11. 芒硝外用抗炎作用研究%Study on anti-inflammatory effect of external therapy of Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍龑; 白明; 杨亚蕾; 苗明三

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察芒硝外用对小鼠皮肤毛细血管通透性及家兔耳静脉炎的影响.方法:采用二甲苯致炎,小鼠静脉注射伊文思蓝,紫外测定皮肤中伊文思蓝的含量,间接反应皮肤毛细血管通透性;兔耳静脉输注甘露醇溶液造兔耳静脉炎模型,观察芒硝溶液外用对炎症的影响.结果:大、中、小剂量芒硝溶液均能显著性降低小鼠皮肤内伊文思蓝含量(P<0.01);静脉输注甘露醇造模48h后,小剂量芒硝溶液组能显著改善静脉炎病理变化,大、中剂量芒硝溶液组能明显改善静脉炎病理变化;造模96h后,大、中、小剂量芒硝溶液组均能显著改善静脉炎病理变化.结论:芒硝溶液外用对急性炎症有好的抑制作用,对兔耳静脉炎有好的治疗作用.%Objective: To observe the external curative effect of Sodium Sulfate in the skin capillary permeability of mice and in phlebitis of rabbits' ears. Methods: Established inflammation model by daubing dimethylbenzene, intravenous injection Evan's blue, assaying the content of Evan's blue in the skins by ultraviolet detector, which could react the permeability of skin capillaries indirectly. Intravenous injection the mannitol solution into the ears' vein of rabbits, established phlebitis of rabbits' ears model, observed the different pharmacology influence of Sodium Sulfate external therapy to phlebitis of rabbits' ears model. Results: High, medium and low dose of Sodium Sulfate all could reduce the content of Evan's blue in the skins of mice significantly (P<0.0l). After establishing the model by intravenous injecting the mannitol solution 48 hours, low-dose Sodium Sulfate could improve the pharmacology influence of phlebitis of rabbits' ears significantly, high and medium-dose Sodium Sulfate could improve the pharmacology influence of phlebitis of rabbits' ears obviously. After establishing the model 96 hours, high and medium-dose Sodium Sulfate all could improve the pharmacology

  12. Experimental studying on phosphorus removal from water by aluminum sulfate residue%硫酸铝渣去除水中磷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雅婧; 丛海兵; 黄廷林

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of aluminum sulfate residue for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution, with water and Taihu lake water respectively as examples, was investigated, and the influence of aluminum sulfate residue on Al3+ , SO2/4 concentration and pH of water were discussed. The adsorption capacity of aluminum sulfate residue for phosphorus was tended to a fixed value; the experimental data were well described by the Langmuir adsorption equation, except in Taihu lake water at pH of 9. 0 and 10. 0. While, adsorption capacity data obtained in Taihu lake water at pH of 9. 0 and 10. 0 was better fitted by Freundlich adsorption equation. The maximum adsorption capacity was decreased with increasing the solution pH, when solution pH ranged 6-8, the maximum phosphorus removal quantity in distilled water and Taihu lake water was 2. 92-3. 41, 2. 41-3. 08 mg/g respectively. There was no Al3+ detected in water after isothermal adsorption experiments, the SO2/4- dissolution quantity of aluminum sulfate residue in distilled water and Taihu lake water was 0. 09-0. 37, 0. 24-0. 37 mmol/g. Aluminum sulfate residue could not decrease the pH of Taihu lake water when water to residue ratio ≥2 000. Adding 0. 50 g of aluminum sulfate residue to 240 mL Taihu lake water samples, the alkalinity of water sample decreased from 8. 73 mmol/L to 4. 73 mmol/L, given the alkalinity consumes quantity of 1. 92 mmol/g.%分别以蒸馏水和太湖水为例,研究了硫酸铝渣去除水中磷的能力,并分析了其对水体Al3+、SO24-以及pH的影响.结果表明:(1)除太湖水pH为9.0、10.0两种条件外,随着磷平衡浓度的增加,硫酸铝渣除磷量趋于某一定值,其规律符合Langmuir吸附等温式;太湖水pH为9.0、10.0两种条件下,硫酸铝渣除磷量符合Freundlich吸附等温式.(2)随着pH的增加,硫酸铝渣最大除磷量逐渐减少;当pH为6~8时,蒸馏水、太湖水最大除磷量分别达到2.92~3.41、2.41~3.08mg/g.(3)在

  13. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  14. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  15. FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials for high level waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Remizov, M. B.; Belanova, E. A.; Kozlov, P. V.; Glazkova, Ya. S.; Sobolev, A. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Myasoedov, B. F.

    2015-11-01

    Complex sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials with various Al2O3 to Fe2O3 ratio containing high level waste (HLW) surrogate were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and studied in details by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The samples with high Al2O3 content and not containing Fe2O3 were predominantly amorphous but subjected to devitrification under annealing. Addition of B2O3 and partial Fe2O3 substitution for Al2O3 in the materials increases their resistance to devitrification whereas further substitution and NiO incorporation significantly increase the tendency to devitrification. FTIR spectra demonstrate changes in the structure of glassy materials caused by both structural variations in the anionic motif and occurrence of crystalline phases in the materials. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, iron in the glassy samples is present as octahedrally coordinated Fe3+ ions while in the partly devitrified samples iron is partitioned among vitreous and crystalline phases entering the vitreous phase mainly as Fe3+O6 units and crystalline phases as major Fe3+ and minor Fe2+ ions in a magnetically ordered state and participating in a "fast" electronic exchange.

  16. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  17. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Trompette, Jean-Luc; Vergnes, Hugues

    2009-01-01

    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ionswere particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were o...

  18. Electrochemical corrosion and modeling studies of types 7075 and 2219 aluminum alloys in a nitric acid + ferric sulfate deoxidizer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Terence P.

    The corrosion behavior of types 7075-T73 and 2219-T852 high strength aluminum alloys have been investigated in a HNO3 + Fe2(SO 4)3 solution. The materials are characterized in the time domain using the electrochemical noise resistance parameter (Rn) and in the frequency-domain using the spectral noise impedance parameter ( Rsn). The Rsn parameter is derived from an equivalent electrical circuit model that represents the corrosion test cell schematic used in the present study. These calculated parameters are correlated to each other, and to corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of the corroded surfaces. In addition, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectra are used in conjunction with SEM exams for particle mapping and identification. These constituent particles are characterized with respect to their size and composition and their effect on the localized corrosion mechanisms taking place. Pitting mechanisms are identified as 'circumferential' where the particles appeared noble with respect to the aluminum matrix and by 'selective dissolution' where they are anodic to the aluminum matrix. The electrochemical data are found to be in good agreement with the surface examinations. Specifically, the electrochemical parameters Rn and Rsn were consistent in predicting the corrosion resistance of 7075-T73 to be lower than for the 2219-T852 alloy. Other characteristic features used in understanding the corrosion mechanisms include the open circuit potential (OCP) and coupling-current time records.

  19. Investigation of dynamic processing on aluminum floc aggregation:Cyclic shearing recovery and effect of sulfate ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The floc formation and re-aggregation potential and the effects of sulfate on coagulation by AlCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and Al13 species using a photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA) are in- vestigated. It is found that the recovery level from shearing is the highest for the Al13 species. This is likely a result of increased collision efficiency due to more effective charge neutralization. The ex- perimental results show that sulfate has a significant effect on coagulation and promoting aggregation of hydrolyzed species for the Al13 species. It results in significant improvement of the coagulation effi- ciency through an electrostatic patch effect. The results further indicate that zeta potential of the parti- cle suspension is not the only indicator for the coagulant efficiency when precipitate formation sig- nificantly improves coagulation.

  20. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the ion-channel forming peptide trichorzianin TA VII bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, E; Rebuffat, S; Prigent, Y; Ségalas, I; Bodo, B; Davoust, D

    1998-08-01

    Trichorzianin TA VII, Ac0 U1 A2 A3 U4 J5 Q6 U7 U8 U9 S10 L11 U12 P13 V14 U15 I16 Q17 Q18 Fol19, is a nonadecapeptide member of the peptaibol antibiotics biosynthesized by Trichoderma soil fungi, which is characterized by a high proportion of the alpha, alpha-dialkylated amino acids, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib, U) and isovaline (Iva, J), an acetylated N-terminus and a C-terminal phenylalaninol (Pheol, Fol). The main interest in such peptides stems from their ability to interact with phospholipid bilayers and form voltage-dependent transmembrane channels in planar lipid bilayers. In order to provide insights into the lipid-peptide interaction promoting the voltage gating, the conformational study of TA VII in the presence of perdeuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-d25) micelles has been carried out. 1H sequential assignment have been performed with the use of two-dimensional homo- and -heteronuclear nmr techniques including double quantum filtered correlated spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. Conformational parameters, such as 3JNHC alpha H coupling constants, temperature coefficients of amide protons (delta gamma/delta TNH) and quantitative nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, lead to detailed structural information. Ninety-eight three-dimensional structures consistent with the nmr data were generated from 231 interproton distances six phi dihedral angle restraints, using restrained molecular dynamics and energy minimization calculations. The average rms deviation between the 98 refined structures and the energy-minimized average structure is 0.59 A for the backbone atoms. The structure of trichorzianin TA VII associated with SDS micelles, as determined by these methods, is characterized by two right-handed helical segments involving residues 1-8 and 11-19, linked by a beta-turn that leads to an angle about 90 degrees-100

  2. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Tween 80 on Cell Viability in an Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Fregoso, Luisa

    2011-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate current via electrochemical reactions produced by bacteria attached to the anode that oxidize organic matter. Due to their high volume use in household products, some concentration of surfactant will reach wastewater treatment plants. The average surfactant concentration in wastewater ranges from 10 to 20 mg L-1, and up to 300 mg L-1, for domestic and industrial wastewaters, respectively. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing power production by adding Tween 80 and SDS surfactants to air-cathode MFCs, and their effect in cell viability at the anodic biofilm. In order to analyze the effect of anionic and nonionic surfactants in MFCs performance, eight MFCs were spiked with two types of surfactants, the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant Tween® 80 at two different concentrations 10 and 100 mg L-1. Cell viability at the anodic biofilms was examined using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability assay and images were visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The electrochemical results demonstrate that, for an air-cathode MFC operating on 1 g L-1 acetate in a fed-batch mode, reactors where SDS was added show a lower overall performance, maximum PD of 544 mW m-2, CE of 12.3%, Rint of 322 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 265 mW m-2, CE of 9.4%, Rint of 758 Ω (100 mg L-1). Reactors where Tween 80 was added show quite stable performance, maximum PD of 623 mW m-2, CE of 15.4%, Rint of 216 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 591 mW m-2, CE of 10.8%, Rint of 279 Ω (100 mg L-1), compared with reactors operating at only acetate as a substrate, maximum PD of 574 mW m-2. Confocal microscopy images confirm this observation and biofilm viability appeared severely compromised in SDS reactors, especially at high concentrations. This study has opened up a whole new research area in determining which types of surfactants are toxic to the anodic biofilm and to further investigate the

  3. Changes of CD8+ T cells in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice pretreated with oral immune regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yue-fang; JIN Xi; CHEN Shao-hua; YUE Min; LI You-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been reported that CD8+ regulatory cells could be induced upon oral tolerance.The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of CD8α+ T cells in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice pretreated by oral immune regulation.Methods The effects of five low oral doses of colitis-extracted proteins (CEP) on colitis were evaluated by clinical manifestation and histological lesions.The percentages of CD8α+ T ceils gating on CD3+ T cells were evaluated in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and the spleens by flow cytometry.Differences between the two groups were compared by Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test.Results Compared to bovine serum albumin (BSA)-fed control mice,administration of CEP resulted in marked alleviation of colitis.The proportion of CD8α+ T cells,not only in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of the large intestine (LI) but also in spleen from CEP-fed colitis mice,was significantly higher than that from BSA-fed colitis mice (LI-IELs:(71.5±5.4)% vs.(60.1±4.3)%,P <0.01; LI-LPLs:(60.7±5.2)% vs.(51.9±4.7)%,P<0.01; spleen:(24.1±3.6)% vs.(20.3±4.1)%,P <0.05; n=8).Mucosal repair in repair-period mice five days after termination of DSS treatment was also accompanied by an increase of CD8α+ T cells in large intestinal mucosal lymphocytes (LI-IELs:(72.1±3.7)% vs.(61.5±4.5)%,P <0.01; LI-LPLs:(62.1±5.7)% vs.(52.7±3.6)%,P <0.01; n=8).The proportion of CD3+ T cells increased in Peyer's patches (PPs) and decreased in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from colitis mice compared to untreated mice,whereas the change pattern of CD3+T cells in PPs and MLNs from CEP-fed colitis mice was just on the contrary.Conclusion Improvement of DSS-induced colitis resulted from oral immune regulation is associated with an increase in CD8α+ T cells in spleen and large intestinal mucosa.

  4. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  5. Possible Role of Mast Cells and Neuropeptides in the Recovery Process of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhao; Lei Dong; Jin-yan Luo; Hai-tao Guan; Hui Ma; Xue-qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of mast cells and neuropeptides substance P (SP),somatostatin (SS),and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods Experimental colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g,n=20) by oral in-gestion of 4% (w/v) DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Control rats (n=5) drank water and were sacrificed on day 0. Mast cell number,histamine levels in whole blood and tissue,tissue levels of SP,SS and,VIP in the dis-tal colon of the rats were measured on day 8,day 13,and day 18 of experimentation. Results Oral administration of 4% DSS solution for 7 days resulted in surface epithelial loss and crypt loss in the distal colon. Mast cell count increased on day 8 (1.75±1.09/mm vs. 0.38±0.24/mm,P<0.05) and day 13 (1.55±1.01/mm vs. 0.38±0.24/mm,P<0.05) after DSS treatment. Whole blood his-tamine levels were increased on day 8 (266.93±35.62 ng/mL vs. 76.87±32.28 ng/mL,P<0.01) and gradu-ally decreased by day 13 and day 18 after DSS treatment. Histamine levels in the distal colon were decreased on day 8 (1.77±0.65 ng/mg vs. 3.06±0.87 ng/mg,P<0.05) and recovered to control levels by day 13 after DSS treatment. SP level in the distal colon gradually increased and were raised significantly by day 13 (8777.14±3056.14 pg/mL vs. 4739.66±3299.81 pg/mL,P<0.05) after DSS treatment. SS and VIP levels in the distal colon were not changed. Conclusions Mast cell degranulation followed by histamine release may play an important role in the pathogenesis of colitis induced by DSS. SP may be a significant substance in the progression of inflamma-tion and the recovery process of DSS-induced colitis.

  6. Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Myoung-Gyu; Park, Mi-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), l...

  7. Sodium Prasterone Sulfate in the application of induced abortion of midtrimester pregnancy%硫酸普拉酮钠在中孕引产前的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 洪珊儿

    2009-01-01

    Objective The observation of Sodium Prasterone Sulfate used in pregnant cervical ripening before induction of labor, the impact of the birth process. Methods Selected in January 2006 to December 2008 treated at our hospital 160 cases of benefit in pregnancy induced rivanol (hereinafter referred to in the primers), which cited 80 cases before the application of Sodium Prasterone Sulfate intravenous injection three days as the observation group , in the primer before the application is not using one of sodium sulfate Pula 80 cases of intravenous injection as a control group, the birth process were observed. Result Observer Group capacity, journey time 1.88 hours for the 9 people in the control group 1.21 hours for 17 people, there is significant difference. Conclusions Sodium Prasterone Sulfate and progesterone in the induction of labor before the application can be cervical ripening, so that to shorten the birth process, it is worth to promote the application of clinical.%目的 观察硫酸普拉酮钠应用于中孕引产前促宫颈成熟,对产程的影响. 方法 选取在2006年1月~2008年12月在本院收治的160例利凡诺尔中孕引产 (以下简称中引),其中80例中引前应用硫酸普拉酮钠静脉推注3天作为观察组,中引前未应用硫酸普拉酮钠静脉推注80例做为对照组,观察两组的产程.结果 观察组产程时间为9±1.88小时,对照组为17±1.21小时,有显著差异. 结论 硫酸普拉酮钠在中孕引产前应用,可促宫颈成熟,使产程缩短,值得临床推广应用.

  8. Protective effect of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive swimming-induced testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders in mature male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Pravat K; Manna, Indranil; Ghosh, Prasanta; Singh, Narendra; Khetan, Ramawatar P; Ray, Binoy R

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the ameliorative potential of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive-swimming-induced testicular disorders, 48 Wistar male rats (age, 4 months; mass, 146.2 +/- 3.6 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: the unexercised-control group (n = 12); the exercised group (n = 12); the control supplemented group (n = 12); and the exercised supplemented group (n = 12). For 10 weeks, the exercised rats underwent a protocol that consisted of 4 h.d-1 swimming, for 6 d.week-1; the control rats did not exercise. For 10 weeks, both the supplemented groups received an oral daily dose of a combination of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate (6 and 3 mg.kg body mass-1, respectively). After 10 weeks, a significant reduction (p rats in the exercised group, compared with rats in both control groups, in paired testicular masses; in epididymal sperm count; in testicular Delta5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17beta-HSD; in plasma levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin; in the numbers of preleptotine spermatocytes, midpachytene spermatocytes, and stage 7 spermatids of the stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle; and in fertility performance. As well, a significant increase (p exercised group, compared with both control groups, in plasma corticosterone levels and in testicular content of malondialdehyde and catalase activity. At the same time, there was a significant reduction (p exercised group, compared with both control groups, in plasma concentrations of zinc and selenium; in the testicular content of glutathione (GSH), the glutathione and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) ratio, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol; and in testicular activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase in the testes. No significant changes were seen in the number of spermatogonia-A from the stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle or the testicular content of GSSG among the groups. Sodium

  9. Characterization and corrosion of polypyrrole/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate electropolymerised on aluminum alloy 1100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagno, Katia R.L., E-mail: katiarlc@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br [Department of Chemistry, Federal Institute Sul-rio-grandense - IFSul Praca Vinte de Setembro, 455, CEP 96015-360, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Dalmoro, Viviane; Azambuja, Denise S. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} The SDBS confers a greater degree of ordering to the PPy deposits. {yields} The PPy/SDBS presented a relatively high electrical conductivity of 343 S cm{sup -1}. {yields} The conductivity values of the film remained stable even after 60 days of air exposure. {yields} The thermal analysis showed that the PPy/SDBS film is amorphous and degrades without melting. {yields} The potentiodynamic polarization curves show that the PPy/SDBS coating improves the corrosion resistance of the AA 1100 in NaCl and HCl solutions. - Abstract: In this study films of polypyrrole/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (PPy/SDBS) were electropolymerised on the surface of platinum to determine their chemical and physical characteristics and on AA 1100 alloy to evaluate their performance in terms of corrosion protection of the alloy in chloride solutions. The characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and conductivity measurements. The XRD and FT-IR analysis of the PPy/SDBS films showed that the SDBS confers a higher degree of order to the PPy deposits, this effect being evident from the relatively high value obtained for the electrical conductivity of the films. Moreover, the films presented environmental stability with conductivity values remaining stable even after 60 days of air exposure. The thermal analysis showed that the PPy/SDBS film is amorphous and degrades without melting. The corrosion protection of the films produced on the AA 1100 surface was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 0.05 mol L{sup -1} NaCl and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} HCl solutions. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of the PPy/SDBS coatings produced on the AA 1100 surface evidenced a shift of the corrosion potential to more positive values and a decrease of the

  10. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-shuang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  11. Thermo-acoustical analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate: Fluconazole (antifungal drug) based micellar system in hydro-ethanol solutions for potential drug topical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The mixed micellar system was analyzed for sodium dodecyl sulfate and fluconazole. • Early micellization was found with CMC shift towards lower surfactant concentration. • Negative ΔGmo values suggested that the micelle formation is spontaneous and feasible. • Thermo-acoustical parameters revealed the existence of intermolecular interactions within the molecules. - Abstract: Micellar systems hold excellent drug delivery applications due to their capability to solubilize a large number of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. In this present work, the mixed micelle formation between the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the ‘Azole’ derivative antifungal drug fluconazole (FLZ) have been studied at four temperatures in different hydro-ethanolic solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined by specific conductance techniques and the experimental data was used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Early micellization was found with critical micelle concentration shifting towards lower concentration (CMC) than the standard concentration of SDS in water at 25 °C suggesting that drug and the solvent system facilitates the micellization process. In addition, the transport properties were examined by employing controlled approaches likely, apparent molar volume (ϕv), apparent molar adiabatic compression (ϕk), and isentropic compression (κs) of SDS in presence of FLZ. These parameters revealed the existence of intermolecular interactions within the molecules. Therefore, this study would cast light on utilizing surfactant immobilized FLZ system for better topical biological action

  12. Developmental toxicity evaluations of whole mixtures of disinfection by-products using concentrated drinking water in rats: gestational and lactational effects of sulfate and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotsky, Michael G; Pressman, Jonathan G; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F; Teuschler, Linda K; Rice, Glenn E; Richardson, Susan D; Best, Deborah S; McDonald, Anthony; Hunter, E Sidney; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2012-06-01

    A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies. First, chlorinated water was concentrated 135-fold by reverse osmosis; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back. Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 6. Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains. Treated dams had increased water consumption, and increased incidences of polyuria, diarrhea, and (in Sprague-Dawley rats) red perinasal staining. Pup weights were reduced. An increased incidence of eye defects was seen in F344 litters. Chemical analysis of the concentrate revealed high sodium (6.6 g/l) and sulfate (10.4 g/l) levels. To confirm that these chemicals caused polyuria and osmotic diarrhea, respectively, Na₂SO₄ (5-20 g/l) or NaCl (16.5 g/l) was provided to rats in drinking water. Water consumption was increased at 5- and 10-g Na₂SO₄/l and with NaCl. Pup weights were reduced at 20-g Na₂SO₄/l. Dose-related incidences and severity of polyuria and diarrhea occurred in Na₂SO₄-treated rats; perinasal staining was seen at 20 g/l. NaCl caused polyuria and perinasal staining, but not diarrhea. Subsequently, water was concentrated ∼120-fold and sulfate levels were reduced by barium hydroxide before chlorination, yielding lower sodium (≤1.5 g/l) and sulfate (≤2.1 g/l) levels. Treatment resulted in increased water consumption, but pup weight and survival were unaffected. There were no treatment-related clinical findings, indicating that mixtures produced by the second method are suitable for multigenerational testing. PMID:22495758

  13. 浅淡盐硝联产无闪发罐专利工艺的应用%Brief Discussion on the Application of Patented Process in the Co-Production of Salt and Sodium Sulfate without Flash Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙国平

    2012-01-01

    According to the process analysis of the imported facility of co-production of salt and sodium sulfate in vacuum salt making and in combination with the process of the co-production of salt and sodium sulfate in Xuzhou Fengcheng Salt and Chemical Co.,Ltd,this paper briefly discusses the patented process of the co-production of salt and sodium sulfate without flash evaporator which is of references for colleagues.%根据国内引进的真空制盐盐硝联产工艺分析,结合徐州丰成盐化工有限公司真空制盐盐硝联产工艺,浅淡取消闪发罐的盐硝联产专利工艺,仅供同行参考。

  14. Characteristics of the complexing of chitosan with sodium dodecyl sulfate, according to IR spectroscopy data and quantum-chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, S. V.; Romanova, K. A.; Galyametdinov, Yu. G.; Tret'yakova, A. Ya.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    The complexing of protonated chitosan with dodecyl sulfate ions in water solutions is studied using IR spectroscopy data and quantum-chemical calculations. It is established that the electrostatic interaction between the protonated amino groups of chitosan and dodecyl sulfate ions is apparent in the IR spectrum as a band at 833 cm-1. The need to consider the effect the solvent has on the formation of hydrogen-bound ion pairs [CTS+ ṡ C12H25O 3 - ] is shown via a quantum-chemical simulation of the equilibrium geometry and the energy characteristics of complexing and hydration.

