WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminum sodium chloride

  1. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  2. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  3. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  4. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  5. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  6. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbaghzadeh, Behnam; Parvizi, Reza; Davoodi, Ali; Moayed, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  7. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  8. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  9. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  10. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  11. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  12. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  13. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  14. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  16. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  17. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  19. A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Grigoriy A.; Rajpara, Vikul B.

    2007-01-01

    An acutely less toxic 2-bromobutane is used to develop a simple graphite-promoted procedure of alkylation of p-xylene. It is further demonstrated that aluminum chloride is not required, the need for aqueous workup is eliminated, waste solutions are not produced and the multiple use of the catalyst is allowed.

  20. Dehydration of aluminum chloride hexahydrate: a technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    Physical and chemical properties of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, ACH, and related compounds are noted as well as the relation of these properties to the problem of dehydration of ACH to form anhydrous aluminum chloride. Several approaches to the dehydration of ACH are discussed and a rationale or each approach is given: solvent extraction, ligand exchange, azeotropic distillation, chemical dehydration, and energy specific direct heating. While the thermodynamics of dehydration are frequently favorable, the rate of reaction and the mechanisms of reaction are more frequently unfavorable. However, each approach requires experimentation to test its effectiveness. The stability of the aluminum-oxygen bond in the hydrate is such that dehydration without decomposition to the oxide will be very difficult

  1. AlN powder synthesis via nitriding reaction of aluminum sub-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, T.; Nishida, T.; Sugiura, M. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School); Fuwa, A. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    In order to obtain the pertinent properties of aluminium nitride in its sintered form, it is desirable to have powders of finer sizes with narrower size distribution and higher purity, thereby making the sintering processing easier and the final body denser. Instead of using sublimated aluminum tri-chloride vapor (AlCl3) as an aluminum source in the vapor phase nitriding reaction, the mixed aluminum chloride vapor consisted of aluminum tri-chloride, bi-chloride and mono-chloride are used in the reaction with ammonia at temperatures of 1000 and 1200K. The mixed chloride vapors are produced by reacting chlorine with molten aluminum at 1000 or 1200K under atmospheric pressure. The reaction of this mixed chloride vapor with ammonia is then experimentally investigated to study the aluminum nitride powder morphology. The aluminum nitride powders synthesized under various ammonia concentrations are characterized for size distribution, mean particle size and particle morphology. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  3. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  4. Flame generation of sodium chloride aerosol for filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.; Kinnear, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for sodium chloride aerosol is described, which when used in conjunction with a sensitive portable sodium flame detector unit, will permit the in-place testing of large filter installations having air throughputs up to about 80,000 m 3 /h, at penetrations down to at least 0.005 percent. (U.S.)

  5. Growth and Breakdown of Surface Films and Localized Corrosion of Aluminum in Concentrated Chloride Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jiajing

    1994-01-01

    ...) and mechanical stress for aluminum and titanium alloys in aggressive corrosion environments. This report presents results of some very preliminary experiments on aluminum alloys and titanium during anodic dissolution in chloride media...

  6. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  7. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  8. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  9. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  10. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  11. Amendment trials for bioremediation of sodium and chloride contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Western Alfalfa Milling Co. Ltd., Norquay, SK (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Details of a soil amendment experiment was presented. Soil samples from sodium and chloride contaminated soil were taken from a site located in southeastern Alberta. Soil amendments included high protein dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 2 types of Zeolite, and used coconut coir. The aim of the study was to find an effective in-situ method of remediating the soil while establishing the highest possible plant biomass. Preliminary trial data indicated a strong trend for high plant protein pellets to increase plant productivity on sodium and chloride contaminated soil. The addition of alfalfa increased plant height and stem diameter, as well as leaf width, which increased incrementally with higher volumes of alfalfa. Equivalent rates of .5 MT to 4 MT per acre application rates were used in the trial. Coconut coir was used at a rate of 30 per cent of the volume of the growing medium and also showed increased growth. An experiment was conducted using harvested plant matter from the samples to determine the effect of the 3 amendments on sodium uptake by the plants. Results showed that the sodium uptake significantly increased with the application of soil amendments, particularly when alfalfa pellets were applied, with percentages of sodium found in the plant tissue almost twice as high as percentages found in the control sample. Sodium levels also increased in the plant tissues where coconut coir was used, although to a lesser degree than levels found in plants grown with the alfalfa amended soils. Zeolite did not perform as well on its own. However, it was noted that previous trials have shown good performance when Zeolite was mixed into sodium/chloride contaminated soils and combined with water filtration. It was concluded that the soil amendments improved plant growth, and increased the sodium uptake by plants. The consortium is pursuing industry support to plan larger field studies in the 2006 season. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Transformation and fragmentation behavior of molten aluminum in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S.; Kinoshita, I.; Ueda, N.; Sugiyama, K. I.

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of fragmentation of the metallic alloy fuel on liquid phase formed by metallurgical reactions, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents for metallic fuel fast reactors, a series of experiments was carried out using molten aluminum and sodium under the condition that the boiling of sodium on the surface of the melt does not occur. The melting point of aluminum (933K) is roughly equivalent to the liquefaction temperature between the U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel and the SUS cladding (about 923K). The thermal fragmentation of a molten aluminum with a solid crust in the sodium pool is caused by the transient pressurization within the melt confined by the solid crust even under the condition that the instantaneous contact interface temperature between the melt and the sodium is below the boiling point of sodium. This indicates the possibility that the metallic alloy fuel on liquid phase formed by metallurgical reactions can be fragmented without occurring the boiling of sodium on the surface of the melt. The transient pressurization within the melt is considered to be caused by following two mechanisms. i) the overheating of the coolant entrapped hydrodynamically inside the aluminum melt confined by solid crust ii) the progression of solid crust inward and the squeeze of inner liquid part of the aluminum melt confined by solid crust It is found that the degree of fragmentation defined by mass median diameter has the same tendency for different dropping modes (drop or jet) with different mass and ambient Weber number of the melt in the present experimental conditions

  13. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel' man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    The efficiency of corrosion protection of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in chloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylanthranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys.

  14. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  15. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  16. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys in chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Filho, Jorge Eustaquio de

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have been used as cladding materials for nuclear fuel in research reactors due to its corrosion resistance. Aluminum owes its good corrosion resistance to a protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its surface. In pool type TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear in Belo Horizonte, previous immersion coupon tests revealed that aluminum alloys suffer from pitting corrosion, in spite of high quality of water control. Corrosion attack is initiated by breaking the protective oxide film on aluminum alloy surface. Chloride ions can break this oxide film and stimulate metal dissolution. In this study the aluminum alloys 1050, 5052 and 6061 were used to evaluate their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions. The electrochemical techniques used were potentiodynamic anodic polarization and cyclic polarization. Results showed that aluminum alloys 5052 and 6061 present similar corrosion resistance in low chloride solutions (0,1 ppm NaCl) and in reactor water but both alloys are less resistant in high chloride solution (1 ppm NaCl). Aluminum alloy 1050 presented similar behavior in the three electrolytes used, regarding to pitting corrosion, indicating that the concentration of the chloride ions was not the only variable to influence its corrosion susceptibility. (author)

  17. Progress and recent developments in sodium, metal chloride batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A new class of rechargeable sodium batteries emerged in the last decade mainly due to the efforts in South Africa and the United Kingdom. These systems include solid transition metal chlorides in sodium tetrachloroaluminates as cathodes. Significant developments have been made on two systems, i.e., Na/NiCl 2 and Na/FeCl 2 ; high energy densities of the order of 130 Wh/Kg have been demonstrated at the cell level both with FeCl 2 and NiCl 2 cathodes. Long cycle life of over 2000 cycles was demonstrated with NiCl 2 , especially with a sulfur additive to the electrolyte to retain the sintered structure of the NiCl 2 electrode. Various environmental and safety tests have been successfully performed on the cells. Scale up efforts resulted in cells of 40 - 100 Ah, which were evaluated in an electric vehicle application. Additionally, it appears from a recent evaluation study carried out by European Space Agency on Na/NiCl 2 for GEO and LEO applications that energy densities of the order of 120 Wh/Kg and 100 Wh/Kg respectively at the cell level are feasible and long cycle lives (beyond 2800 cycles are possible). Several fundamental and developmental studies have been carried out at other laboratories aimed at understanding the reaction mechanisms, determining the kinetics and identifying various rate governing processes, and screening various other metal chlorides. Finally, the specific energies and especially the power densities projected for Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 systems based on alternate designs for beta alumina solid electrolyte, i.e., multiple tubes and flat plates are very attractive for electric vehicle and space applications. In this paper, the authors propose to present a detailed account of the developments made hither to as well as the key research issues being addressed in the sodium - metal chloride battery technology

  18. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  20. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions

  1. Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Stakišaitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-dependent Cl−/HCO3- exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl− efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl− efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+ by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG. For Na+ and Cl− substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl− was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl−-free buffer (Cl− substituted with isethionate acid and in Na+ and Cl−-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl− efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl− efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl− efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl− efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl− efflux via Cl−/HCO3- exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger.

  2. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Benzalkonium chloride neutralizes the irritant effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Holloway, D B; Whittle, E G; Basketter, D A

    2000-11-01

    When benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a cationic surfactant, is added to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and used in patch testing, on the basis of their known physicochemical interaction, it is possible to predict that there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the expected irritant response when compared to SDS alone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BKC could reduce the irritant response to SDS when applied after the SDS exposure. 54 non-atopic adult volunteers were recruited for the study. 20% SDS was applied for 2 h under occlusion. 1% BKC was then applied to the same site. Various controls, including SDS application followed by water for 2 h, were included. The irritant reaction was assessed at 24 h and 48 h. 40 of the 54 subjects had some reaction when SDS was applied for 2 h followed by either benzalkonium chloride or water control under occlusion. In comparison to water control, where BKC was applied after SDS, 20 of the 40 responders had a weaker reaction but only 4 had a stronger response. This study shows that BKC applied to skin exposed to SDS attenuates the resulting irritant reaction.

  4. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  5. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, Vassilis

    1977-01-01

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 T melting ). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ d k with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author) [fr

  6. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  7. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  8. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  9. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEAT-CURING BRINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDMAN, M; DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1963-05-01

    Goldman, Manuel (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Interrelationship between temperature and sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat-curing brines. J. Bacteriol. 85:1017-1021. 1963.-An elevation of the temperature limit for growth of some Pediococcus homari (Gaffkya homari) and motile Lactobacillus strains could be effected by the addition of sodium chloride to the growth medium. At the optimal temperature for growth, sodium chloride was stimulatory, and as the temperature of incubation was increased a mandatory requirement for sodium chloride was manifested. At the optimal temperature for growth (30 C), the highest sodium chloride concentrations were tolerated; as the temperature was increased, this tolerance decreased, although the optimal sodium chloride concentration increased. No other substances were found that would replace the sodium chloride requirement at higher temperatures of incubation.

  10. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  11. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Hicks, Clair L; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-06-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of approximately 1g cheese containing 1.5% or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of approximately 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8-9h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F approximately 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 95% and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  13. SOLVENT-FREE TETRAHYDROPYRANYLATION (THP) OF ALCOHOLS AND PHENOLS AND THEIR REGENERATION BY CATALYTIC ALUMINUM CHLORIDE HEXAHYDRATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic amount of aluminum chloride hexahydrate enables solvent-free tetrahydropyranylation (THP) of alcohols and phenols at moderate temperatures. A simple addition of methanol helps to regenerate the corresponding alcohols and phenols thus rendering these protection and depro...

  14. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na(+)) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K(+)) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis...

  16. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  17. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  18. Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P.C.S.; Grundy, B.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82 0 C and with chloride content up to 500 ppM. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304 stainless steel failed in the high chloride solution (500 ppM) within ten days at the same temperature. The failure was initiated by pitting and subsequently accelerated by intergranular attack. The results also show that high pH tends to reduce the susceptibility to failure while procedures commonly used for sodium removal have no significant effect on the water corrosion behavior of the test material. Based on the current results, it is concluded that water shortage is feasible for spent fuels in a LMFBR reprocessing plant

  19. Effects of pH and chloride concentration on pitting corrosion of AA6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, B.; Saidi, D.; Benzaid, A.; Hadji, S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of pH solution and chloride (Cl - ) ion concentration on the corrosion behaviour of alloy AA6061 immersed in aqueous solutions of NaCl have been investigated using measurements of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, linear polarisation, cyclic polarisation experiment combined with open circuit potential transient technique and optical or scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the AA6061 aluminum alloy was found to be dependant on the pH and chloride concentration [NaCl] of solution. In acidic or slightly neutral solutions, general and pitting corrosion occurred simultaneously. In contrast, exposure to alkaline solutions results in general corrosion. Experience revealed that the alloy AA6061 was susceptible to pitting corrosion in all chloride solution of concentration ranging between 0.003 wt% and 5.5 wt% NaCl and an increase in the chloride concentration slightly shifted both the pitting E pit and corrosion E cor potentials to more active values. In function of the conditions of treatment, the sheets of the alloy AA6061 undergo two types of localised corrosion process, leading to the formation of hemispherical and crystallographic pits. Polarisation resistance measurements in acidic (pH = 2) and alkaline chloride solutions (pH = 12) which are in good agreement with those of weight loss, show that the corrosion kinetic is minimised in slightly neutral solutions (pH = 6)

  20. Effects of sodium chloride on radiation protection and modification of gamma-ray treated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Zhao Kongnan; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Chen Qiufang

    1992-11-01

    The radiation protection effect of sodium chloride on dormant and germinating rice seeds treated with gamma-rays, and modification effect of sodium chloride on mutation were studied. Results show that the radiation-damage effect on seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility in M 1 generation is significantly enhanced with the increasing of dose. However, the seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility can be improved if the irradiated seeds are pre-treated with sodium chloride solution having concentrations of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mol/L. The difference between treated group and control group is very significant. Results also show that pre-treatment and post-treatment by sodium chloride can raise the mutation frequencies of chlorophyll deficient seedlings, especially, the mutation frequency of early heading date and height is more considerably. The conclusion is that the sodium chloride, as a radiation protection agent, combined with gamma-ray treatment could reduce the effect of radiation-damage on M 1 generation and raise the mutation frequency in M 2 generation, and this result will be helpful in rice breeding

  1. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel; Reza, Joel; Trejo, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg -1 = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10 -8 to 143 . 10 -8 ) mol . kg -1 . Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol -1 . The standard molar Gibbs free energies, Δ tr G o , enthalpies, Δ tr H o , and entropies, Δ tr S o , for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated Δ tr G o values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol -1 ]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  2. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  3. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  4. Zinc sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperatures in sodium chloride and tap water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Othman Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Zinc sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tested in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified for this study. This was partly due to the high resistivity of the medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in water tap medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. In tap water environment the anode weight loss was negligible. The zinc anode suffered intergranular corrosion in sodium chloride environment and this was noticed starting at 40 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the zinc anode demonstrated interesting behavior beyond 60 degree centigrade, that could be attributed to the phenomenon of reversal of potential at elevated temperatures. It also showed shallow pitting spots in tap water environment without any sign of intergranular corrosion. Zinc anodes would suffer intergranular corrosion at high temperatures. (author)

  5. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Wang Lili; Zhu Lanying; Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei

    2010-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h xy , h xxy , and h xyy ) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h xy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  6. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  8. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  9. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  10. Protective effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera against neurotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E Elhadidy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ashwagandha extract against aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into control, aluminum-intoxicated rats treated daily with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3 (100 mg/kg, orally for 30 d and aluminum-intoxicated animals protected by receiving daily ashwagandha extract (200 mg/kg, orally one hour before AlCl3 administration for 30 d. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In addition, the activities of Na+, K+, ATPase and acetylcholinesterase were determined in the three studied brain regions. Results: Aluminum increased the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum and decreased the reduced glutathione level in the hippocampus and striatum. In rats protected with ashwagandha extract, non significant changes were observed in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and reduced glutathione. In addition, ashwagandha extracts prevented the increased activity of acetylcholinesterase and Na+, K+, ATPase induced by AlCl3 in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The present findings also showed that the significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α induced by AlCl3 in the cortex and hippocampus was prevented by ashwagandha extract. Conclusions: The present results suggest that ashwagandha extract possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against aluminum neurotoxicity. In addition, ashwagandha extract could prevent the decline in cholinergic activity by maintaining normal acetylcholinesterase activity. The later effect could recommend the use of ashwagandha as a memory enhancer.

  11. Effects of toxic levels of sodium, arsenic, iron and aluminum on the rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockard, R G; McWalter, A R

    1956-01-01

    The results of two sand culture experiments on rice plants are described. In one, the toxic effects of sodium, as sodium chloride, and of arsenic, as sodium arsenate, were tested; in the other, iron, chelated with the disodium salt of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid, and aluminium, as aluminium sulfate, were tried out. The former was undertaken because of the existence of these sub

  12. New and Efficient Synthesis of Amides from Acid Chlorides Using Diisobutyl(amino)aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Kyo; Shin, Won Kyu; An, Duk Keun [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In conclusion, we have developed a facile, alternative method for the formation of secondary and tertiary amides including morpholine amides from acid chlorides by using diisobutyl(amino)aluminum under mild reaction conditions. The advantages of the present method include the high product yields, simple experimental procedure, short reaction time (10 min), and the fact that an excess amount of amine is not required. This result suggests that our new method can provide an alternative method for the synthesis of useful amides from acid chlorides. Amides are valuable functional groups in biological, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical molecules. Several amides such as Weinreb amides, morpholine amides, and pyrrolidine amides are useful intermediates for the synthesis of aldehydes or ketones. Among them, morpholine amides are a cheap and good substitute for Weinreb amides.

  13. New and Efficient Synthesis of Amides from Acid Chlorides Using Diisobutyl(amino)aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Kyo; Shin, Won Kyu; An, Duk Keun

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, we have developed a facile, alternative method for the formation of secondary and tertiary amides including morpholine amides from acid chlorides by using diisobutyl(amino)aluminum under mild reaction conditions. The advantages of the present method include the high product yields, simple experimental procedure, short reaction time (10 min), and the fact that an excess amount of amine is not required. This result suggests that our new method can provide an alternative method for the synthesis of useful amides from acid chlorides. Amides are valuable functional groups in biological, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical molecules. Several amides such as Weinreb amides, morpholine amides, and pyrrolidine amides are useful intermediates for the synthesis of aldehydes or ketones. Among them, morpholine amides are a cheap and good substitute for Weinreb amides

  14. TRANSITIONS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE DURING PITTING CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN CHLORIDE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, K.; ISAACS, H.S.; LEVY, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum, in a chloride containing solutions close to its pitting potential, shows vigorous fluctuations in current and potential. Measurements have been made of the freely corroding potential, and the currents between interconnected electrodes. It is shown that there is a transition in the behavior of the transients. The transition occurs when multiple active pits are present and electrochemical communication occurs between them. The major source of current and potential transients is the growth process in the active pits rather than meta-stable pitting at the passive surface

  15. TRANSITIONS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE DURING PITTING CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN CHLORIDE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SASAKI,K.; ISAACS,H.S.; LEVY,P.W.

    2001-09-02

    Aluminum, in a chloride containing solutions close to its pitting potential, shows vigorous fluctuations in current and potential. Measurements have been made of the freely corroding potential, and the currents between interconnected electrodes. It is shown that there is a transition in the behavior of the transients. The transition occurs when multiple active pits are present and electrochemical communication occurs between them. The major source of current and potential transients is the growth process in the active pits rather than meta-stable pitting at the passive surface.

  16. Investigation of the pitting of aluminum induced by chloride ions by holographic microphotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG LI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Holographic microphotography was used to investigate the dynamic processes of pitting during anodic dissolution of aluminum in a solution containing chloride ions. The induction and the follow-up propagation processes of the pitting were observed in real-time. A simple model of the propagating process of the pitting was deduced from the result of the holograms of the Al/electrolyte interface. The results prove that holographic microphotography is a useful tool to study the dynamic processes of pitting.

  17. Pitting corrosion of friction stir welded aluminum alloy thick plate in alkaline chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe; Zhu Hongqiang

    2010-01-01

    The pitting corrosion of different positions (Top, Middle and Bottom) of weld nugget zone (WNZ) along thickness plate in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by using open circuit potential, cyclic polarization, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The results indicate that the material presents significant passivation, the top has highest corrosion potential, pitting potential and re-passivation potential compared with the bottom and base material. With the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min or rotary speed from 500 to 600 rpm, the corrosion resistance decreases.

  18. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  19. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  20. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J J; McOrist, G D; Farrar, Y J; Bowles, C J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakoza, G.N.; Grigor'eva, O.L.; Mart'yanova, B.M.; Vorob'eva, E.N.; Kuznetsova, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  3. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  4. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  5. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    strength increase at 3 and 7 days over control cubes; at 28 days concrete cubes containing 5%. RHA cured in NaCl solutions recorded higher strength loss compared to control cubes. Keywords: ... chloride in mixing water reported it to cause.

  6. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the ... iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers .... o u n d. Zn adsorption by. MSC-SC. Zn adsorption by. MOC-SC .... Okuda T, Baes AU, Nishijima W, Okada M (2001).

  7. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  8. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  9. Effect of radioactive chromate on the corrosion and polarisation of mild steel in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyan, N.; Ramakrishnaiah, K.; Iyer, S.V.; Kapali, V.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion tests of mild steel in 0.01% sodium chloride containing radioactive chromate and non-radioactive chromate have been carried out. It has been observed that the labelled sodium chromate has a deleterious effect on the inhibitive action of non-radioactive chromate. The effect of radioactive chromate on the potentiostatic polarization of m.s. in sodium chloride solution containing non-radioactive sodium chromate has also been studied. It is observed that both the cathodic and the anodic polarisation of the metal is diminished in the presence of radioactive chromate. The behaviour of the system in the presence of radioactive chromate is attributed both to the action of depolarisers produced by radiolysis of water and to the effect of gamma radiation on the metal. (author)

  10. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  11. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel'man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  12. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Araújo Cantarella

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015 with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013, increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001, most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  13. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  14. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON) ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO4)3 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ...

  15. Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro-Sole, J.; Frontera, C.; Beltran-Porter, D.; Lebedev, O.I.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Fuertes, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na x HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains

  16. Influence of sodium chloride on aflatoxin production by irradiated and non-irradiated spores of aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid medium consisting of 2% yeast extract, 4% sucrose and 0-10% sodium chloride was inoculated with aspergillus flavus and incubated at 22.30 and 37 degree C for 8 days. Aflatoxin was determined in the medium by thin layer chromatography. Aflatoxin production was enhanced by 2 and 4% sodium chloride at 22 and 30 degree C and by 2-6% sodium chloride at 37 degree C. Aflatoxin was decreased by 8 and 10% sodium chloride at the three temperatures. Exposure of Asp. flavus spores to gamma radiation enhanced aflatoxin at 1 kGy and inhibited it at 2 kGy, with the different concentrations of sodium chloride.2 tab

  17. Hazard identification for human and ecological effects of sodium chloride road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) requested an evaluation of : the human and ecological risks associated with the application of sodium chloride (NaCl) road : salt to roadways. NaCl is the major de-icing agent used in NH to...

  18. Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by γ-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of γ-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO 4 - ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO 4 - ions. The extent to which MnO 4 - ions are reduced are found to vary with

  19. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  20. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  1. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  2. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  3. Roentgen-phase analysis of sodium chloride of Khodja-Mumindeposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, K.M.; Pulatov, M.S.; Isupov, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of determination of mineral composition of sodium chloride by authors was carried out the roentgen-phase analysis till its purification, after filtration and after purification from Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 4 2 + i ons by barium-carbonate and hydrochloride-acid methods

  4. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 1454-1460 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * neutron scattering * agueous sodium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  5. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  6. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl−) and sodium (Na...