  15. Control of sodium sulfate crystallization process during polyacrylonitrile fiber production%腈纶生产中硫酸钠结晶工艺的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继兵; 戴益; 隋晓东

    2011-01-01

    The factors causing the failure of sodium sulfate ( Na2SO4 ) crystallization process were analyzed during two-step polyacrylonitrile fiber production from sodium thiocyanate ( NaSCN) according to the crystallization principle and the industrial crystallization control requirement. And the control approaches were proposed. The results showed that the excessive removal of crystal slurry at the bottom of the settling tank during the crystallization process damaged the crystallization equilibrium, causing the failure of Na2SO4 removal. The crystallization equilibrium of Na2SO4 can be maintained by adding solid anhydrous sodium sulfate, culturing crystal seeds, keeping 10% -20% Na2SO4 by mass fraction at the bottom of settling tank.%根据结晶原理及工业结晶的控制要求,分析了硫氰酸钠( NaSCN)二步法腈纶生产中硫酸钠( Na2 SO4)结晶工序的失控原因,并提出了调控措施.结果表明:生产中结晶工序沉降槽底部晶浆过量去除破坏了Na2 SO4的结晶平衡,导致Na2 SO4不能有效去除;添加固体无水Na2 SO4,培养晶种,保持沉降槽底部Na2sO4质量分数为10% ~20%,可维持Na2 SO4的结晶平衡.

  16. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-01

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

  17. In vitro Metabolism of Sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl Sulfate in Rat Liver S9 by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongkun; Shao, Jun; Chen, Weikang; Luo, Yuehua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate (DHAS) is the active ingredient of Xiyanping injection, a traditional Chinese medicine in clinical use. However, there has been no report about the metabolic rate and metabolites of DHAS in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this article, DHAS was incubated with rat liver S9, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used for the metabolism study. The residual concentrations of substrate were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry method for the metabolic rate study of DHAS in liver S9. Metabolites were identified by the (UPLC-TOF-MSE) Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Results: The calibration curves of DHAS were linear over the concentration range from 0.75 μM to 75.22 μM with correlation coefficients >0.99. The lower limit of quantification was 0.150 μM for DHAS. The determination recoveries of DHAS were in the range of 84.9–90.6%. The t½ and CLint of DHAS in rat liver S9 were 98.6 ± 2.1 min and 3.5 ± 0.1 mL/min/g, respectively. Five metabolites were preliminarily identified based on the high resolution mass spectrum data in comparison with related references. These metabolites were mainly the products of dehydration and hydrogenation of DHAS. Conclusion: The present in vitro metabolic study of DHAS provided valuable information about the metabolic rate and potential metabolites of DHAS, which are important for future in vivo metabolism studies of DHAS and the discovery of more active andrographolide derivatives. SUMMARY In this paper, sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate (DHAS) metabolism in vitro has been investigated with rat liver S9 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The result of quantitative analysis showed that DHAS had a long t1/2, which indicated its high metabolic stability. Five metabolites of DHAS

  18. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés;

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study...... of two aquaporins with high structural homology SoPIP2;1 and AqpZ using identical reconstitution conditions. Our CD results indicate that SDS, when added to membrane-reconstituted aquaporins in concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration (CMC, ~8mM), causes helical rearrangements of both...... reconstituted SoPIP2;1 as well as AqpZ is associated with initial increased hydrophobic interactions in protein transmembrane (TM) spanning regions up to a concentration of 0.1× CMC. At higher SDS concentrations TM hydrophobic interactions, as reported by Badan, decrease and reach a plateau from SDS CMC up...

  19. Synthesis of a new electrolyte by co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application on PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, J.R.A.; Boaventura, F.J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Bresciani, D. [Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) use polymer membranes as electrolytes and protons as conductors. This paper reported on a study in which co-polyesters were doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The co-polymers were synthesized by a copolymerization process that used terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. A reactor was used to process the material, which was then hot-pressed to produce homogenous and flexible plates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric, direct scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses were conducted. Results of the analyses demonstrated that the composite material was stable up to a temperature of 250 degrees C. A micrographics study showed that MDS was homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. It was concluded that with an electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S per cm, the copolymers were suitable for use in PEMFC applications.

  20. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 3. The Role of Tackiness and the Tack Stokes Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    coating process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions, because of differences in stickiness, not because of differences in bulk viscosities. It was further shown that it is possible to optimize the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency......In the first and second parts of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1893 and 1905], agglomeration tendencies were studied for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. Results showed that the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt...... of agglomeration, similar to the salt coating process. With the PVA-TiO2, coating liquid layer thicknesses encountered during these fluid-bed coating processes, agglomeration seems to be governed primarily by liquid surface phenomena. A modification to the original viscous Stokes number is suggested in the present...

  1. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating......In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating...

  2. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  3. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on immuno-electrosyneresis between normal human erythrocyte membrane and sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arimori,Shigeru

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-membrane antibody was present in the sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in immunoelectrosyneresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solubilized erythrocyte membrane as antigen. The SDS bound to protein was detected by chromatography at 10(-3M concentration under U.V. light, at 10(-5M concentration by the distilled water spray method and at 10(-6M concentration by using rosaniline hydrochloride colorimetry. SDS was removed from the membrane protein at a concentration of 10(-3M by the first gel filtration of Sephadex G-25 column and at a concentration of 10(-6M by rechromatography of the same column. More than 99% of SDS in the solubilized erythrocyte membrane was removed by gel filtration. The antigenicity was still positive in the refiltrated fractions of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Therefore, all precipitates in the gels were antigen-antibody aggregates.

  4. Micellar copolymerization of associative polymers: study of the effect of acrylamide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; François, Jeanne

    2005-09-15

    Mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) have been studied in the presence of acrylamide using conductimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under the following conditions: (i) the SDS-acrylamide binary system in water; (ii) the SDS-acrylamide-PPOMA ternary system in water. The addition of acrylamide in SDS solutions perturbs the micellization of the surfactant by decreasing the aggregation number of the micelles and increasing their ionization degree. The variations of the various micellar parameters versus the weight ratio R=PPOMA/SDS are different in the presence of acrylamide or in pure water. These differences are much more pronounced for the lower than for the higher PPOMA concentrations. There is competition between acrylamide and PPOMA and at higher PPOMA concentration, acrylamide tends to be released from SDS micelles and is completely replaced by PPOMA.

  5. 卤水中去除硫酸钠的技术浅析%Technic Aanlysis for Removing Sodium Sulfate from Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云

    2012-01-01

    卤水中除去硫酸钠是制碱行业的一项重要工艺.而在采卤前期,一般不进行除硝工艺,为了提高原料卤水的质量和价格,通过纳滤膜技术,使原料卤水达到碱厂一次原卤达标.此次试验是采输卤处理现场试验.%It is very important to remove sodium sulfate from the brine in soda industry. In order to improve the quality and the price of brine, nanofiltration membrane experiment is done after brine is mined. The brine after nanofiltration can meet the initial grade requirement of the soda factory.

  6. The complement anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR contributes to the inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wende

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases are a critical public health issue, and as treatment options remain limited, there is a need to unravel the underlying pathomechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Complement activation was found in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, and the complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its receptor C5aR have been implicated in disease pathogenesis in animal models of bowel inflammation. To further characterize complement-related pathomechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease, we have investigated the role of the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor in acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. For this, colitis was induced in C3a receptor-deficient BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and disease severity was evaluated by clinical and histological examination, and by measuring the mRNA expression or protein levels of inflammatory mediators in the tissue. C3a receptor deficiency was partially protective in BALB/c mice, which had significantly reduced weight loss, clinical and histological scores, colon shortening, and CXCL-1/KC mRNA, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 tissue levels compared to the corresponding wild type mice. In C57BL/6 mice the differences between wild type and C3a receptor-deficient animals were much smaller and reached no significance. Our data demonstrate that the contribution of C3a receptor to disease pathogenesis and severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice depends on the genetic background. Further studies will be required to clarify whether targeting of C3a receptor, possibly in combination with C5a receptor, might be considered as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Interaction of quinine sulfate with anionic micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate: A time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.

    2015-09-01

    Photophysical behavior and rotational relaxation dynamics of quinine sulfate (QS) in anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH have been studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It has been observed that the cationic form of quinine sulfate (at pH 2) forms a fluorescent ion pair complex with the surfactant molecules at lower concentrations of surfactant. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, the probe molecules bind strongly with the micelles and reside at the water-micelle interface. At pH 7, QS is singly protonated in bulk aqueous solution. At lower concentrations of SDS aggregation between probe and surfactant molecules has been observed. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, an additional fluorescence peak corresponding to dicationic form of QS appears and this has been attributed to double protonation of the QS molecule in micellar solution. At pH 7, in the presence of SDS micelles, the photophysical properties of QS showed substantial changes compared to that in the bulk water solution. At pH 12, an increase in fluorescence intensity and lifetime has been observed and this has been attributed to the increase in radiative rate due to the incorporation of QS at the micelle-water interface. The local pH at micellar surface has been found different from the pH of bulk solution.

  8. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.;

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  9. Effect of carbon chain on the performance of sodium fatty alcohol sulfate%碳链对脂肪醇硫酸钠性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方灵丹; 夏雄燕; 孔令鸟; 雷小英; 余新林

    2012-01-01

    测定不同碳链脂肪醇硫酸钠的物化性能,如表面张力、cmc值、乳化、接触角、耐硬水性和泡沫等。结果表明,C12~14醇硫酸钠降低表面张力的效果最佳。随着烷基碳链变长,脂肪醇硫酸钠的接触角变大且耐硬水性能也变差。C8~10醇硫酸钠的发泡力最差,且C16~18醇硫酸钠因其耐硬水性能差,其发泡力随着水硬度的增加而下降。以C16~18醇硫酸钠的乳化性能最好。%The chemical properties of sodium fatty alcohol sulfate with different carbon chains,such as surface tension,cmc,emulsification,contact angle,resistance to hard water,foaming power,etc.were determined.The results illustrated the longer carbon chain,the bigger contact angle and the poorer resistance to hard water.The sodium C12~14 alcohol sulfate showed the best property in reduction of surface tension.The sodium C8~10 alcohol sulfate showed the worst foaming property.The foam of sodium C16~18 alcohol sulfate decreased with the increasing hardness of water due to its bad resistance to hard water.The sodium C16~18 alcohol sulfate showed the best emulsifying performance.

  10. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Aho, Martti; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate and product distribution under high temperature conditions. In the present work, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate wasstudied respectively in a fast-heating rate t...

  11. Rapid determination of sodium sulfate content in tannin extract desulfurization solution by barium magnesium method%钡镁法快速测定栲胶脱硫液中硫酸钠的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼

    2011-01-01

    采用GB/T10535--1997仲裁法分析栲胶脱硫液中Na2SO。含量需3h。采用钡镁法以过量已知浓度钡镁混合液与Na2SO4作用生成硫酸钡沉淀,过量钡镁溶液用EDTA标准溶液回滴,只需0.5h,可快速测定硫酸钠含量:该法准确度、精密度也可满足生产要求。%The arbitration method of GB/T 10535--1997 for determination of sodium sulfate content in tannin extract desulfurization solutions needs 3 hours. By using excess known concentrations barium magnesium solutions and sodium sulfate to produce barium sulfate precipitation, and using EDTA to titrate the excessive barium magnesium solutions, the rapid determination of sodium sulfate content only needs 30 minutes. The accuracy and precision can also meet the production requirements.

  12. Effects of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the cross-linking reaction of cassava starch%氯化钠及硫酸钠对木薯淀粉交联反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小雅; 叶为标; 高群玉

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was designed to determine the relationships between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution,and the viscosity characteristics of the starch samples. Brabender viscometer was used for the determination of cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure. When sodium chloride was used as osmotic pressure enhancer in cross–linking reaction,with the increase of osmotic pressure,the initial gelatinization temperature increased,and the peak viscosity and the final viscosity decreased. As the osmotic pressure reached high,the retrogradation value and the breakdown value both tended to zero. When sodium sulfate was used instead of sodium chloride,as the osmotic pressure increased,the initial gelatinization temperature didn’t change significantly,the peak viscosity leveled off following decrease,the final viscosity increased(not significant)after decrease,the breakdown value was in contrast with the final viscosity,and the retrogradation decreased. The degree of crosslinking increased with the increase of osmotic pressure that produced by sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. In addition,we utilized polarizing microscope and FTIR to analyze the cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure,and measured their transparency,shear resistance and retrogradation resistance,the results showed that the corresponding properties of the cross–linked starch changed.%旨在确定渗透压与交联取代度和所得淀粉糊黏度间的关系。应用Brabender连续黏度计对渗透压处理交联木薯淀粉进行了测定。当氯化钠作为交联反应渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压增大,所得淀粉样品的起始糊化温度增加,峰值黏度和最终黏度减小;高渗透压时,凝沉值和崩解值都趋于0。而硫酸钠作渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压的增大,起始糊化温度变化不明显,峰值黏度先下降后缓慢下降,最终黏度先减后增(增加不显著),崩解值先增

  13. EDTA complexometric titration for determination of aluminum in copper sulfate waste solution%EDTA 络合滴定法测定硫酸铜废液中的铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小叶; 迟爱玲

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate waste solution generated in metallurgical process is studied in determining aluminum . Ammonia (1+1) is used to separate aluminum in the form of aluminum hydroxide precipitation from the principal part of the solution ,and then the aluminum mass concentration is determined by EDTA complexometry .A series of ex-periments are conducted on the parameters such as copper and iron ionic interference ,solution acidity and the temper-ature of the EDTA complexation reaction ,solving the problems of the determination of the aluminum in this copper sul-fate waste solution .This method compared with spectrophotometry is simple , rapid and has lower analysis cost .The method through the determination in copper sulfate solution with different mass fraction ,obtains a relative standard de-viation of 0.071 %-0.930 %(n=6),and sample measurements are consistent with the azure S value determined by spectrophotometry .%实验研究了冶金工艺过程产生的硫酸铜废液中铝的测定方法。采用氨水(1+1)使铝以氢氧化铝沉淀的形式与主体溶液分离,然后用EDTA络合法测定铝的质量浓度;对该硫酸铜废液中铜、铁干扰离子、溶液的酸度、EDTA络合反应温度等条件进行了一系列的实验,解决了硫酸铜废液中铝的测定难题。该方法与分光光度法比较,简单快速,分析成本低廉;通过对不同硫酸铜废液中铝的质量浓度测定,相对标准偏差为0.071%~0.930%(n=6),样品测定值与络天青S分光光度法测定值相符合。

  14. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  15. The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1* Volker Behrendt,1* Jonas Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,3 Christoph Hilgert,1 Ingo Stricker,2 Thomas Herdegen,3 Monika S Janot,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik1 1Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Pathology, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 3Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *The two authors Sabine Kersting and Volker Behrendt contributed equally to this work Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%. Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS. As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not

  16. The Algal Meroterpene 11-Hydroxy-1′-O-Methylamentadione Ameloriates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbakh, Hanaa; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Alcaide, Antonio; de los Reyes, Carolina; Zubía, Eva; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1′-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days. AMT-E prevented body weight loss and colon shortening and effectively attenuated the extent of the colonic damage. Similarly, AMT-E increased mucus production and reduced myeloperoxidase activity (marker for anti-inflammatory activity). Moreover, the algal meroterpene decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 levels, and caused a significant reduction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our results demonstrate the protective effects of AMT-E on experimental colitis, provide an insight of the underlying mechanisms of this compound, and suggest that this class of marine natural products might be an interesting candidate for further studies on the prevention/treatment of IBD. PMID:27527191

  17. The Algal Meroterpene 11-Hydroxy-1'-O-Methylamentadione Ameloriates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbakh, Hanaa; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Alcaide, Antonio; de Los Reyes, Carolina; Zubía, Eva; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex class of immune disorders. Unfortunately, a treatment for total remission has not yet been found, while the use of natural product-based therapies has emerged as a promising intervention. The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the algal meroterpene 11-hydroxy-1'-O-methylamentadione (AMT-E) in a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. AMT-E was orally administered daily (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg animal) to DSS treated mice (3% w/v) for 7 days. AMT-E prevented body weight loss and colon shortening and effectively attenuated the extent of the colonic damage. Similarly, AMT-E increased mucus production and reduced myeloperoxidase activity (marker for anti-inflammatory activity). Moreover, the algal meroterpene decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 levels, and caused a significant reduction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our results demonstrate the protective effects of AMT-E on experimental colitis, provide an insight of the underlying mechanisms of this compound, and suggest that this class of marine natural products might be an interesting candidate for further studies on the prevention/treatment of IBD. PMID:27527191

  18. Interrelationship between partition behavior of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luisa A; da Silva, Nuno R; Wlodarczyk, Samarina R; Loureiro, Joana A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2016-04-22

    Partition behavior of adenosine and guanine mononucleotides was examined in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG-sodium sulfate two-phase systems. The partition coefficients for each series of mononucleotides were analyzed as a functions of the number of phosphate groups and found to be dependent on the nature of nucleic base and on the type of ATPS utilized. It was concluded that an average contribution of a phosphate group into logarithm of partition coefficient of a mononucleotide cannot be used to estimate the difference between the electrostatic properties of the coexisting phases of ATPS. The data obtained in this study were considered together with those for other organic compounds and proteins reported previously, and the linear interrelationship between logarithms of partition coefficients in dextran-PEG, PEG-Na2SO4 and PEG-Na2SO4-0.215M NaCl (all in 0.01M Na- or K/Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 or 6.8) was established. Similar relationship was found for the previously reported data for proteins in Dex-PEG, PEG-600-Na2SO4, and PEG-8000-Na2SO4 ATPS. It is suggested that the linear relationships of the kind established in ATPS may be observed for biological properties of compounds as well.

  19. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  20. Augmented activity of the pelvic nerve afferent mediated by TRP channels in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makimura, Yukitoshi; Ito, Koichi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Enteritis has been recognized as a major symptom in domestic animals and human patients suffering from feed and food poisonings. The aim of the present study was to clarify the excitatory mechanism of the pelvic nerve afferent which may influence the occurrence of enteritis in response to nociceptive chemical stimuli of the colon in normal and abnormal rats with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The pelvic nerve afferent activity was markedly increased by colonic instillation of solution (0.5 ml) of acetic acid (5-25%) and capsaicin (100 μg/ml). The nerve activity was augmented by colonic instillation of capsaicin to a greater extent in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in normal control rats. This augmented activity by capsaicin was more prominent at one day (DSS-1) than at 8 day (DSS-8) after the administration of DSS. The increased nerve activity caused by capsaicin in DSS-1 and DSS-8 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ruthenium red, which is a nonselective inhibitor of TRP channels of unmyelinated C-fibers (nociceptors). In conclusion, it was elucidated that the nociceptive function of the pelvic nerve was largely elevated at one day after DSS-induced colitis and such increased function was mostly mediated by TRP channels.

  1. Monolayers of gemini surfactants and their catanionic mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface: Chain length and composition effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monolayers of cationic gemini surfactants and their catanionic mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), have been investigated with the Langmuir trough technique, at the air-water interface. The gemini surfactants are of the alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(alkyldimethylammonium) type, here designated as m-2-m, where m and 2 are the alkyl chain and spacer lengths, respectively. For the neat geminis, the stability of the monolayer increases as the chain length increases, starting from soluble films of 12-2-12 to stable films of 18-2-18. For the equicharged m-2-m/SDS mixtures (with m = 12, 14, 16 and 18), stable monolayers are obtained. The effect of the gemini chain length on the phase behavior and molecular organization of the films is discussed on the basis of pressure-area isotherms for compression or compression-expansion cycles. The pressure-temperature plots, at constant trough area, yield the desorption temperature and suggest the desorption mechanism of the film molecules. Furthermore, the effect of the mixing molar ratio between m-2-m and SDS on the isotherms, for m = 12 and 14, has also been investigated. It is concluded from the mean area per molecule that the gemini molecules when in excess with respect to equicharged composition desorb from the film, so that the electroneutral composition is maintained

  2. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yang, Guan; Xion, Yan; Su, Dingding; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (Parginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (Parginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  3. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace amounts of heavy metal ions after solid phase extraction using modified sodium dodecyl sulfate coated on alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of traces of Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) has been developed. An alumina-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated on with meso-phenyl bis(indolyl) methane (MPBIM) was used for preconcentration and determination of Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The analyte ions were adsorbed quantitatively on adsorbent due to their complexation with MPBIM. Adsorbed metals were quantitatively eluted using 6 mL of 4 mol L-1 nitric acid. The effects of parameters such as pH, amount of alumina, amount of MBITP, flow rate, type and concentration of eluting agent were examined. The effects of interfering ions on the separation-preconcentration of analytes were also investigated. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be less than 3.0%. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of analytes in real samples

  4. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples.

  5. Curcumin represses the activity of inhibitor-κB kinase in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by S-nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ning-Jo; Hu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Chien-Sheng; Kong, Zwe-Ling

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of curcumin using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and the potential role of curcumin in regulation of anti-inflammation through S-nitrosylation. After curcumin treatment for 6days, the body weight and disease activity index of DSS-induced mice was alleviated and the colonic length was also rescued. Western blot presented that the protein expression of iNOS can be reduced by curcumin. Consistently, mRNA level of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, was also repressed. Moreover, Curcumin reduced the amount of nitrite in DSS-induced colitis but not affected total S-nitrosylation level on proteins on day 6, indicating that curcumin inhibited NO oxidation. Furthermore, the protection of S-nitrosylation on IKKβ in DSS-induced colitis for 6days by curcumin caused the repression of IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, this study verified that curcumin-mediated S-nitrosylation may be as an important regulator for anti-inflammation in DSS-induced colitis of mice. PMID:27233000

  6. Dietary Nanosized Lactobacillus plantarum Enhances the Anticancer Effect of Kimchi on Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate enhancement of the chemopreventive properties of kimchi by dietary nanosized Lactobacillus (Lab.)plantarum (nLp) in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer C57BL/6J mouse model. nLp is a dead, shrunken, processed form of Lab. Plantarum isolated from kimchi that is 0.5-1.0 µm in size. The results obtained showed that animals fed kimchi with nLp (K-nLp) had longer colons and lower colon weights/length ratios and developed fewer tumors than mice fed kimchi alone (K). In addition, K-nLp administration reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokine serum levels and mediated the mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory, apoptotic, and cell-cycle markers to suppress inflammation and induce tumor-cell apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Moreover, it elevated natural killer-cell cytotoxicity. The study suggests adding nLp to kimchi could improve the suppressive effect of kimchi on AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer. These findings indicate nLp has potential use as a functional chemopreventive ingredient in the food industry. PMID:27481492

  7. Ethanol Extract of Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybeans Attenuates Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate- (DSS- Induced Colitis by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM grown on germinated soybeans (GSC in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS- induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  8. Interaction of apocytochrome c and derived polypeptide fragments with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles monitored by photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topology of apocytochrome c, the heme-free precursor of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c, was investigated in a lipid-associated form. For this purpose photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (CIDNP 1H NMR) spectroscopy and quenching of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence by acrylamide were applied to an apocytochrome c-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar system. A pH titration of the chemical shifts of the histidine C2 proton resonances of apocytochrome c, using conventional 1H NMR, yielded pKa's of 5.9 ± 0.1 and 6.2 ± 0.1, which were assigned to histidine-18 and -33 and histidine-26, respectively. In the presence of SDS micelles an average pKa of 8.1 ± 0.1 was obtained for all histidine C2 protons. Photo-CIDNP enhancements of the histidine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues, contained in the intact apocytochrome c and in chemically and enzymatically prepared fragments of the precursor, were reduced in the presence of SDS micelles. Similarly, the quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence of the polypeptides by acrylamide was diminished in the presence of SDS. These results indicate the aromatic residues studied are localized in the interface of the SDS micelle

  9. Interaction of apocytochrome c and derived polypeptide fragments with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles monitored by photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in sup 1 H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, M.M.E.; Kaptein, R.; de Kruijff, B. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1991-04-09

    The topology of apocytochrome c, the heme-free precursor of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c, was investigated in a lipid-associated form. For this purpose photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (CIDNP {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy and quenching of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence by acrylamide were applied to an apocytochrome c-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar system. A pH titration of the chemical shifts of the histidine C2 proton resonances of apocytochrome c, using conventional {sup 1}H NMR, yielded pK{sub a}'s of 5.9 {plus minus} 0.1 and 6.2 {plus minus} 0.1, which were assigned to histidine-18 and -33 and histidine-26, respectively. In the presence of SDS micelles an average pK{sub a} of 8.1 {plus minus} 0.1 was obtained for all histidine C2 protons. Photo-CIDNP enhancements of the histidine, tryptophan, and tyrosine residues, contained in the intact apocytochrome c and in chemically and enzymatically prepared fragments of the precursor, were reduced in the presence of SDS micelles. Similarly, the quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence of the polypeptides by acrylamide was diminished in the presence of SDS. These results indicate the aromatic residues studied are localized in the interface of the SDS micelle.