  7. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  8. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  9. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  10. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  11. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  13. Extended stability of intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution after prolonged heating or cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertos, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of an intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution that had been cooled or heated for an extended period of time. Fifteen sterile 1 L bags of 0.9% sodium chloride solution were randomly selected for this experiment. Five bags were refrigerated at an average temperature of 5.2°C, 5 bags were heated at an average temperature of 39.2°C, and 5 bags were stored at an average room temperature of 21.8°C to serve as controls. All samples were protected from light and stored for a period of 199 days prior to being assayed and analyzed for microbial and fungal growth. There was no clinically significant difference in the mean sodium values between the refrigerated samples, the heated samples, and the control group. There were no signs of microbial or fungal growth for the duration of the study. A sterile intravenous solution of 0.9% sodium chloride that was heated or cooled remained stable and showed no signs of microbial or fungal growth for a period of 199 days. This finding will allow hospitals and emergency medical technicians to significantly extend the expiration date assigned to these fluids and therefore obviate the need to change out these fluids every 28 days as recommended by the manufacturer.

  14. Oxidative Esterification of Aldehydes with Urea Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jong Chan [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a new, environmentally benign and highly efficient oxidative preparation of methyl esters by the reaction of various aldehydes with UHP in methanol catalyzed by readily accessible aluminum(III) chloride hexahydrate. This new greener and cost effective direct esterification method can serve as a useful alternative to existing protocols. Esters are some of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry and have been found in the sub-structure of a variety of natural products, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of various esters. In particular, this method gives low yields for both aldehydes containing electron donating substituents in aromatic rings and heterocyclic aldehydes. Therefore, development of a more general, efficient, and greener protocol for the esterification of aldehydes with readily available catalyst is still desirable.

  15. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  16. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  17. Experimental research on the poly-aluminum chloride for treating the Pi River water in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rusheng; Bai, Yulin; Yang, Jie

    2018-02-01

    In the beaker experiments that the disposal of low turbidity water, we observed the influence of some factors, such as the dosage of poly-aluminum chloride coagulant, the pH value of raw water, in disposing the high natural organic matters of low turbidity water in winter and summer. we discussed the removal of residual aluminum and UV254 in summer. The experimental results show that when the turbidity is less than 10 NTU, the optimum dosage are 14.4 mg.L-1 and 8.2 mg.L-1 respectively in winter and summer. No matter in winter or summer, the effect of pH value on coagulation treatment is very significant, the best pH value is about 8.1. In summer, with the increase of dosage of poly-aluminum chloride, residual aluminum increased slowly after decrease, turbidity and UV254 after precipitation is similar removal trend. Finally, according to the current market price of poly-aluminum chloride economic analysis, daily differences in pharmaceutical costs about 1600 yuan in summer and winter in the second water plant in Lu’an.

  18. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Moringa oleifera Seed Extract and Poly-aluminum Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Bina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in water treatment plants. Metal salts such as aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride are commonly used in the coagulation process in Iran. Poly-aluminum chloride (PAC has been used recently in Baba-Sheykhali Water Treatment Plant in Isfahan. Synthetic coagulants have health problems associated with them and are additionally uneconomical for use in developing countries. In this study, PAC and Moringa oleifera seed extract were compared for their efficiency as coagulants. Moringa oleifera, locally called “oil gaz” in Iran, grows in southern parts of Iran. One variety of this tree, Moringa progeria, is indigenous to Iran. For the purposes of this study, lab experiments were performed using distilled water containing synthetic caoline. Four turbidity levels of 10, 50, 500, and1000 (NTU and four pH levels of 5, 6, 7, and 8 were used for the jar test. It was found that oleifera seed extract was capable of removing 98, 97, 89, and 55% of the turbidity in the four experiments at optimum concentration levels of 10-30 (mg/l for all four pH levels of 6 to 8, respectively. PAC, in contrast, removed 99, 98, 95, and 89% of the turbidity at optimum concentrations of 20-30 (mg/l for a pH level of 8. The results indicate that Moringa oleifera seed extract has little effect on pH level and enjoys higher removal efficiency for higher turbidity levels. Reducing pH level decreased PAC turbidity removal efficiency.

  19. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1982-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period.

  20. Bioaccumulation of sodium alkyl sulfate zinc chloride and their mixture in young goby proterorhinus marmoratus pall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Birol, E.

    1982-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of labelled surfactant, 35S-labelled sodium lauryl sulfate and 65Zn-labelled zinc chloride, was investigated both as a mixture and alone by themselves in young goby. The concentration factor of 7.15 was calculated for the surfactant in the whole-body fish and there was no effect of zinc chloride on this bioaccumulation process. Biological half-life of the surfactant was around 35 hours. The effects of surfactants on the zinc accumulation were also followed under the same conditions. The results indicated that the sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on the accumulation of zinc, however, the other surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, caused a significant increase in the zinc accumulation in comparison with the control group, during the uptake period. (author)

  1. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  2. Use of Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution at Surgery under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data available in the references on different aspects of using hypertonic sodium chloride solution during surgery under extracorporeal circulation in cardiosurgical care. The hypertonic solution is shown to lower positive fluid balance in the perioperative period, to increase cardiac output with simultaneously decreased vascular resistance, to improve lung oxygenating function, and to normalize tissue blood circulation and neurological status in patients exposed to artificial perfusion. There is evidence for its effect on the immune system and capillary endothelium. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the effect of the hypertonic solution on the incidence of complications and death rates during surgery under extracorporeal circulation and it is proposed to use the solution under long-term extracorporeal circulation. Key words: hypertonic saline, sodium chloride, extracorporeal circulation.

  3. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna; Staub, Olivier; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na + ) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K + ) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed the use of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system. In radiotracer assays, induced cells grown on filters had robust thiazide-sensitive and chloride dependent sodium-22 ( 22 Na) uptake from the apical side. To minimize cost and maximize throughput, assays were modified to use cells grown on plastic. On plastic, cells had similar thiazide-sensitive 22 Na uptakes that increased following preincubation of cells in chloride-free solutions. NCC was detected in the plasma membrane, and both membrane abundance and phosphorylation of NCC were increased by incubation in chloride-free solutions. Furthermore, in cells exposed for 15 min to low or high extracellular K + , the levels of phosphorylated NCC increased and decreased, respectively. To demonstrate that the system allows rapid and systematic assessment of mutated NCC, three phosphorylation sites in NCC were mutated, and NCC activity was examined. 22 Na fluxes in phosphorylation-deficient mutants were reduced to baseline levels, whereas phosphorylation-mimicking mutants were constitutively active, even without chloride-free stimulation. In conclusion, this system allows the activity, cellular localization, and abundance of wild-type or mutant NCC to be examined in the same polarized mammalian expression system in a rapid, easy, and low-cost fashion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation in sterilization of dry dextran as plasma substitute and sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatkiewicz, A; Kusewicz, D [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of dry dextran, sodium chloride and polyethylene packing to 0,3-2 Mrad of gamma irradiation decreased their contamination by 60 to 96%. The sterilization effect of irradiation increased with gamma-ray dose. Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were shown to be the most resistant to gamma-ray treatment. In some samples the resistant Micrococcus was also detected.

  5. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  6. The role of chloride in deoxycorticosterone hypertension: selective sodium loading by diet or drinking fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef; Jelínek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2004), s. 149-154 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0769; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : sodium * chloride * DOCA-salt hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  7. Studies of the effect of ethanol and sodium chloride on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate by gel filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.

    1976-06-01

    The effects of the addition of ethanol and sodium chloride to aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by the gel-filtration method. With an increase in the concentration of ethanol, the CMC decreased and then increased after passing a minimum, while the micellar weight increased and then decreased, showing a corresponding maximum. Above about 40 vol percent ethanol, no micelle formation was observed. The micellar weight and aggregation number in the presence of ethanol were measured in the SDS concentration range of a constant elution rate of micelles. A decrease in the CMC and an increase in the micellar weight of SDS were observed with an increase in the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The gel-filtration study enabled us to make a direct experimental confirmation of the effects of ethanol and NaCl on the micelle formation of SDS.

  8. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  9. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J.; Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A.

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  10. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  11. Effects of Aluminum Chloride on the some ‎Blood Parameters and Histological Spleen in ‎White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Abdul Hadi Kadhum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum exists in numerous produced foods, medicines and likewise added to drinking water for refining purpose. Its existence has so heavily contaminated with the surroundings that exposed to, it is almost inescapable. This survey was aimed at evaluating the possible effects that Aluminum chloride could exposure have in the blood parameters and histopathology of spleen twenty four rats were used and  divided into four groups; “first group  was the control injected with normal saline, group II injected into subcutaneous with (240 ppm from Aluminum chloride (AlCl3,  group III injected with (320 ppm from (AlCl3, group IV injected with (400 ppm from (AlCl3 for 45 days. This study  showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin when compared to control group, while there was a significant increase (P<0.05 in total leucocyte count (TLC and Differential leucocytes count (DLC especially in lymphocyte. The results showed a significant elevated (P<0.05 in ESR value. Changes increased with increase in concentration of Aluminum chloride injected. Observation of blood parameters allows the most rapid detection of changes in wistar rats after the exposure of poisonous(AlCl3”

  12. Association between continuous peripheral i.v. infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection and phlebitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Nguyen, Cherwyn M; Patel, Samit; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley

    2018-03-01

    One institution's experience with use of peripheral i.v. (PIV) catheters for prolonged infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection at rates up to 100 mL/hr is described. A prospective, observational, 13-month quality assurance project was conducted at an academic medical center to evaluate frequencies of patient and catheter phlebitis among adult inpatients who received both an infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection for a period of ≥4 hours through a dedicated PIV catheter and infusions of routine-care solutions (RCSs) through separate PIV catheters during the same hospital stay. Sixty patients received PIV infusions through a total of 291 catheters during the study period. The majority of patients (78%) received infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection for intracranial hypertension, with 30% receiving such infusions in the intensive care unit. Phlebitis occurred in 28 patients (47%) during infusions of 3% sodium chloride and 26 patients (43%) during RCS infusions ( p = 0.19). Catheter phlebitis occurred in 73 catheters (25%), with no significant difference in the frequencies of catheter phlebitis with infusion of 3% sodium chloride versus RCSs (30% [32 of 106 catheters]) versus 22% [41 of 185 catheters]), p = 0.16). Patient and catheter phlebitis rates were not significantly different with infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection versus RCSs, suggesting that an osmolarity cutoff value of 900 mOsm/L for peripheral infusions of hypertonic saline solutions may not be warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil

  14. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  15. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  16. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  17. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  18. Compatibility of butorphanol and droperidol in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2013-03-15

    The compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate and droperidol in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 15 days were studied. Admixtures were assessed initially and for 15 days after preparation in PVC bags and glass bottles using 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent and stored at 4°C and 25°C. The initial drug concentrations were 0.08 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate and 0.05 mg/mL for droperidol. Samples were withdrawn from each container immediately after preparation and at predetermined intervals (2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 240, and 360 hours after preparation). The solutions were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. After 15 days of storage, all formulations tested retained >98% of the initial concentrations of both drugs. The drug mixtures were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and droperidol 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for at least 360 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light.

  19. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE EFFECT ON Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase ACTIVITY AND DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozdrenko, D M; Abramchuk, O M; Soroca, V M; Miroshnichenko, N S

    2015-01-01

    We studied enzymatic activity and measured strain-gauge contraction properties of the frog Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior muscle fascicles during the action of aluminum chloride solution. It was shown that AlCl3 solutions did not affect the dynamic properties of skeletal muscle preparation in concentrations less than 10(-4) M Increasing the concentration of AlCl3 to 10(-2) M induce complete inhibition of muscle contraction. A linear correlation between decrease in Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and the investigated concentrations range of aluminum chloride was observed. The reduction in the dynamic contraction performance and the decrease Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum under the effect of the investigated AlCl3 solution were minimal in pre-tetanus period of contraction.

  20. Aluminum chloride effect on Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase activity and dynamic parameters of skeletal muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied enzymatic activity and measured strain-gauge contraction properties of the frog Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior muscle fascicles during the action of aluminum chloride solution. It was shown that AlCl3 solutions did not affect the dynamic properties of skeletal muscle preparation in concentrations less than 10-4 M. Increasing the concentration of AlCl3 to 10-2 M induce complete inhibition of muscle contraction. A linear correlation between decrease in Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and the investigated concentrations range of aluminum chloride was observed. The reduction in the dynamic contraction performance and the decrease Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum under the effect of the investigated AlCl3 solution were minimal in pre-tetanus period of contraction.

  1. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  2. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  3. Aluminum Chloride Pretreatment of Elastin Inhibits Elastolysis by Matrix Metalloproteinases and Leads to Inhibition of Elastin-Oriented Calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Michael; Xiao, Hui; Ogle, Matthew; Vyavahare, Naren

    2001-01-01

    Calcification of elastin occurs in many pathological cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. We have previously shown that purified elastin when subdermally implanted in rats undergoes severe calcification and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) pretreatment of elastin inhibits calcification. In the present study we investigated whether matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) binding to elastin and elastin degradation is prevented by AlCl3 pretreatment. Subdermal implantation of AlCl3-pretreated elas...

  4. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  5. Internal structure, hydroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.; Minofar, Babak; Desyaterik, Y.; Dames, E.; Zhu, Z.; Cain, J. P.; Hopkins, R. J.; Gilles, M. K.; Wang, H.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 25 (2011), s. 11846-11857 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME09062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : sodium methanesulfonate particles * air/water interface * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  6. Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Chloride for All-Cause Mortality After Coronary Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Robert James (Jim); Pearlman, D. M.; Marshall, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine the relation between sodium bicarbonate prophylaxis for contrast associated nephropathy (CAN) and mortality. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis from multiple randomized controlled trials. We obtained individual patient data sets for 7 of 10 eligible trials (2......,292 of 2,764 participants). For the remaining 3 trials, time-to-event data were imputed based on follow-up periods described in their original reports. We included all trials that compared periprocedural intravenous sodium bicarbonate to periprocedural intravenous sodium chloride in patients undergoing...... bicarbonate was associated with lower mortality hazard than sodium chloride at 1 year (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.89, p = 0.011). Although periprocedural sodium bicarbonate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of CAN (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.91, p = 0...

  7. Corrosion of nickel in potassium and sodium chloride melts containing vanadium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochergin, V.P.; Ponomarev, Yu.S.; Bezvoritnij, V.A.; Bajbakov, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    Corrosion of nickel has been studied by the method of the rotating disc in melts of potassium and sodium chlorides containing vanadium trichloride in the concentration 0-20.0 wt.% in the temperature range 1103-1328 K. Corrosion proceeds in the diffusion region, the corrosion rate being controlled by diffusion of either V 3+ or V 2+ depending on the concentration of VCl 3 in the melts. The apparent activation energy of nickel corrosion is 43,110-74660 joule/mol

  8. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  9. Multi-scale characterization of nanostructured sodium aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaraseGowda, Shathabish

    Complex metal hydrides are the most promising candidate materials for onboard hydrogen storage. The practicality of this class of materials is counter-poised on three critical attributes: reversible hydrogen storage capacity, high hydrogen uptake/release kinetics, and favorable hydrogen uptake/release thermodynamics. While a majority of modern metallic hydrides that are being considered are those that meet the criteria of high theoretical storage capacity, the challenges lie in addressing poor kinetics, thermodynamics, and reversibility. One emerging strategy to resolve these issues is via nanostructuring or nano-confinement of complex hydrides. By down-sizing and scaffolding them to retain their nano-dimensions, these materials are expected to improve in performance and reversibility. This area of research has garnered immense interest lately and there is active research being pursued to address various aspects of nanostructured complex hydrides. The research effort documented here is focused on a detailed investigation of the effects of nano-confinement on aspects such as the long range atomic hydrogen diffusivities, localized hydrogen dynamics, microstructure, and dehydrogenation mechanism of sodium alanate. A wide variety of microporous and mesoporous materials (metal organic frameworks, porous silica and alumina) were investigated as scaffolds and the synthesis routes to achieve maximum pore-loading are discussed. Wet solution infiltration technique was adopted using tetrahydrofuran as the medium and the precursor concentrations were found to have a major role in achieving maximum pore loading. These concentrations were optimized for each scaffold with varying pore sizes and confinement was quantitatively characterized by measuring the loss in specific surface area. This work is also aimed at utilizing neutron and synchrotron x-ray characterization techniques to study and correlate multi-scale material properties and phenomena. Some of the most advanced

  10. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  11. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  12. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  13. Effect of Concentration on the Electrochemistry and Speciation of the Magnesium Aluminum Chloride Complex Electrolyte Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Kimberly A; Liu, Yao-Min; Ha, Yeyoung; Barile, Christopher J; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2017-10-18

    Magnesium batteries offer an opportunity to use naturally abundant Mg and achieve large volumetric capacities reaching over four times that of conventional Li-based intercalation anodes. High volumetric capacity is enabled by the use of a Mg metal anode in which charge is stored via electrodeposition and stripping processes, however, electrolytes that support efficient Mg electrodeposition and stripping are few and are often prepared from highly reactive compounds. One interesting electrolyte solution that supports Mg deposition and stripping without the use of highly reactive reagents is the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC) electrolyte. The MACC exhibits high Coulombic efficiencies and low deposition overpotentials following an electrolytic conditioning protocol that stabilizes species necessary for such behavior. Here, we discuss the effect of the MgCl 2 and AlCl 3 concentrations on the deposition overpotential, current density, and the conditioning process. Higher concentrations of MACC exhibit enhanced Mg electrodeposition current density and much faster conditioning. An increase in the salt concentrations causes a shift in the complex equilibria involving both cations. The conditioning process is strongly dependent on the concentration suggesting that the electrolyte is activated through a change in speciation of electrolyte complexes and is not simply due to the annihilation of electrolyte impurities. Additionally, the presence of the [Mg 2 (μ-Cl) 3 ·6THF] + in the electrolyte solution is again confirmed through careful analysis of experimental Raman spectra coupled with simulation and direct observation of the complex in sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry. Importantly, we suggest that the ∼210 cm -1 mode commonly observed in the Raman spectra of many Mg electrolytes is indicative of the C 3v symmetric [Mg 2 (μ-Cl) 3 ·6THF] + . The 210 cm -1 mode is present in many electrolytes containing MgCl 2 , so its assignment is of broad interest

  14. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  16. Corrosion of Dental Au-Ag-Cu-Pd Alloys in 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Atsushi; Kusayanagi, Yukiharu

    2005-01-01

    Two Au-Ag-Cu-Pd dental casting alloys (Au:12% and 20%) used. The test solutions used 0.9 % NaCl solution (isotonic sodium chloride solution), 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid, and 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The surface of two samples in three sample solutions was not natural discoloration during one year. The alloy containing 12 % gold was easily alloyed and the composition was uniform comparing with the alloy containing 20 % gold. The rest potentials have not a little effect after three months. The kinds of metals could not definitely from the oxidation and reduction waves of metal on the cyclic voltammograms. The dissolutions of gold and palladium were 12 % Au sample in the 0.9 % NaCl solution containing 1 % lactic acid and 0.1 mol dm -3 Na 2 S. The pH of solution had an affect on dissolution of copper, and sulfur ion had an affect on dissolution of silver. The copper dissolved amount from 20 % gold sample was about 26 times comparing with that of 12 % gold sample in the 0.9 % solution containing 1 % lactic acid. Corrosion products were silver chloride and copper chloride in NaCl solution, and silver sulfide and copper sulfide in NaCl solution containing Na 2 S

  17. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium

  18. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  19. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  20. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  1. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  2. Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Mattson, Claire N.; Peterson, Peter K.; May, Nathaniel W.; Prendergast, Rashad K.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of salts and salty brines to roads is common practice during the winter in many urban environments. Road salts can become aerosolized, thereby injecting sodium and chloride particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere. Here, data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network were used to assess temporal trends of sodium and chloride PM2.5 (PM road salt aerosols. Sodium and chloride PM2.5 concentrations were an average of three times higher in the winter, as compared to the summer, for locations with greater than 25 cm of average annual snowfall. Winter urban chloride PM2.5 concentrations attributed to road salt can even sometimes rival those of coastal sea spray aerosol-influenced sites. In most snow-influenced cities, chloride and sodium PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with snowfall; however, this relationship is complicated by differences in state and local winter maintenance practices. This study highlights the ubiquity of road salt aerosols in the United States and their potential impact on wintertime urban air quality, particularly due to the potential for multiphase reactions to liberate chlorine from the particle-phase. Since road salt application is a common practice in wintertime urban environments across the world, it is imperative that road salt application emissions, currently not included in inventories, and its impacts be investigated through measurements and modeling.

  3. Spectral-luminescence properties of trivalent titanium in aluminum-sodium phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, S.B.; Batyaev, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since development of the first crystal laser, Al 2 O 3 crystals remain the most widely used in quantum electronics. In the present work, the aluminum-sodium phosphate glass, Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 , was studied with different proportions of components. A luminescence medium is obtained based on phosphate glass doped by Ti 3+ ions with intense emission in the 700-900-nm spectral range. This glass is a promising lasing medium for tunable solid-state lasers. 12 refs., 2 figs

  4. Could vitamin C and zinc chloride protect the germ cells against sodium arsenite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, L S; Reis, I B; Gomes, Mlm; Dolder, H; Pirovani, Jc Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with natural and human processes such as volcanic emissions, mining and herbicides production, being an important pollutant. Several studies have associated As intake with male fertility reduction, thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether vitamin C and/or zinc would counteract As side effects within the testicles. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (100 mg/kg/day), zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ; 20 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite + vitamin C and sodium arsenite + ZnCl 2 . Testicles and epididymis were harvested and either frozen or routinely processed to be embedded in glycol methacrylate resin. As reduced the seminiferous epithelium and tubules diameter due to germ cell loss. In addition, both the round spermatids population and the daily sperm production were reduced. However, ZnCl 2 and vitamin C showed to be effective against such side effects, mainly regarding to sperm morphology. Long-term As intake increased the proportions of abnormal sperm, whereas the concomitant intake of As with zinc or vitamin C enhanced the proportions of normal sperm, showing that such compounds could be used to protect this cell type against morphological defects.

  5. Pomegranate Alleviates Oxidative Damage and Neurotransmitter Alterations in Rats Brain Exposed to Aluminum Chloride and/or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; EL-Tahawey, N.A.; Elassal, A.A.; Elsayed, E.M.; Shousha, W.Gh.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and gamma radiation, both are potent neurotoxins and have been implicated in many human neuro degenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the role of pomegranate in alleviating oxidative damage and alteration of neurotransmitters in the brain of rats exposed to aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ), and/or gamma radiation (IR). The results revealed that rats whole body exposed to γ- rays, (1 Gy/week up to 4 Gy), and/or administered aluminum chloride (35 mg/kg body weight), via gavages for 4 weeks, resulted in brain tissue damage, featuring by significant increase of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), associated with significant decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) content indicating occurrence of oxidative stress. A significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) level associated with a significant increase of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), in addition to a significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) contents recorded at the 1st, 7th and 14th day post-irradiation, indicating alterations in the metabolism of brain monoamines. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, supplementation of rats with pomegranate, via gavages, at a dose of 3 ml /kg body weight/ day, for 4 weeks along with AlCl 3 with or without radiation has significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that pomegranate, by its antioxidant constituents might antagonize brain oxidative damage and minimize the severity of aluminum (Al), and/or radiation-induced neurotransmitters disorders

  6. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO 3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO 3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO 3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO 3 , which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The

  7. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  8. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist. streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Kirchner, J. W.

    Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist), stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments), Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils. Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is high. This

  9. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  10. Relations of enzymes inAspergillus repens grown under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Aspergillus repens, a salt-pan isolate, was halotolerant. When grown for 72 h (log phase) and 144 h (beginning of stationary phase) in a medium containing 2M sodium chloride, the activities of invertase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were found to have increased. Control cultures grown in a medium devoid of 2M NaCl failed to show such changes. The activities of MDH, G6PDH, and GDH increased with rising concentrations of Na(+) (as NaCl) when added up to 100MM in vitro. At higher concentrations they decreased. Changes in kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of these enzymes, as well as their de novo synthesis, were found to be some of the responses to NaCl stress-mediated changes.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  12. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  13. Corrosion behaviour of 2124 aluminium alloy-silicon carbide metal matrix composites in sodium chloride environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nirbhay; Vadera, K.K.; Ramesh Kumar, A.V.; Singh, R.S.; Monga, S.S.; Mathur, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Aluminium alloy based particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for a range of applications. Their mechanical properties have been investigated in detail, but more information about their corrosion resistance is needed. In this investigation, the corrosion behaviour of silicon carbide particulates (SiC p )-2124 aluminium metal matrix composites was studied in 3 wt% sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical technique and optical microscope. The effects of weight percentages and particle size of silicon carbide particulates on corrosion behaviour of the composite were studied in NaCl and it was observed that corrosion rate increases linearly with the increasing weight percentage of SiC p . The corrosion rate of the MMC increases by increasing the size of SiC particles. Anodization improved corrosion resistance of the composites. (author)

  14. Corrosion performance of SiCsubp/6061 Al metal matrix composites in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohmad Soib bin Selamat

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion performance of silicon carbide particle/aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCsubp/Al) were studied in sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical, microscopic, gravimetric and analytical techniques. The materials under investigation were compocasting processed 6061 Al reinforced with increasing amounts of SiC particles. Potentiostatic polarization tests were done in 0.1M NaCl solutions that were aerated or deaerated to observe overall corrosion behaviour. It was seen that the corrosion potentials did not vary greatly in relation to the amounts of SiCsubp reinforcement. Corrosion tests showed that the degree of corrosion increased with increasing SiCsubp content. SEM analysis technique was used to study the corroded samples and the pitting morphology. By TEM, no intermetallic layer was found at SiC/Al interface. A model for pitting process was proposed

  15. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  16. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  17. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (−) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  19. Extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash using hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Hummel, Wolfgang; Schlumberger, Stefan; Klink, Waldemar; Fisch, Martin; Mäder, Urs K

    2018-03-17

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains a large potential for recyclable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the treatment of fly ash and recovery of metals to be implemented by 2021. More than 60% of the fly ash in Switzerland is acid leached according to the FLUWA process, which provides the basis for metal recovery. The investigation and optimization of the FLUWA process is of increasing interest and an industrial solution for direct metal recovery within Switzerland is in development. With this work, a detailed laboratory study on different filter cakes from fly ash leaching using HCl 5% (represents the FLUWA process) and concentrated sodium chloride solution (300 g/L) is described. This two-step leaching of fly ash is an efficient combination for the mobilization of a high percentage of heavy metals from fly ash (Pb, Cd ≥ 90% and Cu, Zn 70-80%). The depletion of these metals is mainly due to a combination of redox reaction and metal-chloride-complex formation. The results indicate a way forward for an improved metal depletion and recovery from fly ash that has potential for application at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sodium Chloride Crystal-Induced SERS Platform for Controlled Highly Sensitive Detection of Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Borong; Li, Pan; Zhou, Binbin; Tang, Xianghu; Li, Shaofei; Yang, Liangbao

    2018-04-03

    A sodium chloride crystal-driven spontaneous 'hot spot' structure was demonstrated as a SERS-active platform, to get reproducible SERS signals, and eliminate the need for mapping large areas, in comparison with solution phase testing. During the process of solvent evaporation, the crystals produced induced silver aggregates to assemble around themselves. The micro-scale crystals can also act as a template to obtain an optical position, such that the assembled hot area is conveniently located during SERS measurements. More importantly, the chloride ions added in colloids can also replace the citrate and on the surface of the silver sol, and further decrease the background interference. High quality SERS spectra from heroin, methamphetamine (MAMP), and cocaine have been obtained on the crystal-driven hot spot structure with high sensitivity and credible reproducibility. This approach can not only bring the nanoparticles to form plasmonic hot spots in a controlled way, and thus provide high sensitivity, but also potentially be explored as an active substrate for label-free detection of other illicit drugs or additives. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS, on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (− charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete.

  2. Stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in single-dose plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, D D; Crews, J C; Grummich, K W; Stirm, E J; Sue, C A

    1991-03-01

    The stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers was studied. Commercially available methadone hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and 25-mL single-dose bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were used. Six samples each were prepared at methadone hydrochloride concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL. The solutions were stored at room temperature and were not protected from light. Immediately after preparation and after two, three, and four weeks of storage, each of the 18 samples was divided into three aliquots, each of which was analyzed in duplicate for methadone hydrochloride concentration by gas chromatography. There was less than 10% change in methadone hydrochloride concentration in any sample throughout the four-week study period. Methadone hydrochloride at concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL prepared in commercially available flexible polyvinyl chloride containers of 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature without deliberate protection from light is stable for at least four weeks.

  3. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on

  4. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  5. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zayat, M.M.; Farahat, A.A.; Saad, N.H.; Shaarawy, N.S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  6. The study of interaction of lanthanum-, cerium- and neodymium chlorides with sodium borohydride in pyridine- and tetrahydrofuran medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Rotenberg, T.G.; Dymova, T.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bis-tetrahydrofurans of lanthanum and neodymium borohydrides and bis-pyridinates of lanthanum, cerium and neodymium borohydrides were obtained by interacting sodium borohydride with lanthanum-, cerium and neodymium chlorides in pyridine and tetrahydrofuran media. All operations involving reagent combination, sampling and phase separation are performed in inert atmosphere using argonvacuum equipment. The reaction in pyridine was virtually instantaneous and accompanied by flocculanet precipitation. The interaction of lanthanum chloride and neodymium chloride with sodium borohydride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) was a slow (23-30 hr) heterophase process. The interaction rate was affected by size reduction of the intial substances, temperature, reagent proportion and mixing rate. The reaction time was twice reduced with boiling tetrahydrofuran

  7. Stability of i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2014-12-01

    The chemical stability of a sterile admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was evaluated. Triplicate samples were prepared and stored at room temperature without light protection for a total of 48 hours. Aliquots from each sample were tested for chemical stability immediately after preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were selectively monitored using multiple-reaction monitoring. Samples were diluted differently for quantitation using three individual LC-MS/MS methods. To determine the drug concentration of the three compounds in the samples, three calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area or the peak area ratio versus the concentration of the calibration standards of each tested compound. Apixaban was used as an internal standard. Linearity of the calibration curve was evaluated by the correlation coefficient r(2). Constituents of the admixture of metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection retained more than 90% of their initial concentrations over 48 hours of storage at room temperature without protection from light. The observed variability in concentrations of these three compounds was within the limits of assay variability. An i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was chemically stable for 48 hours when stored at room temperature without light protection. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized 26 Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26 Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26 Al and 27 Al equilibration and incorporate the 26 Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26 Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26 Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake

  9. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  10. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  11. Oxygen, water, and sodium chloride transport in soft contact lenses materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Rafael; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Oxygen permeability, diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions and water flux and permeability in different conventional hydrogel (Hy) and silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lenses have been measured experimentally. The results showed that oxygen permeability and transmissibility requirements of the lens have been addressed through the use of siloxane containing hydrogels. In general, oxygen and sodium chloride permeability values increased with the water content of the lens but there was a percolation phenomenon from a given value of water uptake mainly in the Si-Hy lenses which appeared to be related with the differences between free water and bound water contents. The increase of ion permeability with water content did not follow a unique trend indicating a possible dependence of the chemical structure of the polymer and character ionic and non-ionic of the lens. Indeed, the salt permeability values for silicone hydrogel contact lenses were one order of magnitude below those of conventional hydrogel contact lenses, which can be explained by a diffusion of sodium ions occurring only through the hydrophilic channels. The increase of the ionic permeability in Si-Hy materials may be due to the confinement of ions in nanoscale water channels involving possible decreased degrees of freedom for diffusion of both water and ions. In general, ionic lenses presented values of ionic permeability and diffusivity higher than most non-ionic lenses. The tortuosity of the ionic lenses is lower than the non-ionic Si-Hy lenses. Frequency 55 and PureVision exhibited the highest water permeability and flux values and, these parameters were greater for ionic Si-Hy lenses than for ionic conventional hydrogel lenses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2218-2231, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  13. Insulin Combined with Glucose Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in Aluminum Chloride-Induced Dementia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Kutty, Nampurath Gopalan; Krishnadas, Nandakumar; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention using drugs against Alzheimer disease is curative clinically. At present, there are no reports on the curative role of insulin in chronic models of dementia. We evaluated the curative role of insulin and its combination with glucose in dementia. We also investigated the impact of treatments on blood glucose to correlate with cognitive deficit. Further, we analyzed the interaction of treatments with the cholinergic system and oxidative stress in memory centers (i.e., hippocampus and frontal cortex). The antidementia activity of insulin was assessed against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced dementia in rats. Behavioral parameters (Morris water maze test) along with biochemical parameters (Hippocampus and frontal cortex) such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to correlate cognitive function with cholinergic transmission and oxidative stress. Rats administered insulin and glucose showed improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze test. The combination corrected the diminished level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and GSH in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.Combined administration of insulin and glucose to aluminum-treated rats did not inhibit the aluminum action on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. No significant changes were observed in blood glucose levels between the treatment groups.

  14. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of neptunium in the aluminum chloride-1-n-butylpyridinium chloride melt at 400C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoebrechts, J.P.; Gilbert, B.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of neptunium in acidic and basic AlCl 3 -1-n-butylpyridinium chloride melts at 40 0 C has been investigated by means of electrochemical and spectral techniques. In acidic as well as in basic melts, the reduction of Np(IV) to Np(III) at glassy-carbon electrodes is quasi-reversible. Indirect measurements of the formal potential and spectroscopic results on the Np(IV)-Np(III) system as a function of the acidity indicate that Np(III) and Np(IV) exist as NpCl 6 3- and NpCl 6 2- and solvated Np 3+ and NpCl/sub x//sup (4-x)+/ (with 3 greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to 1), respectively, in basic and acidic melts. The apparent rate constant K 0 ' has been measured on the basic and acidic sites. It depends on the melt acidity only in the latter melts. The Nugent linearization method has been applied to the standard potentials of Np(IV)-Np(III) and U(IV)-U(III) in 2:1 melts. A comparison with the results obtained from other room-temperature solvents shows, as already found with lanthanides, that the acidic melt is a very weak solvating medium

  15. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF INTERACTION REACTIONS FOR SODIUM AND ALUMINUM SULPHATES WITH COMPONENTS OF HYDRATING PORTLAND CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Yukhnevskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical additives are widely used in the technology of concrete with the purpose to solve various problems and sulphate-containing additives-electrolytes are also used as accelerators for setting and hardening of cement. Action mechanism of additive accelerators for setting and hardening of cement is rather complicated and can not be considered as well-established. An influence of sulfate-containing additives such as sodium sulfate is reduced to acceleration of cement silicate phase hydration by increasing ionic strength of the solution. In addition to it, exchange reactions of anion additive with portlandite phase (Ca(OH2 and aluminate phases of hardening cement have a significant effect on hardening process that lead to formation of readily soluble hydroxides and hardly soluble calcium salts. The influence of sulfate-containing additives on properties of water cement paste and cement stone is quite diverse and depends on salt concentration and cation type. For example, the action of the aluminum sulphate additive becomes more complicated if the additive is subjected to hydrolysis in water, which is aggravated in an alkaline medium of the water cement paste. Formation of hydrolysis products and their reaction with aluminate phases and cement portlandite lead to a significant acceleration of setting. Thus, despite the similarity of additives ensuring participation of anions in the exchange reactions, the mechanism of their influence on cement setting and hardening varies rather significantly. The present paper considers peculiar features concerning the mechanism of interaction of sodium and aluminum sulfate additives in cement compositions from the viewpoint of thermochemistry. Thermochemical equations for reactions of sulfate-containing additives with phases of hydrated cement clinker have been given in the paper. The paper contains description how to calculate thermal effects of chemical reactions and determine an influence of the formed

  16. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  17. Benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium intake by replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in industrial food products in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan

    2018-01-01

    High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  19. Polystyrene-supported aluminum chloride as an efficient and reusable catalyst for condensation of indole with various carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHMAN TAMAMI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crosslinked polystyrene-supported aluminum chloride (PS–AlCl3 is a stable, recyclable and environmental friendly heterogeneous catalyst for the condensation of indole with aldehydes and ketones to afford diindolylmethanes. In addition, PS–AlCl3 shows satisfactory selectivity in the reaction of mixtures of an aldehyde and a ketone with indole. Although AlCl3 is water sensitive, corrosive and environmentally harmful compound, PS–AlCl3 is a stable and water-tolerant species. The mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, easy work-up, high to excellent yields, chemoselectivity, reuse of the catalyst for at least ten times without significant change in its catalytic activity, low cost, and easy preparation and handling of the polymeric catalyst are obvious advan-tages of the present method.

  20. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  1. Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Pietro; Pettit, Donald; Cristoforetti, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0.2-0.7 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by a wire frame, thick liquid layers, 4-6 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by metal frame, and hemispherical sessile drops, 20-32 mm diameter, supported by a flat polycarbonate surface or an initially flat gelatin film, were carried out under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular [111]-oriented crystals, and dendrites. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops, 1-4 mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support (polycarbonate or gelatin) self-assembling into a shell. Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals 100 times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.

  2. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  4. Coulometric sodium chloride removal system with Nafion membrane for seawater sample treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Sohail, Manzar; Pawlak, Marcin; Neel, Bastien; Shvarev, Alexey; de Marco, Roland; Bakker, Eric

    2012-07-17

    Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics.

  5. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2009-07-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our objectives were to identify potential levels of uptake as the trees developed and stages of plantation development that are conducive to variable application rates of high-salinity irrigation. The projected cumulative uptake of Cl- and Na+ during mid-rotation plantation development was stable 2 to 3 years after planting but increased steadily from year 3 to 6. Year six cumulative uptake ranged from 22 to 175 kg Cl- ha(-1) and 8 to 74 kg Na+ ha(-1), while annual uptake ranged from 8 to 54 kg Cl- ha(-1) yr(-1) and 3 to 23 kg Na+ ha(-1) yr(-1). Full-rotation uptake was greatest from 4 to 9 years (Cl-) and 4 to 8 years (Na+), with maximum levels of Cl- (32 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Na+ (13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) occurring in year six. The relative uptake potential of Cl- and Na+ at peak accumulation (year six) was 2.7 times greater than at the end of the rotation.

  6. An eco-friendly approach for sodium chloride free cotton dyeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Present study was conducted with an aim to develop an environmental friendly method of dyeing cotton as an alternative to standard reactive dyeing process that requires high level of salt. When dyeing was carried out in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), an extremely lighter depth of shade was experienced, and hence this particular research was focused on the reduction of the total colour difference (AE) to a minimum level. Instead of adding any other chemical or any additional process like cationization, salt-free reactive dyeing was carried out by varying three common process parameters (dyes, alkali, and process time) to achieve required depth of shade. The results obtained were compared with those of conventionally dyed fabrics in terms of depth of shade (AL), total colour difference (AE), washing fastness, and rubbing fastness. The results were found to be promising and comparable to those dyed with using NaCl. Moreover, the investigated method showed a significant reduction of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in the wastewater, and thus proved to be an environment friendly process. (author)

  7. Impact of stirring speed, glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations on photoprotective nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Granemann e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New technologies that improve the physical as the sensory properties of sunscreens can help to increase its continued use and impact on health. The use of nanoemulsions in the development of photoprotective vehicles is an advantage, since nanostructured components may have superior properties regarding their performance when compared to conventional products. The advantages of using nanobiotechnology in manufacture of cosmetic and dermatological formulations arise from the protection of compounds from chemical or enzymatic degradation, from the control of their release, and also to the prolonged retention time of cosmetic ingredients in the stratum corneum. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of stirring speed and of glycerin and sodium chloride concentrations in the development and effectiveness of a nanoemulsion containing ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone-3. The results of statistical analyses regarding the impact of the variables in the process of nanoemulsion development showed that these parameters affect the phase inversion temperature (PIT. However, this did not affect the particle size and the photoprotective efficacy in vitro.

  8. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P  0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical and Chemical Stability of Urapidil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Elastomeric Infusion Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Cristina; Leggieri, Anna; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Baietto, Lorena; Fulcheri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; De Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Urapidil is an antihypertensive agent, usually administered through intravenous bolus injection, slow-intravenous infusion, or continuous-drug infusion by perfusor. Since to date no evidences are available on drug stability in elastomeric pumps, patients have to be hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate urapidil stability in an elastomeric infusion pump, in order to allow continuous infusion as home-care treatment. Analyses were conducted by diluting urapidil in an elastomeric pump. Two concentrations were evaluated: 1.6 mg/mL and 3.3 mg/mL. For the analyses, a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic- photodiode array detection instrument was used. Stressed degradation, pH changes, and visual clarity were used as stability indicators up to 10 days after urapidil solution preparation. The drug showed no more than 5% degradation during the test period at room temperature. No pH changes and no evidences of incompatibility were observed. Stress tests resulted in appreciable observation of degradation products. Considering the observed mean values, urapidil hydrochloride in sodium chloride 0.9% in elastomeric infusion pumps is stable for at least 10 days. These results indicate that this treatment could be administered at home for a prolonged duration (at least 7 days) with a satisfactory response. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  11. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  12. effect of ascorbic acid and/or sodium chloride on irradiated mungbean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, O.S.

    2010-01-01

    dry seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (0, 50, 100, 250 Gy) dose rate was 1.33 Gy/sec and germinated under laboratory conditions (28 degree C±2 degree C) in 100 mM of sodium chloride or 10 mM ascorbic acid or mixture of both in equal amounts . a group of irradiated and unirradiated seeds were moistened with tap water and considered as control. the growth parameters of two weeks old seedling were recorded. photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, crud protein and amino acids contents were also determined. gamma radiation (50-100 Gy)increased total chlorophylls and carotenoid pigments while the highest dose of irradiation (250 Gy) reduced these contents. saline condition decreased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of seedlings resulted from irradiated seeds than control. adding of ascorbic acid to irradiated mungbean seeds in presence of NaCl overcame partially the inhibitory effect of NaCl on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of seedlings. the pattern of changes in amino acids content was more or less similar to that of photosynthetic pigments.

  13. Stability study of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection with limit tests for impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus; Bogedal Jorgensen, Lene; Lindegaard Berg, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Results of an evaluation of the stability of methotrexate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are presented. Methods. Methotrexate concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) was diluted to nominal concentrations of 0.2 and 20 mg/mL in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium...... chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The filled bags were stored for 28 days at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity and protected from light. Samples were withdrawn for analysis on the day of preparation and after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test program included visual inspections, measurements...... in amounts of known and unknown degradation products were detected. In 5% dextrose injection, methotrexate at the higher concentration was stable for 28 days, with minor formation of degradation products; in the 0.2-mg/mL solution, however, methotrexate was stable for only 3 days. At later time points...

  14. Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegle, U.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB) [de

  15. Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride Gas with Sodium Carbonate and Its Deep Removal in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, Po-Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 49 (2014), s. 19145-19158 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hot fuel gas purification * hydrogen chloride gas * active sodium carbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014

  16. Comparison of heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride for maintaining peripheral intravenous catheter patency in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yu; Odunayo, Adesola; Mann, F A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether heparinized saline would be more effective in maintaining the patency of peripheral IV catheters in dogs compared to 0.9% sodium chloride. Prospective blinded randomized study. University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Thirty healthy purpose bred dogs, intended for use in the junior surgery laboratory, were utilized. The dogs were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, 2 treatment groups and a control group. An 18-Ga cephalic catheter was placed in the cephalic vein of each dog. Each dog in the treatment group had their catheter flushed with either 10 IU/mL heparinized saline or 0.9% sodium chloride every 6 hours for 42 hours. The dogs in the control group did not have their catheters flushed until the end of the study period. Immediately prior to flushing catheters, each catheter was evaluated for patency by aspiration of blood and the catheter site was evaluated for phlebitis. All dogs in the heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride group had catheters that flushed easily at each evaluation point. More dogs in the saline group had catheters from which blood could not be aspirated, but there was no significant difference between these groups. All dogs in the control group had catheters that flushed easily at the end of the assigned 6 hour interval except in 1 dog. Phlebitis was not detected in any dog. Flushes of 0.9% sodium chloride were found to be as effective as 10 IU/mL heparinized saline flushes in maintaining patency of 18-Ga peripheral venous catheters in dogs for up to 42 hours. For peripheral catheters placed with the intention of performing serial blood draws, heparinized flushes may be warranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  17. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, J; Storteboom, T T R; Mulder, A M; de Jong, W H A; Rottier, B L; Kema, I P

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in small volumes of sweat. Precision, linearity and limit of detection of an in-house developed IC/HPLC method were established. Method comparison between the newly developed IC/HPLC method and the traditional Chlorocounter was performed, and trueness was determined using Passing Bablok method comparison with external quality assurance material (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia). Precision and linearity fulfill criteria as established by UK guidelines are comparable with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods. Passing Bablok analysis demonstrated excellent correlation between IC/HPLC measurements and external quality assessment target values, for both chloride and sodium. With a limit of quantitation of 0.95 mmol/L, our method is suitable for the analysis of small amounts of sweat and can thus be used in combination with the Macroduct collection system. Although a chromatographic application results in a somewhat more expensive test compared to a Chlorocounter test, more accurate measurements are achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurements of sodium concentrations will result in better detection of false positives, less test repeating and thus faster and more accurate and effective diagnosis. The described IC/HPLC method, therefore, provides a precise, relatively cheap and easy-to-handle application for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in sweat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  19. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  1. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  2. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  3. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  4. Effect of a Benzalkonium Chloride Surfactant-Sodium Hypochlorite Combination on Elimination of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Aleksandr; Lindsey, Kimberly; Sidow, Stephanie J; Dickinson, Douglas; Chuang, Augustine; McPherson, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a sodium hypochlorite-surfactant combination on the removal of Enterococcus faecalis from infected teeth. Sixty-four extracted human single canal anterior teeth were prepared with rotary instrumentation and sterilized. Teeth were divided into 4 groups, N = 16. Three experimental groups were inoculated with E. faecalis and cultured for 21 days before use: positive control group, no irrigation; NaOCl group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl; and NaOCl/BAK group, irrigated with 5 mL 6% NaOCl/0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The negative control group received medium only and no inoculate. Paper point sampling of the canals was obtained before irrigation (S1) for all 4 groups and for 2 groups after irrigation (S2) to determine remaining colony-forming units. After sampling, all teeth were split in half and evaluated for bacterial viability colony-forming units and penetration of dentinal tubules by using fluorescent vital dye staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Comparison of pre-irrigation and post-irrigation paper point samples from the 2 irrigated groups showed a significant reduction in bacterial canal load (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis), with a significantly lower load in the NaOCl/BAK group than in the NaOCl group (P = .001, Mann-Whitney U test); 68.8% of the NaOCl/BAK samples gave no recoverable counts. In contrast, no significant difference between these groups was found for counts recovered from dentin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed no differences in tubule penetration. The addition of BAK to NaOCl significantly reduced the number of remaining bacteria within the canal after irrigation compared with NaOCl alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  6. High Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Improve Microbicidal Activity of Ibuprofen against Common Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Muñoz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen (IBU-H, a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes. In short time periods, where neither IBU-Na nor controls with 1 M NaCl show activity, the combination of both leads to a reduction in the bacterial load. We also analyzed whether the changes caused by salt on the bacterial membrane also promoted the activity of other microbicide compounds used in cystic fibrosis like gentamicin, tobramycin and phosphomycin. The results show that the presence of ionic strength only enhanced the bactericidal activity of the amphipathic molecule of IBU-Na. In this respect, the effect of saline concentration was also reflected in the surface properties of IBU-Na, where, in addition to the clear differences observed between 145 mM and 1 M, singular behaviors were also found, different in each condition. The combination of anti-inflammatory activity and this improved bactericidal effect of Na-IBU in hypertonic solution provides a new alternative for the treatment of respiratory infections of fibrotic patients based on known and widely used compounds.