  10. ADSORPTION STUDY OF RHODAMIN B DYE ON IRAQI BENTONITE AND MODIFIED BENTONITE BY NANOCOMPOUNDS TIO2, ZNO, AL2O3 AND SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Salman AL-Jobouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Rhodamin B on Iraqi bentonite at the concentration range from 50 to 250 μg mL-1 was studied, Nano compounds; ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 m and SDS in different amounts 0.01-0.1 g 10-1 g of Bentonite were used to modified the adsorption capacity of bentonite to remove the Rhodamin B from aqueous solutions. The study indicated that using 0.05 g and 0.1 of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS lead to increase the percentage removal (%R from 79.3% for pure bentonite to 99.3%. While using 0.05 g TiO2 lead to increase the %R to 98.9%, 0.05 of ZnO to 98.6%. The other amount additives and Al2O3 using was not success to increase the %R for the Rhodamin B on bentonite surface. SEM measurement was achieved to discover the Nanoparticl exists in the bentonite surfaces.

  11. Enterococcus durans TN-3 Induces Regulatory T Cells and Suppresses the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Experimental Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Toshihiro; Ohno, Masashi; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Shimada, Takashi; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Probiotic properties of Enterococcus strains have been reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effects of Enterococcus (E.) durans TN-3 on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Methods BALB/c mice were fed with 4.0% DSS in normal chow. Administration of TN-3 (10mg/day) was initiated 7days before the start of DSS feeding. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by real time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The lymphocyte subpopulation were analyzed by flow cytometry. The gut microbiota profile was analyzed by a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (T-RFLP). Results The disease activity index and histological colitis score were significantly lower in the DSS plus TN-3 group than in the DSS group. The mucosal mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ) decreased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. The proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the mucosa increased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. Both fecal butyrate levels and the diversity of fecal microbial community were significantly higher in the TN-3 plus DSS group than in the DSS group. Conclusions E. durans TN-3 exerted an inhibitory effect on the development of DSS colitis. This action might be mediated by the induction of Treg cells and the restoration of the diversity of the gut microbiota. PMID:27438072

  12. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion.

  13. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  14. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption on the Behavior of Water inside Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Minh D; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were utilized to investigate the ability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to adsorb inside a single-walled, arm-chair carbon nanotube (SWCNT), as well as the effect of surfactant on the properties of water inside the SWCNT. The diameter of the SWCNT varied from 1 to 5 nm. The radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNTs were computed and compared with published molecular dynamics results. The average residence time and diffusivity were also calculated to show the size effect on mobility of water inside the SWCNT. It was found that nanotubes with diameter smaller than 3 nm do not allow SDS molecules to enter the SWCNT space. For larger SWCNT diameter, SDS adsorbed inside and outside the nanotube. When SDS was adsorbed in the hollow part of the SWCNT, the behavior of water inside the nanotube was found to be significantly changed. Both radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNT fluctuated strongly and were different from those in bulk phase. In addition, SDS molecules increased the retention of water beads inside SWCNT (d ≥ 3nm) while water diffusivity was decreased. PMID:27092476

  15. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption on the Behavior of Water inside Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Vo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations were utilized to investigate the ability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to adsorb inside a single-walled, arm-chair carbon nanotube (SWCNT, as well as the effect of surfactant on the properties of water inside the SWCNT. The diameter of the SWCNT varied from 1 to 5 nm. The radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNTs were computed and compared with published molecular dynamics results. The average residence time and diffusivity were also calculated to show the size effect on mobility of water inside the SWCNT. It was found that nanotubes with diameter smaller than 3 nm do not allow SDS molecules to enter the SWCNT space. For larger SWCNT diameter, SDS adsorbed inside and outside the nanotube. When SDS was adsorbed in the hollow part of the SWCNT, the behavior of water inside the nanotube was found to be significantly changed. Both radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNT fluctuated strongly and were different from those in bulk phase. In addition, SDS molecules increased the retention of water beads inside SWCNT (d ≥ 3nm while water diffusivity was decreased.

  16. Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Köhnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  17. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on swelling, erosion and release behavior of HPMC matrix tablets containing a poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Aiguo; Yuan, Bingxiang; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Changhe; Zhao, Guilan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the swelling, erosion and release behavior of HPMC matrix tablets was examined. Swelling and erosion of HPMC matrix tablets were determined by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of matrices. The rate of uptake of the dissolution medium by the matrix was quantified using a square root relationship whilst the erosion of the polymer was described using the cube root law. The extent of swelling decreased with increasing SDS concentrations in the dissolution medium but the rate of erosion was found to follow a reverse trend. Such phenomena might have been caused by the attractive hydrophobic interaction between HPMC and SDS as demonstrated by the cloud points of the solutions containing both the surfactant and polymer. Release profiles of nimodipine from HPMC tablets in aqueous media containing different concentrations of SDS were finally studied. Increasing SDS concentrations in the medium was shown to accelerate the release of nimodipine from the tablets, possibly due to increasing nimodipine solubility and increasing rate of erosion by increasing SDS concentrations in the dissolution medium. PMID:19743948

  18. Electrophoretic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates: Application to proenkephalin processing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method is described for the zymographic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates such as [35S]methionine-labeled proenkephalin or 125I-labeled proinsulin. After electrophoresis the enzyme is reactivated and cleaves the radiolabeled in situ substrate into smaller peptides. These small peptides are able to diffuse out of the gel, leaving clear areas against a dark background when visualized by autoradiography. The technique can be used to detect as little as 200 fg of trypsin using only 50 ng (1.25 microCi) of [35S]proenkephalin. Soluble- and membrane-bound adrenal trypsin-like enzyme were isolated from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. Both proteinases cleaved [35S]methionine-labeled proenkephalin but not 125I-labeled proinsulin. Moreover, both had a Mr of approximately 30,000. The potential of this technique for general use is discussed. An additional method using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate t-butoxycarbonyl Glu-Lys-Lys aminomethylcoumarin is also described

  19. Electrophoretic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates: Application to proenkephalin processing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, J.W.; Roberts, S.F.; Lindberg, I. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A novel method is described for the zymographic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates such as ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proenkephalin or {sup 125}I-labeled proinsulin. After electrophoresis the enzyme is reactivated and cleaves the radiolabeled in situ substrate into smaller peptides. These small peptides are able to diffuse out of the gel, leaving clear areas against a dark background when visualized by autoradiography. The technique can be used to detect as little as 200 fg of trypsin using only 50 ng (1.25 microCi) of ({sup 35}S)proenkephalin. Soluble- and membrane-bound adrenal trypsin-like enzyme were isolated from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. Both proteinases cleaved ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proenkephalin but not {sup 125}I-labeled proinsulin. Moreover, both had a Mr of approximately 30,000. The potential of this technique for general use is discussed. An additional method using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate t-butoxycarbonyl Glu-Lys-Lys aminomethylcoumarin is also described.

  20. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats. PMID:27465728

  1. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on stress response in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis): regulatory volume decrease (Rvd) and modulation of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Faggio, Caterina; Laudicella, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Trischitta, Francesca; Santulli, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effects of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are assessed on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed for 18 days at a concentration ranging from 0.1 mg/l to 1 mg/l. The effects are monitored using biomarkers related to stress response, such as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous antioxidant systems and Hsp70 levels. The results demonstrate that cells from the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis, exposed to SDS were not able to perform the RVD owing to osmotic stress. Further, SDS causes oxidative stress in treated organisms, as demonstrated by the increased ROS production, in comparison to the controls (p<0.05). Consequently, two enzymes involved in ROS scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) have higher activities and the proportion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is higher in hepatopancreas and mantle of treated animals, compared to untreated animals (p<0.05). Furthermore Hsp70 demonstrates an up-regulation in all the analyzed tissues of exposed animals, attesting the stress status induced by the surfactant with respect to the unexposed animals. The results highlight that SDS, under the tested concentrations, exerts a toxic effect in mussels in which the disruption of the osmotic balance follows the induction of oxidative stress.

  2. Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghui; Ling, Qinjie; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yibo; Hoffmann, Peter R; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:27223481

  3. Orally administered lactoperoxidase ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating colonic interleukin-10 and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2009-11-01

    We previously demonstrated orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Here, we examine the mechanism of action of LPO. Three days after colitis induction, expression of interferon-gamma mRNA in colonic tissue was significantly decreased in mice administered LPO; while mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and regulatory T cell (Treg) marker, Foxp3, were significantly increased. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral CD4+ T cells was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. Nine days after colitis induction, the severity of colitis symptoms, including body weight loss and colon shortening, was reduced and expression of IL-10 mRNA was increased in mice administered LPO. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral leukocytes was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. These results suggest LPO ameliorates colitis by up-regulating colonic anti-inflammatory cytokines and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

  4. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  6. Interrelationship between partition behavior of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luisa A; da Silva, Nuno R; Wlodarczyk, Samarina R; Loureiro, Joana A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2016-04-22

    Partition behavior of adenosine and guanine mononucleotides was examined in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG-sodium sulfate two-phase systems. The partition coefficients for each series of mononucleotides were analyzed as a functions of the number of phosphate groups and found to be dependent on the nature of nucleic base and on the type of ATPS utilized. It was concluded that an average contribution of a phosphate group into logarithm of partition coefficient of a mononucleotide cannot be used to estimate the difference between the electrostatic properties of the coexisting phases of ATPS. The data obtained in this study were considered together with those for other organic compounds and proteins reported previously, and the linear interrelationship between logarithms of partition coefficients in dextran-PEG, PEG-Na2SO4 and PEG-Na2SO4-0.215M NaCl (all in 0.01M Na- or K/Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 or 6.8) was established. Similar relationship was found for the previously reported data for proteins in Dex-PEG, PEG-600-Na2SO4, and PEG-8000-Na2SO4 ATPS. It is suggested that the linear relationships of the kind established in ATPS may be observed for biological properties of compounds as well. PMID:27016118

  7. Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

  8. Influence of Sulfur Species on Current Efficiency in the Aluminum Smelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirbekova, Rauan; Haarberg, Geir Martin; Thonstad, Jomar; Saevarsdottir, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    Anode impurities are the major source of sulfur in aluminum electrolysis. Sulfur in anodes is mainly found as organic compounds. Alumina also introduces small quantities of sulfur, typically in the form of sulfates. The scarcity and cost of low-sulfur raw materials and the possibility of sulfur removal from the cell by means of flue gas may make high-sulfur content anodes a viable option. However, some anode impurities are known to affect current efficiency in aluminum production and caution must be exercised. The effect of increased sulfur content in the aluminum electrolysis electrolyte must be studied. This paper explores the effect of increased sulfur concentration in the electrolyte on current efficiency in a laboratory cell. Sodium sulfate was added to the electrolyte as a source of sulfur at regular time intervals to maintain a constant sulfur concentration. Current efficiency decreased by 1.1 pct per each 100 mg/kg (ppm) increase in sulfur concentration in the electrolyte.

  9. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relmβ and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. PMID:25841250

  10. Characterization of dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation and colonic tumorigenesis in Smad3(-/- mice with dysregulated TGFβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Seamons

    Full Text Available There are few mouse models that adequately mimic large bowel cancer in humans or the gastrointestinal inflammation which frequently precedes it. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS-induces colitis in many animal models and has been used in combination with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM to induce cancer in mice. Smad3(-/- mice are deficient in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling molecule, SMAD3, resulting in dysregulation of the cellular pathway most commonly affected in human colorectal cancer, and develop inflammation-associated colon cancer. Previous studies have shown a requirement for a bacterial trigger for the colitis and colon cancer phenotype in Smad3(-/- mice. Studies presented here in Smad3(-/- mice detail disease induction with DSS, without the use of AOM, and show a Smad3(-/- mice develop a spectrum of lesions ranging from acute and chronic colitis, crypt herniation, repair, dysplasia, adenomatous polyps, disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC and squamous metaplasia; b the colon lesions have variable galactin-3 (Mac2 staining c increased DSS concentration and duration of exposure leads to increased severity of colonic lesions; d heterozygosity of SMAD3 does not confer increased susceptibility to DSS-induced disease and e disease is partially controlled by the presence of T and B cells as Smad3(-/- Rag2(-/- double knock out (DKO mice develop a more severe disease phenotype. DSS-induced disease in Smad3(-/- mice may be a useful animal model to study not only inflammation-driven MAC but other human diseases such as colitis cystica profunda (CCP and pseudomyxomatous peritonei (PMP.

  11. Measurement of neonatal equine immunoglobulins for assessment of colostral immunoglobulin transfer: comparison of single radial immunodiffusion with the zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum electrophoresis, refractometry for total serum protein, and the sodium sulfite precipitation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, G E; Ardans, A A; Ginno, D; Trommershausen-Smith, A

    1978-02-01

    Four procedures for assessment of adequacy of colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) transfer in foals were evaluated. Results of zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum electrophoresis, total serum protein refractometry, and sodium sulfite precipitation test were compared with immunoglobulin G content determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The zinc sulfate turbidity test gave acceptable results for IgG, except that hemolyzed serum samples gave higher than expected values. A correction factor for hemolyzed serum was found to be useful. Serum electrophoresis was a satisfactory method of estimating IgG content. Total serum protein values may not be a valid basis for estimating IgG content, inasmuch as postsuckling total protein values were found to decrease in some foals in which passive transfer of IgG had been adequate. Sodium sulfite precipitation reactions were too unpredictable to be of value for determination of neonatal IgG concentration.

  12. 芒硝型卤水精制过程中超滤膜的污染与清洗%Ultrafiltration Membrane Polution and Cleaning of Sodium Sulfate Type Brine Refining Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为之; 宫维; 徐卫华

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies on the assessmen t of pollution situation analysis of complex ultrafiltration membrane and cleaning effect in sodium sulfate type brine refining process.%研究芒硝型卤水在精制工艺过程中,用于除杂的超滤膜的污染情况分析及清洗效果评价。

  13. Lead recovery by flotation with sodium lauryl sulfate Recuperação de chumbo por flotação com sulfato lauril de sódio

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Gorette de Morais; Carlos Adolpho Magalhães Baltar; Carlos Alberto Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Lead recoverable slag is of economic and environmental importance. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of its recovery by flotation with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The similar nature of the lead and iron particles formed by solidification of the melted slag impairs selectivity during the flotation process. In order to verify the most favorable conditions for selectivity, SLS adsorption mechanisms for lead and iron particles were studied. The adsorption was monitored by mea...

  14. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Seto, Jennifer E.; Polat, Baris E.; Lopez, Renata F. V.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies o...

  15. 展进新法方定测素骨软酸硫化酸硫多中钠素肝染污%Research Progress of the Determination Methods for Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate in Contaminated Heparin Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟培升; 高照明; 张玉冰

    2011-01-01

    The structure, properties and source of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate(OSCS), which exists in contaminated heparin sodium, are introduced. And the research progress of its determination methods are re-viewed.%介绍了污染肝素钠中多硫酸化硫酸软骨素的结构、性质及来源,并对其测定方法进行了综述.

  16. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Glazkova, I. S.; Kadyko, M. I.; Stefanovsky, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na2O, (20-x) Al2O3, x Fe2O3, 40 P2O5 (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60-75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  17. Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice via reducing IL-6/STAT3 and IL-23/IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Lin, Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice. 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, Ginaton group, Ginaton treatment group, and DSS group. After 7 days administration, mice were sacrificed and colons were collected for H-E staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot. By observing clinical disease activity and histological damage, we assessed the effect of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice and observed the effect of Ginaton on normal mice. We also explored the specific mechanism of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice through examining the expression of inflammatory related mediators (gp130, STAT3, p-STAT3, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). Ginaton-treated DSS mice showed significant improvement over untreated DSS mice. Specifically, Ginaton improved clinical disease activity (DAI score, weight closs, colon shortening, and bloody stool) and histological damage, and reduced the expression of inflammatory-related mediators (p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). In addition, clinical disease activity, histological damage, the expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-t) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23) in mice of Ginaton group were similar to normal control group. In conclusion, Ginaton ameliorates DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice by reducing IL-17 production, which is at least partly involved in inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and IL-23/IL-17 axis. Moreover, Ginaton itself does not cause inflammatory change in normal mice. These results support that Ginaton can be as a potential clinical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC).

  18. Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Yan; Dou, Yannong; Ye, Jun; Bian, Difei; Wei, Zhifeng; Tong, Bei; Kong, Lingyi; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

  19. Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Yan; Dou, Yannong; Ye, Jun; Bian, Difei; Wei, Zhifeng; Tong, Bei; Kong, Lingyi; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:25284342

  20. Calcium-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-c-Src Signaling Cascade Mediates Disruption of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with the symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of Ask1 or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased Tyr-phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced Tyr-phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto phosphorylation of c-Src. This study demonstrates that Ca2+-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-cSrc signaling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  1. Tomato lycopene extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB signaling but worsens dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in NF-kappaBEGFP mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Joo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of tomato lycopene extract (TLE on intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We investigated the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were fed a diet containing 0.5 and 2% TLE or isoflavone free control (AIN-76. The therapeutic efficacy of TLE diet was assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS exposed mice and IL-10(-/-;NF-kappaB(EGFP mice, representing an acute and spontaneous chronic colitis model respectively. A mini-endoscope was used to determine the extent of macroscopic mucosal lesions. Murine splenocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were used to determine the in vitro impact of TLE on LPS-induced NF-kappaB signaling. In vitro, TLE blocked LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation, RelA translocation, NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MIP-2 mRNA accumulation in IEC-18 cells. Moreover, LPS-induced IL-12p40 gene expression was dose-dependently inhibited in TLE-treated splenocytes. Interestingly, DSS-induced acute colitis worsened in TLE-fed NF-kappaB(EGFP mice compared to control diet as measured by weight loss, colonoscopic analysis and histological scores. In contrast, TLE-fed IL-10(-/-;NF-kappaB(EGFP mice displayed decreased colonic EGFP expression compared to control diet. IL-6, TNFalpha, and MCP-1 mRNA expression were increased in the colon of TLE-fed, DSS-exposed NF-kappaB(EGFP mice compared to the control diet. Additionally, caspase-3 activation and TUNEL positive cells were enhanced in TLE diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice as compared to DSS control mice. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that TLE prevents LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression by blocking of NF-kappaB signaling, but aggravates DSS-induced colitis by enhancing epithelial cell apoptosis.

  2. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Hu

    Full Text Available It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1 cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation.

  3. Inhibitory effects of meju prepared with mixed starter cultures on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Meju is the main ingredient and the starter culture of traditional Korean fermented soybean foods; these fermented soybean products are well-known for their various health benefits, including anticancer effects. We developed the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures to improve the qualities and functionalities of fermented soybean products, as well as the meju itself. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the grain-type meju were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. Materials and Methods: AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice and meju was orally administered for 4 weeks. The body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically observed. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: The administration of meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer and reduced number of neoplasia, and reduced serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. It increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in colonic tissues. Conclusion: The meju showed inhibitory effects on the progression of colon cancer induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the number of neoplasias and regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels and the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  4. Serum amino acids profile and the beneficial effects of L-arginine or L-glutamine supplementation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkai Ren

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment. Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5% or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK-myosin light chain (MLC20, were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05. Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05 influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  5. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings.

  6. Conformation of Sodium Microcrystalline Cellulose Sulfate in Aqueous Solution%微晶纤维素硫酸钠溶液的构象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 熊文雯; 王兆梅

    2006-01-01

    Sodium microcrystalline cellulose sulfate ( NaCSMC) is a new type of effective anti-coagulant, whose anti-coagulant activity is closely related to the conformation in solution. In order to reveal the anti-coagulant activity of NaCSMC, the conformation of NaCSMC in aqueous solution was investigated by the optical rotation measurement, the viscosity analysis and the Congo red helix-coil transition analysis. The measurement results of optical rotation show that the conformation of NaCSMC is regular in neutral or weak alkaline solution. The same results can also be obtained by means of viscosity analysis. Moreover, it is indicated by the Congo red helix-coil transition analysis that the conformation of NaCSMC in aqueous solution is of not only regular conformation but also single helix and multi-helix structures.%微晶纤维素硫酸钠是一种具有显著抗凝血活性的物质,其抗凝活性与其在溶液中的构象密切相关.为了解其抗凝活性,文中通过旋光度分析、粘度分析和刚果红螺旋-线团过渡分析,研究了微晶纤维素硫酸钠溶液的构象.旋光度分析表明,微晶纤维素硫酸钠在水溶液或弱碱溶液中具有规则的空间构象;由粘度分析也可得出同样的结果;刚果红螺旋-线团过渡分析表明,微晶纤维素硫酸钠在溶液中具有规则的空间构象,同时具有单螺旋结构与高级螺旋结构.

  7. Preparation of Pt/poly (2-Methoxyaniline)-sodium dodecyl sulfate composite and its application for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol and formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, poly (2-Methoxyaniline) (P2MA) film was prepared by using successive potential cycling in monomer solution in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant at the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Then, electrodeposition at a constant potential (-0.20 V vs. Ag|AgCl|KCl (3 M)) in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution containing 5.0 mM H2PtCl6 was performed for dispersion of Pt nano/microparticles for fabrication of the Pt/P2MA-SDS composite. The as-formed Pt/P2MA-SDS/MGCE was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electrochemical methods. The SEM studies revealed that the presence of SDS strongly influences the morphology of the polymer film. The electrochemical methanol oxidation reaction was investigated at the Pt/P2MA-SDS/MGCE by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric techniques. The results indicated that the Pt/P2MA-SDS/MGCE in comparison with Pt/MGCE and Pt/P2MA/MGCE exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the methanol oxidation. The improved performance showed that the P2MA-SDS films significantly increase the effective active surface area of the Pt particles which is due to the synergistic effect between Pt and P2MA-SDS at the electrode surface. Furthermore, the effect of several parameters such as P2MA thickness, 2MA, SDS and CH3OH concentrations towards the methanol oxidation as well as long-term stability of the modified electrode has been investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde as an intermediate in the methanol oxidation was also investigated

  8. Calcitriol analog ZK191784 ameliorates acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis by modulation of intestinal dendritic cell numbers and phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ZK1916784, a low calcemic analog of calcitriol on intestinal inflammation.METHODS: Acute and chronic colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) according to standard procedures. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with ZK1916784 or placebo and colonic inflammation was evaluated. Cytokine production by mesenterial lymph node (MLN) cells was measured by ELISA.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) within the colonic tissue,and the effect of the calcitriol analog on DCs was investigated.RESULTS: Treatment with ZK191784 resulted in significant amelioration of disease with a reduced histological score in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. In animals with acute DSS colitis, down-regulation of colonic inflammation was associated with a dramatic reduction in the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and a significant increase in intereleukin (IL)-10 by MLN cells.Similarly, in chronic colitis, IL-10 expression in colonic tissue increased 1.4-fold when mice were treated with ZK191784, whereas expression of the Th1-specific transcription factor T-beta decreased by 81.6%. Lower numbers of infiltrating activated CD11c+ DCs were found in the colon in ZK191784-treated mice with acute DSS colitis, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by primary mucosal DCs was inhibited in the presence of the calcitriol analog.CONCLUSION: The calcitriol analog ZK191784 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties in experimental colitis that were at least partially mediated by the immunosuppressive effects of the derivate on mucosal DCs.