  7. Study of the transport characteristics of uranyl chloride in a highly concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murso, H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the transport processes of uranyl chloride at various temperatures, in order to be able to estimate the danger potential of the intrusion of water during storage in salt form. For this the concentration dependency of the approximated principal diffusion coefficients of uranyl chloride in a table salt solution, which with a c(NaCl) = 5.2 mol/l is almost at the saturation point, was studied at 25, 40 and 50degC. The measurements were successful in the ternarian system UO 2 Cl 2 -NaCl-H 2 O with absorption optics. An unexpected temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficients was found, which reached its minimum at 40degC with UO 2 Cl 2 concentrations of less than 2x10 -2 mol/l. For comparison the diffusion coefficients were measured in the binary system UO 2 Cl 2 -H 2 O and compared with theoretical calculations. The cause for the poor correlation found here is thought to be the hydrolysis products, whose formation is strongly influenced by the foreign-electrolyte concentration (NaCl). For clarification, viscosity measurements and molar mass determinations (ultracentrifuge) will be done. Some pH-dependent hydrolysis equilibriums are being postulated and the equilibrium constants of uranyl hydroxo complexes are being determined by sedimentation analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  8. Localized corrosion of alloys C-276 and 625 in aerated sodium chloride solutions at 25 to 200 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1991-12-01

    Two molybdenum-bearing nickel alloys, Alloy C-276 and Alloy 625, were previously identified for consideration as candidate container materials for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Because of the paucity of data for the localized corrosion behaviour of these passive alloys under conditions that may be experienced in a disposal vault, this project was undertaken to study the crevice and pitting corrosion of Alloys C-276 and 625 in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical and immersion tests have been conducted in neutral sodium chloride solutions (0.1 wt% to saturated) at 25 to 200 degrees C, in an attempt to identify the conditions under which localized corrosion occurs and to relate the actual corrosion behaviour to that expected on the basis of electrochemical studies. Cyclic polarization studies showed that the passivation breakdown potentials move rapidly to more active values with increasing temperatures. Above 100 degrees C the resistance to localized corrosion is greatly reduced. The results of the immersion tests are presented in the form of T versus (C1-) diagrams. These susceptibility diagrams suggest that there is a limiting crevice-corrosion temperature for each alloy in aerated, neutral sodium chloride solutions. Below this temperature corrosion does not occur, regardless of the chloride concentration. The values of the limiting crevice-corrosion temperatures were in the range 100 to 125 degrees C for Alloy C-276 and 100 to 115 degrees C for Alloy 625. Such values suggest that saturation of the chloride solutions by surface boiling could occur without the initiation of localized corrosion. These electrochemical results indicate that a large safety margin for susceptibility to localized corrosion might be found below 100 degrees C

  9. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities.

  10. Mechanical properties of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic (sodium aluminum silicate) composites for dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bencang; Li, Jing; Wang, Huining; Lin, Yuanhua; Shen, Yang; Li, Ming; Deng, Xuliang; Nan, Cewen

    2017-07-01

    To fabricate indirect restorative composites for CAD/CAM applications and evaluate the mechanical properties. Polymer-infiltrated-ceramic composites were prepared through infiltrating polymer into partially sintered sodium aluminum silicate ceramic blocks and curing. The corresponding samples were fabricated according to standard ISO-4049 using for mechanical properties measurement. The flexural strength and fracture toughness were measured using a mechanical property testing machine. The Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were calculated from the results of nano-indentation. The microstructures were investigated using secondary electron detector. The density of the porous ceramic blocks was obtained through TG-DTA. The conversion degrees were calculated from the results of mid-infrared spectroscopy. The obtained polymer infiltrated composites have a maximum flexural strength value of 214±6.5MPa, Vickers hardness of 1.76-2.30GPa, elastic modulus of 22.63-27.31GPa, fracture toughness of 1.76-2.35MPam 1/2 and brittleness index of 0.75-1.32μm -1/2 . These results were compared with those of commercial CAD/CAM blocks. Our results suggest that these materials with good mechanical properties are comparable to two commercial CAD/CAM blocks. The sintering temperature could dramatically influence the mechanical properties. Restorative composites with superior mechanical properties were produced. These materials mimic the properties of natural dentin and could be a promising candidate for CAD/CAM applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  12. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesny, Jill A.; Zalesny, Ronald S.; Wiese, Adam H.; Sexton, Bart; Hall, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6 deg. N, 89.4 deg. W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na + and Cl - concentration in preplanting and harvest soils, and in leaf, woody (stems + branches), and root tissue. The leachate-irrigated soils at harvest had the greatest Na + and Cl - levels. Genotypes exhibited elevated total tree Cl - concentration and increased biomass (clones NC14104, NM2, NM6), elevated Cl - and decreased biomass (NC14018, NC14106, DM115), or mid levels of Cl - and biomass (NC13460, DN5). Leachate tissue concentrations were 17 (Na + ) and four (Cl - ) times greater than water. Sodium and Cl - levels were greatest in roots and leaves, respectively. - Sodium and chloride supplied via landfill leachate irrigation is accumulated at high concentrations in tissues of Populus

  13. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

    2008-01-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor (σ 0 ), activation energy (ΔE) and T 0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T 0 . The calculated values of T 0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain

  14. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  16. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  17. Electrochemical Random Signal Analysis during Localized Corrosion of Anodized 1100 Aluminum Alloy in Chloride Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakairi, M.; Shimoyama, Y.; Nagasawa, D.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical random signal (electrochemical noise) analysis technique was applied to localized corrosion of anodic oxide film formed 1100 aluminum alloy in 0.5 kmol/m 3 H 3 BO 4 /0.05 kmol/m 3 Na 2 B 4 O 7 with 0.01 kmol/m 3 NaCl. The effect of anodic oxide film structure, barrier type, porous type, and composite type on galvanic corrosion resistance was also examined. Before localized corrosion started, incubation period for pitting corrosion, both current and potential slightly change as initial value with time. The incubation period of porous type anodic oxide specimens are longer than that of barrier type anodic oxide specimens. While pitting corrosion, the current and potential were changed with fluctuations and the potential and the current fluctuations show a good correlation. The records of the current and potential were processed by calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. The potential and current PSD decrease with increasing frequency, and the slopes are steeper than or equal to minus one (-1). This technique allows observation of electrochemical impedance changes during localized corrosion

  18. Comparison of the Performance of Poly Aluminum Chloride with Natural Co-coagulants in Removal of Turbidity from synthetic aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mosleh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contaminated water, naturally or by human, should be processed to become drinking water. Coagulation is a process that fine unsettling particles which called colloids and are important factors in the turbidity occurrence, join together and settle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and comparison of the performance of poly aluminum chloride accompany with corn starch and okra, as a co-coagulant agent, to remove turbidity from water. Methods: This research was descriptive-functional study. In this study, the effect of two natural co-coagulant agents, corn starch and okra, with poly aluminum chloride were evaluated and R and SAS software were used in order to experimental design and data analysis. Also, after the analysis of variance, LSD test was used to compare treatment averages. Results: In the initial turbidity of 250 NTU, poly aluminum chloride and corn starch (5 ppm and 0.7 ppm, respectively, the highest percentage of turbidity removal was observed which could reduce the turbidity up to 98.48% and reached at 3.73 NTU. Moreover, in the initial turbidity of 500 NTU, maximum turbidity reduction related to poly aluminum chloride and okra (5 ppm and 0.7 ppm, respectively which reduced the turbidity up to 98.38% and reached at 8.1 NTU. Conclusions: As an economic aspect, replacement of natural polymers with synthetic polymers which have higher costs is economic and also higher turbidity reduction may be observed in compare with using chemical coagulants, solely. In addition, chemical coagulants consumption reduces, however more researches must be conducted on residual natural co-coagulants and interactions between chemical and natural and also their health effects on consumers.

  19. Effect of Chitosan as a Coagulant Aid Combined With Poly Aluminum Chloride Removing of Turbidity From Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a biodegradable polymer, is used as an eco-friendly coagulant in a wide variety of applications in water and wastewater treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan as a coagulant aid combined with poly aluminum chloride (PAC to enhance coagulating efficiency for bentonite suspensions. A conventional jar test apparatus was used for the tests. The effect of various operational parameters, such as initial pH of the solution (5-9.5, dosage of chitosan (0.5-3.5 mg/L, dosage of PAC (5-35 mg/L and initial turbidity (50-200 NTU were investigated. The maximum turbidity removal rates were obtained as pH 8.5 for PAC and pH 7.5 for combined PAC and chitosan (CPC. The coagulating efficiency of bentonite using PAC and CPA was found to decrease with an increase in the pH value of the solutions. The maximum turbidity removal rate was achieved in coagulating by PAC (30 mg/L alone, and PAC (20 mg/L combined with chitosan (2.5 mg/L as coagulant aid with the removal rate of 87% and 96%, respectively. The optimum dosage of chitosan required to obtain the highest removal rate was 2.5 mg/L. Hence, using chitosan as a coagulant aid can not only reduce the required amount of coagulant (35% but can also enhance the removal turbidity efficiency.

  20. Simple and Selective HPLC-UV/Vis Bioanalytical Method to Determine Aluminum Phthalocyanine Chloride in Skin Permeation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiene Avila Reis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the feasibility of the aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl application in the topical photodynamic therapy of cutaneous tumors and the lack of HPLC methods capable of supporting skin permeation experiments using this compound, the aim of this study was to obtain a simple and selective chromatographic method for AlPcCl determination in skin matrices. A HPLC-UV/Vis method was developed using a normal-phase column operating at 30°C, an isocratic mobile phase of methanol : phosphoric acid (0.01 M at 1.5 mL/min, and detection at 670 nm. The method exhibited (i selectivity against various contaminants found in the different skin layers, (ii high drug extraction capacity from the hair follicle (>70% and remaining skin (>80%, and (iii low limits of detection and of quantification (0.03 and 0.09 μg/mL, resp.. The method was also linear in the range from 0.1 to 5.0 µg/mL (r = 0.9994 and demonstrated robustness with regard to experimental chromatographic parameters according to a factorial design. Lastly, the developed method was successfully tested in in vitro skin permeation studies of AlPcCl, proving its effectiveness in the development of pharmaceutical delivery systems containing this drug for topical photodynamic therapy of skin cancers.

  1. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  2. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  3. Corrosion behavior of aluminum-alumina composites in aerated 3.5 percent chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Hurtado, Paul Omar

    Aluminum based metal matrix composites are finding many applications in engineering. Of these Al-Al2O3 composites appear to have promise in a number of defense applications because of their mechanical properties. However, their corrosion behavior remains suspect, especially in marine environments. While efforts are being made to improve the corrosion resistance of Al-Al2O3 composites, the mechanism of corrosion is not well known. In this study, the corrosion behavior of powder metallurgy processed Al-Cu alloy reinforced with 10, 15, 20 and 25 vol. % Al2O3 particles (XT 1129, XT 2009, XT 2048, XT 2031) was evaluated in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution using microstructural and electrochemical measurements. AA1100-O and AA2024T4 monolithic alloys were also studied for comparison purposes. The composites and unreinforced alloys were subjected to potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) testing. Addition of 25 vol. % Al2O 3 to the base alloys was found to increase its corrosion resistance considerably. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of intermetallic Al2Cu particles in these composites that appeared to play an important role in the observations. Pitting potential for these composites was near corrosion potential values, and repassivation potential was below the corresponding corrosion potential, indicating that these materials begin to corrode spontaneously as soon as they come in contact with the 3.5 % NaCl solution. EIS measurements indicate the occurrence of adsorption/diffusion phenomena at the interface of the composites which ultimately initiate localized or pitting corrosion. Polarization resistance values were extracted from the EIS data for all the materials tested. Electrically equivalent circuits are proposed to describe and substantiate the corrosive processes occurring in these Al-Al2O 3 composite materials.

  4. Electrochemical reduction of lanthanum trichloride in a molten equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagolevskaya, A.L.; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Polyakov, E.G.; Stangrit, P.T.

    1987-09-20

    The authors used linear voltamperometry for the investigation of the mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum. The mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride in molten equimolar NaCl-KCl may be seen as consisting of a slow irreversible electrode reaction with a subsequent rapid irreversible chemical reaction. Lanthanum ions in a lower oxidation state were not found upon the prolonged maintenance of metallic lanthanum in molten NaCl-KCl-LaCl/sub 3/. Only an increase in the concentration of lanthanum(III) chloride in the melt was noted. The appearance of oxygen anions in the melt does not lead to a change in the mechanism of the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride but reduces the concentration of this chloride due to the formation of lanthanum oxochloride which is insoluble in the melt.

  5. Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate on phosphorus removal and membrane fouling in MBR treating BAF effluent of municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for treating biological aerated filter effluent in a municipal wastewater plant, and chemical phosphorus removal was accomplished in the MBR. The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of transmembrane pressure decreased to 0.08 and 0.067 kPa/d, respectively. Sludge particle sizes analysis demonstrated that the decrease of particle sizes lower than 50 μm was the main reason for membrane fouling control. Simultaneously, the proteins and polysaccharide (PS concentrations in the MBR supernatant were analyzed, and the PS concentration significantly decreased to 2.02 mg/L at aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L, indicating the flocculation of aluminum sulfate on PS was the main reason for mitigation of membrane fouling.

  6. UV-VIS spectrophotometry method for the determination of titanium and aluminum in zirconyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto A; Farida Emawati

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of Ti and Al in zirconyl chloride (ZrOCI 2 .8 H 2 0) with a spectrophotometric method has been studied. Analysis of Ti based on the formation of a yellow complex from the reaction of Ti (IV) with H 2 O 2 in sulfuric acid solution. Studied the influence of zirconium, the determination of detection limits, precision and accuracy test. Spectrophotometric analysis of Ti obtained optimum conditions: wavelength (A) 400 nm, while the stability of complexes is 5-15 minutes, the concentration of complexing H 2 O 2 is 0.3%, sulfuric acid concentrations is 1.0 M, the detection limit is 0.103 µg/mL. Standard curve was linear in the range of concentrations from 1.0 to 30.0 µ/mL with r = 0.999. Zirconium with 20 times concentration of Ti is interference. Content of Ti in ZrOCl 2 . 8 H 2 O obtained average 0.0048 ± 0.0002%. Testing precision of Ti with coefficient variation is 4.8% and accuracy is 91.4%. Analysis of AI obtained optimum conditions are : λ 536 nm, stable complexes is 7-10 minutes, the concentration of eriokrom cyanine is 3,73.10-5 M, ascorbic acid 0.02%. Standard curve AI with the range concentrations of 10-50 ng/mL is linear with r = 0.999. Zirconium with a concentration of 10 time is not interference. Samples solution in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 , extracted with 30% trioctylamine-kerosene, water phase was analyzed. Contents of AI in ZrOCI 2 . 8 H 2 0 local products obtained average 0.0030 ± 0.0001%. The precision is 2.48% and accuracy is 89.3%. (author)

  7. Experimental investigation of aluminum complexing with sodium ion and of gallium and iron (III) speciation in natural solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakonov, Igor

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to acquire thermodynamic data on the aqueous complexes forming between sodium and aluminum, gallium and hydroxide, and iron (III) and hydroxide. These data will provide for a better understanding of the transport and distribution of these elements in surface and hydrothermal fluids. Stability constants of the sodium-aluminate complex (Na Al(OH) 4 deg.) were obtained from boehmite solubility measurements at temperatures from 125 to 350 deg. C in alkaline solutions containing from 0.1 to 1 mol/L sodium. Complementary potentiometric measurements were performed with a sodium selective electrode, between 75 and 200 deg C (the potentiometric study was carried out by Gleb Pokrovski). Analyses of these data within the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model allowed determination of the HKF parameters for Na Al(OH) 4 deg. and calculation of its thermodynamic properties to 800 deg. C and 5 kb. The results of this work show that Na Al(OH) 4 deg. complex formation increases significantly the solubility of aluminum-bearing minerals and consequently aluminum mobility in hydrothermal fluids. Gallium speciation in surface and hydrothermal fluids is dominated by the negatively charged species, Ga(OH) 4 - . The thermodynamic properties of this species were determined from of OEGaOOH solubility measurements as a function of pH and temperature from 25 to 250 deg. C. In general, the variation of gallium aqueous speciation with pH is similar to that of aluminum other than at temperatures less than 200 deg. C over the pH range 3 - 6. This difference can account for the independent behavior of gallium versus aluminum in numerous low temperature natural systems. The thermodynamic properties of Fe(OH) 3 deg. which dominates the speciation of Fe(III) in surface waters and Fe(OH) 4 - were determined from hematite solubility measurements as a function of pH, oxygen pressure and temperature from 110 to 300 deg. C. The available thermodynamic data on

  8. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Radi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the existence of aluminum in human diet as a food contaminant has attracted the concerns of many researchers. It seems that the cooking pans are common sources of aluminum exposure through foodstuffs in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration of aluminum from cooking containers into foodstuffs. For this purpose, solutions with different concentrations of citric acid, sodium chloride, fat, protein and sugar were prepared and migration of aluminum into these solutions was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that salt and citric acid concentrations could enhance aluminum migration; whereas, acid concentration was more effective than salt due to its corrosive effect. The intensity of heat processing and the duration of heat treatment had direct relation with aluminum migration. The aluminum content of cooked foods in aluminum cooking pans was also significantly more than control samples.

  9. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  10. Inhibitive effect of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution, at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoune Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution by N,N'- Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA, at different temperatures, was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained confirm that DMEA is a good organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M of NaCl (concentration encountered in the Mediterranean seawater, over the whole range of temperatures studied. The inhibition efficiency (IE% increases with increasing DMEA concentration; it reaches highest value for a concentration around 0.125 mol.L-1. Potentiodynamic polarization data show that, the compound studied in this research predominantly act as anodic-type inhibitor. The EIS study reveals that the addition of DMEA decreases the corrosion rate of carbon steel in neutral sodium chloride solution, due to the fact that the inhibitor molecules are strongly adsorbed on the active sites following Langmuir isotherm, thus leading to the formation of a stable protective film on the steel surface which is able to keep the metal/solution interface in a passive state. Furthermore, the values of the activation parameters, i.e. ΔHa and Ea obtained in this study indicate that the adsorption process of DMEA is endothermic and could be mainly attributed to chemisorption, respectively.

  11. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  12. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Effect of aluminum chloride on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal, diabetic and treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Venugopala Rao; Eerike, Madhavi; Chary, R Prasanth; Arunachalam, Ruckmani; Yeddula, Venkata Ramana; Meti, Vinayak; Devi, T Sobita

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl 3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group IV was diabetic control, Group V in addition was given AlCl 3 50 mg/kg, Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), and Group VII glibenclamide and AlCl 3 (50 mg/kg) per-oral daily for 28 days. Blood glucose and lipid levels were estimated at base line, after diabetes was set in and on the last day of study. Histopathological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney were studied. No significant change was observed in blood glucose and lipid levels in Group I. Group II and III showed a dose-dependent significant increase in blood glucose was observed. Group V had a reduction in blood glucose but not to the nondiabetic level. Group VI had significant reduction in blood sugar. In Group VII, treated with glibenclamide and AlCl 3 , there was no significant change in blood glucose reduction compared to Group VI. Lipid levels were reduced in groups treated with AlCl 3 and glibenclamide and not in other groups. Gross tissue damage was seen in pancreas in STZ group and in liver and kidney in AlCl 3 groups. AlCl 3 administration in Wistar rats caused in significant hyperglycemia in normal rats, hypoglycemia in diabetic rats, and did not influenced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide and in addition, resulted in reduction in lipid levels.

  14. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies on Titanium-doped Sodium Aluminum Hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnane, Lance F.

    Hydrogen fuel cells play an important role in today's diverse and blossoming alternative energy industry. One of the greatest technological barriers for vehicular applications is the storage of hydrogen (which is required to power hydrogen fuel cells). Storing hydrogen as a gas is not volume efficient, and storing it as a liquid is not cost effective, therefore solid-state storage of hydrogen, such as in metal hydrides offers the most potential for success since many metal hydrides have attractive qualities for hydrogen storage such as: high volumetric capacity, cost efficiency, weight efficiency, low refueling times, and most importantly, high safety. Unfortunately, a compound has not been discovered which contains all of the attractive hydrogen storage qualities for vehicular applications. Sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH 4) is one of the few compounds which is close to meeting requirements for car manufacturers, and has perhaps been researched the most extensively out of all metal hydrides in the last 15 years. This arises from the remarkable discovery by Bogdanovic who found that doping NaAlH4 with Ti dopants enabled the reversible dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH 4 at mild conditions. Various evidence and theories have been proposed to suggest explanations for the enhanced kinetic effect that Ti-doping and ball-milling provide. However, the research community has not reached a consensus as to the exact role of Ti-dopants. If the role of titanium in the NaAlH4 dehydrogenation/hydrogenation mechanism could be understood, then more attractive metal hydrides could be designed. To this end, we conducted Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies to explain the role of the Ti dopants. The first known thorough particle size analysis of the NaAlH4 system was conducted, as well as TEM-EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy), TEM-EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), and in-situ imaging studies. Preparation methods were found to be important for the

  17. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  18. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  19. Sodium Chloride Supplementation Is Not Routinely Performed in the Majority of German and Austrian Infants with Classic Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Has No Effect on Linear Growth and Hydrocortisone or Fludrocortisone Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter; Roehl, Friedhelm; Riedl, Stefan; Brämswig, Jürgen; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Fricke-Otto, Susanne; Hübner, Angela; Bettendorf, Markus; Schönau, Eckhard; Dörr, Helmut; Holl, Reinhard W; Mohnike, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males). Of these, 86 patients (27.7%) received oral sodium chloride supplementation in a mean dose of 0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/kg/day (excluding nutritional sodium content) during the first year of life. 225 patients (72.3%) were not treated with sodium chloride. The percentage of sodium chloride-supplemented patients rose from 15.2% in children born 1999-2004 to 37.5% in children born 2011-2015. Sodium chloride-supplemented and -unsupplemented infants did not significantly differ in hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose, target height-corrected height-SDS, and BMI-SDS during the first 2 years of life. In the AQUAPE CAH database, approximately one-third of infants with salt-wasting CAH receive sodium chloride supplementation. Sodium chloride supplementation is performed more frequently in recent years. However, salt supplementation had no influence on growth, daily fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone dose, and frequency of adrenal crisis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  1. Electrolysis of acidic sodium chloride solution with a graphite anode. I. Graphite electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.; Hoogland, J.G.

    1969-01-01

    A graphite anode evolving Cl from a chloride soln. is slowly oxidized to CO and CO2. This oxidn. causes a change in the characteristics of the electrode in aging, comprising a change of the nature of the graphite surface and an increase of the surface area. It appears that a new graphite electrode

  2. Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.c [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

  3. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Aytekin; Makaraci, Murat; Usta, Metin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R a ) and critical load (L c ) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 μm, and 4.4 to 6.58 μm, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  4. Modeling the Combined Effects of Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride and Sodium Lactate Concentrations on the Growth Rate of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, microorganisms with probiotic or antimicrobial properties are receiving major attention as alternative resources for food preservation. Lactic acid bacteria are able to synthetize compounds with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage flora. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 has exhibited this capacity, and further studies reveal that the microorganism is able to produce bacteriocins. An assessment of the growth of L. plantarum ATCC 8014 at different conditions becomes crucial to predict its development in foods. A response surface model of the growth rate of L. plantarum was built in this study as a function of temperature (4, 7, 10, 13, and 16°C, pH (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5, and sodium chloride (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% and sodium lactate (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% concentrations. All the factors were statistically significant at a confidence level of 90%  (p<0.10. When temperature and pH increased, there was a corresponding increase in the growth rate, while a negative relationship was observed between NaCl and Na-lactate concentrations and the growth parameter. A mathematical validation was carried out with additional conditions, demonstrating an excellent performance of the model. The developed model could be useful for designing foods with L. plantarum ATCC 8014 added as a probiotic.

  5. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  6. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence...... or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release...

  7. The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeability and is regulated by chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagene......The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted...

  8. Paleohydrology on Mars constrained by mass balance and mineralogy of pre-Amazonian sodium chloride lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride-bearing deposits on Mars record high-elevation lakes during the waning stages of Mars' wet era (mid-Noachian to late Hesperian). The water source pathways, seasonality, salinity, depth, lifetime, and paleoclimatic drivers of these widespread lakes are all unknown. Here we combine reaction-transport modeling, orbital spectroscopy, and new volume estimates from high-resolution digital terrain models, in order to constrain the hydrologic boundary conditions for forming the chlorides. Considering a T = 0°C system, we find that (1) individual lakes were >100 m deep and lasted decades or longer; (2) if volcanic degassing was the source of chlorine, then the water-to-rock ratio or the total water volume were probably low, consistent with brief excursions above the melting point and/or arid climate; (3) if the chlorine source was igneous chlorapatite, then Cl-leaching events would require a (cumulative) time of >10 years at the melting point; and (4) Cl masses, divided by catchment area, give column densities 0.1-50 kg Cl/m2, and these column densities bracket the expected chlorapatite-Cl content for a seasonally warm active layer. Deep groundwater was not required. Taken together, our results are consistent with Mars having a usually cold, horizontally segregated hydrosphere by the time chlorides formed.

  9. Accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces in water and sodium chloride solutions: Implications for coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, M.A.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved gases can preferentially accumulate at the hydrophobic solid-water interface as revealed by neutron reflectivity measurements. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine accumulation of dissolved gases at a hydrophobic surface in water and sodium chloride solutions. The solvent-exchange method was used to artificially form gaseous domains accumulated at the interface suitable for AFM imaging. Smooth graphite surfaces were used as model surfaces to minimize the secondary effect of surface roughness on the imaging. The concentration of NaCl up to 1 M was found to have a negligible influence on the geometry and population of pre-existing nanobubbles, nanopancakes and nanobubble-nanopancake composites. The implications of the findings on coal flotation in saline water are discussed in terms of attraction between hydrophobic surfaces in water, bubble-particle attachment and hydrophobic coagulation between particles.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefec, R.; Franz, F.; Holecek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 750 0 C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  12. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO 4 2- /SnO 2 - MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  14. AFM study of the early corrosion of a high strength steel in a diluted sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Javier; Fullea, Jose; Andrade, Carmen; Gaitero, Juan J.; Porro, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The high strength steels employed as reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete structures are drawn wire steels of eutectoid composition with a pearlitic microstructure. This work is focused on the study, by atomic force microscopy, of the early stages of the corrosion of such steels as a consequence of their exposition to a sodium chloride solution. The obtained images show the pearlitic microstructure of the steel, with a preferential attack of the ferrite phase and the cementite acting as a cathode. The corrosion rate was determined by calculating the amount of material lost from a roughness analysis. The obtained results are in good agreement with the predictions of Galvelel's theory, according to which the corrosion rate slows down as the pit depth increases

  15. Effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the physicochemical properties of soft wheat flour doughs and gluten polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Ehmke, Laura; Miller, Rebecca; Faa, Pierre; Smith, Gordon; Li, Yonghui

    2018-06-07

    Soft wheat flour doughs were prepared with different levels of salt (NaCl) and/or baking soda (NaHCO3). Oscillation rheology, elongational viscosity, and extensibility of doughs were tested to evaluate the effect of salt and/or baking soda on the physical properties of doughs. Furthermore, a series of physical-biochemical analytical techniques were used to investigate gluten polymerization in doughs, including Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), spectrophotometer, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Addition of high levels of NaHCO3 (1.0 % fwb), either by itself or in combination with NaCl, increased dough strength, elongational viscosity, and viscoelasticity. RP-HPLC results demonstrated macromolecular aggregation of gluten proteins in the presence of NaCl and/or NaHCO3. Addition of NaHCO3 or NaCl also decreased both free sulfhydryl content and random coil structure of gluten isolated from the doughs. Overall, NaCl and/or NaHCO3 induced the changes of molecular conformation of gluten, which impacted the physicochemical qualities of soft wheat flour dough. Our study provides a better understanding of salt and baking soda functionality in the formation of soft flour dough, which will support the searching of feasible sodium reduction strategies in soft flour bakery products.

  16. Compatibility of butorphanol with granisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection packaged in glass bottles or polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Hui-Min; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng

    2015-08-15

    The stability of admixtures containing butorphanol and granisetron in polyolefin bags and glass bottles stored at 4 and 25 °C was studied. Commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and granisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL; the resulting mixtures were packaged in polyolefin bags and glass bottles. The admixtures were assessed for periods of up to 48 hours after storage at 25 °C without protection from room light and up to 14 days at 4 °C with protection from room light. The chemical stability of the admixtures was evaluated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and by measurement of pH values. Solution appearance and color were assessed by observing the samples against room light and dark backgrounds. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the percentages of the initial concentrations of butorphanol and granisetron in the various solutions remained above 97% during the testing period. No changes in color or turbidity were observed in any of the prepared solutions. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and granisetron 0.03 or 0.06 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags or glass bottles remained stable for 48 hours when stored at 25 °C exposed to room light and for 14 days when stored at 4 °C protected from room light. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability of tacrolimus injection diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in Excel bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yanping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Shank, Brandon R; Deaver, Melissa A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-12-15

    The chemical stability and physical compatibility of tacrolimus i.v. infusion solutions prepared in Excel bags and stored at 23 or 4 °C for up to nine days were studied. Tacrolimus admixtures (2, 4, and 8 μg/mL) were prepared in Excel bags using 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23 °C without protection from light or at 4 °C in the dark. Test samples were withdrawn from triplicate bag solutions immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). Chemical stability was assessed by measuring tacrolimus concentrations using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The physical stability of the admixtures was assessed by visual examination and by measuring turbidity, particle size, and drug content. All test solutions stored at 23 or 4 °C had a no greater than 6% loss of the initial tacrolimus concentration throughout the nine-day study period. All test samples of tacrolimus admixtures, under both storage conditions, were without precipitation and remained clear initially and throughout the nine-day observation period. Changes in turbidities were minor; measured particulates remained few in number in all samples throughout the study. Extemporaneously prepared infusion solutions of tacrolimus 2, 4, and 8 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in Excel bags were chemically and physically stable for at least nine days when stored at room temperature (23 °C) without protection from light and when stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) in the dark. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Could Sodium Chloride be an Environmental Trigger for Immune-Mediated Diseases? An Overview of the Experimental and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric; Béreau, Matthieu; Vauchy, Charline; Saas, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4 + T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation. Experimental data in murine models of arthritis, colitis and encephalomyelitis corroborate these findings. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the effects of sodium chloride on innate and adaptive immunity. We also performed a systematic literature review for clinical studies examining the relationships between salt consumption and the development or the activity/severity of the most common IMDs mediated by the IL-23/Th17 pathway, i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Crohn's disease (CD). Nine studies were found, 4 in RA, 4 in MS and 1 in CD. An association was found between developments of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA in smokers and salt intake, but these results were not confirmed in another study. For MS, no association was observed in pediatric subjects while in adult patients, a link was found between salt intake and disease activity. However, this result was not confirmed in another study. These conflicting results highlight the fact that further evaluation in human IMDs is required. Moreover, physicians need to develop clinical trials with diet interventions to evaluate the impact of low salt intake on disease activity/severity of IMDs.

  19. Could Sodium Chloride be an Environmental Trigger for Immune-Mediated Diseases? An Overview of the Experimental and Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Toussirot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases (IMDs are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th cells (Th17 cells, by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1 that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R. The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation. Experimental data in murine models of arthritis, colitis and encephalomyelitis corroborate these findings. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge on the effects of sodium chloride on innate and adaptive immunity. We also performed a systematic literature review for clinical studies examining the relationships between salt consumption and the development or the activity/severity of the most common IMDs mediated by the IL-23/Th17 pathway, i.e., rheumatoid arthritis (RA, multiple sclerosis (MS, and Crohn's disease (CD. Nine studies were found, 4 in RA, 4 in MS and 1 in CD. An association was found between developments of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive RA in smokers and salt intake, but these results were not confirmed in another study. For MS, no association was observed in pediatric subjects while in adult patients, a link was found between salt intake and disease activity. However, this result was not confirmed in another study. These conflicting results highlight the fact that further evaluation in human IMDs is required. Moreover, physicians need to develop clinical trials with diet interventions to evaluate the impact of low salt intake on disease activity/severity of IMDs.

  20. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather S; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Cornman, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2352-2366. © Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  2. Microbial Growth in the Magnesium- Chloride - Sodium- Sulphate Ion System: Implications for Habitability in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, C. M.; Aka, S.; Cockell, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Icy moons in the outer solar system are key targets in the search for extra-terrestrial life as there is evidence that they harbour subsurface oceans. Observational evidence of icy moons such as Europa suggest that these likely brine oceans should be composed of chloride and sulphate salts. The effects of the ions that compose these salts on biology and how the interactions between them can create geochemical and geophysical barriers to life are poorly understood. Here we present an in depth study of four microorganisms grown in solutions with varying combinations of the magnesium- chloride- sodium- sulphate ions. We find that the ion composition of the brine solution can have a large effect on growth. Whilst the water activity must be permissible for growth we found that this alone could not predict the effects of the ions on growth, chaotropic effects and ion specific effects influenced by the specific physiology of organisms are also evident. For this reason we conclude that simply knowing which salts are present on icy moons is not sufficient information to determine their potential habitibility. A full sample of any brine ocean would need to be studied to fully determine the potential for biology on these outer solar system satellites.

  3. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volume, isentropic compressibility and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Carmen M.; Rodríguez, Diana M.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent volumes, apparent compressibilities, viscosities of DL-2-aminobutyric acid. • Effect of temperature on the values for these properties. • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions and the effect of sodium chloride. - Abstract: Density, sound velocity and viscosity of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been measured at temperatures of (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K. The experimental results were used to determine the apparent molar volume and the apparent molar compressibility as a function of composition at these temperatures. The limiting values of both the partial molar volume and the partial molar adiabatic compressibility at infinite dilution of DL-2-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions were determined at each temperature. The experimental viscosity values were adjusted by a least-squares method to a second order equation as proposed by Tsangaris-Martin to obtain the viscosity B coefficient which depends on the size, shape and charge of the solute molecule. The influence of the temperature on the behaviour of the selected properties is discussed in terms of both the solute hydration and the balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the acids and water, and the effect of the sodium chloride concentration.

  4. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  5. Stability of Dexmedetomidine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Intravenous Infusion Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Kathleen; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Szumita, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a frequently used sedative in the critical care setting. It is commercially available as a 4-mg/mL premixed compound or as 200-mcg/2-mL vials that must be further diluted prior to administration. However, limited data exist regarding the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures compounded from the 200-mcg/2-mL vials, particularly for durations greater than 48 hours. Therefore, we performed stability testing on compounded dexmedetomidine prepared in two types of intravenous infusion bags for 14 days. Dexmedetomidine is available as 200-mcg/2-mL vials for dilution, 80-mcg/20-mL single-dose vials, and as 200-mcg/50-mL and 400-mcg/100-mL glass bottles. The stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures has previously been tested for 48 hours. The purpose of this analysis was to test the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures for 14 days. Six dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were compounded in polyvinyl chloride and non-polyvinyl chloride bags, three of which were stored under refrigeration and three of which were kept at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography testing was performed to determine the concentration at Days 1 through 14. Stability was determined by taking the mean concentration of samples taken from each bag. All samples were tested in duplicate. A sample was considered stable if the concentration was greater than 90% of the original concentration. All samples retained over 90% of the drug under their respective storage conditions for the duration of the study. At time 0, the concentration of dexmedetomidine was between 3.99 mcg/mL and 4.01 mcg/mL. On Day 14, the mean concentration was between 95.8% and 98.9%, depending on the bag type and storage condition. The pH remained between 4.7 and 5.8 during the study period as has previously been reported in the literature. Dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were stable in both polyvinyl chloride bags and non-polyvinyl chloride bags for 14 days under refrigeration

  6. High-temperature corrosion of lanthanum in equimole mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochergin, V.P.; Obozhina, R.N.; Dragoshanskaya, T.I.; Startsev, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigation into the process of lanthanum corrosion in the molted equimole NaCl-KCl mixture after the change of test time, temperature and lanthanum trichloride were summarized. It was shown that polarization of lanthanum anode in equimole NaCl-KCl melt is controlled by La 3+ diffusion from near-electrode layer to electrolyte depth, which results in decrease of corrosion rate in time. The established electrochemical properties of metallic lanthanum in equimole NaCl-KCl mixture must be considered when improving the technology of electrochemical production of lanthanum or its alloys of molten chlorides of lanthanum and alkaline metals

  7. The crystal structure of the regulatory domain of the human sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvadia, Carolina M; Sommer, Theis; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Montrasio, Michele; Aalkjaer, Christian; Morth, J Preben

    2017-09-21

    The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE) is essential for maintaining homeostatic pH in neurons. The crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution of the regulatory N-terminal domain of human NDCBE represents the first crystal structure of an electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. The crystal structure forms an equivalent dimeric interface as observed for the cytoplasmic domain of Band 3, and thus establishes that the consensus motif VTVLP is the key minimal dimerization motif. The VTVLP motif is highly conserved and likely to be the physiologically relevant interface for all other members of the SLC4 family. A novel conserved Zn 2+ -binding motif present in the N-terminal domain of NDCBE is identified and characterized in vitro. Cellular studies confirm the Zn 2+ dependent transport of two electroneutral bicarbonate transporters, NCBE and NBCn1. The Zn 2+ site is mapped to a cluster of histidines close to the conserved ETARWLKFEE motif and likely plays a role in the regulation of this important motif. The combined structural and bioinformatics analysis provides a model that predicts with additional confidence the physiologically relevant interface between the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane domain.

  8. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2006-10-03

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute approximately 95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain (26)Al. The rats received concurrent (27)Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for (26)Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral (26)Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentrationxtime curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic (26)Al-SALP averaged approximately 0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be approximately 0.3%. The time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 4.2 and 6h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% (26)Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2h following (26)Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic (26)Al-SALP in a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%) and results from (26)Al in water (F approximately 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 5-10mg from food and 0.1mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides approximately 25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water.

  9. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute ∼95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain 26 Al. The rats received concurrent 27 Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for 26 Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral 26 Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the 26 Al, compared to 27 Al, serum concentration x time curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic 26 Al-SALP averaged ∼0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be ∼0.3%. The time to maximum serum 26 Al concentration was 4.2 and 6 h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% 26 Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2 h following 26 Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic 26 Al-SALP in a biscuit (F ∼ 0.1%) and results from 26 Al in water (F ∼ 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake (∼5-10 mg from food and 0.1 mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides ∼25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water

  10. A study of sodium alginate and calcium chloride interaction through films for intervertebral disc regeneration uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, Andreia Grossi Santos de; Costa Junior, Ezequiel de Souza; Costa, Hermes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The injured intervertebral disc (IVD) requires some measures in order to promote its regeneration. The sodium alginate in conjunction with CaCl_2 forms a net, potentiating its mechanical properties so it may be an alternative for IVD treatment. In this work, the viability of films of sodium alginate crosslinked with CaCl_2 and submitted to variations in their solutions' preparations is verified, comparing the effects of the addition of CaCl_2 through their immersions, before and after drying the films. The films had their physicochemical properties analyzed by FTIR, DSC and XRD. The results indicated that films with a greater proportion of CaCl_2 were more stable in the DSC analysis when compared to films with smaller proportions of CaCl_2. These results indicate alginate's modulation capacity which may be useful for IVD regeneration. (author)

  11. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  12. Stability of polymyxin B sulfate diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 4 or 25 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Figueroa, Deborah A; Lim, Tze-Peng; Chow, Diana S; Tam, Vincent H

    2010-07-15

    The stability of polymyxin B sulfate in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4 and 25 degrees C was studied. Seven manufacturing batches of polymyxin B from different sources were tested. The products were reconstituted in sterile water for injection, diluted in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) or under refrigeration (4 degrees C). Samples were withdrawn at the same time on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7. A modified microbiological assay was used to determine the concentrations, as indicated by zones of inhibition, of polymyxin B. Bordetella bronchiseptica served as the reference organism. Stability was defined as retention of >90% of the initial concentration. The decomposition kinetics of polymyxin B in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were evaluated by plotting the polymyxin B concentration remaining versus time. On average, the samples retained over 90% of their initial concentration for up to two days at both storage temperatures. All samples retained over 90% of their initial concentration at 24 hours. The decomposition kinetics of polymyxin B in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.024-0.075 day(-1) at 25 degrees C and 0.022-0.043 day(-1) at 4 degrees C (p > 0.05). Polymyxin B was stable for at least one day when stored at 4 or 25 degrees C in infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Stability did not differ significantly between the two storage temperatures.

  13. Insights into metabolism and sodium chloride adaptability of carbaryl degrading halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Vikas D; Bharadwaj, Anahita; Varunjikar, Madhushri S; Singha, Arminder K; Upadhyay, Priya; Gautam, Kamini; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C7 isolated from sediment of Thane creek near Mumbai, India, showed the ability to grow on glucose and carbaryl in the presence of 7.5 and 3.5% of NaCl, respectively. It also showed good growth in the absence of NaCl indicating the strain to be halotolerant. Increasing salt concentration impacted the growth on carbaryl; however, the specific activity of various enzymes involved in the metabolism remained unaffected. Among various enzymes, 1-naphthol 2-hydroxylase was found to be sensitive to chloride as compared to carbaryl hydrolase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The intracellular concentration of Cl - ions remained constant (6-8 mM) for cells grown on carbaryl either in the presence or absence of NaCl. Thus the ability to adapt to the increasing concentration of NaCl is probably by employing chloride efflux pump and/or increase in the concentration of osmolytes as mechanism for halotolerance. The halotolerant nature of the strain will be beneficial to remediate carbaryl from saline agriculture fields, ecosystems and wastewaters.

  14. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Aluminum Chloride As an Effective Short-Term Solution for Reducing Odor - Causing Volatile Fatty Acids in Duck Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 on pH and volatile fatty acid levels in duck litter over the course of a three-week experimental period. Ninety one-day-old Pekin ducks (45 males and 45 females were distributed into three treatments with three replicates each (10 ducks per replicate using a completely randomized design. Two treatments were top-dressing duck litter with thin layers (1-2 cm of 50 g or 100 g of AlCl3 per kg of litter, respectively; the control group received no litter treatment. Although no significant differences in propionic acid levels (p>0.05 were observed in any of the treatments, overall pH values for the 50 g and 100 g AlCl3 treatments were both lower (p<0.05 than those of the control group. Additionally, the two AlCl3 treatments revealed a corresponding influence (p<0.05 on acetic acid levels during the last two weeks of the experimental period. These results indicate that aluminum chloride amendments (at a suggested rate of 100 g per kg of duck litter are potentially useful in lowering the pH of duck litter, thereby decreasing acetic acid production as an indicator of odor emissions.

  16. Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Massie, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  17. Green synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanodots using sodium chloride template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Bo [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China); Zou, Xianshuai; Yan, Tingnan; Fei, Junjie [Xiangtan University, College of Chemistry (China); Chu, Zengyong, E-mail: chuzy@nudt.edu.cn [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanodots are simply prepared by a thermal treatment of dicyandiamide (DCDA) confined within NaCl templates. Cyano groups are introduced to the nanodots due to the catalytic effect of NaCl. NaCl could facilitate the polymerization of DCDA at lower temperatures, but will promote the decomposition when the temperature is above 550 °C. Thermal treatment at 600 °C for 30 min is the optimal condition for the scalable synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots with an average diameter of ~9 nm. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots have a higher band gap of 3.1 eV, which can emit bright blue light due to the decreased diameter, the introduction of cyano groups, and the incorporation of some sodium ions. The residue sodium ions and the cyano groups might lead to the local distortion of the graphitic crystals, or act as recombination centers for the enhanced photoluminescence.Graphical Abstract.

  18. Removal of Fluoride Ion from Aqueous Solution by Nanocomposite Hydrogel Based on Starch/Sodium Acrylate/Nano Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of fluoride in drinking water has received increasing interest, due to its beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Contamination of drinking water by fluoride can cause potential hazards to human health. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to different methods for the removal of fluoride from drinking and waste waters. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of nano composite hydrogel based on starch/sodium acrylate/aluminum oxide in reduction of fluoride concentration in drinking water and industrial waste water. In a batch system, the dynamic and equilibrium adsorption of fluoride ions were studied with respect to changes in determining parameters such as pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, starch/acrylic acid weight ratio and weight percent of nano aluminum oxide. The obtained equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models, as well as the kinetic data with pseudo-first order and pseudo- second order models. The results showed that optimum pH was found to be in the range of 5 to 7. Removal efficiency of fluoride was increased with decreases in initial concentration of fluoride. Sixty percent of initial value of fluoride solution was removed by nano composite hydrogel (4 wt% of nano aluminum oxide at 240 min (initial fluoride concentration = 5 ppm, pH 6.8 and temperature = 25ºC. Under the same condition, the equilibrium adsorption of fluoride ions was 85% and 68% for initial solution concentration of 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Adsorption isotherm data showed that the fluoride sorption followed the Langmuir model. Kinetics of sorption of fluoride onto nano composite hydrogel was described by pseudo-first order model.

  19. Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasa, Kimmo [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kimmo.rasa@helsinki.fi; Peltovuori, Tommi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hartikainen, Helinae [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-01

    Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg{sup -1}. After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments.