  9. Oroxyloside prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Ding, Youxiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-04-15

    Oroxyloside, as a metabolite of oroxylin A, may harbor various beneficial bioactivities which have rarely been reported in the previous studies. Here we established the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of oroxyloside in vivo. As a result, oroxyloside attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, oroxyloside inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities as well. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by oroxyloside. We unraveled the underlying mechanisms that oroxyloside inhibited NF-κB pathway by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of oroxyloside in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Oroxyloside decreased several LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264.7 and BMDM. We also found that oroxyloside inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway via activating PPARγ in RAW 264.7 and BMDM. Docking study showed that oroxyloside could bind with PPARγ. GW9662, the inhibitor of PPARγ, and PPARγ siRNA transfection blocked the effect of oroxyloside on PPARγ activation. Our study suggested that oroxyloside prevented DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation. Therefore, oroxyloside may be a promising and effective agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  10. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

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    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  11. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

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    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  12. 乙二醇与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰火山灰活性影响的研究%Study on the Effect of Glycol Sodium Sulfate Compound on the Pozzolanic Activity of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东忠; 王成勇; 林春莺

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ethylene glycol combined with sodium sulfate on the pozzolanic activity of fly ash in different stage were investigated The results show that the pozzolanic activity of fly ash at the early stage , the middle stage and the later stage can be improved in different extent by adding proper content of ethylene glycol combined with sodium suffate to cement. The exciting effect of ethylene glycol combined with sodium sulfate in the early stage is the best and that in the later stage is the worst. The compressive strength ratio at 3d , 7d and 28d of each cement sample can be improved obviously , but the increasing rate of those of each cement sample are reduced with the increasing of grinding time. Whether each cement sample is grinded or nor and how long grinding time is, the exciting effect of ethylene glyeol combined with sodium sulfate in different stage is better than that of ethylene glycol or sodium sulfate. When the content of 1% sodium sulfate and O. 03% ethylene glycol is admixed and grinding time is 15 minutes,the exciting effect of ethylene glycol combined with sodium sulfate on the pozzolanic activity of fly ash in different stag is the best.%探讨乙二醇与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰不同时期火山灰活性的影响.结果表明:将一定掺量的乙二醇与硫酸钠复合掺入可以不同程度地提高粉煤灰早期、中期与后期的火山灰活性,其中早期的激发作用效果最大,后期的激发作用效果最小.且随着粉磨时间的延长,各水泥试样的3d、7d及28d抗压强度比值均有明显的提高但增幅下降.无论是否粉磨及粉磨时间长短,将一定掺量的乙二醇与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰不同时期火山灰活性的激发作用效果均优于单掺乙二醇或硫酸钠;当硫酸钠掺量为1%,乙二醇掺量为0.03%进行复掺且粉磨时间15min时其对粉煤灰不同时期火山灰活性的激发作用效果最大.

  13. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1998-11-03

    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses.

  14. Berberine ameliorates chronic relapsing dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Hu, Dong-Dong; Fatima, Sarwat; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Mu, Huai-Xue; Lee, Nikki P; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an increasingly common condition particularly in developed countries. The lack of satisfactory treatment has fueled the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. In recent studies, berberine, a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, has shown beneficial effects against animal models of acute UC. However, UC usually presents as a chronic condition with frequent relapse in patients. How berberine will act on chronic UC remains unclear. In the present study, we adopted dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic relapsing colitis model to assess the ameliorating activity of berberine. Colitis was induced by two cycles of 2.0% DSS for five days followed by 14days of drinking water plus a third cycle consisting of DSS only for five days. The colitis mice were orally administered 20mg/kg berberine from day 13 onward for 30days and monitored daily. The body weight, stool consistency, and stool bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected and subjected to histological, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and LC-MS analyses. Lymphocytes were isolated from spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cultured for flow cytometry analysis of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells and the Th17 cell differentiation. Results showed that berberine significantly ameliorated the DAI, colon shortening, colon tissue injury, and reduction of colonic expression of tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 and occludin of colitis mice. Notably, berberine treatment pronouncedly reduced DSS-upregulated Th17-related cytokine (IL-17 and ROR-γt) mRNAs in the colon. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-23, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in colon tissues from DSS-treated mice were pronouncedly inhibited by berberine. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells of spleens and MLNs caused by DSS were significantly

  15. Ion Chromatography Determination of Sodium Sulfate in Water Reducing Agent%离子色谱法测定减水剂中硫酸钠含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学灵; 林瑛

    2012-01-01

    建立了离子色谱法测定减水剂中硫酸钠含量的方法。减水剂试样溶于水中,采用201×7(717)强碱性阴离子交换树脂去除溶液中的有机物,进样量为20μL。在Metrosep A SUPP 5-250型阴离子分离柱上,以3.2mmol/L Na2CO3和1.0mmol/L NaHCO3混合溶液作为淋洗液,抑制型电导检测,以0.6mL/min流量洗脱,按峰面积定量。方法检出限(3S/N)为0.05mg/L。用标准加入法,以实体为基体进行回收试验,测得回收率为96.3%~104.3%。%Ion chromatography was applied to the determination of sodium sulfate (as SO42) in water reducing agent. The water reducing agent was dissolved in water. 201×7(707) strongly basic anion exchange resin was used to remove organic substances from the sample solution. An aliquot (20 μL) of the eluate from 201×7(707) strongly basic anion exchange resin was taken for IC determination. The Metrosep A SUPP 5-250 column was used for separation, 3.2 mmol/L Na2CO3 and 1.0 mmol/L NaHCO3 solutions were used as mobile phase with flow-rate of 0.6 mL/min, and SO42- ion was determined by suppressed conductance detection through measuring values of peak area. Detection limit (3S/D) found was 0.05 mg/L. Values of recovery found by standard addition method were in the range from 96.3%- 104.3%.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of sodium deoxycholate sulfate as a lipid drug carrier to enhance the solubility, stability and safety of an amphotericin B inhalation formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Katkam N; Adhikari, Kajiram; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-08-25

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is still used as the gold standard for therapy against invasive fungal diseases. However, the use of AmB through oral administration is restricted due to its low solubility and stability in aqueous solution, which is the cause for its poor bioavailability and highly varying absorption. Therefore, an attempt has been made to enhance the solubility and stability of AmB to evaluate its bioactivity and safety for use as an inhaler by using a new excipient sodium deoxycholate sulfate (SDS) with aim of using it as a drug carrier for AmB. Therefore, SDS was formulated together with AmB as a dry powder by lyophilization. The dry powder was reconstituted in distilled water and evaluated its physicochemical properties such as zeta potential, particle size and pH to compare its solubility and stability of the formulations with a SDC-AmB (i.e., known as Fungizone(®)). In vitro toxicity studies were carried out with red blood cells (RBC) and respiratory cell lines. Bioactivity was determined by a micro-dilution method against Candidaalbicans and Cryptococcusneoformans. We found that SDS-AmB had a zeta potential (-45.53 mV), which was higher than of Fungizone(®); and produced a stable particle size in solution (73.8 nm). The particle size distributions of both formulations were expressed as their mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD; 1.70 and 1.74 μm), their fine particle fractions (FPF; 70 and 80%) and geometric standard deviations (GSD; 2.3 and 2.0), respectively. These values indicated that the sizes were appropriate for use in an inhaler. Pure AmB was found to hemolyse RBC and was very toxic to alveolar macrophage cells, as their viability rapidly declined from 93 to 56% when the AmB concentration increased from 1 to 8 μg/mL. The SDS-AmB formulation had a significantly reduced toxicity compared to AmB. The results clearly indicated that the SDS-lipid based nanoparticles had the potential to be used as an alternative option to Fungizone(®) for an

  17. Implementation of USP antibody standard for system suitability in capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) for release and stability methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Abbie L; Katiyar, Amit; Krishnamurthy, Girija

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) is widely used for purity analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for release and stability to demonstrate product consistency and shelf life during the manufacturing and life cycle of the product. CE-SDS method development is focused on exploring the method capability to provide the information about the product purity and product related degradants (fragmentation, aggregation etc.). In order to establish the functionality of the instrumentation, software, and sample preparation; system suitability criteria need to be defined for analytical methods using a well characterized reference standard run under the same protocol and analysis as the test articles. Typically the reference standard is produced using a manufacturing process representative of the clinical material. The qualification, control, and maintenance of in-house reference standards are established through rigorous quality and regulatory guidelines. The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) has developed a monoclonal IgG System Suitability Reference Standard to be utilized for assessment of system suitability in CE-SDS methods. In this communication, we evaluate the system suitability acceptance criteria performance of the USP IgG standard using two methods, the recommended USP protocol provided in monograph and a molecule specific Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) CE-SDS method. The results from USP IgG standard were compared with two in-house monoclonal antibody reference standards. The data suggest that the USP CE-SDS method may not be suitable for CE-SDS analysis for release and stability of monoclonal antibody therapeutics due to the high level of method induced partial reduction observed for all molecules tested. This high level of fragmentation observed utilizing the USP method will result in reporting lower purity levels, which will impact the overall quality assessment of the molecule. The system suitability criteria recommended by the USP method can be

  18. Rapid discrimination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples by using NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI, and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history

  19. Serum cell-free DNA concentration in BALB/c mice with azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virhan Novianry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States with a mortality rate ranked second in 2012. Early diagnosis such as detection of DNA in serum or faeces at the polyp stage, will reduce colorectal cancer mortality. This study was conducted to analyze the concentration of cell-free DNA (cfDNA as a tumor marker in colorectal carcinogenesis by using blood serum samples from BALB/c mice previously induced by azoxymethane (AOM and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS.Methods: This experimental animal study used 6 BALB/c mice which had serial intervention in a certain time frame. The first serum samples were taken before induction of carcinogenesis (week-0; then AOM induction of carcinogenesis followed and the second sampling one week after AOM intervention (week-1. Subsequently, promotion of carcinogenesis followed with DSS and the third sampling one week after this intervention (week-2. The fourth sampling was 5 weeks after AOM-DSS intervention (week-6. Quantification of the serum cfDNA was performed with SYBR-Green II fluorescence using Rotor Gene 6000 as a reference. Histopathological examination verified induction of carcinogenesis. For statistical analysis paired T-test was used.Results: Concentration of serum cfDNA showed significant difference between sampling group at week-0 (1238.49 ± 674.84 pg/µL and sampling group at week-6 (2244.04 ± 726.57 pg/µL the latter group showing pre-cancerous histopathology. Slightly increased cfDNA at week-1 with AOM induction (1358.57 ± 803.81 pg/µL and week-2 after DSS promotion (1317.23 ± 735.92 pg/µL were not significantly different from week-0 samples.Conclusion: The concentration of cfDNA in the serum of BALB/c mice 5 weeks after AOM induction of carcinogenesis and DSS promotion is significantly higher than before induction.

  20. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ{sub 1}) and the slow (τ{sub 2}) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na{sup +} counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs

  1. Chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  2. Comparative In Vitro Sensitivities of Human Immune Cell Lines, Vaginal and Cervical Epithelial Cell Lines, and Primary Cells to Candidate Microbicides Nonoxynol 9, C31G, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Fred C.; Miller, Shendra R.; Catalone, Bradley J.; Fichorova, Raina; Anderson, Deborah; Malamud, Daniel; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian

    2002-01-01

    In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more sensitive to N-9 and C31G after 48 h than were primary monocyte-derived macrophages. Cytokine activation of monocytes and l...

  3. Silica supported sodium hydrogen sulfate(NaHSO4/SiO2): A mild and efficient reusable catalyst for the synthesis of aryl-14-H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shallnaz Rostamizadeh; Nasrin Shadjou; Ali Mohammad Amani; Saeed Balalaie

    2008-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure for the preparation of aryl-14-H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes by a one-pot condensation reaction of 2-naphthol and aryl aldehydes,in the presence of silica supported sodium hydrogen sulfate(NaHSO4/SiO2)as a catalyst and in the absence of solvent has been developed.The present method offers several advantages such as excellent yields,short reaction time (10-30 min),mild condition,simple work-up,and the Use of a cheap and environmentally friendly catalyst with remarkable reusability.

  4. Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition of Thin Aluminum Oxide Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Jie(孙捷); SUN,Ying-Chun(孙迎春)

    2004-01-01

    Thin aluminum oxide films were deposited by a new and simple physicochemical method called chemical liquid phase deposition (CLD) on semiconductor materials. Aluminum sulfate with crystallized water and sodium bicarbonate were used as precursors for film growth, and the control of the system's pH value played an important role in this experiment. The growth rate is 12 nm/h with the deposition at [Al2(SO4)3]=0.0837 mol·L-1, [NaHCO3]=0.214 mol·L-1, 15 ℃. Post-growth annealing not only densifies and purifies the films, but results in film crystallization as well, Excellent quality of A12O3 films in this work is supported by electron dispersion spectroscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction spectrum and scanning electron microscopy photograph.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SODIUM SULFATE ON ANHYDRITE HYDRATION PROCESS AND MORPHOLOGY OF ITS DIHYDRATE PRODUCTS%Na2SO4对硬石膏水化进程及其水化产物形貌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭家惠; 张建新; 瞿金东; 白冷; 万体智

    2008-01-01

    通过硬石膏水化率、水化温度、液相离子浓度测定和硬化体显微结构分析,研究了Na2SO4对硬石膏水化进程和二水石膏晶体形貌的影响,从二水石膏晶体生长角度探讨了Na2SO4的作用机理.结果表明:Na2SO4可促进硬石膏溶解,使硬石膏水化率提高,水化热集中,水化潜伏期缩短,水化进程加快;Na2SO4还可提高二水石膏的析晶过饱和度,使二水石膏临界晶核半径减少,晶体成核与生长速率加快,晶体尺寸减小:Na2SO4形成富SO2-4液相,有利于二水石膏晶体结构基元形成,高SO2-4浓度改变了晶面在不同轴向生长的相对速率,使c轴方向的生长具有优势,从而改变了二水石膏晶体生长习性,使二水石膏晶体由板状变为针柱状.%The influence of sodium sulfate on the anhydrite hydration process and the crystal morphology of its dihydrate products were studied by the determination of the hydration rate, hydration temperature and the ion concentration in liquid phase, in combina-tion with the investigation of the mierostructure of the hardened anhydrite paste. Moreover, the activation mechanism of sodium sul-fate was analyzed from the view of the crystal growth of dihydrate gypsum. The results show that the addition of sodium sulfate pro-motes the dissolution of anhydrite, increases its hydration rate, concentrates its hydration heat evolution, shortens the hydration la-tency period, and thus accelerates the hydration process. On the other hand, the addition of sodium sulfate increases the supersatura-tion degree of dihydrate gypsum crystallization, decreases the critical nucleus radius of the gypsum crystal, and accelerates its crystal nucleation and growth, consequently leading to the refinement of the crystal size. The liquid environment rich in SO2-4 produced byadding sodium sulfate is beneficial for the formation of crystal structure units of dihydrate gypsum. Furthermore, high SO2-4 concen-tration changes the relative

  6. Effect of Sodium Molybdate Inhibitor on Corrosion Resistance of 5083 Aluminum Alloy Used for Drone%钼酸钠对靶用5083铝合金耐蚀性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志成; 周宽; 田志强

    2016-01-01

    目的:提高靶用5083铝合金材料的耐蚀性。方法分别运用阳极极化、交流阻抗及EDS等试验技术研究钼酸钠对5083铝合金在3%氯化钠溶液中的耐蚀性能影响。结果钼酸钠加入3%氯化钠溶液以后,该铝合金的腐蚀电位下降,点蚀电位与腐蚀电位分离,维钝电流减小,阻抗值增大,抗点蚀能力提高。结论钼酸钠对5083铝合金产生缓蚀作用。%Objective To improve the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy used for drone.Methods The polariza-tion, electrochemical impedance spectrum and energy dispersive spectrometer were employed to study the effect of sodium mo-lybdate inhibitor on the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy in 3% NaCl solution.Results After addition of sodium molybdate in the 3% NaCl solution, the corrosion potential was decreased and separated from the pitting potential, the passi-vated current was reduced, the impedance was increased, and the capability of inhibiting pitting was promoted.Conclusion So-dium molybdate had corrosion inhibition effect on 5083 aluminum alloy.

  7. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard;

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate and ...

  8. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), stomach, and ... pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque ...

  9. 硫酸钠水合物在网络微区域中的相变机制%Phase Change Mechanism of Conifned Sodium Sulfate Hydrates in Micro Network Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓琳; 史剑; 符显珠; 孙蓉

    2015-01-01

    Hydrate salt is an attractive solid-liquid phase change material because of its high energy storage density. However, its applications have been limited owing to the supercooling and phase segregation. In order to solve these problems, we propose to make the silica gel in the saturated solution of sodium sulfate by means of in-situ polymerization. According to our experiments, the latent heat of saturated solution of sodium sulfate in silica gel is about 238.1 J/g and the phase change temperature is 30℃. With some surfactant, it can endure more than five months of heating-cooling cycles stably in subtropical spring and summer. Using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, we found that the microstructure of silica gel was mainly amorphous with some small crystals distributed in it. We believe that adding the silica gel produces a porous structure, which helps the crystal growth of sodium sulfate hydrate and hence, suppresses the supercooling and phase segregation.%水合盐作为一种固-液相变材料因具有高的能量储存密度而备受关注。然而,其过冷和相分离的缺陷限制了它的应用。为了解决过冷及相分离问题,文章提出了采用在硫酸钠饱和溶液中原位聚合的方法制备硅胶。根据实验结果,硅胶中饱和硫酸钠水溶液的潜热为238.1 J/g,相变温度为30℃。通过添加这种添加剂,它可以在亚热带春夏季时期承受长达五个月以上的冷热循环。通过扫描电子显微镜和傅里叶变换红外光谱检测发现,实验制备的硅胶是无定型结构,并有一些小的晶体分布其中。实验推断,硅胶的添加提供了一种多孔结构,有助于硫酸钠水合盐晶体的生长,因此,它可以抑制过冷和相分离的发生。

  10. Intra-articular hyaluronate sodium and oral glucosamine sulfate for the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis%联合治疗老年踝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国帅

    2013-01-01

    目的观察联合应用玻璃酸钠和硫酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊治疗老年踝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效。方法对60例诊断为踝关节骨性关节炎的老年患者常规关节腔内注射玻璃酸钠(SH),每周一次,5周一疗程。联合应用硫酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊,连续服用6周为一疗程。采用t检验比较治疗前后踝关节疼痛、功能及活动度改善的差异性。结果治疗后,踝关节疼痛、肿胀及功能障碍均较治疗前明显改善,总有效率为93%。结论联合应用酸钠和硫酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊对踝关节骨性关节炎具有良好的临床疗效。%Objecitive:To observe the therapeutic effect of hyaluronate sodium intra-articular injection and glucosamine sulfate on the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis.Methods:In our study, 60 patients(70 ankles) with osteoarthritis were treated with intra-articular hyaluronate sodium and oral glucosamine sulfate, the ankle pain, range of motion and function were evaluated after treatment with Mazur system. Results: Compared with pre-treatment, the pain, range of motion and function were improved significantly (P<0.05).All the patients were satisfactory with the clinical effect. Conclusion: Intra-articular hyaluronate sodium and oral glucosamine sulfate can alleviate the pain and improve the function of ankle having a good clinical effect for osteoarthritis.

  11. Preparation and Property of Morphine Sulfate Sustained-Release Liquid Suppository Reinforced by Sodium Chloride%氯化钠强化硫酸吗啡缓释液体栓制备及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明和; 娄杰; 洪春雪; 耿琴; 曹宇; 李星; 束家有

    2011-01-01

    Morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories were prepared by morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories with poloxamer 407/188,cabopol,sodium chloride,azone,2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol according to the properties of in situ gel.The physicochemical properties such as gelation temperature,gel strength,bioadhesive force were studied.The drug released from the morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppository was studied with new device,and the drug absorption was performed in beagle dogs.The 3p97 program was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories,and their characteristics between in vitro release and in vivo absorption were evaluated.The drug release pattern in vitro is best described as zero-order kinetics and in vivo profile is demonstrated to fit one compartment model.The pharmacokinetics pharmerers of prescription reinforced by sodium chloride(cabopol 0.8%,NaCl 1.0%) are: ρ_max=409.7 ng·mL-1,AUC=5 708 ng·h·mL-1,MRT=10.92 h.The release time of morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories reinforced by sodium chloride is 7~10 h in vitro,and 9~18 h in vivo,which shows good sustained-realease characteristics.%根据温敏原位凝胶的特性制备了以泊洛沙姆407/188为主要基质,卡波姆、氯化钠、氮酮和2,6-二叔丁基-4-甲基苯酚为添加剂的硫酸吗啡缓释液体栓,测定了其凝胶温度、凝胶强度和生物黏附力,研究了其体外溶出和在Beagle犬体内的药物吸收.用3p97程序计算药物代谢动力学参数,进行体外释放和体内吸收的相关性研究.结果表明,一定量的氯化钠与卡波姆产生协同作用,使凝胶温度下降,凝胶强度增加.该缓释液体栓在体外释药符合零级模式,在Beagle犬体内释药过程符合一室模型.其中,经氯化钠强化的处方(卡波姆为0.8%,氯

  12. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of zinc, nickel, iron and lead in different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina as their bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and simple solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of trace and toxic metals in food samples has been reported. The method is based on the adsorption of zinc, nickel, iron and lead on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina, which is also chelated with bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine (BHAPN). The retained analyte ions on modified solid phase were eluted using 8 mL of 4 mol L-1 HNO3. The analyte determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some metal ions and anions on the recoveries of understudy analyte ions were investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the evaluation of these trace and toxic metals in some traditional food samples from Iran.

  13. 基于膜分离技术的脱硝原理及工艺%The Principles and Process about Sodium Sulfate Removal Base on Membrane Separation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭康贤; 莫新来; 谭子斌; 英明光

    2011-01-01

    文章介绍了膜元件应用于氯碱工业中淡盐水脱硝的工作原理,在实验的基础上,进行了二级膜分离脱除淡盐水中的硫酸钠的工艺设计和制造,使硫酸钠浓度和结晶温度大大提高。%The principles and proces of sodium sulfate removal from salt brine in chlor-alkali industry,the process be designed and the equipments be manufactured to used two grades Nano membrane separate method according to experiments was introduced.

  14. 高职精细化工实验--十二烷基硫酸钠的制备1例%Recommendation of a fine chemical experiment-the synthesis of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂锋

    2014-01-01

    在教学实践的基础上,推荐一个适合高职院校精细化工专业学生的实验---十二烷基硫酸钠的制备。以浓硫酸和尿素为催化剂,用月桂醇(正十二醇)和氨基磺酸反应,然后加入氢氧化钠放尽氨气,所得粗产物,经提纯、干燥精制得白色或淡黄色固体。通过实验可以让学生掌握硫酸化制备阴离子表面活性剂的基本原理和方法,并掌握尾气吸收、提纯等精细化工实验操作技能。%Based on the teaching practice, a fine chemical experiments was recommend, it's suitable for advanced vocational students———the synthesis of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using sulfuric acid and urea as catalyst, lauryl alcohol ( lauryl alcohol) and amino sulfonic acid were reacted, and sodium hydroxide was put ammonia, so the coarse product was gotten, and then, the white or light yellow solid were obtained by purification and drying. Through the experiment can make the students master the basic principle of sulfating preparation of anionic surfactant and methods, and grasp the experimental operation skills of fine chemical industry, such as the tail gas absorption and purification .