  20. Reduction of mercury from mackerel fillet using combined solution of cysteine, EDTA, and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2012-06-13

    An acidic solution containing mercury chelating agents to eliminate mercury in raw fish (mackerel) fillet was developed. The solution contained hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, cysteine, EDTA, and NaCl. The optimum conditions for mercury reduction were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM) at cysteine concentration of 1.25%, EDTA of 275 mg/L, NaCl of 0.5%, pH of 3.75, and exposure time of 18 min. The optimized conditions produced a solution which can remove up to 91% mercury from raw fish fillet. Cysteine and EDTA were identified as potential chelating agents with the greatest potential for use. The solution can be employed in fish industries to reduce mercury in highly contaminated fish.

  1. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  2. Fatigue behavior of alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.-T.; Yu, G.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCI solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R=Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R=0.1, f=1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCI (0.6 M, 0.1 M, and 0.001 M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCI solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz-3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens. (author)

  3. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  4. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  5. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  6. The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, L.J.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  8. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaius Debi Eyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  9. Thermo-sensitive and swelling properties of cellouronic acid sodium/poly (acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) semi-IPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Gao, Xin; Chen, Keli; Li, Hui; Peng, Lincai

    2018-02-01

    In current study, cellouronic acid sodium (CAS), obtained from bagasse pith, has been introduced into poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (poly(AM-co-DAC)) network to form novel thermo-sensitive semi-IPNs. The structure and morphology of the hydrogels were proved by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of CAS content, initiator charge, cross-linker dosage and swelling-medium property on the thermo-responsive water absorptivity were investigated in detail. The results elucidated that the prepared gels exhibited a thermo-sensibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and a high water-absorbency. And the values of UCST and equilibrium swelling ratio largely depended on the inner structure of the semi-IPNs and the external solvent property. It was also revealed that the swelling process conformed to the Schott's pseudo second order model and diffusion type was non-Fickian diffusion. The value of activation energy for this polyelectrolyte was found to be 8.74kJ/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  11. Sodium chloride as a reference substance for the three growth endpoints used in the Lemna minor L. (1753 test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Andrade Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemna sp. growth inhibition test standardized protocols suggest the use of compounds such as 3,5-dichlorophenol as reference substances for checking the test organism’s sensitivity routinely. However, this and other recommended chemicals present risks to human health and to the environment. Sodium chloride (NaCl appears as a less toxic alternative reference substance which has been successfully used in routine ecotoxicological tests. However, the evaluation of this compound in multiple growth endpoints used in the L. minor test, which is required for recommending it as a reference substance for this test organism, has not yet been reported. In the present study, NaCl was tested with L. minor for the growth endpoints frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. Results showed acceptable sensitivity and reproducibility (coefficient of variance < 15.0% for all three of the measured endpoints. Statistically significant differences were observed between the EC50 values calculated based on the three endpoints (p < 0.05. Total frond area was the most sensitive one, with average EC50 value of 2742.80 ± 245.7 mg L-1. It was anticipated that NaCl can be a suitable alternative reference substance and that total frond area should be the endpoint of choice for sensitivity toxicity tests using NaCl.

  12. Salt taste adaptation: the psychophysical effects of adapting solutions and residual stimuli from prior tastings on the taste of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews how adaptation to sodium chloride, changing in concentration as a result of various experimental procedures, affects measurements of the sensitivity, intensity, and quality of the salt taste. The development of and evidence for the current model that the salt taste depends on an adaptation level (taste zero) determined by the sodium cation concentration is examined and found to be generally supported, despite great methodological complications. It would seem that lower adaptation levels elicit lower thresholds, higher intensity estimates, and altered quality descriptions with predictable effects on psychophysical measures.

  13. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Anna; Jorg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intak...

  14. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  15. Energetics of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmission in Aluminum Chloride Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Reversal of Behavioral and Metabolic Deficits by Rasa Sindoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions and memory. Excessive intake of aluminum chloride in drinking water is associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the hallmark of AD. We have evaluated brain energy metabolism in aluminum chloride (AlCl3 mouse model of AD. In addition, effectiveness of Rasa Sindoor (RS, a formulation used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, for alleviation of symptoms of AD was evaluated. Mice were administered AlCl3 (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day for 60 days. The memory of mice was measured using Morris Water Maze test. The 13C labeling of brain amino acids was measured ex vivo in tissue extracts using 1H-[13C]-NMR spectroscopy with timed infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose. The 13C turnover of brain amino acids was analyzed using a three-compartment metabolic model to derive the neurotransmitter cycling and TCA cycle rates associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways. Exposure of AlCl3 led to reduction in memory of mice. The glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter cycling and glucose oxidation were found to be reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum following chronic AlCl3 treatment. The perturbation in metabolic rates was highest in the cerebral cortex. However, reduction in metabolic fluxes was higher in hippocampus and striatum following one month post AlCl3 treatment. Most interestingly, oral administration of RS (2 g/kg restored memory as well as the energetics of neurotransmission in mice exposed to AlCl3. These data suggest therapeutic potential of RS to manage cognitive functions and memory in preclinical AD.

  16. Catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures containing aluminum chloride and bromide. [Wax obtained in the process of dewaxing lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Oizumi, K; Tamai, Y

    1983-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures of AlCl/sub 3/ (aluminum chloride) and AlBr/sub 3/ (aluminum bromide) was investigated in an atmospheric semi-batch reactor at low temperatures of 100 to 160/sup 0/C. The cracking rate was proportional to the amount of unreacted wax. The conversion at 135/sup 0/C reached 25 wt % under typical reaction conditions. About 95 wt % of the cracking products consisted of isobutane, 2-methylbutane, and methylpentanes, ca. 50% of these isoparaffins being isobutane. The difference in cracking activity between this catalyst and a solid acid catalyst is discussed based on the product distribution. Hardly any reaction took place without HCl, which shows that the presence of HCl is essential for this cracking. The cracking rate increased sharply with an increase in the amount of the catalyst. The rate did not depend on the composition of the AlCl/sub 3//sup -/ AlBr/sub 3/ catalyst, but the product distribution did depend on it and the content of the gasoline fraction in the products increased with an increase in the concentration of AlBr/sub 3/. The cracking residue was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the cracking reaction probably occurs heterogeneously at the interface between the liquid wax and the molten catalyst. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  17. {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing {sup 26}Al as an aluminum tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokel, Robert A. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States) and Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)]. E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu; Urbas, Aaron A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Lodder, Robert A. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Selegue, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Florence, Rebecca L. [College of Pharmacy, 511C Pharmacy Building 725 Rose Street, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down ({approx}3000- and 850-fold) to prepare {approx}300-400 mg of each SALP. The {sup 26}Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize {sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al equilibration and incorporate the {sup 26}Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The {sup 26}Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the {sup 26}Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was {approx}0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese {approx}0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, {approx}0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  18. Environmentally Sustainable Aluminum-Coordinated Poly(tetrahydroxybenzoquinone) as a Promising Cathode for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Youngjin; Shim, Jimin; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Jung, Min Soo; Kim, Hanseul; Lee, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2018-01-31

    Na-ion batteries are attractive as an alternative to Li-ion batteries because of their lower cost. Organic compounds have been considered as promising electrode materials due to their environmental friendliness and molecular diversity. Herein, aluminum-coordinated poly(tetrahydroxybenzoquinone) (P(THBQ-Al)), one of the coordination polymers, is introduced for the first time as a promising cathode for Na-ion batteries. P(THBQ-Al) is synthesized through a facile coordination reaction between benzoquinonedihydroxydiolate (C 6 O 6 H 2 2- ) and Al 3+ as ligands and complex metal ions, respectively. Tetrahydroxybenzoquinone is environmentally sustainable, because it can be obtained from natural resources such as orange peels. Benzoquinonedihydroxydiolate also contributes to delivering high reversible capacity, because each benzoquinonedihydroxydiolate unit is capable of two electron reactions through the sodiation of its conjugated carbonyl groups. Electrochemically inactive Al 3+ improves the structural stability of P(THBQ-Al) during cycling because of a lack of a change in its oxidation state. Moreover, P(THBQ-Al) is thermally stable and insoluble in nonaqueous electrolytes. These result in excellent electrochemical performance including a high reversible capacity of 113 mA h g -1 and stable cycle performance with negligible capacity fading over 100 cycles. Moreover, the reaction mechanism of P(THBQ-Al) is clarified through ex situ XPS and IR analyses, in which the reversible sodiation of C═O into C-O-Na is observed.

  19. Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in clays at thermodynamic conditions of hydraulic fracturing: Insight from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin

    2018-06-01

    To address a high salinity of flow-back water during hydraulic fracturing, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and study the thermodynamics, structure, and diffusion of concentrated aqueous salt solution in clay nanopores. The concentrated solution results from the dissolution of a cubic NaCl nanocrystal, immersed in an aqueous NaCl solution of varying salt concentration and confined in clay pores of a width comparable to the crystal size. The size of the nanocrystal equals to about 18 Å which is above a critical nucleus size. We consider a typical shale gas reservoir condition of 365 K and 275 bar, and we represent the clay pores as pyrophyllite and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) slits. We employ the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) model for water, Joung-Cheatham model for ions, and CLAYFF for the slit walls. We impose the pressure in the normal direction and the resulting slit width varies from about 20 to 25 Å when the salt concentration in the surrounding solution increased from zero to an oversaturated value. By varying the salt concentration, we observe two scenarios. First, the crystal dissolves and its dissolution time increases with increasing salt concentration. We describe the dissolution process in terms of the number of ions in the crystal, and the crystal size and shape. Second, when the salt concentration reaches a system solubility limit, the crystal grows and attains a new equilibrium size; the crystal comes into equilibrium with the surrounding saturated solution. After crystal dissolution, we carry out canonical MD simulations for the concentrated solution. We evaluate the hydration energy, density profiles, orientation distributions, hydrogen-bond network, radial distribution functions, and in-plane diffusion of water and ions to provide insight into the microscopic behaviour of the concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solution in interlayer galleries of the slightly hydrophobic pyrophyllite and hydrophilic Na-MMT pores.

  20. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hajimohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite, belonging to the class Pentastomida. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl and heat on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. Materials & Methods: Thirty nymphs (10 in triplicate were separately transferred to plastic tubes, containing different concentrations of NaCl solution (2%, 5% and 10%. Meanwhile, 30 nymphs in tubes containing Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS were separately treated by +50°C, +60°C and +72°C. As control group, thirty nymphs were stored in PBS at +4°C. The effects of different conditions on survival time of the nymphs were evaluated by observing their motility in different periods of time. Results: The survival time of the nymphs stored in 10% NaCl solution was too short and all of them were dead after 3 hours. But the other ones maintained in 2% NaCl solution were significantly more resistant (p<0.05 and were survived for 2 days. All the nymphs pertaining to each +60°C and +72°C treatments were found dead after first 5-minute storage interval; the nymphs stored at +50°C died totally after 20 minutes. The nymphs maintained in PBS at +4°C (control group showed the longest survival time (p<0.05; all of them were alive until day 4 and the last ones died on day 34. Conclusion: It is concluded that salting and heating have significant parasiticidal effects on L. serrata nymphs and could be used as disinfecting methods in processing of meat products especially liver. However, refrigeration at +4°C increases the resistance of the nymphs in meat products and therefore might endanger the food safety.

  2. Compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

    2013-05-01

    Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 μg/mL and naloxone 4 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22°C for up to 72 h or at 4°C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  4. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  5. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  6. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  7. Efficient sodium chlorate/calcium/aluminum cathode for polymer light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yufeng; Shi Shengwei; Zhang Yanguang; Zhou Quanguo; Wang Lixiang; Ma Dongge; Li Xinglin

    2005-01-01

    A cathode system comprising an ultra thin sodium chlorate (NaCl) layer and an overlaid calcium (Ca) metal in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on poly[2-methoxy,5-(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] is presented. It is demonstrated that introducing a thin NaCl layer further improves the brightness and electroluminescent efficiency of PLEDs. The maximum brightness and efficiency, respectively, reached 22 000 cd/m 2 and 3.5 lm/W for PLEDs with a 1 nm NaCl layer, which are much higher than 18 500 cd/m 2 and 2.0 lm/W for PLEDs with Ca cathode. The investigation of the electron injection in electron-only devices with and without a NaCl layer indicates that the introduction of the NaCl layer substantially enhances the electron injection current, which in case of PLEDs leads to the improvement of the brightness and efficiency

  8. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niroumandrad, S. [Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flaky aluminum pigments were modified with cerium nitrate salt. • pH value of 3.0 was chosen as the optimized pH for the cerium solution. • Corrosion resistance of the pigment significantly increased after modification. • Alkaline pre-treatment prior to modification affected the cerium layer performance. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  9. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flaky aluminum pigments were modified with cerium nitrate salt. • pH value of 3.0 was chosen as the optimized pH for the cerium solution. • Corrosion resistance of the pigment significantly increased after modification. • Alkaline pre-treatment prior to modification affected the cerium layer performance. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce 2 O 3 and CeO 2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  10. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce2O3 and CeO2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  11. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III) chloride as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III) chloride (Fe mTA) is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III) and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid we...

  13. Paracervical block as pain treatment during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy: an RCT with bupivacaine versus sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, I-M; Benson, L; Christensson, K; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2016-01-01

    Can paracervical block (PCB) administered before the onset of pain decrease women's pain experience during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MToP)? There were no clinically significant differences between groups receiving PCB with bupivacaine or saline with regard to the highest and lowest pain intensity, morphine consumption or induction-to abortion interval. The most common side effect of misoprostol is pain; nevertheless, there are sparse studies in pain and pain treatment during MToP, especially in second-trimester abortion. Pain reported in second-trimester medical abortion is often intense, and peaks when the fetal expulsion occurs. A double-blinded RCT was carried out from May 2012 until April 2015. A power calculation was based on a previous pilot study showing that the proportion of women with severe pain [visual analogue scale (VAS) ≥7] was 63%. A clinically significant reduction was considered to yield 35% with severe pain, and with a power of 80% and significance level of 5% (two-sided) 112 women were needed. Accounting for a 20% drop-out rate, a total of 140 women were needed. The primary outcome, pain intensity measured as any VAS ≥7, was analysed using a generalized estimating equations model. The level of significance was set to P sodium chloride 1 h after the first dose of misoprostol. The full analysis set (FAS) population was defined as all randomized women that had at least one value for any of the outcomes (n = 102). The per-protocol (PP) population was defined as a subset of the FAS excluding patients with major protocol deviations or without a value for the primary outcome (n = 99). Pain was measured by VAS at misoprostol initiation (baseline) and repeated every 30 min until fetal expulsion. The primary outcome was the highest VAS pain intensity at any time point. The highest pain intensity, did not show any differences at a cut-off of VAS ≥7 [risk ratio (RR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-1.5; P = 0.0.292]. In

  14. Removal of trace mercury (II) from aqueous solution by in situ MnO(x) combined with poly-aluminum chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Removal of trace mercury from aqueous solution by Mn (hydr)oxides formed in situ during coagulation with poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) (in situ MnO(x) combined with PAC) was investigated. The efficiency of trace mercury removal was evaluated under the experimental conditions of reaction time, Mn dosage, pH, and temperature. In addition, the ionic strength and the initial mercury concentration were examined to evaluate trace mercury removal for different water qualities. The results clearly demonstrated that in situ MnO(x) combined with PAC was effective for trace mercury removal from aqueous solution. A mercury removal ratio of 9.7 μg Hg/mg Mn was obtained at pH 3. Furthermore, at an initial mercury concentration of 30 μg/L and pH levels of both 3 and 5, a Mn dosage of 4 mg/L was able to lower the mercury concentration to meet the standards for drinking water quality at less than 1 μg/L. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that the hydroxyls on the surface of Mn (hydr)oxides are the active sites for adsorption of trace mercury from aqueous solution.

  15. Arsenic removal from a high-arsenic wastewater using in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide combined with coagulation by poly-aluminum chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kun; Wang Hongjie; Liu Ruiping; Zhao Xu; Liu Huijuan; Qu Jiuhui

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide (FMBO) was applied to treat a practical high-arsenic wastewater (5.81 mg/L). FMBO exhibited a remarkable removal capacity towards both As(III) and As(V), achieving a removal efficiency over 99.5%. However, the FMBO-As particles could not be sufficiently separated by gravitational sedimentation due to their low sizes and negative charges, as being indicated from laser particle size and zeta-potential analysis. Thus, poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) was introduced as a coagulant to facilitate the solid-liquid separation, and it remarkably improved As removal efficiencies. Results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that PACl contributed to the formation of precipitates with larger sizes and compact surfaces, which was favorable to sedimentation. Moreover, residual soluble As was removed by PACl hydroxides. The optimum dosages of FMBO and PACl were determined to be 60 mg/L and 80 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, the secondary pollution was minimized in FMBO-PACl process. Based on these bench-scale results, a full-scale treatment process was proposed to successfully treat 40,000 m 3 of high-arsenic wastewater in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP). The average As concentration in the effluent was about 0.015 mg/L. FMBO-PACl process showed the advantages of high effectiveness, low cost, safety, and ease for operation.

  16. The effect of the aluminum chloride – quercetin complex on Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase activity and contraction dynamic properties of muscle tibialis anterior from Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined effect of aluminum chloride and quercetin solutions on the enzymatic activity and contraction dynamics of muscle fiber bundles of the Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior was investigated. It was shown that these complexes inhibit muscle contraction. Linear reduction of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity induced by all of the used concentrations of AlCl3 – quercetin was demonstrated. It was found that complex of quercetin with AlCl3 has a greater inhibitory effect on muscle contraction dynamic and causes greater reduction during all periods of stimulation in comparison to the separate effect of the investigated compounds. All the studied concentrations of AlCl3 and quercetin solutions (AlCl3: 10-4-10-2 M; quercetin: 10-6-10-5 M caused concentration depended contraction strengths and lengths reduction. The decrease in strength and length of muscle contractions was of constant and mostly linear nature within observed timeframe as well as within each periods of contraction. The changes were least pronounced within pretetanic period, but were profound within terminal period of muscle activity. The changes in dynamic contraction properties and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum under effect of the investigated compounds was minimal in the beginning of the muscle’s response to stimulus, prior to muscle strength reaching stable contraction level.

  17. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium abs...

  18. Electrochemical reactions of the Th4+/Th couple on the tungsten, aluminum and bismuth electrodes in chloride molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kui; Yuan, Li-Yong; Liu, Ya-Lan; Zhao, Xiu-Liang; He, Hui; Ye, Guo-An; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical behaviors of Th 4+ on the tungsten, aluminum and bismuth electrodes in the LiCl-KCl eutectic, respectively, at 773 K. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were employed to investigate the cathodic reduction of Th 4+ . The results demonstrate that the reduction of Th 4+ is a one step process with a transfer of 4 electrons. The reversibility of the Th 4+ /Th couple on the bismuth film and tungsten electrodes is directly confirmed by the CV. The diffusion coefficient is also calculated to be (2.23 ± 0.16) × 10 −5 and (7.19 ± 0.12) × 10 −5 cm 2 /s by applying both cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, respectively. A series of redox couples were confirmed to be associated with the formation of different kinds of Al-Th intermetallic compounds. Compared to Al electrode, a cathodic shift of the reduction potential of the Th 4+ is observed on the Al film electrode which is not conducive for the potentiostatic extraction of thorium. The cathodic depolarization gives a shift of 420 mV on the Al electrode, while 490 mV on the Bi film electrode for the reduction of Th 4+ compared to the inert W electrode. The reduction potential of Th 4+ on the Bi film electrode is 70 mV more anodic than that on the Al electrode. Potentiostatic electrolyses were carried out on an Al plate and Bi liquid electrode to confirm the formation of the Th alloys. Two Al-Th alloys (Al 3 Th and Al 2 Th) and one Bi-Th alloy (Bi 2 Th) were obtained, respectively

  19. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  20. Electroless Growth of Aluminum Dendrites in NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1989-01-01

    The spontaneous growth of aluminum dendrites after deposition was observed and examined in sodium chloride-aluminumchloride melts. The concentration gradient of AlCl3 in the vicinity of the cathode surface resulting from electrolysisconstitutes a type of concentration cell with aluminum dendrites...... as electrodes. The short-circuit discharge of thecell is found to be the driving force for the growth of aluminum dendrites. Such a concentration gradient is proposed to beone of the causes for dendrite formation in the case of metal deposition....

  1. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  2. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Zeyner

    Full Text Available The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0, 50 (NaCl-50 or 100 (NaCl-100 g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50 at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05. This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis.

  3. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells......BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  5. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  6. Friedel's salt profiles from thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic modelling of Portland cement-based mortars exposed to sodium chloride solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...

  7. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  9. Comparison of Poly Aluminum Chloride and Chlorinated Cuprous for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Color Removal from Kashan Textile Industries Company Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseindoost Gh.1 MSPH,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Textile wastewaters are the most important health and environmental problems in Kashan. This research was aimed to compare the poly aluminum chloride and chlorinated cuprous efficiency for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color from Kashan Textile Industries Company wastewater. Materials & Methods This experimental bench scale study in a batch system was conducted on 20 composed wastewater samples collected from Kashan Textile Industries Company raw wastewater. During 5 months, in the beginning of every week a day was selected randomly and in the day a composed sample was taken and studied. PAC at the doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg.l-1 and chlorinated cuprous at the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg.l-1 were applied. The optimum pH also optimum concentration of PAC and chlorinated cuprous were determined using Jar test. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and Fisher Exact test. Findings The average concentration of COD in the raw textile wastewater was 2801.56±1398.29mg.l-1. The average COD concentration has been decreased to 1125.47±797.55mg.l-1. There was a significant difference between the effects of these two coagulants efficiency (p<0.05. The average COD removal efficiency for chlorinated cuprous and PAC was 58.52% and 72.56%, respectively. Also, the average color removal efficiency by chlorinated cuprous and PAC were 17.23 and 64.45%, respectively. Conclusion PAC is more efficient than chlorinated cuprous for both COD and color removal from KTIC wastewater.

  10. Maintenance fluid therapy and fluid creep impose more significant fluid, sodium, and chloride burdens than resuscitation fluids in critically ill patients: a retrospective study in a tertiary mixed ICU population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Niels; Verbrugghe, Walter; Roelant, Ella; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Jorens, Philippe G

    2018-04-01

    Research on intravenous fluid therapy and its side effects, volume, sodium, and chloride overload, has focused almost exclusively on the resuscitation setting. We aimed to quantify all fluid sources in the ICU and assess fluid creep, the hidden and unintentional volume administered as a vehicle for medication or electrolytes. We precisely recorded the volume, sodium, and chloride burdens imposed by every fluid source administered to 14,654 patients during the cumulative 103,098 days they resided in our 45-bed tertiary ICU and simulated the impact of important strategic fluid choices on patients' chloride burdens. In septic patients, we assessed the impact of the different fluid sources on cumulative fluid balance, an established marker of morbidity. Maintenance and replacement fluids accounted for 24.7% of the mean daily total fluid volume, thereby far exceeding resuscitation fluids (6.5%) and were the most important sources of sodium and chloride. Fluid creep represented a striking 32.6% of the mean daily total fluid volume [median 645 mL (IQR 308-1039 mL)]. Chloride levels can be more effectively reduced by adopting a hypotonic maintenance strategy [a daily difference in chloride burden of 30.8 mmol (95% CI 30.5-31.1)] than a balanced resuscitation strategy [daily difference 3.0 mmol (95% CI 2.9-3.1)]. In septic patients, non-resuscitation fluids had a larger absolute impact on cumulative fluid balance than did resuscitation fluids. Inadvertent daily volume, sodium, and chloride loading should be avoided when prescribing maintenance fluids in view of the vast amounts of fluid creep. This is especially important when adopting an isotonic maintenance strategy.

  11. Correlations between ANP concentrations in atria, plasma and cerebral structures and sodium chloride preference in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the ANPergic cerebral regions involved in regulation of sodium intake and excretion and pituitary gland correlated with differences in sodium preference among 40 Wistar male rats (180-220 g. Sodium preference was measured as mean spontaneous ingestion of 1.5% NaCl solution during a test period of 12 days. The relevant tissues included the olfactory bulb (OB, the posterior and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland (PP and AP, respectively, the median eminence (ME, the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH, and the region anteroventral to the third ventricle (AV3V. We also measured ANP content in the right (RA and left atrium (LA and plasma. The concentrations of ANP in the OB and the AP were correlated with sodium ingestion during the preceding 24 h, since an increase of ANP in these structures was associated with a reduced ingestion and vice-versa (OB: r = -0.3649, P<0.05; AP: r = -0.3291, P<0.05. Moreover, the AP exhibited a correlation between ANP concentration and mean NaCl intake (r = -0.4165, P<0.05, but this was not the case for the OB (r = 0.2422. This suggests that differences in sodium preference among individual male rats can be related to variations of AP ANP level. Earlier studies indicated that the OB is involved in the control of NaCl ingestion. Our data suggest that the OB ANP level may play a role mainly in day-to-day variations of sodium ingestion in the individual rat

  12. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  13. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO 2 -rich and CeO 2 -lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO 2 content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl 3 , LaCl 3 , NdCl 3 , and PrCl 3 are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 μm

  14. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A K [Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh); Ando, Y; Karashimada, T; Kameyama, K

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  15. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  16. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-01-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10 2 and 10 4 /g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ν-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30 0 , 10 0 and 5 0 C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay. (author)

  17. Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A

    2009-01-01

    1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.

  18. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  20. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  1. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread (honey and pollen) in aluminum-induced anemia, elevation of inflammatory makers and hepato-renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori S; El Menyiy, Nawal; Imtara, Hamada; Figuira, Anna Cristina; Al-Waili, Thia; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees' enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (500 mg/kg b.wt), and group 4: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt) and ethanolic extract of the bee bread (750 mg/kg b.wt). Doses were given once daily via a gavage. C-reactive protein, transaminases, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, sodium and potassium and urine sodium and potassium were determined on day 28 of the experiment. Bee bread contained protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, phenol and flavonoids and it exhibited antioxidant activity. Aluminum caused a significant elevation of blood urea, transaminase, C-reactive protein and monocyte count and significantly decreased hemoglobin. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the use of bee bread. Bee bread has an antioxidant property, and exhibited a protective effect on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity and elevation of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, leukocyte and monocyte counts.

  2. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Sodium aluminum-iron phosphate glass-ceramics for immobilization of lanthanide oxide wastes from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Kadyko, M. I.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glass ceramics containing of up to 20 wt.% rare earth (RE) oxides simulating pyroprocessing waste were produced by melting at 1250 °C followed by either quenching or slow cooling to room temperature. The iron-free glass-ceramics were composed of major glass and minor phosphotridymite and monazite. The iron-bearing glass-ceramics were composed of major glass and minor monazite and Na-Al-Fe orthophosphate at low waste loadings (5-10 wt.%) and major orthophosphate and minor monazite as well as interstitial glass at high waste loadings (15-20 wt.%). Slowly cooled samples contained higher amount of crystalline phases than quenched ones. Monazite is major phase for REs. Leach rates from the materials of major elements (Na, Al, Fe, P) are 10-5-10-7 g cm-2 d-1, RE elements - lower than 10-5 g cm-2 d-1.

  4. Study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst, by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Alonso, A.; Tumbarell, O.; Bustanmete, E.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), has the advantage of its simplicity, speed and low cost. All this, together with its high sensibility and selectivity, makes the AAS one the most widely used analytic techniques. The present work shows, the study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst of a refinery, by using this technique. The results are compared to those of two laboratories which use the ICP-AES and AAS techniques and shows the processing of the statistics with the use of the t of Student and the F of Snedecor. The results using different methods are also shown as well as the recommended application of this results in the chemical characterization of this type of catalysts

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum(VI) with sodium 2-bromo-4, 5-dihydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonate in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu

    1977-01-01

    Sodium 2-bromo-4,5-dihydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonate (abbreviated as BDAS) reacts with molybdenum(VI) in the presence of excessive cetyltrimethylammonium chloride(CTMAC) to form a water-soluble ternary complex. The combining ratio of molybdenum(VI) and BDAS in the ternary complex was shown to be 1 : 2. The ternary complex having its absorption maximum at 525 nm is quantitatively formed between pH 1.0 and 2.0. A constant absorbance was obtained when the concentrations of BDAS and CTMAC were more than 1.8 x 10 -4 M and (1.2 -- 1.6) x 10 -3 M, respectively. The procedure for the determination of molybdenum(VI) is as follows: Transfer the sample solution containing up to 28 μg of molybdenum(VI) to a 25 ml volumetric flask. Add 3 ml of 2.0 x 10 -3 M BDAS solution and an appropriate amount of a masking agent such as ascorbic acid, EDTA or sodium fluoride. Adjust the pH to about 1.6 with hydrochloric acid and sodium acetate. Add 3.5 ml of 0.01 M CTMAC solution and dilute the solution to the mark with water. Measure the absorbance at 525 nm against the reagent blank. A linear calibration curve was obtained over the concentration range 0 -- 28 μg of molybdenum(VI). The apparent molar absorptivity is 6.1 x 10 4 l cm -1 mol -1 at 525 nm, and the sensitivity of the reaction is 1.5 x 10 -3 μg cm -2 . The interference from metal ions such as iron(III), titanium(IV), zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) could be eliminated by the addition of ascorbic acid, EDTA, sodium fluoride, or a mixture of these reagents. Tungsten(VI), however, interfered with the determination of molybdenum(VI) even when present at microgram levels. The present method was applied to the determination of molybdenum in three standard steel samples. Analytical results were satisfactory. (auth.)

  6. Effect of aluminum and silicon reactants and process parameters on glass-ceramic waste form characteristics for immobilization of high-level fluorinel-sodium calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the effects of aluminum and silicon reactants, process soak time and the initial calcine particle size on glass-ceramic waste form characteristics for immobilization of the high-level fluorinel-sodium calcined waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are investigated. The waste form characteristics include density, total and normalized elemental leach rates, and microstructure. Glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing (HIPing) a pre-compacted mixture of pilot plant fluorinel-sodium calcine, Al, and Si metal powders at 1050 degrees C, 20,000 psi for 4 hours. One of the formulations with 2 wt % Al was HIPed for 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours at the same temperature and pressure. The calcine particle size range include as calcined particle size smaller than 600 μm (finer than -30 mesh, or 215 μm Mass Median Diameter, MMD) and 180 μm (finer than 80 mesh, or 49 μm MMD)

  7. Electrochemical conversion of solid Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb in sodium chloride melt as proof of oxygen ionisation mechanism of electrodeoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D., E-mail: smvd2@cam.ac.uk [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Presently with Materials Chemistry Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Sanil, N.; Mohandas, K.S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2016-08-25

    The direct electrochemical reduction of a solid metal oxide (MO{sub x}) to metal (M) in calcium chloride melt (FFC Cambridge process) has been proposed to take place via. oxygen ionisation mechanism, MO{sub x} + 2xe{sup −} → M + xO{sup 2−}. However, generation of calcium metal and reduction of the oxide with it too becomes possible under the applied potential condition (3.1 V) of an FFC cell. The unique chemistry of calcium chloride melt, upon cathodic polarisation, makes it difficult to distinguish between the reduction by electrons and calcium metal. Hence in order to confirm the oxygen ionisation theory of electro-deoxidation, electrochemical deoxidation experiments were carried out with sintered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} pellet electrodes in molten sodium chloride at 1173 K. The pellets were found reduced to Nb metal. Sodiothermic reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is thermodynamically not feasible (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10Na → 5Na{sub 2}O + 2Nb, ΔG°{sub 1173K} = 102.1 kJ) and hence the observed reduction of the oxide is attributed to electrons. This study, for the first time, gives reliable experimental evidence to the oxygen ionisation mechanism of electro-reduction of solid oxides in the FFC process. The experimental results also prove that the electro-reduction of oxides can occur in melts, which otherwise were considered unsuitable from thermodynamic considerations. - Highlights: • In NaCl melt: Negligible O{sup 2−} ion solubility & Na reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to Nb – absent. • Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could be electrochemically reduced to spongy Nb in NaCl melt at 1173 K. • Mechanism: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} → Na−Nb−O compounds + suboxides of Nb → Na{sub x}NbO{sub y} → Nb. • Metallothermic reduction of oxide in melt - not mandatory for electrodeoxidation. • In FFC Cambridge process: Metallothermic reduction is not essential but desirable.

  8. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  10. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, K.S.; Hafner, S.D.; Buff, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium and chloride have increased in the last 50 years in this river ecosystem. - Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km 2 ) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations of Na + and Cl - have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km -2 day -1 , appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km -2 day -1 over the 47-year period. Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na + and Cl - still increased during the 1990s

  11. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  12. Effects of methionine source, arginine: lysine ratio and sodium chloride level in the diets of grower broilers reared under high-temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Montanhini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methionine sources (DL-methionine 99% powder (DLM or methionine hydroxy analog liquid 88% (HMTBA, arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys ratio and sodium chloride (NaCl content in the diet of broilers on their performance, carcass yield, serum biochemistry, duodenal mucosal morphology, and immune response. Birds were kept under high temperature conditions during the grower phase and were inoculated or not with an antigen. The use of HMTBA promoted better live performance and carcass yield than the use of DLM. Diets with 1.05 Arg:Lys ratio resulted in better live performance, higher carcass and breast meat yields, longer villi, shallower crypts, and stronger immune response when broilers were challenged than the 1.40 ratio. The dietary supplementation of 6.0 g NaCl/kg promoted better growth performance and carcass weight than 2.0 g NaCl/kg. There was no influence of the different methionine sources or NaCl concentrations on any evaluated intestinal morphology parameter or immune response, nor of any interactions between these sources of variation.

  13. Effects of bulk colloidal stability on adsorption layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface studied by neutron reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard A; Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Angus-Smyth, Anna; Nylander, Tommy; Varga, Imre

    2011-12-29

    We show for the oppositely charged system poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate that the cliff edge peak in its surface tension isotherm results from the comprehensive precipitation of bulk complexes into sediment, leaving a supernatant that is virtually transparent and a depleted adsorption layer at the air/water interface. The aggregation and settling processes take about 3 days to reach completion and occur at bulk compositions around charge neutrality of the complexes which lack long-term colloidal stability. We demonstrate excellent quantitative agreement between the measured surface tension values and a peak calculated from the surface excess of surfactant in the precipitation region measured by neutron reflectometry, using the approximation that there is no polymer left in the liquid phase. The nonequilibrium nature of the system is emphasized by the production of very different interfacial properties from equivalent aged samples that are handled differently. We go on to outline our perspective on the "true equilibrium" state of this intriguing system and conclude with a comment on its practical relevance given that the interfacial properties can be so readily influenced by the handling of kinetically trapped bulk aggregates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in an alkaline NaCl solution with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and lanthanum chloride inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Biner; Wang, Yishan; Zuo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition effect of LaCl 3 and SDBS for AA 2024 in NaCl solution (pH 10) was studied. • At the beginning the active polarization behavior of the alloy changed to passivation. • The passive behavior gradually disappeared with time and pitting happened at S-phases. • The compounded inhibitors showed good inhibition but cannot totally inhibit pitting. • The adsorption of SDBS played the key role for inhibition to the corrosion process. - Abstract: The evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in 0.58 g L −1 NaCl solution (pH 10) with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and lanthanum chloride inhibitors was studied with electrochemical and surface analysis methods. With the addition of the compounded LaCl 3 and SDBS inhibitors, in the early stage the polarization behavior of AA 2024-T3 changed from active corrosion to passivation, and both the general corrosion and pitting corrosion were inhibited. However, with the immersion time extended, the passive behavior gradually disappeared and pitting happened at the Cu-rich phases. After 24 h immersion, the compounded inhibitors still showed good inhibition for general corrosion, but the polarization curve again presented the characteristic similar to active polarization. The compounded inhibitors also inhibited the pitting corrosion to some extent. The acting mechanism of the inhibitors SDBS and La 3 Cl on the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in the test solution was discussed.

  15. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-17

    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  16. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p27 Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  17. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  18. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  20. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, S.V., E-mail: serge.stefanovsky@yandex.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS (Russian Federation); Presniakov, I.A.; Sobolev, A.V.; Glazkova, I.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kadyko, M.I.; Stefanovsky, O.I. [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na{sub 2}O, (20-x) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, x Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 40 P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60–75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  1. Long-term stability of temocillin in dextrose 5% and in sodium chloride 0.9% polyolefin bags at 5 ± 3°C after freeze-thaw treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, C; Hecq, J-D; Tulkens, P; Vanbeckbergen, D; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of a mixture of temocillin 20mg/ml in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride polyolefin bags after freezing, microwave thawing and long-term storage at 5±3°C. The stability of ten polyolefin bags containing 20mg/ml of temocillin, five bags in 5% dextrose and five bags in 0.9% sodium chloride, prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20°C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5±3°C. Over 30 days, temocillin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Visual inspections, microscope observation, spectrophotometric measurements and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but minor colour change was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance. Based on a shelf life of 95% residual potency, temocillin infusions were stable at least 11 days in 5% dextrose and 14 days in 0.9% sodium chloride after freezing and microwave thawing (corresponding at the period where 95% lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 95% of the initial concentration). During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, temocillin in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service then thawed before use in clinical units. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress corrosion crack growth studies on nitrogen added AISI type 316 stainless steel and its weld metal in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, H.; George, G.; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe

    2000-10-01

    Compact tension specimens of nitrogen-added AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel and its weld metal were subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing in a boiling solution containing 5 M sodium chloride + 0.15 M sodium sulphate + 2.5 ml/l hydrochloric acid solution using the constant extension rate testing (CERT) technique. The extension rate of testing was 10 microns per hour. The threshold values of stress intensify factor (K{sub ISCC}) and J-integral (J{sub ISCC}) were taken as those values of K{sub I} and J{sub I} at which about 25 microns of SCC crack growth was observed. These threshold values were about four times higher and plateau crack growth rates (PCGR) were nearly one order of magnitude lower for the base metal vis-a-vis the weld metal. Fractographic observations indicated failure by transgranular SCC (TGSCC) of austenite in both the base and weld metal. No stress-assisted dissolution of delta-ferrite or its interface with austenite, was observed. (orig.) [German] CT-Proben von Grund- und Schweissnahtwerkstoff des stickstoffhaltigen Stahles AISI 316 LN wurden Spannungsrisskorrosionstests in siedender chloridhaltiger Loesung (5 M Natriumchlorid/0,15 M Natriumsulfat/0,03 M Salzsaeure) unterzogen. Die Tests erfolgten bei konstanter Dehnrate (CERT-Test) von 10 {mu}m/h. Als Schwellwerte der Initiierung von Spannungsrisskorrosion K{sub ISCC} und I{sub ISCC} wurden die Werte des Spannungsintensitaetsfaktors K{sub I} und des J-Integrals J{sub I} ermittelt, bei denen ein Risswachstum von 25 {mu}m auftrat. Dabei wies der Grundwerkstoff 4-fach hoehere Schwellwerte K{sub ISCC} und J{sub ISCC} auf als der Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Auch die Risswachstumsraten im Plateaubereich der Risswachstumsrate-Spannungsintensitaetskruven waren am Grundwerkstoff um eine Groessenordnung geringer als am Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Die fraktorgrahischen Untersuchungen zeigten an beiden Materialien Schaedigung durch transkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion. Eine

  3. The corrosion inhibition of aluminum and its copper alloys in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution using linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Amin, Mohammed A.; Moussa, S.O.; Ellithy, Abdallah S.

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its two copper alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This paper reports the results of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of Al (Al-2.5% Cu and Al-7.0% Cu) alloys in 1.0 M H 2 SO 4 solution carried out in different concentrations of linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an anionic surfactant (LAS) and temperature range from 10 to 60 deg. C. The data revealed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing surfactant concentration and time of immersion, and decreases with solution temperature. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of LAS adsorbed film on the electrode surface. The surfactant acted mainly as cathodic inhibitor. Maximum inhibition efficiency of the surfactant is observed at concentration around its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The inhibition occurs through adsorption of the surfactant on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of the corrosion process, which tested by UV-spectroscopy. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of aluminum and Al-7.0% Cu was studied by ac-impedance, and the mechanism of adsorption is discussed. The adsorption isotherm is described by Temkin adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic functions for activation and adsorption process were determined

  4. Effects of sodium chloride salinity on ecophysiological and biochemical parameters of oak seedlings (Quercus robur L.) from use of de-icing salts for winter road maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffray, Xavier; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Bourioug, Mohamed; Bourgeade, Pascale; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2018-04-04

    Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips. Seedlings growing in a quartz sand/vermiculite mixture were subjected to NaCl concentrations of 0, 50, or 100 mM for 5 weeks. The results showed that high NaCl concentrations caused a marked reduction in total leaf biomass 55 and 75% for 50 and 100 mM treatments, respectively, in dry weight of stems (84%) and roots (175%) for 100 mM treatment and modified root architecture, whereas no changes appeared in leaf number. A non-significant decrease in relative water content, with changes in ion balance was recorded. Comparison of stressed to control plants show an increase in sodium (3.5-8-fold), potassium (0.6-fold), and chloride (9.5-14-fold) concentrations in the root tips while the K + /Na + ratio decreased. In taproots, no significant biochemical differences were observed between the salt-treated and the control plants for acid invertase activity, reducing sugars, sucrose, or soluble protein contents. The significance of ion and sugar accumulations in relation to osmotic adjustment and the ability of oak seedlings to cope with salt stress are discussed.

  5. The Effects of Stereotactic Cerebroventricular Administration of Albumin, Mannitol, Hypertonic Sodium Chloride, Glycerin and Dextran in Rats with Experimental Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Tuncay; Gezercan, Yurdal; Menekse, Guner; Turkoz, Yusuf; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Akyuva, Yener; Onal, Selami Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous brain tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200 and 250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 µl of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl), glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed 48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere. Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p < 0.001). Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels. Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provides substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema.

  6. Alternate immersion stress corrosion testing of 5083 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Dringman, M.R.; Hausburg, D.E.; Jackson, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of Type 5083 aluminum--magnesium alloy in plate form and press-formed shapes was determined in the short transverse direction. C-ring type specimens were exposed to alternate immersion in a sodium chloride solution. The test equipment and procedure, with several innovative features, are described in detail. Statistical test results are listed for seven thermomechanical conditions. A certain processing scheme was shown to yield a work-strengthened part that is not sensitized with respect to stress corrosion cracking

  7. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  8. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses

  9. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    potassium chloride and salty-congruent odor. The result showed that considering consumer acceptability during sodium reduction enabled to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Comparison of the Performance of Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACl, Ferric Chloride (FeCl3, in Turbidity and Organic Matter Removal; from Water Source, Case-Study: Karaj River, in Tehran Water Treatment Plant No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdolah zadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation are the principal units in water treatment processes. In this study, the Jar test was used to investigate the effects of the pH and TOC on FeCl3 and PACl coagulants for further removal of turbidity, organic matter, aluminum, total organic carbon (TOC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, organic Aadsorption at a wavelength of 254 nm (UV254 nm , alkalinity, residual aluminum and ferric, total trihalomethans (TTHMs in the Karaj River in the year 2007- 2008. These experiments were conducted through a bench scale study using conventional coagulation in the influent to Tehran Water Treatment Plant No. 2 (TWTP2.With normal pH levels, PACl demonstrated more efficiency than FeCl3 in removing turbidity, TOC, UV254 nm, and TTHMs. The lower coagulant consumption, high floc size, lower floc detention time, lower sludge production, lack of the need for pH adjustment in turbidity of 25 NTU and the lower alum consumption were the advantages of PACl application instead of FeCl3 as a coagulant. Also, PACl application was efficient at low turbidity (2 NTU, average turbidity (6 NTU, and high turbidity (100 NTU in TOC, turbidity, UV254 nm , and DOC removal. Thus, PACl is an economical alternative as a coagulant in TWTP2.

  11. Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hélio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

    The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95°C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 ±0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94±0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08±0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80°C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65±0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80°C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

  12. Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation in Tank 43H Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Walker, D.D.; Fink, S.D.

    1997-11-01

    This work studied the formation of a sodium aluminosilicate, Na 8 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 (NO 3 ) 2?4 H 2 O, at 40 degree 110 degree C in simulated waste solutions with varied amounts of silicon and aluminum. The data agree well with literature solubility data for sodalite, the analogous chloride salt. The following conclusions result from this work: (1) The study shows, by calculation and experiments, that evaporation of the September 1997 Tank 43H inventory will only form minor quantities of the aluminosilicate. (2) The data indicate that the rate of formation of the nitrate enclathrated sodalite solid at these temperatures falls within the residence time (<; 4 h) of liquid in the evaporator. (3) The silicon in entrained Frit 200 transferred to the evaporator with the Tank 43H salt solution will quantitatively convert to the sodium aluminosilicate. One kilogram of Frit 200 produces 2.1 kg of the sodium aluminosilicate

  13. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  14. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  15. Aluminum chloride- and norepinephrine-induced immunotoxicity on splenic lymphocytes by activating β2-AR/cAMP/PKA/NF-κB signal pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Chunyu; Ren, Limin; Li, Miao; Liu, Shiming; Zhu, Yanzhu; Liu, Jianyu; Li, Yanfei

    2014-12-01

    We found in our previous research that aluminum (Al) exposure induced immunotoxicity on spleen and increased norepinephrine (NE) content in serum from rats. However, it is unclear how NE is involved in the AlCl3 immunotoxicity on rats. Therefore, this experiment was designed to explore the mechanism of AlCl3 and NE-induced immunotoxicity on the splenic lymphocytes. Eighty male Wistar rats were orally exposed to AlCl3 (0, 64, 128, and 256 mg/kg BW) through drinking water for 120 days. Al contents in brain and spleen; NE contents in serum and in the hypothalamus; β2-AR density; cAMP content; β2-AR, PKA, and NF-κB mRNA expression levels; and protein expressions of PKA and nuclear NF-κB in splenic lymphocytes of AlCl3-treated rats were examined. The results showed that AlCl3 increased NE content in serum, the β2-AR density, the β2-AR and PKA (C-subunits) mRNA expression levels, cAMP content and the PKA (C-subunits) protein expression levels in lymphocytes, whereas, decreased NE content in the hypothalamus, the NF-κB (p65) mRNA expression level and nuclear NF-κB (p65) protein expression level in lymphocytes. These results indicated that the accumulated AlCl3 in spleen and the increased NE in serum induced the immunotoxicity on splenic lymphocytes by activating β2-AR/cAMP/PKA/NF-κB signal pathway in rats.