  15. Progress of marine drug propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) and inspiration%海洋药物藻酸双酯钠研究进展及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春霞; 孙杨; 管华诗

    2012-01-01

    通过总结我国自主研发的第一个海洋药物藻酸双酯钠(propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate,PSS)近30年的生产和临床应用情况,对其生产工艺和质量标准、药理活性、临床用药和不良反应等进行系统深入的探讨,阐明PSS的构效关系和作用机制,以期进行PSS产品的更新换代,提高市场竞争力,扩大PSS临床新的适应症等,从而实现对PSS的技术改造和升级,进一步为广大患者提供更加安全有效的海洋药物,为海洋多糖类药物的研究与开发提供参考.%Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), the first marine drug independently developed in China, had been in the clinical application for nearly three decades. In this paper production process and quality standards, pharmacological activities, clinical use and adverse reactions of the PSS were discussed thoroughly for clarification of its structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action. It is enlightened to upgrade the PSS and expand its new clinical indications to achieve the technological innovation and upgrade, which will provide our patients with more safe and effective marine drugs, provide a reference for drug research and development of marine polysaccharides.

  16. 微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定氧化铝中的氧化钠%Determination of Sodium Oxide in Aluminum Oxide by Microwave Digestion-flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛心禄

    2012-01-01

    氧化铝中氧化钠含量的测定,一般采用高温熔结,用水浸出钠盐后,用原予吸收火焰光度法测定,该方法的测定周期比较长,而且高温熔结时对铂金皿的损耗比较大。文章提出了试样用磷酸和硫酸混合溶液,在高压微波消解器中进行处理,将样品在较短的时间内消解,并在试液中加入一定量的氯化铯,消除钠的电离干扰,采用原子吸收光谱法直接测定,测试结果与标准样品推荐值比较,结果令人满意。%The sodium oxide content in aluminum oxide is usually determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with high temperature melting and leaching, which is time consuming and damage platinum bowl. The paper proposed forward to determine with sample of mixed phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid solution to process in the high pressure microwave digestion device. The samples were digested in a relatively short time, and added a certain amount of cesium chloride in the test solution. Used for eliminate ionization interference of sodium to directly determine sodium oxide in aluminum oxide by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Under the comparison of test results and recommended values of standard samples, it was satisfactory.

  17. 超声法制备聚硅酸硫酸铝及其混凝效能研究%STUDY ON PREPARATION OF POLY SILICATE ALUMINUM SULFATE BY ULTRASONIC METHOD AND ITS COAGULATION PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 王东田

    2013-01-01

    采用超声法制备聚硅酸硫酸铝(PASS),对其混凝效能进行了研究,并与PAC混凝效能进行对比.结果表明,采用超声制得PASS的pH低于传统方法制得PASS的pH,但其混凝效能优于后者,且在高投加量时优于PAC;先0.2kW超声1.5 h再0.2 kW超声1.5 h制备的PASS,在其投加量(以A12O3计)为6.0 mg/L时,处理太湖水样沉后浊度为0.377 NTU、滤后CODMn为1.162 mg/L、滤后Al3-质量浓度为40 μg/L,此为PASS的优化超声制备条件.混凝机理主要为电中和与吸附架桥作用.%Poly Silicate Aluminum Sulfate (PASS) is a new type of inorganic high polymer coagulant.Compared with the conventional coagulants it has better coagulation performance.In this paper,PASS is prepared by ultrasonic method.Its coagulation performance is investigated and compared with the coagulation performance of PAC.The experimental results show that pH of PASS prepared by ultrasonic method is lower than that of the PASS prepared by conventional method.However,the coagulation performance is better than the latter and PAC.Tai Lake water samples are processed by the PASS,and the ultrasonic condition was first 0.2 kW for 1.5 h and then 0.2 kW for 1.5 h.This ultrasound condition is proved to be the best by following data.Precipitated turbidity of the Tai Lake water sample is 0.377 NTU,filtered CODMn is 1.162 mg/L,and filtered aluminum ion concentration is 40 μg/L.The coagulation mechanisms of PASS are the electricity neutralization and absorption bridge.

  18. Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)/surface interaction and molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Domenech, Marc; Foissy, Alain; Persello, Jacques; Mutin, Jean-Claude

    2000-12-01

    The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions. The specific interaction of PANa with gypsum can explain the oriented growth of gypsum crystal. The gypsum growth is slowed down but cannot be blocked by the adsorption of PANa. On the other hand, PANa can block the heterogeneous and homogenous gypsum nucleation. As soon as a critical surface density of PANa onto the hemihydrate surface is reached, the heterogeneous gypsum nucleation is prevented and hemihydrate hydration is indefinitely blocked. The interaction between PANa and the hemihydrate surface is of prime importance to control hydration. Also, the influence of the molecular weight of PANa on homogenous nucleation has been investigated. The precipitation of calcium polyacrylate can explain the differences between the two molecular weights used (2100 and 20 000). This work leads to the conclusion that heterogeneous nucleation is the key process that controls hydration of a system in which hemihydrate dissolution, gypsum nucleation and growth are all occurring at the same time in a continuous manner.

  19. Serum cell-free DNA concentration in BALB/c mice with azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Virhan Novianry; Yulhasri Yulhasri; Kusmardi Kusmardi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States with a mortality rate ranked second in 2012. Early diagnosis such as detection of DNA in serum or faeces at the polyp stage, will reduce colorectal cancer mortality. This study was conducted to analyze the concentration of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a tumor marker in colorectal carcinogenesis by using blood serum samples from BALB/c mice previously induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and promoted by dextran sodium sulf...

  20. 大黄加芒硝对危重病患者胃肠功能障碍的疗效观察%Clinical effect of rhubarb combined with sodium sulfate on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critical care patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凌鸿; 郑贵军; 王君梅; 袁亚松; 蒋佳维

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨大黄加芒硝对危重病患者胃肠功能保护和治疗作用.[方法]纳入研究的患者均满足消化功能障碍和慢性健康状况评分系统(APACHEⅡ)≥16分并排除有器质性胃肠疾病的患者.治疗组:用生大黄50 g,开水100 mL浸泡15 min至深褐色,经胃管缓慢鼻饲,每8h1次,外用芒硝100 g,双层敷料包裹,平敷于肚脐处,待纱布袋潮湿后及时更换,每日更换2~3次;对照组:枸橼酸莫沙必利片10 mg,鼻饲,每8h1次.观察两组腹胀缓解时间、开始排便时间、肠内营养开始时间及消化道出血的发生率.[结果]治疗组在腹胀缓解的时间,顺利开始给予肠内营养的时间及开始排便时间均短于对照组,P<0.05或P<0.01.消化道出血发生率,治疗组显著低于对照组.[结论]大黄加芒硝能明显保护危重病患者胃肠功能,减少消化道出血的发生率,明显改善患者的预后.%[Objective] To observe the protective and treatment effects of rhubarb combined with sodium sulfate in critical care patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. [Methods] The enrolled patients in the study had digestive disorders and APACHE II ≥ 16 scores and the patients with organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded. In treatment group: the 50 mg of crude rhubarb was inserted in 100 mL of water at 100 t for 15 minutes till dark brown was found. After that the drug was infused into the treatment patients by stomach tube feeding slowly, 3 times a day. At the same time 100 g of sodium sulfate in double dressing package was flatly masked on belly button, changed a time when the gauze bag became wet and changed 2-3 times a day. In control group: 10 mg of mosanpride tablets was given by nasal feeding, 3 times a day. The time of abdominal distension relieving, time of beginning to defecate, time of starting enteral nutrition and the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding were observed in both groups. [Results] In treatment group the time of

  1. Interaction between amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Z.; Saini, M.; Amdouni, N.; Pal, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micellization of an aqueous solution of the surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsufate (C4mim)(C8OSO3) and its interaction with an anionic polymer sodium polystyrene sulfonate, (NaPSS) were studied using conductimetry, tensiometry and fluorimetry. Surface tension profile shows a more dramatic increase in the value of surface tension of aqueous (C4mim)(C8OSO3) before the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of IL. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of this surfactant was found out from conductance measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, i.e., Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization of the IL in aqueous solution have been calculated. Behavior of fluorescence probe confirms the binding interactions between SAIL and the polyelectrolyte.

  2. Resistance of different materials used in sewers systems:Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, polypropylene (PP and High density polyethylene (HDPE, to sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LASFAR Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of PVC, PP and HDPE used in sewer systems exposed to acid and sulfate solutions was investigated at 25°C and 40°C. Gravimetric characterization proves that PVC has a fickian behavior. It shows also, that PP has a non-fickian behavior, characterized by a rapid acceleration of water absorption, and the HDPE has a fickian behavior at 25°C, while it has a non-fickian behavior at 40°C, characterized by a weight loss after a certain aging period. The prolongation of the time of exposure to sulfuric acid solution leads to a progressive increase in tensile strength followed by a slight decrease at 40°C. The unaged samples of all materials have a much lower tensile strength than those of the aged samples, and a drop in elongation at break could be observed. These results can be explained by the increase of crystallinity, followed by the increase of crosslinking density due to the diffusion of the solvent and the effect of the temperature as the exposure time increases. These results prove that there is a correlation between the diffusion of the solvent as well as the increased exposure time and temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer.

  3. [Urine protein analysis with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in healthy cats and cats with kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Wohlsein, P; Trautwein, G; Nolte, I

    1997-03-01

    In this investigation, the value of urine protein analysis by means of molecular-weight related sodium dodecyl-polyacryl gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was examined with regard to its applicability and diagnostic significance in nephropathy in the cat. A total of 87 cats was included in the study, 30 of them that were clinically healthy served as the control group. The urine protein pattern of this group had, besides the band representing the market albumin, and additional broad band within the size of the marker transferrin. In some cases, weak bands were present within the range of the Tamm-Horsfall-protein and immunoglobulin G. Micromolecular protein bands were not demonstrable. The remaining 57 animals had a histologically proven nephropathy. Thirty-eight cats had elevated urea and/or creatinine values in the plasma (group 1), and 19 animals had values within the reference range (group 2). The urine protein pattern as evidenced by SDS-urine electrophoresis was altered in all cats with histologically proven nephropathy, and it is thus concluded that with this technique a nephropathy can be diagnosed very early and prior to changes of plasma urea and creatinine (group 2). Moreover, in most of the cases, the nephrological changes can be classified as glomerular or tubulo-interstitial (group 1 and group 2). However, it is not possible to draw exact conclusions concerning the underlying morphological changes, nor can the severity of the disease be correctly assessed. PMID:9123982

  4. Speciation and subcellular location of Se-containing proteins in human liver studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Jiujiang; Zhang, Peiqun; Chai, Zhifang [Institute of High Energy Physics and Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2002-02-01

    Speciation of Se-containing proteins in the subcellular fractions of human liver was studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometric (HG-AFS) detection. It was found that about 24 kinds of Se-containing proteins existed in subcellular fractions of normal human liver. The molecular weights (MW) of the subunits were mostly in the range 20-30 kDa and 50-80 kDa. Major Se-containing protein fractions at 61 kDa and 21 kDa are probably selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase, respectively. The 54 kDa protein is probably a thioredoxin reductase, which is presented in nuclei, mitochondria, lysosome, microsome and cytosol. We noticed that the Se-containing protein with the lowest MW of 9.3 kDa only existed in lysosome. Most of the proteins have not been identified and would require further investigation to characterize them. The specific subcellular distributions of different Se-containing proteins suggest that they could play important biological roles in each organelle. (orig.)

  5. Downregulation of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in the secondary inflammatory response of mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and its contribution to cyclosporine A blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Shoji; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Miki, Ikuya; Inoue, Jun; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Mizuno, Shigeto

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) play important roles in drug metabolism and excretion; however, their functions in pathological conditions remain unclear. Hepatobiliary abnormalities have been described in patients with ulcerative colitis, which may affect drug metabolism and excretion in the liver and small intestine. We examined the functions of CYP3A and P-gp in the liver and small intestine of mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Up to day 7, inflammatory markers were significantly increased in the livers of DSS-treated mice, accompanied by decreased CYP3A. Additionally hepatobiliary transporters and Pregnane X receptor, which regulates the transcriptional activation of CYP3A, were reduced. Both CYP3A and P-gp were significantly decreased in the upper small intestine of DSS-treated mice on day 7. This was associated with the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, but not changes in nuclear receptor expression. On day 7 of DSS treatment, the concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA), a substrate of both CYP3A and P-gp, were significantly higher than controls. These results indicated the existence of a second inflammatory response in the liver and upper small intestine of mice with DSS-induced colitis, and bioavailability of CsA was increased by the dysfunction of CYP3A and P-gp in these organs.

  6. Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis ameliorates proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis via NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Park, Hee-Juhn; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Jang, Daesik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of monotropein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Monotropein was found to inhibit the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with monotropein decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Consistent with these findings, monotropein also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α), and consequently the translocations of NF-κB. In the DSS-induced colitis model, monotropein reduced disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and inflammation-related protein expressions by suppressing NF-κB activation in colon mucosa. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of monotropein are mainly related to the inhibition of the expressions of inflammatory mediators via NF-κB inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic role in colitis. PMID:23261679

  7. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-an; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-qiong; Zheng, Chun-hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. PMID:26877180

  8. Concrete Deterioration under Alternate Action of Carbonation and Sulfate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By micro- and macro-observations, the study reveals the deterioration mechanisms of concrete under alternate action of carbonation and sodium sulfate solution attack (C-SA comparied with the single sodium sulfate solution attack (SA. The studies indicate that in both cases, the main attack product is ettringite, some gypsum is checked only in the first layer of case SA, the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not initiated in case C-SA. Compared with the single sodium sulfate solution attack, although the carbonation layer mitigates the extent of sulfate attack in limited exposure period, the alternate action of carbonation and sulfate attack still leads to strength degradation to some extent. The effect of carbonation on sulfate attack for longer exposure period deserves further research.

  9. 月桂酸二聚甘油酯硫酸酯钠盐的制备与表面性能%Preparation and surface properties of sodium lauric dimerized glyceryl sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史鸿鑫; 张辉; 武宏科; 陈立军; 项菊萍

    2012-01-01

    Lauric dimerized glycerol ester was synthesized from lauric acid and glycerol dimer,and then the intermediate ester was sulfated by chlorosulfonic acid and neutralized by NaOH solution to get the product sodium lauric dimerized glyceryl sulfate (SLDGS). The intermediate and product were characterized by FTIR. The surface chemical properties were investigated at 298 K. The surface tensions of SLDGS aqueous solution increase with the increasing esterification degree of glycerol dimmer with lauric acid. When its esterification degree is 25% ,the cmc is 1.15 mmol · L-1 and γcwc is 28. 5 mN · m-1. When esterification degree is 30% , emulsifying property of SLDGS aqueous solution with kerosene and benzene is the best,and the emulsification time is 168 s. Foaming performance of SLPGS is not good.%以二聚甘油和月桂酸为原料进行酯化反应得到月桂酸二聚甘油酯,再与氯磺酸反应,经氢氧化钠中和制得月桂酸二聚甘油酯硫酸酯钠盐(SLDGS).对中问体和产物进行了红外光谱分析,测定了产物在298 K下的表面化学性能.发现SLDGS水溶液的表面张力随着月桂酸酯化度的升高而增大,酯化度为25%时,最低表面张力为28.5 mN·m-1,临界胶束浓度为1.15 mmol·L-1;在煤油和苯中,当酯化度为30%时,SLDGS水溶液的乳化性能达到最大值,乳化时间为168 s;SLDGS水溶液的泡沫性能不佳.

  10. Lead recovery by flotation with sodium lauryl sulfate Recuperação de chumbo por flotação com sulfato lauril de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gorette de Morais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead recoverable slag is of economic and environmental importance. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of its recovery by flotation with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS. The similar nature of the lead and iron particles formed by solidification of the melted slag impairs selectivity during the flotation process. In order to verify the most favorable conditions for selectivity, SLS adsorption mechanisms for lead and iron particles were studied. The adsorption was monitored by means of zeta potential and surface tension determinations. Flotation tests were conducted under the most promising conditions identified for selectivity. The results suggest that SLS adsorption in lead particles is of a chemical nature. It was observed that the formation of lead lauryl sulfate is easier in alkaline medium. A 79% lead recovery was obtained at pH 10 using only 10-3 M collector concentration. Nevertheless, the best selectivity conditions were obtained in an acid medium.O processo metalúrgico para reciclagem de chumbo, a partir de baterias automotivas usadas, gera uma escória constituída, basicamente, por ferro e chumbo. A recuperação do chumbo contido nesse material descartado é de grande interesse econômico e ambiental. O trabalho teve, como objetivo, estudar a possibilidade de recuperar o chumbo através de flotação com sulfato lauril de sódio (SLS. A fim de se verificarem as condições mais favoráveis para a seletividade, procurou-se identificar o mecanismo de adsorção do SLS, nas partículas de chumbo e de ferro. A adsorção foi monitorada por meio de determinações de potencial zeta e tensão superficial. Foram realizados testes de flotação nas condições identificadas como mais promissoras para a seletividade. Os resultados sugerem que o SLS adsorve-se, quimicamente, à superfície das partículas de chumbo. O aumento do pH favorece a adsorção, possibilitando uma recuperação de 79% do chumbo contido com apenas 10-3M do

  11. Adsorption of High Fluoride in Drinking Water by Aluminum Sulfate Impregnated Activated Alumina Granules%硫酸铝浸渍活性氧化铝球吸附饮水中的高浓度氟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴代赦; 刘容; 杜俊逸; 李萍

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate impregnated activated alumina granules (AIAA) are the common adsorbent for high fluoride (F) drinking water, the adsorption properties of AIAA were influenced by sorts of factors. In batch adsorption experiments, the adsorption performance of AIAA in high fluoride drinking water was investigated by examining the effects of different factors, including AIAA amount to fluoride solution volume (m(AIAA): V) (2 -40 g · L-1) ,fluoride mass concentration (ρ(F)) (2 - 100 mg · L-1) ,pH (4 - 10) ,temperature ( 11 -33 ℃ ) and time on fluoride adsorption. Under the conditions of 11 -33 ℃ ,pH of 4 - 10,m(AIAA) : V at 20 g · L-1 ,AIAA could remove more than 90% F- for fluoride-containing water (10 mg · L-1) after 3 h,which satisfied sufficiently with the hygienic standard for F in drinking water. Langmuir and Freundlich models were adopted to fit the adsorption data. The results showed that the linear Langmuir model was the best fitting method at ρ(F) from 2 to 100 mg · L-1 ,pH from 5 to 10 and temperature from 11 to 33 ℃ ; and the non-linear Freundlich model was the best fitting method at ρ(F) from 2 to 1 000 mg· L-1 or at ρ(F) from 2 to 100 mg ·L -1 ,and pH at 4. With the increasing of ρ(F) in solution and temperature, the decreasing of solution pH, the adsorption capacity of AIAA was increased gradually.%硫酸铝浸渍活性氧化铝球(AIAA)是饮水除氟领域常用的吸附剂,它对氟的吸附性能受各种因素的影响.静态吸附通过改变AIAA质量与氟溶液体积比(m(AIAA):V)(2~40g·L-1)、氟的质量浓度(p(F))(2~100mg·L-1)、pH值(4~10)、温度(11~33℃)和时间等实验参数,研究这些因素对AIAA吸附除氟的影响.在11~33℃的温度范围内、pH值变化为4~10之间时,当m(AIAA):V为20 g·L-1,3 h内处理ρ(F)为10 mg·L-1水溶液其氟的去除率可达90%以上,足以保证其满足饮用水的含氟标准.利用Langmuir和Freundlich模型对吸附数据进行了拟合研

  12. Dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis leads to bone loss in mice%葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导的小鼠肠炎中骨质丢失的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凡华; 胡志华

    2014-01-01

    建立小鼠葡聚糖硫酸钠肠炎(DSS)模型,并分析肠炎小鼠中骨质丢失的发生情况.C57BL/6小鼠口服DSS溶液2周以建立肠炎模型,第1周饮用2% DSS溶液,第2周饮用1% DSS溶液.饮用蒸馏水的C57BL/6小鼠作为对照.记录每组小鼠体质量变化,观察粪便和血便状况,μCT分析股骨骨质丢失的情况.结果表明DSS处理组小鼠和对照组相比,出现了明显的骨质丢失,骨量减少,骨小梁数目下降.说明DSS诱导的小鼠肠炎模型可以作为研究肠炎引发骨质丢失的良好模型.%To establish a colitis model induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and analyzed bone loss in colitic mice. Colitis was induced by administration of DSS solution for 2 weeks, 2%DSS and 1%DSS solution was administrated on the first week and second week, respectively. Body weight, stool and blood score of each group mice was recorded, and femoral bone loss were examined by micro computed tomography (μCT). The results demonstrate that DSS-treated mice exhibited a lower bone mass and decreased trabecular numbers as compared with the controls. Collectively, DSS-induced colitis model can be used to study pharmacological interventions for bone loss in mice.

  13. The epigenetic effects of aspirin: the modification of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation in the prevention of colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate sodium-treated CF-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Chengyue; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Li, Wenji; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Chronic inflammation appears to enhance the risk of CRC. Emerging evidence has suggested that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in CRC. Aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] has been shown to prevent CRC; however, the epigenetic mechanisms of its action remain unknown. This study investigated the protective role of ASA in azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-promoted colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) and examined the epigenetic effects, particularly on histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac), underlying the preventive effect of ASA. CF-1 mice were fed with AIN-93M diet with or without 0.02% ASA from 1 week prior to AOM initiation until the mice were killed 20 weeks after AOM injection. Our results showed that AOM/DSS + ASA significantly suppressed inflammatory colitis symptoms and tumor multiplicity. AOM/DSS + ASA reduced AOM/DSS-induced protein expression and the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and globally restored H3K27ac. Furthermore, AOM/DSS + ASA inhibited AOM/DSS-induced enrichment of H3K27ac in the promoters of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) that corresponded to the dramatic suppression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Surprisingly, no significant changes in the H3K27ac abundance in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Cox-2) promoters or in the Cox-2 mRNA and protein expression were observed. Collectively, our results suggest that a potential novel epigenetic mechanism underlies the chemopreventive effects of ASA, and this mechanism attenuates CAC in AOM/DSS-induced CF-1 mice via the inhibition of HDACs and the modification of H3K27ac marks that suppress iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6. PMID:27207670

  14. Soy protein diet, but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, decreases mucin-1, trefoil factor-3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyi; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Mitra, Debjani; Becker, Chad; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Tentinger, Amy; MacDonald, Ruth S

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased during recent decades. Within the colon, the families of mucins (MUC) and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Probiotic administration influences the intestinal MUC layer. Additionally, food components may affect gut microflora or have direct effects on the MUC barrier. Our objective was to determine whether diet and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) would mediate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 20% (wt:wt) casein, soy, or whey proteins with or without LGG for 12 d. Seven days after starting LGG diets, the mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 4 d. Two additional casein groups with or without LGG were given tap water, for a total of 8 groups. One day after the DSS treatment, the mice were killed and the colon and cecum tissues and cecum contents were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. Whey protein significantly increased cecal LGG content compared with the other diets. In the casein diet groups, MUC1 and TFF-3 expression in colon was significantly induced by DSS independent of LGG. Compared with other DSS-treated groups, soy protein decreased MUC-1 and TFF-3 in the colon. Similarly, soy protein decreased the impact of DSS on inflammatory scores, TNFα gene expression, and colon shortening. There was no overall effect of LGG on these measurements. In conclusion, soy protein suppressed the DSS-induced inflammatory stimulation of MUC, TFF, and TNFα gene expression independently of LGG.

  15. The corrosion inhibition of aluminum and its copper alloys in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Amin, Mohammed A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Moussa, S.O. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: sherif_m74@yahoo.com; Ellithy, Abdallah S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-12-20

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its two copper alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This paper reports the results of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of Al (Al-2.5% Cu and Al-7.0% Cu) alloys in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution carried out in different concentrations of linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an anionic surfactant (LAS) and temperature range from 10 to 60 deg. C. The data revealed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing surfactant concentration and time of immersion, and decreases with solution temperature. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of LAS adsorbed film on the electrode surface. The surfactant acted mainly as cathodic inhibitor. Maximum inhibition efficiency of the surfactant is observed at concentration around its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The inhibition occurs through adsorption of the surfactant on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of the corrosion process, which tested by UV-spectroscopy. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of aluminum and Al-7.0% Cu was studied by ac-impedance, and the mechanism of adsorption is discussed. The adsorption isotherm is described by Temkin adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic functions for activation and adsorption process were determined.

  16. Heterojunction solar cell with 6% efficiency based on an n-type aluminum-gallium-oxide thin film and p-type sodium-doped Cu2O sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to enhance the efficiency of Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with an aluminum-gallium-oxide (Al-Ga-O) thin film as the n-type layer and a p-type sodium (Na)-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing copper sheets. The optimal Al content [X; Al/(Ga + Al) atomic ratio] of an AlX-Ga1-X-O thin-film n-type layer was found to be approximately 2.5 at. %. The optimized resistivity was approximately 15 Ω cm for n-type AlX-Ga1-X-O/p-type Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cells. A MgF2/AZO/Al0.025-Ga0.975-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell with 6.1% efficiency was fabricated using a 60-nm-thick n-type oxide thin-film layer and a 0.2-mm-thick Cu2O:Na sheet with the optimized resistivity.

  17. Response of Atmospheric Methane Consumption by Maine Forest Soils to Exogenous Aluminum Salts†

    OpenAIRE

    Nanba, K.; King, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric methane consumption by Maine forest soils was inhibited by additions of environmentally relevant levels of aluminum. Aluminum chloride was more inhibitory than nitrate or sulfate salts, but its effect was comparable to that of a chelated form of aluminum. Inhibition could be explained in part by the lower soil pH values which resulted from aluminum addition. However, significantly greater inhibition by aluminum than by mineral acids at equivalent soil pH values indicated that inhi...

  18. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sodium Azide What sodium azide is Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, ... give people sufficient warning of the danger. Where sodium azide is found and how it is used ...

  19. Characterization of alumina obtained from the synthesis of gelatinous precipitates of aluminum hydroxide obtained from the reaction of aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydroxide in different temperatures; Caracterizacao de aluminas obtidas a partir da sintese de precipitados gelatinosos de hidroxido de aluminio obtidos pela reacao de sulfato de aluminio e hidroxido de amonio em diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercury, Jose Manuel Rivas [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao (CEFET), Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil); Freitas Neves, R. de [Para Univ., Belem, Pa (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    1996-07-01

    Aluminum hydroxide was obtained by synthesis through neutralization of solutions aluminum sulphate solutions with ammonium hydroxide at different level of temperatures of synthesis (30, 60, 90 deg C) on the molar [OH]/[Al{sup +3}] of 6,5. All products was burned at 950 deg C during two hours of dried aluminum hydroxide powder. Alumina obtained and A-16SG, APC-2011, produced by Alcoa Co. was characterized by Bulk Density, Tap density, Real Density, Particle Size Distribution, X-Ray Diffractions and Chemical Analysis and both compared. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The influence of sulfuric environments on concretes elaborated with sulfate resistant cements and mineral admixtures. Part 1: Concrete exposed to Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) = Estudio de la influencia de los medios con presencia de sulfatos en hormigones con cementos sulforresistentes y adiciones minerales. Parte 1: Hormigones expuestos a sulfato sódico (Na2SO4)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Camacho, Jesús Manuel; Mahmoud Abdelkader, Safwat; Reyes Pozo, Encarnación; Moragues Terrades, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    The study of sulfate attack in concrete is considered vital for the preservation of the structural integrity of constructions. Its aggressive behaviour causes degradation of the cement matrix which changes the initial properties of the material. In this article, the sulfate resistance of concrete is studied. To that goal, four different concrete mixes were made with sulphur resistant cement. The concretes were tested for compressive strength, transport capacity of sulfates and microstructural...

  1. Knockout of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 aggravates the development of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium colitis independently of expression of intestinal cytokines TNFα, TGFB1, and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,2 Christoph Hilgert,1 Monika S Janot,1 Elisabeth Haarmann,1 Martin Albrecht,1 Annette M Müller,3 Thomas Herdegen,2 Ulrich Mittelkötter,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik11Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany; 3Department of Pediatric Pathology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhems-University of Bonn, Bonn, GermanyIntroduction: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs are involved in signal transduction of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the function of JNKs by using a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model in JNK1 knockout mice (Mapk8–/–, JNK2 knockout mice (Mapk9–/–, and wild-type controls (WT1, WT2.Methods: The animals were evaluated daily using a disease activity index. After 30 days, the intestine was evaluated histologically with a crypt damage score. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were quantified using immunofluorescence. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFB1 expression was carried out using LightCycler® real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Cyclic administration of low-dose DSS (1% was not able to induce features of chronic colitis in Mapk8–/– WT2 mice. By contrast, DSS administration significantly increased the disease activity index in WT1 and Mapk9–/– mice. In Mapk9–/– mice, the crypt damage score and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells as features of chronic colitis/inflammation were also significantly elevated. Expression of TNFα, IL-6, and TGFB1 was not altered by the JNK knockout.Conclusion: Administering DSS at a defined low concentration that is unable to induce colitis in WT animals leads to clinically and histologically detectable chronic colitis in Mapk9–/– mice. The reason for this disease

  2. Catalytic synthesis of cyclohexanone ethylene ketal by polyaniline doped with sodium hydrogen sulfate%硫酸氢钠掺杂聚苯胺催化合成环己酮缩乙二醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕俊江; 乔艳辉; 张庆

    2012-01-01

    以聚苯胺PAn和硫酸氢钠为原料,制备了硫酸氢钠掺杂率为20%(质量分数)的催化剂PAn- NaHSO4,并用于催化合成环己酮缩乙二醇,探讨了PAn- NaHS04的催化活性,系统考察了醇酮摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应时间和带水剂用量对环己酮缩乙二醇收率的影响,并且用正交试验对反应条件进行了优化.在环己酮用量为0.1 mol,n(乙二醇)∶n(环己酮)=1.6∶1,催化剂用量占反应物总质量的1.2%,带水剂环己烷用量为9mL,反应时间为2.5h的条件下,产品收率可达96.79%,产品经红外光谱、气-质联用定性分析确定为环己酮缩乙二醇,经气相色谱检测纯度大于99.0%,催化剂重复使用5次后,产品收率仍大于90.0%.%Cyclohexanone ethylene ketal was synthesized from cyclohexanone and ethylene glycol as starting materials using polyaniline ( PAn) doped with 20% ( mass fraction) of sodium hydrogen sulfate ( PAn -NaHSO4) as catalysl. Catalytic activity of PAn - NaHSO4 was investigated. Effect of factors such as mole ratio of ethylene glycol to cyclohexanone, dosage of the catalyst, reaction time, dosage of water stripping agent on product yield were examined systematically and optimum reaction conditions were identified by orthogonal designed experiment. Under optimal conditions; based on amount of cyclohexanone 0. 1 mol, mole ratio n(ethylene glycol): re (cyclohexanone) = 1. 6: 1 ,mass fraction of PAn - NaHSO4 1. 2% of the total reactants, water stripping agent cyclohexane 9 mL and reaction time 2. 5 h,yield of the product achieves 96. 79%. The product was identified as cyclohexanone ethylene ketal by IR and GC - MS. Purity of product achieves 99. 0%. After reusing the catalyst for 5 times,yield of the product is still higher than 90. 0%.

  3. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), products containing iron, tetracycline (Sumycin, Tetracap, and others), ticlopidine (Ticlid), and vitamins.be aware that aluminum hydroxide may interfere with other medicines, making them less ...

  4. 硫酸氨基葡萄糖结合关节腔内注射透明质酸钠治疗膝骨关节炎的疗效观察%Clinical observation on knee osteoarthritis treated with glucosamine sulfate and sodium hyaluronate injecting into knee joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of knee osteoarthritis treated with glucosamine sulfate and hyaluronate injecting into knee joint. Methods Divided 98 cases of patient with knee osteoarthritis into two groups. 49 cases in each group, treatment group was treated with oral glucosamine sulfate and articular cavity injection of sodium hyaluronate, control group was treated with sodium hyaluronate alone, clinical effects of two groups were observed. Results The clinical effect of treatment group and control group were 93.9%and 81.6%, there was a significant difference between these two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Combined glucosamine sulfate with sodium hyaluronate injecting into knee joint can improve the clinical effect of knee osteoarthritis.%目的:探讨硫酸氨基葡萄糖结合关节腔内注射透明质酸钠对治疗膝骨关节炎的临床效果。方法膝骨关节炎患者98例,随机分成两组,治疗组和对照组,治疗组49例给予口服硫酸氨基葡萄糖加关节腔内注射透明质酸钠,对照组49例单纯给予关节腔内注射透明质酸钠,观察两组的临床疗效。结果治疗组总有效率93.9%,对照组总有效率81.6%,治疗组高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论硫酸氨基葡萄糖结合关节腔内注射透明质酸钠可以提高膝骨关节炎的疗效。

  5. Sulfate inhibition effect on sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al Zuhair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the potential of bacterial sulfate reduction as an alternative method for sulfate removal from wastewater. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB utilize sulfate to oxidize organic compounds and generate sulfide (S2-. SRB were successfully isolated from sludge samples obtained from a local petroleum refinery, and used for sulfate removal. The effects of initial sulfate concentration, temperature and pH on the rate of bacterial growth and anaerobic sulfate removal were investigated and the optimum conditions were identified. The experimental data were used to determine the parameters of two proposed kinetic model, which take into consideration substrate inhibition effect. Keywords: Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Sulfate, Kinetic Model, Biotreatement, Inhibition Received: 31 August 2008 / Received in revised form: 18 September 2008, Accepted: 18 September 2008 Published online: 28 September 2008

  6. Pharmacokinetic study on compound aluminum sulfate injection after i.v. and in situ administration in rabbits%复方硫酸铝注射液新西兰兔静脉注射和局部注射药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐风华; 陈宜鸿; 方翼; 高秀云

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究复方硫酸铝注射液静脉注射后的药代动力学以及肌肉和皮下注射后的全身吸收.方法:兔耳静脉、股四头肌和背部皮下注射,耳静脉采血,采用等离子体质谱法测定血铝浓度,DAS药代动力学程序处理血药浓度数据.结果:静脉注射复方硫酸铝注射液1 mg·kg-1 (剂量均以无水硫酸铝计),硫酸铝体内药代动力学过程符合二房室模型,t1/2β为 1.08±0.46 h,AUC0-12h为 1.52±0.92 mg·h·L-1(n=5).股四头肌注射复方硫酸铝注射液80 mg·kg-1,血铝浓度略有升高,但不明显,采用梯形法计算曲线下面积,平均AUC0-24h为 2.93±1.82 mg·h·L-1(n=5),相对生物利用度约为 2.41%.皮下注射160 mg·kg-1,血铝浓度没有明显的峰值,平均AUC0-24h为 0.88±1.14 mg·h·L-1(n=5),相对生物利用度约为 0.36%.结论:复方硫酸铝注射液静脉注射后血液中清除速率快,局部注射后全身吸收量很低,是一种安全的新制剂.%AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of compound aluminum sulfate injection after i.v. administration and aluminum absorption after i.m. and s.c. administration in New Zealand rabbits. METHODS: Compound aluminum sulfate injection was administrated i.v. to the left-ear at the dose of 1 mg·kg-1, i.m. in quadriceps at the dose of 80 mg·kg-1 or s.c. under back skin at the dose of 160 mg·kg-1 (anhydrous aluminum sulfate/body weight). Blood samples were collected at different time after injection from the right-ear vein. ICP-MS assay was used to determine the aluminum (Al) concentration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS program. RESULTS: The blood Al concentration-time profiles after i.v. injection fitted to a two-compartment model, with t1/2β 1.08±0.46 h and AUC0-12h 1.52±0.92 mg·h·L-1 (n=5). There was no obvious increase in Al concentration after i.m. injection of 80 mg·kg-1 or s.c. injection of 160 mg·kg-1 aluminum sulfate. The average AUC0-24h of i.m. injection was 2.93±1.82 mg·h·L-1

  7. Auto-associação do dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS com o polímero hidrofobicamente modificado etil(hidroxietil celulose (EHEC Self-association of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS with the hydrophobically modified polymer ethyl (hydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Medeiros Modolon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of ethyl(hydroxyethylcellulose (EHEC and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS were investigated using surface tension, conductivity and viscosity measurements in aqueous solutions. The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration (cac and saturation of the polymer by SDS (psp were determined from the plots of surface tension and specific conductivity versus surfactant concentration. Through the final results we see that there was no specific link of polymer with the surfactant, implying therefore a phenomenon of only cooperative association.

  8. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for deriving a kinetic model. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were studied in a tube reactor, revealing that the ratio of the SO3/SO2 released varied for different sulfate and for ammonium sulfate the ratio...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  9. Cholecalciferol sulfate identification in human milk by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulch, N L; Cancela, L; Miravet, L

    1982-04-01

    Synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate was prepared by reacting cholecalciferol with sulfamic acid in pyridine. Vitamin D3 sulfate ammonium salt was purified by crystallisation and transformed in sulfate sodium salt. Homogeneity was controlled by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purified synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate sodium salt was used as a reference. Milk whey was obtained after protein precipitation by adding ethanol. Vitamin D3 sulfoconjugate was identified in supernatant (lyophylized) after purification by Sephadex LH 20 and HPLC. Milk whey purified fraction obtained exhibited the same ultra-violet absorption (UV) as synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate; after solvolysis, cholecalciferol was liberated from natural and synthetic sulfoconjugate. The results confirmed that vitamin D3 sulfate was present in human milk. PMID:6294930

  10. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid

  11. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for deriving a kinetic model. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were studied in a tube reactor, revealing t...

  12. Kinetics Analysis on Mixing Calcination Process of Fly Ash and Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Laishi Li; Dezhou Wei

    2014-01-01

    abstract The further development of the extraction of alumina that is produced in the calcination process of ammonium sulfate mixed with fly ash was limited because of the lack of systematic theoretical study. In order to aggrandize the research of the calcination process, the kinetics and reaction mechanism of the calcinations were studied. The result suggests that there are two stages in the calcination process, and the alumina extraction rate increases swiftly in the initial stage, but slows down increasing in the later stage. The apparent activation energy of the initial and later stages equals to 13.31 and 35.65 kJ·mol-1, respectively. In the initial stage, ammonium sulfate reacts directly with mullite in the fly ash to form ammonium aluminum sulfate, while in the later stage, alumi-num sulfate is formed by the reaction between ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium sulfate.

  13. The Comparative Observation of the Clinical Efficacy of Glucosamine Sulfate and Diclofenac Sodium Sustained-Release Tablets in the Treatment of Forty Cases with Osteoarthritis%硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片治疗骨性关节炎40例临床疗效对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To comparatively observe the clinical efficacy of glucosamine sulfate and diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Method:40 patients of our hospital from May 2011 to May 2013 were randomly divided into two groups according to different treatment:the group A treated with the glucosamine sulfate and the group B treated with the diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets. Efficacy was observed comparatively after a course of treatment and the number of cases of side effects such as gastrointestinal reactions was recorded. Result:The total effective rate of group A was 95%and the total effective rate of group B was 90%,and there was no difference between group A and group B in total effective rate(P>0.05). The side effect rate of group A(5%)was significantly lower than that of group B(30%)(P0.05);A组副作用率(5%)明显低于B组(30%),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:硫酸氨基葡萄糖和双氯芬酸钠缓释片对治疗骨性关节炎均有效,硫酸氨基葡萄糖的副作用更小,值得临床推广应用。

  14. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  15. The effect of triethanolamine combined with sodium sulfate on the performanceand structure of fly ash - cement system%三乙醇胺与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰-水泥体系性能与结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶东忠; 杜育红; 林春莺

    2012-01-01

    探讨三乙醇胺与硫酸钠复合对粉煤灰-水泥体系的抗压强度、凝结时间等性能与结构的影响.结果表明:将适量的硫酸钠与三乙醇胺复合掺入可以不同程度地提高粉煤灰-水泥早期与后期的抗压强度、缩短凝结时间,其水化产物中C -S-H凝胶与钙矾石晶体含量较多;粉煤灰-水泥早期与后期的抗压强度随着粉磨时间的增加均有所增加但增幅下降,其凝结时间随着粉磨时间的增加有所缩短;复合掺人后早期与后期的抗压强度均高于单掺,而其凝结时间短于单掺;当复合掺人量为三乙醇胺0.03%、硫酸钠2%、粉磨时间为15min时,粉煤灰-水泥早期与后期的抗压强度均为最高.%The effect of triethanolamine combined with sodium sulfate on the compressive strength, the setting time and structure of fly ash - cement system were investigated . The results show that the compressive strength of fly ash - cement in the early and later stage can be improved in different extent but the setting time of fly ash - cement is shortened by adding proper content of sodium sulfate combined with triethanolamine to the cement. The content of C - S - H gel and ettringite crystal in the hydration product of fly ash cement is much higher. When the grinding time is prolonged, the compressive strength of By ash - cement in the early and later stage can be unproved in different extent but the increasing rate of that are reduced; and the setting time of fly ash - cement is shortened in different extent but the reducing rate of that are reduced. The compressive strength in the early and later stage by adding proper content of sodium sulfate combined with triethanolamine to the cement is higher but the setting time is shorter than that by adding triethanolamine or sodium sulfate only. When the content of 0.03% triethanolamine and 2% sodium sulfate is admixed and grinding time is 15 minutes, the compressive strengths of fly ash - cement in the

  16. Clinical Observation on Effect of Etimicin Sulfate Plus Cefmetazole Sodium on Acute Attack of Chronic Bronchitis%硫酸依替米星联合头孢美唑钠治疗慢性支气管炎急性发作的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁艺

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察硫酸依替米星联合头孢美唑钠治疗慢性支气管炎急性发作的疗效。方法:将100例慢性支气管炎急性发作的患者随机分成对照组和研究组,每组50例。对照组单纯给予头孢美唑钠治疗,研究组给予硫酸依替米星联合头孢美唑钠治疗,进行临床疗效观察。结果:研究组临床有效率为89.5%,而对照组临床有效率为50.5%,研究组有效率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:硫酸依替米星联合头孢美唑钠可有效治疗慢性支气管炎急性发作。%Objective:To observation the effect of etimicin sulfate plus cefmetazole sodium on the onset of chronic bronchitis .Methods:Ramdomly divide 100 cases of patients who were attacked acutely by chronic bronchitis into control group and research group ,50 cases for each .Treat the control group with cefmetazole sodium while the research group were treated with etimicin sulfate plus cefmetazole sodium .Make observa‐tion on the clinical effect .Results:The clinical effective rate of the research group was 89 .5% while that of the control group was 50 .5% ,the effective rate of the research group was obviously higher than that of the control group ,the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0 .05 ) .Conclusion:Etimicin sulfate plus cefmetazole sodium can effectively treat the acute attack of chronic bronchitis .

  17. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: Possible role of supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (ALP poisoning is one of the major causes of suicidal deaths. Toxicity by ALP is caused by the liberation of phosphine gas, which rapidly causes cell hypoxia due to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to circulatory failure. Treatment of ALP toxicity is mainly supportive as there is no specific antidote. We recently managed 7 cases of ALP poisoning with severe hemodynamic effects. Patients were treated with supportive measures including gastric lavage with diluted potassium permanganate, coconut oil and sodium-bicarbonate first person account should be avoided in a scientific paper. Intravenous magnesium sulfate, proper hemodynamic monitoring and vasopressors. Four out of 7 survived thus suggesting a role of such supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote for ALP poisoning.

  18. Advances in the electrodeposition of aluminum from ionic liquid based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Kirt C.

    . Advancements of this nonaqueous aluminum plating process have the potential to lead to a novel and competitive commercial aluminum deposition process. In this investigation aluminum electrodeposition from ionic liquid based electrolytes onto steel, copper and magnesium substrates without conversion coatings or strike layers was evaluated in six different ionic liquid based electrolytes in two technical setups. Three of which are commercially available aluminum plating electrolytes, three of which, discussed in literature were created on site by research personnel in the laboratory. The three commercially available electrolytes were: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, and BasionicsTM AL-02, an aluminum plating electrolyte containing [EMIm]Cl * 1.5 AlCl3 with additives from BASF. The three electrolytes created on site were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid with added 1.5 AlCl3 and one with added sodium dodecyl sulfate. Small scale plating tests in a 25-mL plating cell were conducted to provide a comparative analysis of the six different electrolytes considered. From these investigations, two were chosen to be evaluated in a larger 1-liter plating cell; designed and constructed to provide a more realistic evaluation of plating parameters with selected electrolytes to better portray industrial electroplating conditions. The effect of current density (10-40 mA/cm 2), temperature (30-90° Celsius) and plating bath agitation on current efficiency, corrosion resistance by the ASTM B117 method, adhesion, microstructure, and chemical composition (evaluated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) of the plated Al-layer was explored in both the 25-mL and 1-L plating cell investigations. In addition development of pre- and post-treatment processes for the metal substrates was attempted. While

  19. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  20. Clinical Observation on Glucosamine Sulfate Versus Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Tablets for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis%硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片治疗骨性关节炎临床疗效对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宝铁; 周振东; 费良健

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comparatively analyze the clinical efficacy of Glucosamine sulfate versus diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets for the treatment of osteoarthritis.Methods 46 cases of osteoarthritis patients who treated in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2014 were selected, and divided into observation group ( n=23, treated with Glucosamine sulfate) and the control group ( n=23, treated with diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets) according to different treatment drugs.The clinical efficacy and safety of the two groups were analyzed comparatively.Results There was no significant difference in effective rate between two groups ( P>0.05).The incidence of side effects in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusions Glucosamine sulfate and diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets has the quite effect in the treatment of osteoarthritis, but the toxic and side effects of Glucosamine sulfate are less than those of diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets, Glucosamine sulfate has significant safety which is worthy of application and promotion.%目的:对比分析硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片在治疗骨性关节炎过程中的临床疗效。方法将2012年12月~2014年12月收治的骨性关节炎患者46例按照治疗药物的不同分为接受硫酸氨基葡萄糖治疗的观察组(n=23)和接受双氯芬酸钠缓释片治疗的对照组(n=23),对比分析两组患者的临床效果和安全性。结果观察组患者治疗有效率与对照组无明显差异,无统计学意义( P>0.05);观察组患者副作用的发生率明显低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论在对骨性关节炎患者实施治疗的过程中硫酸氨基葡萄糖与双氯芬酸钠缓释片的效果相当,但是硫酸氨基葡萄糖的毒副作用与双氯芬酸钠缓释片相比较小,具有更为显著的安全性。

  1. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. 新型茶皂素硫酸钠合成及其修复土壤重金属污染研究%Preparation of New-type Tea Saponin Sodium Sulfate and Its Remediation Study on Soil Heavy Metal Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 傅丽君; 沈金瑞

    2012-01-01

    The neotype green tea-saponin chelate(tea saponin sodium sulfate) were prepared by the tea saponin as raw material extracted through aqueous extract-alcohol precipitation from tea seed cake.After the research to its superficial performance,the results showed the surface tension of tea saponin sodium sulfate was lower than the TS's,but HLB value and foaming and stable foam ability were higher than TS's.Meanwhile the effect of the oscillation time,chelating agent concentration,pH and ionic strength on removing heavy metal rate was investigated.The results showed that the removal rate of heavy metal ions increased with oscillation time and chelating agent concentration increasing,reduced with ionic strength and pH increasing.The optimum technologies of removal of Pb2+,Cd2+ were as follows:Oscillation time was 12 h,chelating agent mass concentration was 7%,pH was 5.0,concentration of Ca(NO3)2 was 0.01 mol/L.On the conditions,removal rate of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions in the soil by chelating agent was the highest.Removal rate of Cd2+ of tea-saponin sodium sulfate was higher than Pb2+'s.Removal rate of Pb2+ and Cd2+ of tea-saponin sodium sulfate was better than tea saponin's respectively.Especially,removal rate of Pb2+ of tea-saponin sodium sulfate was significantly improved.%经水提-沉淀法从茶籽饼提取茶皂素,以其为原料设计合成了新型绿色茶皂素基螯合剂(茶皂素硫酸钠)。对其表面性能进行研究发现,其表面张力低于茶皂素,而HLB值、起泡力及稳泡性均优于茶皂素。同时考察了振荡时间、螯合剂浓度、pH及离子强度对螯合剂去除重金属率的影响。结果表明,重金属去除率随振荡时间和浓度增加而升高,随pH、离子强度增加而降低。得出去除Pb^2+、Cd^2+离子的最佳工艺:振荡时间为12h,质量分数为7%,pH为5.0,Ca(NO3)2浓度为0.01mol/L,此条件下螯合剂对土壤中Pb^2+、Cd^2+离子去除率

  3. 大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的临床研究%Clinical study of the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宇; 周静; 潘立茹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of the fat liquefaction of abdominal incision. Methods 101 patients with the fat liquefaction of abdominal operative inci-sion who underwent abdominal operation in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. SO patients in the treatment group were treated by rhubarb and sodium sulfate for external application in combination with infrared rays once daily ;51 patients in the control group were treated by changing dry dressing once daily and squeezing. Results There was statistic difference on healing time, frequency of dressing replacement, the use of butterfly sterile adhesive tape, and the rate of second debridement between the treatment group and the control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rhubarb and sodi-um sulfate in combination with infrared rays can promote the absorption of inflammatory exudates and accelerate the concrescence of the wounds.%目的 观察大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的治疗效果.方法 将我院2009年1月-2010年10月期间术后腹部手术切口发生脂肪液化的101例患者随机分为两组.试验组(n =50例)脂肪液化之切口,用大黄、芒硝混匀后外敷,并给予红外线治疗,每日1次.对照组(n=51例)应用普通换药及挤压方法,每日换药1次.结果 试验组的切口愈合时间、更换敷料及应用无菌蝶形胶布固定切口次数、二次清创缝合术的几率,与对照组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 中药外敷加红外线治疗能促进脂肪液化伤口炎症渗出物的吸收,加快切口愈合.

  4. Effect of folate deficiency on experimental colitis in mice induced by dextran sodium sulfate%叶酸缺乏对葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导的小鼠实验性结肠炎的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉萍; 肖锐; 方维丽; 李海东; 刘文天

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether folate deficiency cause high expression level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) resulted from IFN-γ gene ( IFNG) hypomethylation and then promote the pathogenesis and development of ulcerative colitis (UC ) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS )-induced experimental colitis model in mice .Methods A total of 24 female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups ,six mice in each group , including folate deficient/DSS+ group , standard diet/DSS+ group , standard diet/DSS - group and folate deficient/DSS- group .At the beginning of the sixth week since fed , the mice of model groups were treated with 5% DSS to establish experimental colitis .By the end of the sixth week ,disease activity index (DAI) of colitis and histological changes were evaluated .The folate level of peripheral blood serum of mice were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) . The expression of IFN-γ in colonic mucosa of mice was examined by immunohistochemistry . The methylation level of CpG island in the promoter region of IFNG was determined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) .The t test was used for measurement data .Chi square test was performed for comparison between groups of count data . Spearman correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis .Results The folate levels of peripheral blood serum of folate deficiency/DSS+ group and folate deficiency/DSS- group ((2 .70 ± 0 .19) and (2 .80 ± 0 .25)μg/L) were significantly lower than those of standard diet/DSS+ group and standard diet/DSS- group ((13 .62 ± 0 .38 ) and (13 .52 ± 0 .77)μg/L ,t= -63 .33、32 .27 ,both P< 0 .05) ,resepectively .The expression of IFN-γ in colonic mucosa of folate deficiency/DSS+ group and standard diet/DSS+ group were significantly higher than those of folate deficiency/DSS- group and standard diet/DSS- group (χ2 = 22 .18 ,P< 0 .05 ) . And the expression of IFN-γ in colonic mucosa of folate deficiency/DSS+ group was also higher than that of

  5. 全反式维甲酸治疗葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导的小鼠结肠炎%All-trans retinoic acid protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪凯; 张翼; 郭媛; 白爱平

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨全反式维甲酸(all-trans retinoic acid,ATRA)对葡聚糖硫酸钠(dextran sulfate sodium,DSS)结肠炎治疗作用的机制.方法:将小鼠随机分成4组:正常对照组、DSS组、DS S+AT RA组和DSS+LE135组.建立小鼠DSS结肠炎的急性模型,从小鼠饮用DSS第3天开始,DSS+ATRA组、DSS+LE135组分别给予ATRA 0.5 mg/d、LE135 0.1 mg/d腹腔注射至实验结束.每天观察各组小鼠疾病活动指数(disease activity index,DAI),第8天颈椎脱臼处死小鼠取肠组织匀浆检测各组小鼠炎症肠段中髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase,MPO)的含量,ELISA检测肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)的含量,免疫组织化学测定小鼠结肠CD68和核因子κB(nuclear factor κB,NF-κB) P65的表达,结果:(1)DAI评分:DSS+ATRA组小鼠的DAI评分为4.63±2.20,与DSS组、DSS+LE135组相比评分明显较低(P<0.05);对照组小鼠的DAI评分均为0;(2)组织学评分:DSS+ATRA组小鼠的组织学评分为7.63±1.19,与DSS组(10.13±1.36)、DSS+LE135组(10.38± 1.30)相比得分明显降低(P<0.05),但明显高于正常对照组(0.25±0.463);(3)MPO活性:DS S+ATRA组小鼠的MPO活性为7.88± 0.68,与空白对照(3.52±0.58)、DSS组(11.36 ±0.96)、DSS+LE135组(12.65±0.77)相比均有明显差异(P<0.05);(4)组织匀浆TNF含量:DSS+ATRA组(178.63±39.37),明显低于DSS组(316.67±43.68)、DSS+LE135组(362.45±62.75)这2组;(5)结肠组织CD68的表达:DSS+ATRA组肠黏膜固有层CD68阳性细胞数明显低于DSS组、DSS+LE135组(P<0.05),与对照组小鼠的CD68表达量相比明显增高(P<0.05);(6)结肠组织NF-κB的表达:DS S+ATRA组肠黏膜固有层NF-κB阳性细胞数明显低于DSS组、DSS+LE135组(P<0.05),与对照组NF-κB的表达量相比增高(P<0.05).结论:ATRA对DSS诱导的小鼠结肠炎具有治疗作用,机制为抑制结肠炎作用肠道免疫反应,及外周巨噬细胞向肠黏膜浸润.

  6. 十取代芦丁硫酸钠药动学和血浆蛋白结合率研究%Pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding of rutin deca (H-) sulfate sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向军; 陆思洁; 姚彤炜; 曾苏

    2009-01-01

    十取代芦丁硫酸钠(RDS)作为一种补体免疫抑制剂对恒温动物和人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)具有很高活性.本文采用离子对固相萃取技术(IP-SPE)从大鼠血浆、尿液、胆汁和蛋白溶液中分离提取十取代芦丁硫酸钠,并考察了十取代芦丁硫酸钠静脉注射后的药动学参数、排泄(包括尿液和胆汁)和蛋白结合情况.大鼠尾静脉注射给药3个剂量(5、20和100 mg·kg~(-1))后,药-时曲线数据用药动学软件进行拟合,符合静脉注射二室模型,平均消除半衰期t_(1/2β)为3.432±0.185 2 h,并且给药剂量与AUC具有良好的线性关系,药动学参数与给药剂量无关,提示十取代芦丁硫酸钠在大鼠体内的处置情况属于线性动力学.大鼠尾静脉注射十取代芦丁硫酸钠(20mg·kg~(-1))后,尿液和胆汁的累积排泄率分别为86.0%±6.1%和0.318 1%±0.208 7%.十取代芦丁硫酸钠与SD大鼠、Beagle犬和人血浆蛋白结合率为80%~90%,与HSA为85.7%±1.3%,而与人α_1-AGP则为14.0%±3.2%,两者之间有极显著性差异(P<0.001).%Rutin deca (H-) sulfate sodium (RDS) possesses very good activity as an inhibitor of the complement system of warm-blooded animals and HIV. An ion-pair coupled with solid-phase extraction technique (IP-SPE) was developed to extract RDS from rat plasma, urine, bile and protein solution samples. The assay was applied to pharmacokinetics of RDS, including plasma pharmacokinetics, excretion and protein binding studies. After iv 5, 20 and 100 mg·kg~(-1) RDS via tail vein in rats, the plasma concentration-time profiles were fitted using 3P97 software. The average terminal half-life (t_(1/2)) was 3.432±0.185 2 h. The relationship of dose and AUC of RDS was linear within the dosage range. This suggested that the disposition of RDS in rats belong to linear kinetics and the pharmacokinetic parameters of RDS were dose independent. After iv RDS 20 mg·kg~(-1) in rats, the biliary excretion amount of parent drug

  7. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC: CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20–220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650–1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5–1.0 L min−1 aerosol flow rate, 20–30°C inlet temperature, 4–34 K m−1 temperature gradient. For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations.

    High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5–7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature.

    To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05–2%, the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH42SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH42SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff

  8. Study on the composition and structure of organic acid masked aluminum sulfate complexes(I)%有机酸蒙囿硫酸铝配合物组成及结构的研究(I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁克毅; 张廷有; 何有节

    2001-01-01

    The composition and structure of organic acid masked aluminum (Ⅲ)complexes were analyzed by means of GFC、27AlNMR and X-ray diffration etc. The results indicated that most of compositions were“Al13Like” multimeric complexes. The NMR spectras of elution fractions showed that the general tendency was tallied with the GFC elution system, but there were a little amount of oligomeric species were adsorbed by multimeric complexes, complete seperating was impossible by the applied GFC system.%应用凝胶过滤色谱、27Al核磁共振及X射线衍射等测试技术,研究了有机酸蒙囿硫酸铝配合物溶液的组份及组份的结构。结果表明:在pH值约3.5时,绝大部分组成成份为“Al13族”多核配合物。洗脱流份的27Al核磁共振图表明,所采用的凝胶过滤色谱分离体系的总趋势符合基本原理,但大分子的多核铝配合物离子对小分子的配合物离子有吸附现象,不能将其完全分开。

  9. Characterization of a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A; Höök, M;

    1985-01-01

    carry sulfate residues predominantly attached to C-4 of the galactosamine unit; less than 10% of the sulfate groups occur as 6-sulfated galactosamine units. About 60% of the uronic acid residues are of the glucuronic configuration, the rest being iduronic acid. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate...... protein (Mr = 8,000). This proteoglycan is distinctly different from the large cartilage proteoglycan in the smaller size of its core protein, and its relationship to other small chondroitin and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans and to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan recently located in rat tissue...

  10. Synthesis of protons exchange polymeric membranes via co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application in PEM fuel cells; Sintese de membranas polimericas condutoras de protons por imobilizacao de MDs em copoliesteres para aplicacao em PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Brioude, M.M.; Bresciani, D.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are largely studied for use in PEM-type fuel cell (Proton Exchange membrane, PEMFC). These fuel cells are based on polymer membranes as electrolyte, also called protons conductor. This work developed co-polyesters made electrical conductors by doping with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The copolymers were synthesized from the copolymerization of terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. The material was processed in a reactor and shaped by hot pressing, yielding homogeneous and flexible plates, with excellent surface finish. The co-polyesters were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TG, DSC, and XRD. The thermal analysis showed that the composites were thermally stable up to about 250 deg C. The micrographics revealed the MDS homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. These copolymers showed electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S/cm, suggesting strong potential use in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  11. Chronic aluminum intake causes Alzheimer's disease: applying Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized societies produce many convenience foods with aluminum additives that enhance various food properties and use alum (aluminum sulfate or aluminum potassium sulfate) in water treatment to enable delivery of large volumes of drinking water to millions of urban consumers. The present causality analysis evaluates the extent to which the routine, life-long intake, and metabolism of aluminum compounds can account for Alzheimer's disease (AD), using Austin Bradford Hill's nine epidemiological and experimental causality criteria, including strength of the relationship, consistency, specificity, temporality, dose-dependent response, biological rationale, coherence with existing knowledge, experimental evidence, and analogy. Mechanisms that underlie the risk of low concentrations of aluminum relate to (1) aluminum's absorption rates, allowing the impression that aluminum is safe to ingest and as an additive in food and drinking water treatment, (2) aluminum's slow progressive uptake into the brain over a long prodromal phase, and (3) aluminum's similarity to iron, in terms of ionic size, allows aluminum to use iron-evolved mechanisms to enter the highly-active, iron-dependent cells responsible for memory processing. Aluminum particularly accumulates in these iron-dependent cells to toxic levels, dysregulating iron homeostasis and causing microtubule depletion, eventually producing changes that result in disconnection of neuronal afferents and efferents, loss of function and regional atrophy consistent with MRI findings in AD brains. AD is a human form of chronic aluminum neurotoxicity. The causality analysis demonstrates that chronic aluminum intake causes AD.

  12. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  14. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  15. Effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted aluminum sulfate coagulation on the removal of humic acid and the formation potentials of tri-halomethanes and haloacetic acids in chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinming Duan; Xiaoting Cao; Cheng Chen; Dongrui Shi; Genmao Li; Dennis Mulcahy

    2012-01-01

    The effects of addition of calcium hydroxide on aluminum sulphate (or alum) coagulation for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and its subsequent effect on the formation potentials of two major types of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs),haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs),have been examined.The results revealed several noteworthy phenomena.At the optimal coagulation pH (i.e.6),the coagulation behavior of NOM water solutions versus alum dose,showed large variation and a consequent great change in the formation potentials of the DBPs at certain coagulant doses.However,with addition of a relatively small amount of Ca(OH)2,although the zeta potential of coagulated flocs remained almost the same,NOM removal became more consistent with alum dose.Importantly,also the detrimental effect of charge reversal on NOM removal at the low coagulant dose disappeared.This resulted in a steady decrease in the formation potentials of DBPs as a function of the coagulant dose.Moreover,the addition of Ca(OH)2 broadened the pH range of alum coagulation and promoted further reduction of the formation potentials of the DBPs.The enhancement effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted alum coagulation are especially pronounced at pH 7 and 8.Finally,synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the reduction in DBPs formation potential by Ca(OH)2-assisted alum coagulation was connected to an enhanced removal of small hydrophobic and hydrophilic HA molecules.Ca(OH)2-assistance of alum coagulation appeared to increase substantially the removal of the hydrophilic HA fraction responsible for HAAs formation,prompting further reduction of HAA formation potentials.

  16. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...... results, implying a need for further investigations. Predictions for the effectiveness of the sulfur-based additives indicate that ferric sulfate and ammonium sulfate have similar effectiveness at temperatures ranging from approximately 850 to 900 °C, whereas ferric sulfate is more efficient at higher...

  17. Study on the Comprehensive Utilization of Sodium Sulfate from Preparation of Chlorine Dioxide Based on Methanol Method%甲醇法二氧化氯制备中副产物酸性芒硝的综合利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹磊; 聂双喜; 宋海农; 班飞; 杜春晖

    2012-01-01

    为满足国家13益严格的环保要求,制浆厂采用ECF漂白成为当今纸浆漂白的一种主流趋势,二氧化氯制备及副产物利用相关技术成为亟待解决的问题。文章介绍了二氧化氯副产物酸性芒硝的综合利用方法,首先探讨了酸性芒硝复分解反应制备中性芒硝工艺,重点对中性芒硝真空过滤脱水与短程干燥技术进行了研究,即先将中性芒硝浆料送至真空过滤机洗涤过滤脱水,再经流化床干燥器干燥制得无水硫酸钠粉末(元明粉),通过芒硝干燥实验,对比循环流化床与振动流化床干燥效率,为流化床干燥器的选型提供了依据。采用该工艺制得的元明粉,产品指标符合GB/T6009—2003II类优等品标准,产品质量高,能源消耗少,具有工艺简单,操作方便,成本低的优点。%In order to meet the country's ever-strict demands for environmental protection, ECF bleaching becomes a mainstream trend in pulp bleaching, preparation of chlorine dioxide and the using technology of its by-products become serious problems needed to be solved. This paper introduced the comprehensive utilization of sodium sulfate from preparation of chlorine dioxide, discussed the metathetical reaction process of acidic sodium sulfate, focused on neutral sahcake vacuum filtration and dewatering short seqnence drying technology. The neutral saltcake slurry was sent to vacuum filter for filtration and dewatering, then dried in a fluidized bed dryer to obtain anhydrous sodi- um sulfate powder (anhydrous sodium sulfate). By saltcake drying experiment, circulating fluidized bed was com- pared with vibration fluidized bed in drying efficiency for the selection of the fluidized bed dryer,which provides a theoretical basis. After treatment, the indexes of the product are in accord with the product standards of GB/T6009 -2003 Ⅱ superior class. The process produces a high quality product and needs less energy

  18. Thermodynamics of Micellization of n-Alkyl Sulfates in an Alkaline Medium at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso; Taboada; Mosquera; Sarmiento

    1999-06-15

    Critical micelle concentrations (cmc) have been calculated from conductivity measurements at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K for sodium n-decyl sulfate (SDES), sodium n-undecyl sulfate (SUNDS), and sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a medium of pH 10.0 and ionic strength 0.0312. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization, standard Gibbs energies (), standard enthalpies (), and standard entropies (), have been obtained by application of the model of Evans and Ninham in terms of hydrophobic and surface contributions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  20. The influence of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker on the properties of liquid silicone rubber%碱式硫酸镁晶须对液体硅橡胶性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓颖; 王国辉; 李倩; 邓新华

    2012-01-01

    以双组份加成型液体硅橡胶(LSR)为基胶,白炭黑为补强填料,通过测试分析,对比氢氧化铝、氢氧化镁、碱式硫酸镁晶须、经硬脂酸钠表面处理的碱式硫酸镁晶须4种阻燃剂复合液体硅橡胶的燃烧性能和力学性能.结果表明,经表面处理后的碱式硫酸镁晶须提高了LSR的拉伸强度,并在改善LSR的防火性能方面具有独特的优势.%Taking two-component additional liquid silicone rubber (LSR) as base rubber, silica white carbon black was as reinforcing packing material. Analyzis and comparison of the combustion performance and mechanical properties of four flame retardant liquid silicone rubber compound, including aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker,and the stearic acid sodium surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker. The results showed that the stearic acid sodium surface treatment of magnesium hydroxide sulfate whisker could improve the tensile strength of LSR, and had a unique advantage in improving the flame resistance of LSR.

  1. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Jena, Puru [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of Mg{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −} (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 11} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 12}{sup −}, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  2. Estudio Comparativo de Sulfato de Aluminio y Semillas de Moringa oleifera para la Depuración de Aguas con Baja Turbiedad Comparative Study of Aluminum Sulfate and Moringa oleifera seeds as Coagulants in the Clarification of Water with Low Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia G.S Lédo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar la eficiencia de dos coagulantes, el sulfato de aluminio y semillas de Moringa oleifera, para remoción de turbiedad en muestras del agua provenientes de la Laguna de Jiqui, estado del Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brasil. Las dosificaciones y pH de los coagulantes fueron variados entre límites establecidos. Se realizaron pruebas, en tubos de ensayo Jar-Test y medidas de movilidad electroforética para determinar el potencial Zeta y para determinar los posibles mecanismos involucrados en el proceso de coagulación. Los mecanismos de coagulación con semillas de Moringa oleifera son adsorción y neutralización de cargas y adsorción y formación de puentes. Los resultados sugieren que para aguas de baja turbiedad, las semillas de Moringa oleifera pueden ser un sustituto potencialmente viable al sulfato de aluminio para la clarificación de dichas aguas.The objective of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of a coagulant prepared from Moringa oleifera seeds, for clarifying water samples with low turbidity from the Jiqui Lake, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brazil. The dosages and pH of the coagulants were changed within defined limits. Jar-test essays and measurements of electrophoretic mobility were done to determine the Zeta potential and the possible mechanisms involved in the coagulation process. The mechanisms of coagulation with Moringa oleifera are absorption and neutralization of charges and absorption and bridging. The results suggest that for low turbidity waters, Moringa oleifera seeds represent a potentially viable substitute of aluminum sulfate for water clarification.

  3. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO2, 14.26 mass% B2O3, 11.31 mass% Fe2O3, 3.08 mass% TiO2, and 2.67 mass % Li2O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa·s, is nearly ideal for waste-glass processing in a standard

  4. Model identification with BPNN on restrictive ecological factors of SRB for sulfate-reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The model of back-propagation neural network(BPNN)was presented to demonstrate the effect of restrictive ecological factors,COD/SO42-ratio,pH value,alkalinity(ALK)and SO42-loading rate(Ns),on sulfate-reduction of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria(SRB)in an acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor supplied with molasses as sole organic carbon source and sodium sulfate as electron acceptor.The compare of experimental results and computer simulation was also discussed.It was shown that the method of BPNN had a powerful ability to analyze the ecological characteristic of acidogenic sulfate-reducing ecosystem quantitatively.

  5. On particularities of formation of basic zirconium carbonate from basic sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine optimum conditions of preparing zirconium carbonate with sulfate-ion low content, the interaction of basic zirconium sulfate with sodium carbonate or ammonium carbonate solutions is studied. A continuous substitution of carbonate groups for sulfate groups accompanied by addition of some more carbonate groups which subsequently are washed off with water. The completeness of substitution of carbonate groups for sulfate groups is attained at 30-35% of the precipitator excess. The carbonate number (CO32-:Zr) in the basic carbonate precipitate may be controlled by a proper change of the sulfate number (SO42-:Zr) in the initial product

  6. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  7. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  9. The Blocking And Heat Transfer -Flow Characteristics Coupling Analysis In Plate Heat Exchanger For MVR Sodium Sulfate Crystallization System%MVR硫酸钠结晶系统中宽通道板式换热器的堵塞特性与传热流动特性耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚君磊; 韩东; 叶莉; 顾昂

    2011-01-01

    MVR系统中WPHE蒸发结晶过程中液固两相流常涉及堵塞影响流动传热的现象.本文以MVR硫酸钠结晶系统中WPHE为研究对象,在对不同流速且未堵塞条件下的传热流动特性进行实验分析并验证.然后对影响堵塞与传热流动特性的关键参数:如硫酸钠溶液浓度、晶浆液固比、板间距和流速等影响进行分析.研究结果表明:随着液固两相流中固相体积分数的增加,总传热系数呈现下降趋势,下降幅度较小,在硫酸钠晶浆板间流速7 m3/h,固相体积分数比10%的工况下,板片角孔处出现了颗粒黏结导致的堵塞问题.随着硫酸钠溶液浓度的升高,总传热系数呈现上升趋势,上升幅度较小.在相同雷诺数下,当板间距增加2 mm时,WPHE的换热率降低9%左右.%In the present study, the liquid - solid two phase flow characteristics inside a wide gap plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. Flow and heat transfer mechanism are analyzed at different concentration of sodium sulfate solution, circulation, solid-to-liquid ratio and plate spacing through comparing the results between ASPEN HTFS numerical simulation and experimental study. Based on the research data, heat transfer efficiency of the wide gap plate heat exchanger get worse with the solid liquid ratio getting higher. The clogging casued by particle-cementation occurred at the comer of the plates, under the working conditions : the circulating velocity of working fluid being heated 7 m3 · h -1 and the solid liquid ratio 10%. Heat transfer efficiency of the wide gap plate heat exchanger get better with concentration of sodium sulfate solution getting higher. At the same of Reynolds number , heat transfer efficiency of the wide gap plate heat exchanger getting worse 10% with plate spacing getting higher 2mm.

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco cloridrato de fluoxetina e do surfactante dodecil sulfato de sodio quando submetidos a tratamento por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes Rafael Alves dos

    2011-07-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-4{sub 8h} found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE50{sub 48h} 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE50{sub 96h} found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE50{sub 15min} of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  11. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  12. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide......-170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  13. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid-state...... diffusion. The nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product, and this mixed control mechanism provide satisfactory explanations of the various phenomena related to the direct sulfation of limestone, such as porosity in the product layer, the variation of the apparent reaction orders of SO2, O-2......The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...

  14. Dynamic fluorescence quenching of quinine sulfate dication by chloride ion in ionic and neutral micellar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunita; Varma Y, Tej Varma; Pant, Debi D.

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Quinine sulfate dication (QSD) by chloride-ion (Cl-) in micellar environments of anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral, triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous phase has been investigated by time-resolved and steady- state fluorescence measurements. The quenching follows linear Stern-Volmer relation in micellar solutions and is dynamic in nature.

  15. The Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in the Course of Sulfate-Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Acid-producing phase reactor of two-phase anaerobic treatment process has remarkable advantages treating sulfate-laden wastewater. In order to investigate SRB population's capability of utilizing substrate and the microbial acidification type formed during the course of sulfate reduction, continuous-flow and batch tests were conducted in a continuous stirred tank bio-film reactor supplied with sodium sulfate as electron acceptor. The experimental results demonstrated that the acidification type formed b...

  16. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  17. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  18. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  19. Estudo microcalorimétrico da interação de tensoativos n-alquil-sulfato de sódio com tripsina a 298 k Microcalorimetric study of sodium N-alkyl sulfate interactions with trypsin at 298 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi A. Silva Filho

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic study of the interactions of ionic surfactants with protein trypsin in buffer solution pH 3.5, 7.0 and 9.0, ionic strength 10 mM at 298 K was done using the microcalorimetric technique. In this study, anionic surfactant solutions of the sodium n-alkyl sulfates series (C8, C10, C12 and C14 were used. The enthalpy of interaction (ΔintHº shows that the interaction of the surfactants C8, C10, C12 and C14 with trypsin in the solution pH 3.5 is an endothermic process with the value of ΔintHº decreasing linearly with increasing carbon chain length, which is attributed to the unfolding of the polypeptide chain. In the solution pH 7.0, we observed the same trend except for C14. In the solution pH 9.0, from C10 the enthapy of interaction didn't change with the increasing of the carbon chain length due to unfolding of the polypeptide. We concluded that when trypsin is folded, the enthalpy of interaction shows a linear relationship with the surfactant's hydrophobicity, in agreement with Traube's rule.

  20. Influência das características das substâncias húmicas na eficiência da coagulação com sulfato de alumínio The influence of humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Xavier Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência das características das substâncias húmicas (SH, em especial a massa molar das moléculas, na eficiência da coagulação com o uso do sulfato de alumínio. Utilizando-se de água proveniente de poço profundo, foram preparadas quatro águas de estudo, todas com cor verdadeira de aproximadamente 100 uH. As SH foram extraídas de turfa e fracionadas em massas molares: i SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm; ii SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm e maiores que 100 kDa, iii SH com moléculas entre 30 e 100 kDa; iv SH com moléculas menores do que 30 kDa. Verificou-se que quanto maior a massa molar das SH maior foi a eficiência de remoção da cor aparente, com as menores dosagens de coagulante.O pH de coagulação ótimo, esteve entre 6,0 e 7,0, para todas as águas de estudo. Os estudos da porcentagem de ácido húmico (AH e ácido fúlvico (AF presentes em cada fração de diferente massa molar mostraram que quanto maior foi à porcentagem de AF presente, maior foi à dosagem de coagulante exigida para se obter os melhores resultados de remoção da cor aparente.The influence of the molecular weight of soil humic substances on the coagulation efficiency with aluminum sulfate was studied in this work. Four types of water were studied, with the same true color of approximately 100 HU, but prepared with different fractions of molecular weights: Water Type 1 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm; Water Type 2 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm and with molecular weight > 100 KDa; Water Type 3 (humic substances with molecular weight between 100 and 30 KDa; Water Type 4 (humic substances with molecular weight < 30 KDa. It was conclude that the higher the molecular weight of the molecules, the lower the coagulant dosages required for efficient coagulation, at the coagulation pH range 6 - 7. The types of water prepared with the fractions of humic substances containing higher

  1. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhong Huang; Liang Chen; Donghui Chen; Saijie Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and aluminum speciation of sludge incineration residue (SIR) were determined.Cementation of aluminum from sulfuric acid solution using SIR was studied.The results showed that acid-soluble inorganic aluminum was the predominant component in the sludge,and the total leached aluminum increased from 62.2% to 92.9% after incineration.Sulfuric acid dosage and reaction time were found to affect aluminum recovery positively.Conversely,the increase in temperature significantly inhibited recovery reactions.The optimized leaching condition was 1.66 g sulfuric acid per gram of SIR with a reaction time of 3 hr at 20°C,resulting in the highest aluminum leaching rate of 96.7%.Compared to commercial aluminum sulfate solution coagulants,the leaching solution demonstrated higher CODcr,turbidity and color removal efficiency for textile wastewater.

  2. Mass Change Prediction Model of Concrete Subjected to Sulfate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Myong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study suggested a mass change prediction model for sulfate attack of concrete containing mineral admixtures through an immersion test in sulfate solutions. For this, 100% OPC as well as binary and ternary blended cement concrete specimens were manufactured by changing the types and amount of mineral admixture. The concrete specimens were immersed in fresh water, 10% sodium sulfate solution, and 10% magnesium sulfate solution, respectively, and mass change of the specimens was measured at 28, 56, 91, 182, and 365 days. The experimental results indicated that resistance of concrete containing mineral admixture against sodium sulfate attack was far greater than that of 100% OPC concrete. However, in terms of resistance against magnesium sulfate attack, concrete containing mineral admixture was lower than 100% OPC concrete due to the formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H, the noncementitious material. Ultimately, based on the experimental results, a mass change prediction model was suggested and it was found that the prediction values using the model corresponded relatively well with the experimental results.

  3. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate on chondrocytes and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in dogs with degenerative joint disease Efeitos do sulfato de condroitina e do hialuronato de sódio nos condrócitos e na matriz extracelular na cartilagem articular de cães com doença articular degenerativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Samples of articular cartilage of femur, tibia and patella of 15 dogs with experimentally induced degenerative joint disease (DJD were microscopically analyzed. Animals were distributed into three groups (n=5: the control group received no medication; the second group was treated with chondroitin sulfate and the third received sodium hyaluronate. Samples were processed and stained with HE and toluidine blue for morphological evaluation. The metabolic and proliferative activity of the chondrocytes was evaluated by the measurement of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs after impregnation by silver nitrate. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05 in the morphology among the groups, however, the group treated with sodium hyaluronate had a higher score suggesting a trend to a greater severity of the lesions. Significant differences were not observed (P>0.05 in the measurement of NORs, cells and NORs/cells among the groups. Although differences were not significant, sodium hyaluronate group showed higher NOR and cell counts which suggested an increase of the proliferation rate of chondrocytes. In addition, a higher NOR/cell ratio in the group treated with chondroitin sulfate suggested that this drug may have stimulated the metabolic activity of the chondrocytes, minimizing the lesions resulting from DJD.Foram utilizadas amostras de cartilagem articular do fêmur, tíbia e patela de 15 cães com doença articular degenerativa (DAD, induzida experimentalmente. Foram constituídos três grupos de cinco animais: grupo 1 - controle, não medicado; grupo 2 - tratado com sulfato de condroitina e grupo 3 - tratado com hialuronato de sódio. As amostras foram processadas e coradas pelas técnicas de HE e de azul de toluidina para avaliação das alterações morfológicas, e impregnadas pelo nitrato de prata para análise da atividade metabólica e/ou proliferativa dos condrócitos, por meio da visualização e quantificação de regiões organizadoras

  4. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  5. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F., E-mail: stephen.bartolucci@us.army.mil [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Paras, Joseph [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Rafiee, Mohammad A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Rafiee, Javad [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Koratkar, Nikhil, E-mail: koratn@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. {yields} Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. {yields} Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. {yields} The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  6. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Aluminum Plate by Surface Etching and Fluorosilane Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Shi-heng; ZHU Bin; LIU Yun-chun; YANG Ji; KUANG Tong-chun

    2012-01-01

    Superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces with a high water contact angle and low sliding angle on aluminum plate substrate were fabricated by means of surface etching with sodium hydroxide under ultrasonic bathing and then modification with fluorosilane.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) showed a honeycomb-like structure on aluminum substrate surface after etching under ultrasonic bathing.And the surface was rendered from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity after further modification with fluorosilane.

  7. Swelling Studies of Chitosan-Gelatin Films Cross-Linked by Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling; Yu Zu-yu; Yang Chao; Zhu Hua-yue; Du Yu-min

    2004-01-01

    Swelling properties of chitosan-gelatin films cross-linked by sulfate were investigated. Sulfate cross-linked chitosan-gelatin films (SCG) were prepared simply by dipping chitosan-gelatin films into sodium sulfate solution. The swelling behavior of SCG was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Under acidic conditions pH less than 4, SCG swelled less than 120%, while under the conditions pH larger than 7.4, SCG swelled very significantly, the swelling ratio was over 350%. Sodium chloride weakened the electrostatic interaction between sulfate and amine ions of chitosan and gelatin, therefore facilitated the film swelling. The swelling ratio increased with increasing sodium chloride concentration, the SCG dissociated in the sodium chloride concentration of 0.20 mol·L-1. The parameters of film preparation such as sulfate concentration, dipping time, sulfate solution pH, influenced the film swelling behavior. The lower concentration and the higher pH of sulfate solution resulted in a larger swelling ratio.

  8. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R;

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at...... methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a...... metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1...

  9. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  10. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  11. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  12. 葡聚糖硫酸钠和偶氮氧甲烷建立小鼠溃疡性结肠炎癌变模型%A Novel Mouse Model for Ulcerative Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis Induced by Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海明; 赵航; 郑萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop an ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis model in mice. Methods Female B ALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, the azoxymethane (AOM) group, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) group and the AOM + DSS group. AOM was intraperi-toneally injected. DSS was fed for 1 week then with ordinary water for 2 weeks, such 3 weeks formed a cycle and 9 weeks in all. The body weight was detected weekly and the mental status, stool character, hairs glossy and mortality were daily observed and recorded. Levels of TNF-a was tested by ELISA. Inflammation and pathology were observed by HE staining. Results ① After drinking DSS,the mice showed diarrhea, bloody stool, weight loss, depressed and hairs messy. Post-oral tumor were seen anal prolapse. Non-DSS groups had no more performance. AOM + DSS group appeared one death. The body weight was significantly decreased at 4,7,8,9 week after treatment compared with the control group (P <0.05). ② The TNF-a was significantly increased in DSS groups (P<0.05). ③ HE staining: DSS groups showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and (or) the formation of lymphoid follicles. The tumors were induced in all of the AOM + DSS mice (9/9), which were most located in distal colon and the pathology were showed high atypical hyperplasia and (or) carcinoma in situ. Dysplasia or cancer was not observed in the other three groups. Conclusion Ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis model in mice can prepared with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane prior to three repetitive oral administrations of dextran sulfate sodium. This method have the advantages with shorter time, high formation of tumor and stability of histological type.%目的 建立溃疡性结肠炎癌变的小鼠模型.方法 雌性BALB/c小鼠随机分为4组:正常对照组、偶氮氧甲烷(AOM)组、葡聚糖硫酸钠(DSS)组、AOM+DSS组,AOM一次性腹腔注射,DSS喂养1周+普通水2周,如此3个循环共9周.

  13. 化学增强铝硅酸盐玻璃扩散性能研究%The Diffusion Performance of Potassium and Sodium in Ion Exchanged Aluminum Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金树; 赵薇; 肖子凡

    2012-01-01

    了解碱金属离子在玻璃表面的扩散对生产高强度铝硅酸盐系统离子交换玻璃具有重要意义.通过外加Al,讨论不同Al/Na对碱离子扩散影响.采用EPMA测得玻璃断面K+、Na+分布曲线,根据Boltzmann- Matano计算方法得到K+、Na+的扩散系数,根据Arrhenius公式计算得到K+、Na+的扩散活化能.实验证明,随着Al/Na的增加,K+、Na+扩散深度逐渐增加,互扩散系数逐渐增加,K+、Na+平均活化能逐渐增加.讨论玻璃体内Al/Na比例是研究高强度离子交换玻璃的一个重要方向.%In the production of ion exchanged aluminum silicate system glass, the alkali ion diffusion on the glass surface is an important process which must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the impact of additional Al on the diffusion of alkali ions. The penetration depth profiles of alkali ions were obtained by EPMA methods. The diffusion coefficients of alkali ions were calculated by Boltzmann-Matano equation. And the active energy of alkali ions were gotten by Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the penetration depth, the interdiffusion coefficient and the average active energy increased with the increase of Al/Na ratios. It means the Al/Na ratios have a great effect on the diffusion of alkali i-ons.

  14. Determination of Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(Iin different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS-coated alumina as their 2,3 Di Hydro 2,3 paratolylQinazoline (1 H- 4 one (DPTQO by Flame atomic absorption spectrometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farveh Raoufi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of traces of Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(I ions has been developed. An alumina-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS coated on with 2,3 Di Hydro 2,3 paratolylQinazoline (1 H- 4 one (DPTQO. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH and sample volume were investigated.Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of analytes under study. The adsorbed analytes were desorbed by using 6mL of 4 mol L−1 nitric acid. The responses are linear 0.02–0.85 µg mL-1 for Cd2+ ion0.01–0.90 µg mL-1 for Zn2+and0.02–0.92µg mL-1for Ag+ detection limit for Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(I ions were found to be 1.4, 1.3 and1.12(ng mL-1, respectively.It was found that the recovery for Cd2+, Zn2+and Ag+ ions were 97.7, 98.2 and 98.0 with RSD of 1.9, 1.8 and 1.7. It was also observed that recovery for repeated recovery on the same solid phase not varies more than 3%. The presented procedurewas successfully applied for determination of analytes in radiology wastewater, amalgam, natural water and blood samples.

  15. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  16. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  17. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  18. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  19. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  20. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Lukianova, Tamara J.; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed hydrogen sulfate–sulfate piperidinium salt comprises three protonated piperidinium cations, one hydrogen sulfate anion and one sulfate anion in the asymmetric unit. Strong hydrogen bonds exist between the cations and the anions giving rise to a three-dimensional structure.

  1. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations <0.02 mg/L were attained by tailoring PACl properties (Ala percentage ≤0.5%, basicity ≥85%). The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm.

  2. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  3. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of hydrazine sulfate as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? It has been known since the early 1900s ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  4. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  5. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  6. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  7. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2005-01-01

    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source....... With this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al similar to 16-50) using aluminum isopropoxide as the aluminum Source is reported for the first time. All samples...... are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and N-2 adsorption measurements. The obtained zeolites combine the high crystallinity and the characteristic micropores of zeolites with an intracrystalline mesopore system...

  8. Application of Image Analysis Based on SEM and Chemical Mapping on PC Mortars under Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Cheng; SUN Wei; Scrivener Karen

    2014-01-01

    The degradation mechanisms of cementitious materials exposed to sulfate solutions have been controversial, despite considerable research. In this paper, two methodologies of image analysis based on scanning electron microscope and chemical mapping are used to analyse Portland cement mortars exposed to sodium sulfate solution. The effects of sulfate concentration in solution and water to cement ratio of mortar, which are considered as the most sensitive factors to sulfate attack, are investigated respectively by comparing the macro expansion with microstructure analysis. It is found that the sulfate concentration in pore solution, expressed as sulfate content in C-S-H, plays a critical role on the supersaturation with respect to ettringite and so on the expansion force generated.

  9. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  10. Reinforcement of plant fiber-based ultra low density material with sodium silicate%硅酸钠增强植物纤维基超低密度材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢拥群; 刘景宏; 林铭; 刘小政; 童雀菊

    2012-01-01

    为增强和改变材料的防火性能,利用液体发泡原理,在制备超低密度植物纤维材料过程中添加硅酸钠、硫酸铝。结果表明:添加40%的硅酸钠和相应的硫酸铝可以提高材料的力学性能。其内结合强度从0.1MPa增加到1.0MPa;静曲弹性模量从12.4MPa增加到87.3MPa,静曲强度从0.2MPa增加到7.3MPa;抗压强度(10%压应变)从0.2MPa增加到3.7MPa。阻燃性能得以增强,氧指数达到了42%;在温度低于700℃的范围内,无明显的失重和热解放热现象。%Inorganic materials such as sodium silicate and aluminum sulfate can be used as additives to improve mechanical and fire resistance performances of plant fiber-based ultra low density material(ULDM) during its making process using the liquid frothing approach.Following process was used to make sample mats:after fiberization in a refiner,adding resin and surface active agent in the pulp solution,then adding sodium silicate and aluminum sulfate,well mixing the solution;after solution frothing,mat forming and drying,a plant fiber-based ultra low density mat was made.Compared with 0 inorganic additive,using 40% sodium silicate and corresponding amount of aluminum sulfate could increase internal bonding strength of the ULDM from 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa,MOE from 12.4 MPa to 87.3 MPa;MOR from 0.2 MPa to 7.3 MPa and compressive strength(at 10% strain) was ranging from 0.2 MPa to 3.7 MPa.This also can reinforce fire resistance performance and oxygen index reach a higher level of 42%.No significant weight loss and exothermic decomposition could be observed below 700 ℃.

  11. Dependence of the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 7075 on the thin electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.R. [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaption for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510663 (China); Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, X.G. [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: lixiaogang99@263.net; Ma, J. [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaption for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510663 (China); Dong, C.F. [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Y.Z. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 dependent of the thin electrolyte layers in 1 M sodium sulfate solution has been investigated using cathodic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The oxygen reduction current is measured to be maximum at -1.1 V by cathodic polarization test when the thickness of the electrolyte layer is 110 {mu}m. The EIS results show that the corrosion rate increases with the increase of the immersing time independent of thickness of the electrolyte layer although 110 {mu}m thick electrolyte layer produces the largest corrosion rate over the immersing time between 0 h and 96 h. However, with the longer immersing time, corrosion rate of the sample in bulk solution becomes higher. This result can be explained that the diffusion of the corrosion product and the metal ions from the electrode in the case of the thicker layer is easier. SEM morphologies reveal that corrosion products on the surface of the samples are distributed unhomogenously, with their amount near edges being more than the center area. In addition, XPS analysis demonstrates that corrosion products are mainly composed of Al(OH){sub 3} and Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  12. Management of chronic parotid fistula with sodium tetradecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Agrawal, Aviral

    2013-01-01

    A parotid fistula is a rare, extremely unpleasant disease. It may be due to chronic pathologies of the facial soft tissues, trauma (tangential injury to face), infection or congenital. Various treatment modalities including surgical and conservative management are present to treat this disease. Conservative management plays a vital role in patients who are systemically compromised and unfit for surgery. In the present case report an alternative conservative technique of parotid fistula management has been described in a 28-year-old girl who was severe anemic with parotid fistula since last 25 yrs.

  13. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... melting fractions of crude vegetable oils and animal fats, provided that the partition step is followed by... the Act precludes such use. (ii) Fumaric acid-acidulated fruit juice drinks whereby the additive...

  14. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  15. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of simple aluminum-based adsorbents for fluoride removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junyi; Sabatini, David A; Butler, Elizabeth C

    2014-04-01

    Simple aluminum (hydr)oxides and layered double hydroxides were synthesized using common chemicals and equipment by varying synthesis temperature, concentrations of extra sulfate and citrate, and metal oxide amendments. Aluminum (hydr)oxide samples were aged at either 25 or 200°C during synthesis and, in some cases, calcined at 600 °C. Despite yielding increased crystallinity and mineral phase changes, higher temperatures had a generally negative effect on fluoride adsorption. Addition of extra sulfate during synthesis of aluminum (hydr)oxides led to significantly higher fluoride adsorption capacity compared to aluminum (hydr)oxides prepared with extra citrate or no extra ligands. X-ray diffraction results suggest that extra sulfate led to the formation of both pseudoboehmite (γ-AlOOH) and basaluminite (Al4SO4(OH)10⋅4H2O) at 200 °C; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sulfur in this solid. Treatment of aluminum (hydr)oxides with magnesium, manganese, and iron oxides did not significantly impact fluoride adsorption. While layered double hydroxides exhibited high maximum fluoride adsorption capacities, their adsorption capacities at dissolved fluoride concentrations close to the World Health Organization drinking water guideline of 1.5 mg L(-1) were much lower than those for the aluminum (hydr)oxides.

  17. Burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttenberg, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An experimental investigation was conducted in which the burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles were measured using a windowed combustion bomb at atmospheric pressure and under gravity-fall conditions. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the size distribution of the initial aluminum particles and the aluminum oxide residue. Analysis of the residue indicated that the mass of aluminum...

  18. Structural evolution of an alkali sulfate activated slag cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of sodium sulfate content and curing duration (from fresh paste up to 18 months) on the binder structure of sodium sulfate activated slag cements was evaluated. Isothermal calorimetry results showed an induction period spanning the first three days after mixing, followed by an acceleration-deceleration peak corresponding to the formation of bulk reaction products. Ettringite, a calcium aluminium silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) phase, and a hydrotalcite-like Mg-Al layered double hydroxide have been identified as the main reaction products, independent of the Na2SO4 dose. No changes in the phase assemblage were detected in the samples with curing from 1 month up to 18 months, indicating a stable binder structure. The most significant changes upon curing at advanced ages observed were growth of the AFt phase and an increase in silicate chain length in the C-A-S-H, resulting in higher strength.

  19. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  20. Physicochemical Study on the Interface Zone of Concrete Exposed to Different Sulfate Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the visual observations and micro-analysis of concrete core samples after 6 and 12 months of their exposure to sodium, ammonium and magnesium sulfate solutions with the same concentration of sulfate ions. XRD, SEM and EDS were used for micro-analysis of the microstructure and the composition of the interface zone in the samples. The results indicate that the deterioration of concrete by different sulfate solutions could proceed differently with regard to the mechanism and the mode of damage caused. The damage of concrete exposed to sodium sulfate solution is mainly caused by the gypsum crystals formed in the interface zone, which lead to expansion and cracking. In the case of concrete immersed in magnesium sulfate solutions, a layer of brucite (magnesium hydroxide) and gypsum was produced in the interface zone, which reduces the cohesiveness of the interface zone in concrete. For the concrete immersed in ammonium sulfate solutions, the conversation of mortar to some mush mass by ammonium ions and the formation of a large of gypsum occurred in the interface zone, consequently, serious softening of hydrated cement pastes and expansion and cracking of concrete are the characteristics of the attack by ammonium sulfate solutions. Also, it is considered that using drilled concrete core as samples to evaluate the sulfate resistance of concrete is a good and accelerated method.