  16. Extraction of silver by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid. Application: elimination of chloride anions; Extraction de l'argent par des gels d'acide polyacrylique-polyacrylate de sodium. Application a l'elimination des ions chlorures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifi, E.H. [Universite Ibn-Tofail, Lab. de Synthese Organique et Pocedes d' Extraction, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Lakkis, D.; Leroy, J.F.M. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Minerale, Ecole Europeenne de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2005-05-01

    The extraction of silver from diluted aqueous solutions by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid was studied. The study of pH variations shows that the extraction is done by cation-cation exchange process. The highest loading of the gel by silver is obtained at R(moles of Ag{sup +} fixed by the gel/moles of -COO(H, Na))=0.75. The silver gel loaded allows the recovery of ions chlorides from the aqueous solutions. (authors)

  17. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris and salt (sodium chloride on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on noneuryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 ± 0.04 g l-1 than B. patulus (2.14 ± 0.09 g l-1 . The maximal population density (mean±standard error for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 X10 6 cells ml-1 (algal level was 80 ±5 ind. ml-1 , which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 ± 7 ind. ml-1 under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 ± 0.5 days for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 ±1 day. The highest rates of population increase (r values for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 ± 0.012 and 0.367 ± 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 X10(6 cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.La salinidad es una variable importante que tiene influencia sobre la densidad y la diversidad de los rotíferos. Los estudios de rotíferos sobre tolerancia a la sal que se tienen hasta ahora se han concentrado en especies eurihalinas, sin embargo, hay muy poca información sobre taxas no eurihalinos. En el presente trabajo, se evaluaron los efectos combinados de las concentraciones de Chlorella vulgaris y cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento

  18. Approach to corrosion mechanisms for a carbon steel in a solution of sodium chloride at 3 pc and its inhibition by means of organic molecules. Compared benefit of the use of stationary and transient electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Within the context of an increased use of seawater as coolant in various industrial installations, this research thesis had two main objectives: the search for inhibitor organic compounds with optimal efficiency, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of corrosion inhibition by the best compounds within the considered organic compounds. After having reported a bibliographical study on carbon steel corrosion in seawater or in a sodium chloride solution at 3 pc, and on the inhibition of this corrosion, the author presents the experimental conditions (materials and methods). He reports the use of stationary and un-stationary electrochemical methods for the study of the steel-solution interface without inhibitor in order to get a better knowledge of corrosion electrochemical processes and to determine more precisely the corrosion rate. The last part addresses the study of the same interface but in presence of various inhibitors

  19. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  20. Similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides applied in organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Zhaoyue; Deng, Zhenbo; Hou, Ying; Xu, Haisheng

    2012-01-01

    The similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides (sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), rubidium chloride (RbCl) and cesium chloride (CsCl)) applied in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated. The behavior is similar for the OLEDs with these four chlorides as electron injection layer (EIL). Their maximum luminance and efficiency at 100 mA/cm 2 are within the ranges of 18 550 ± 600 (cd/m 2 ) with an error of 3.23% and 4.09 ± 0.15 (cd/A) within an error of 3.67%, respectively. The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier for NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl as EIL. Interestingly, the properties are different for devices with chlorides inserted inside tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum at the position of 20 nm away from aluminum cathode, labeled as NaCl-, KCl-, RbCl- and CsCl- devices. The relation of luminance is CsCl- > RbCl- = KCl- > NaCl-, where “>” and “=” mean “better than” and “the same as”, respectively. And the device efficiencies are decreased from CsCl to NaCl. That is, the sort order of the efficiencies is CsCl- > RbCl- > KCl- > NaCl-. The mechanism is explained by tunneling model in terms of various energy gaps estimated by optical electronegativity of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. - Highlights: ► Effects of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl in organic light-emitting diodes are compared. ► The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier. ► The different behavior of chlorides inside Alq 3 is explained by tunneling model. ► The different behavior is attributed to various energy gaps of different chlorides. ► The efficiency of device with chlorides inside Alq 3 is decreased from CsCl to NaCl.

  1. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  2. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  3. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  4. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  5. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  6. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingham, B. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ko, M., E-mail: m.ko@questintegrity.com [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand); Laycock, N. [Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Burnell, J. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086 (Australia); Kimpton, J.A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Williams, D.E. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated brine at 80 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protective scales were formed in all tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only FeCO{sub 3} formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} detected with presence of MgCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgCl{sub 2} accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) at 80 Degree-Sign C. Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also detected when MgCl{sub 2} was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl{sub 2} addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  8. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-08

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  9. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  10. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, phosphates, and vitamins C, E, or C+E on meat display-color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, E J; Hunt, M C; Dikeman, M E; Addis, P B; Katsanidis, E

    2001-10-01

    Grain-finished, high-percentage Charolais steers (n = 36) were selected for uniformity. Immediately after jugular vein exsanguination, 27 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C; n = 9), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E; n = 9), or 500 ppm vitamin C + 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E; n = 9). Uninfused controls (CON) were exsanguinated conventionally. Carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, steaks 2.54 cm thick were sliced from the three muscles, placed on foam trays, and overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Ground beef (GB) was formulated from the quadriceps femoris to contain 20% fat, mounded into 0.45-kg portions, placed on styrofoam trays, and wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Steaks were visually evaluated for uniformity and initial color on display d 0. Instrumental color measurements of L*, a*, b* and trained sensory panel color evaluations were obtained daily for 4 d (PM and GB) or 5 d (LT and SM) of display. No display time x treatment interaction existed for L*, a*, or b* values. The LT from CON cattle had more uniform color (P cherry red than that from all infused cattle on d 0. Visual scores indicated that GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from MPSC+C infused cattle throughout display, and GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from CON cattle for the last 3 d of display. The vascular infusion solutions generally did not improve color or display-color stability of steaks, but the infusion solution with vitamin E did improve display-color stability of GB.

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  14. Determination of nitrite, nitrate, bromide, and iodide in seawater by ion chromatography with UV detection using dilauryldimethylammonium-coated monolithic ODS columns and sodium chloride as an eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Fujii, Takuya; Tanaka, Masahito; Tsumura, Tomoaki; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    A method was developed for determination of inorganic anions, including nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), bromide (Br(-)), and iodide (I(-)), in seawater by ion chromatography (IC). The IC system used two dilauryldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)-coated monolithic ODS columns (50 × 4.6 mm i.d. and 100 × 4.6 mm i.d.) connected in series for separation of the ions. Aqueous NaCl (0.5 mol/L; flow rate, 3 mL/min) containing 5 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 5) was used as the eluent, and detection was with a UV detector at 225 nm. The monolithic ODS columns were coated and equilibrated with a 1-mmol/L DDAB solution (in H(2)O/methanol, 90:10 v/v). The hydrophilic ions (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and Br(-)) were separated within 3 min and the retention time of I(-) was 16 min. No interferences from matrix ions, such as chloride and sulfate ions, were observed in 35 ‰ artificial seawater. The detection limits were 0.6 μg/L for NO(2)(-), 1.1 μg/L for NO(3)(-), 70 μg/L for Br(-), and 1.6 μg/L for I(-) with a 200-μL sample injection. The performance of the coated columns was maintained without addition of DDAB in the eluent. The IC system was successfully applied to real seawater samples with recovery rates of 94-108 % for all ions.

  15. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  16. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. VI. Effect of sodium chloride and abscisic acid on amino-acid and protein metabolism in leaves of Phaseolus aconitifolius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Kreutmeier, F.; Sankhla, N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) on protein synthesis, protein hydrolysis, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase and amino-acid composition was investigated in the leaves of four days old Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings. Both NaCl and ABA inhibited protein synthesis, but promoted the activities of leucine arylamidase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase. The results of the amino-acid analysis indicated following treatment with NaCl the amounts of proline, arginine, serine and glutamic acid increased significantly in the leaves. An increase of the proline concentration could be observed only up to a salt concentration of 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M. Increasing concentrations of ABA also brought a corresponding rise in proline, serine and glutamic acid content. Interestingly the decrease of proline concentration by a salt concentration of more than 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M is correlated with a decrease in endogenous ABA-content. The possible significance of the similarites between the action of abscisic acid and salinity in influencing the amino-acid and protein metabolism in Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings during stress is discussed. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  18. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro A. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276 and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600 to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2 and stainless steel 316L.

  19. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  20. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin; Moon, Jeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO 2 - , the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO 2 - caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO 2 - acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass

  1. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.

  2. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE CLORURO DE SODIO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DE UNA SALCHICHA TIPO SELECCIONADA EFFECT OF REDUCTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAUSAGE TYPE SELECTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Una propuesta para reducir los niveles de sodio en productos cárnicos, y desarrollar productos más saludables, es disminuir la cantidad de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en las formulaciones. En este estudio fue evaluado el efecto de disminuir y sustituir NaCl por KCl modificado, sobre los niveles de sodio y las características sensoriales y microbiológicas en una salchicha tipo Seleccionada. El porcentaje de reducción y sustitución de NaCl por KCl modificado con relación a un control fue de 50 y 75%, respectivamente. La reducción de NaCl en estos niveles, causó efectos significativos (P≤0,05 sobre el contenido de sodio en el producto final en relación al control, lo que implicaría beneficios nutricionales. De otro lado, diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las propiedades de textura, tanto a nivel instrumental como sensorial, fueron detectadas en la formulación con reducción del 75% de NaCl. En cuanto a la estabilidad microbiológica, y demás atributos sensoriales, no se detectaron diferencias entre los tratamientos y el control. Este estudio sugiere que es posible reducir la concentración de NaCl en un 50% en salchichas tipo Seleccionada mediante el uso de KCl modificado, sin cambios desfavorables en las características sensoriales y microbiológicas. Esta reducción permitiría una disminución en los niveles de sodio del 24% en el producto final.Abstract. A proposal to reduce the sodium levels in meat products to develop healthier products is to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl in the formulations. In this study, the effect of reducing NaCl and its substituting by modified KCl on sodium levels, sensory and microbiological characteristics in a selected type sausage was evaluated. The percentage of reduction and substitution of NaCl by modified KCl compared to control was 50 and 75%, respectively. The reduction of NaCl caused significant effects (P≤0.05 on the sodium content in the end product relative to the

  3. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  4. Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ preparation and use in electrolysis process for aluminum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C.C.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    A continuous process for producing aluminum sulfide and for electrolyzing the aluminum sulfide to form metallic aluminum in which the aluminum sulfide is produced from aluminum oxide and COS or CS/sub 2/ in the presence of a chloride melt which also serves as the electrolysis bath. Circulation between the reactor and electrolysis cell is carried out to maintain the desired concentration of aluminum sulfide in the bath.

  5. Removal of uranium from simulated fly ash by chloride volatilization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuaki, Sato; Yoshikatsu, Tochigi; Toshiki, Fukui; Takeo, Fujino

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash is generated from LWR nuclear power plant as a low-level waste, which is contaminated with a small amount of radioactive materials, composed mainly of uranium oxide. The constituents of the fly ash are similar to those of the ore; the major components of the ash are oxides of silicon, aluminum, sodium, magnesium, zinc, iron sodium and uranium. In this study, removal of uranium from the simulated fly ash, of which composition was U 3 O 8 : 10, CaO:25, SiO 2 : 25, Al 2 O 3 : 20, MgO: 10, ZnO:5, Fe 2 O 3 : 3 and Na 2 CO 3 : 2 wt%, by chloride volatilization method was examined. The simulated fly ash was chlorinated by the same manner as the dry way processing for the ore; namely, the ash was heated in a flow of chlorine in the presence of carbon at high temperatures. In the case of volatilization of uranium from U 3 O 8 and a simulated fly ash by chlorination using chlorine and carbon, it was seen that uranium of both samples showed similar volatilization behaviour: The volatilization ratio of uranium (VU) increased with increasing temperature from 800 to 1100 C. The VU value attained 99.9% at 1100 C. Iron, silicon and zinc showed similar behaviour to uranium, namely, they vaporized completely. The volatilization ratio of aluminum, magnesium and sodium were still high in a range 80-90%. The volatilization ratio of calcium was ∼40% under the same chlorination condition, though it changed to chloride. For recovery of uranium from fly ash by chlorination using chlorine in the presence of carbon, high volatilization ratio of uranium can be achieved at high temperatures. Volatilization ratio of other components also increases, which decreases the amount of decontaminated residue resulting in the reducing of decontamination effect. Selection of heating condition is important. (author)

  6. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  7. Heterojunction solar cell with 6% efficiency based on an n-type aluminum-gallium-oxide thin film and p-type sodium-doped Cu2O sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to enhance the efficiency of Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with an aluminum-gallium-oxide (Al-Ga-O) thin film as the n-type layer and a p-type sodium (Na)-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing copper sheets. The optimal Al content [X; Al/(Ga + Al) atomic ratio] of an AlX-Ga1-X-O thin-film n-type layer was found to be approximately 2.5 at. %. The optimized resistivity was approximately 15 Ω cm for n-type AlX-Ga1-X-O/p-type Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cells. A MgF2/AZO/Al0.025-Ga0.975-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell with 6.1% efficiency was fabricated using a 60-nm-thick n-type oxide thin-film layer and a 0.2-mm-thick Cu2O:Na sheet with the optimized resistivity.

  8. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  9. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  10. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries. Final report, 1 April 1990-31 March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    This final report for the project 'Organic Electrolytes for Sodium Batteries' contains a summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  11. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  13. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  14. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  15. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  16. Aluminum toxicity perturbs long bone calcification in the embryonic chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firling, C.E.; Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth; Hill, T.A.; Severson, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    Long bone calcification in chick embryos acutely- or chronically-treated with aluminum (Al) citrate was investigated. Acutely treated embryos received 100 μl of 60 mM Al citrate, 60 mM sodium (Na) citrate, or 0.7% sodium chloride on day 8 of incubation. Chronically treated embryos received a daily 25 μl dose of the above solutions beginning on day 8. Following 2-8 days of additional incubation, blood was collected, embryos killed, hind limbs radiographed, and tibias collected. Radiography indicated that Al administration resulted in a persistent angulation in the mid-diaphysis of tibias and femurs and a transient mineralization defect during the 10- to 12-day period of incubation. Tibias from 10- to 12-day embryos which were administered Al contained significantly less (P 45 Ca uptake by tibias of embryos treated with Al was significantly lower on days 10 (acute) and 12 (chronic) with no significant differences in Ca uptake rate among the three treatment groups by day 16. In each treatment group bone alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity increased approximately tenfold between days 10 and 16. At all stages, bone ALPase activity was consistently higher and significantly different (chronic) compared with levels in NaCl-treated embryos. In contrast, Al had no significant effect on the rate of tibia collagen and noncollagenous protein synthesis or serum levels of procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). (orig.)

  17. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  18. Role of additives; sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Gajanan, E-mail: pandeygajanan@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Dixit, Supriya; Shrivastava, A.K. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised in aqueous solution phase at mild reaction temperature 100 °C in moderate alkaline medium (pH = 9.5), and the role of external additives; like sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on the morphology and size of the products has been explored on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses data. ZnO hexagonal nano-plates, core–shell like spherical/ellipsoidal Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O structures and thin sheets, thorn/needle mixed shaped Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O structures have been observed in TEM and SEM images. Zn(OH){sub 2} formed in moderate alkaline medium, converted to Zn(II) hydroxo complex ions on dissolution, which further recrystallizes to produce wurtzite ZnO at 100 °C. From XRD and EDX analysis, successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions at the Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO host has been proved. In the photoluminescence spectra, the observed blue shifts in NBE peaks and decrease of emissions intensity on Mn doping have thoroughly been discussed in the present investigation. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs have been prepared in aqueous solution at mild temperature 100 °C. • Shifts in XRD lines and NBE peaks in PL spectra proved doping of Mn{sup 2+} in the ZnO. • ZnO is formed via dissolution–recrystallization of ε-Zn(OH){sub 2}–ZnO. • Additives SDS and MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O play important role on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs. • Mn contents increased extrinsic defects, which decreased intensity of PL spectra.

  19. Integrated combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium under low nutrient food-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Ioannis; Daskalopoulou, Aikaterini; Simões, Manuel; Giaouris, Efstathios

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne bacterial pathogen. This forms biofilms on surfaces and persists, depending on the strain and the environment. The integrative interaction of temperature (T; 13-39 °C), pH (5-8) and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (0.5-8.5%) on biofilm formation by two S. enterica strains (ser. Enteritidis and Typhimurium) was here evaluated under low nutrient conditions. This was achieved using response surface methodology to model the combined effect of each factor on the response, through mathematical quadratic fitting of the outcomes of a sequence of designed experiments. These last were executed by incubating stainless steel coupons carrying sessile bacteria, for 24 h, in 1:10 diluted tryptone soya broth, under 15 different combinations of three independent factors (T, pH and NaCl). For each strain, a second order polynomial model, describing the relationship between biofilm formation (log CFU/cm 2 ) and the factors (T, pH and NaCl), was developed using least square regression analysis. Both derived models predicted the combined influences of these factors on biofilm formation, with agreement between predictions and experimental observations (R 2  ≥ 0.96, P ≤ 0.0001). For both strains, the increase of NaCl content restricted their sessile growth, while under low salinity conditions (NaCl formation was favored as pH increased, regardless of T. Interestingly, under low salt content, and depending on the strain, biofilm formation was either favored or hindered by increasing T. Thus, 34.5 and 13 °C were the T predicted to maximize biofilm formation by strains Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively, something which was also experimentally verified. To sum, these models can predict the interactive influences of crucial food-related factors on biofilm growth of a significant foodborne pathogen towards the efforts to limit its persistence in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  1. Inactivation of Biological Agents Using Neutral Oxone-Chloride Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ... to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach...

  2. Self diffusion of sodium ion in sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, T.M.; Lawrence, N.

    1985-09-01

    The problem of cation self diffusion in NaCl for a single vacancy mechanism is attempted using a reaction coordinate approach employing the phonons in the system. The vacancy is given an active role by estimating the displacements of its nearest neighbour Cl - ions in the environment of the vacancy through the lattice Green's functions and the t matrix formalism. The jump frequency, the isotope effect and diffusion coefficients estimated by this approach agree well with the experimentally deduced values. These results support the experimental conclusion of about 30% of vacancy pairs in the cation diffusion in NaCl. (author)

  3. Reaction of 11 C-benzoyl chlorides with metalloid reagents: 11 C-labeling of benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, and phenyl ketones from [11 C]CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, Sara; Dahl, Kenneth; Nordeman, Patrik

    2018-01-26

    In this article, we describe the carbon-11 ( 11 C, t 1/2  = 20.4 minutes) labeling of benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, and ketones using an efficient 2-step synthesis in which 11 C-carbon monoxide is used in an initial palladium-mediated reaction to produce 11 C-benzoyl chloride as a key intermediate. In the second step, the obtained 11 C-benzoyl chloride is further treated with a metalloid reagent to furnish the final 11 C-labeled product. Benzyl alcohols were obtained in moderated to high non-isolated radiochemical yields (RCY, 35%-90%) with lithium aluminum hydride or lithium aluminum deuteride as metalloid reagent. Changing the metalloid reagent to either tributyltin hydride or sodium borohydride, allowed for the reliable syntheses of 11 C-benzaldehydes in RCYs ranging from 58% to 95%. Finally, sodium tetraphenylborate were utilized to obtain 11 C-phenyl ketones in high RCYs (77%-95%). The developed method provides a new and efficient route to 3 different classes of compounds starting from aryl iodides or aryl bromides. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The influence of Ti and Sr alloying elements on electrochemical properties of aluminum sacrificial anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, M.; Sina, H.; Keyvani, A.; Emamy, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Department, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum sacrificial anodes are widely used in cathodic protection of alloys in seawater. The interesting properties due to low specific weight, low electrode potential and high current capacity are often hindered by the presence of a passive oxide film which causes several difficulties in their practical application. In this investigation, the electrochemical behavior of Al- 5Zn-0.02In sacrificial anode is studied in 3 wt. % sodium chloride solution. The experiments focused on the influence of Ti and Sr as alloying elements on electrochemical behavior of aluminum sacrificial anode. Ti and Sr are used in different concentrations from 0.03 to 0.1 wt.% 0.01 to 0.05 wt.%, respectively. NACE efficiency and polarization tests are used in this case. It is shown that by using 0.03 wt.% Ti and 0.01 wt.% Sr as the alloying elements to investigate the anodic behavior of the anodes, homogeneous microstructures are obtained which results in improvement of electrochemical properties of aluminum sacrificial anode such as current capacity and anode efficiency. (authors)

  5. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  6. Advances in the electrodeposition of aluminum from ionic liquid based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Kirt C.

    . Advancements of this nonaqueous aluminum plating process have the potential to lead to a novel and competitive commercial aluminum deposition process. In this investigation aluminum electrodeposition from ionic liquid based electrolytes onto steel, copper and magnesium substrates without conversion coatings or strike layers was evaluated in six different ionic liquid based electrolytes in two technical setups. Three of which are commercially available aluminum plating electrolytes, three of which, discussed in literature were created on site by research personnel in the laboratory. The three commercially available electrolytes were: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, and BasionicsTM AL-02, an aluminum plating electrolyte containing [EMIm]Cl * 1.5 AlCl3 with additives from BASF. The three electrolytes created on site were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid with added 1.5 AlCl3 and one with added sodium dodecyl sulfate. Small scale plating tests in a 25-mL plating cell were conducted to provide a comparative analysis of the six different electrolytes considered. From these investigations, two were chosen to be evaluated in a larger 1-liter plating cell; designed and constructed to provide a more realistic evaluation of plating parameters with selected electrolytes to better portray industrial electroplating conditions. The effect of current density (10-40 mA/cm 2), temperature (30-90° Celsius) and plating bath agitation on current efficiency, corrosion resistance by the ASTM B117 method, adhesion, microstructure, and chemical composition (evaluated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) of the plated Al-layer was explored in both the 25-mL and 1-L plating cell investigations. In addition development of pre- and post-treatment processes for the metal substrates was attempted. While

  7. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  8. Standard test method for measurement of corrosion potentials of Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measurement of the corrosion potential (see Note 1) of an aluminum alloy in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride with enough hydrogen peroxide added to provide an ample supply of cathodic reactant. Note 1—The corrosion potential is sometimes referred to as the open-circuit solution or rest potential. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  10. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  11. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  12. Desarrollo tecnológico de una formulación de cloruro de sodio al 5 % para el tratamiento del edema corneal en Cuba Technological development of a 5 % sodium chloride formula for treatment of corneal edema in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelia Collado Coello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una formulación para uso oftálmico, que contenía cloruro de sodio al 5 %, estable desde el punto de vista físico, químico y microbiológico. Se realizaron los estudios de formulación correspondientes, seleccionándose la composición y procedimiento tecnológico más adecuados. Además, se estudió la efectividad antimicrobiana de los preservativos antimicrobianos empleados según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30 y se comprobó la seguridad del uso de este medicamento a través de los resultados del ensayo de irritabilidad oftálmica. Se elaboraron 3 lotes del medicamento y se envasaron en frascos plásticos de polietileno de baja densidad con tapa de polipropileno de alta densidad y se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente durante 24 meses; se estudió su estabilidad física y química por el método acelerado y de vida de estante. Se comprobó su estabilidad microbiológica a cada uno de los lotes elaborados, al inicio y final del estudio, según se establece en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos 30, y se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios. Todos los resultados cumplieron con los límites de calidad establecidos en la literatura oficial para este tipo de forma farmacéutica, por lo que se concluyó que el medicamento desarrollado está correctamente formulado desde el punto de vista galénico con un tiempo de vida útil de 24 meses almacenado bajo las condiciones estudiadas, demostrado según el otorgamiento del certificado de registro por el organismo regulador (Centro Estatal para el Control de Medicamentos, CECMED. Finalmente el medicamento fue introducido al nivel industrial sin que se presentaran problemas tecnológicos.A formula for ophthalmic use was developed containing 5 % sodium chloride stable from the physical, chemical and microbiological point of view. Studies of corresponding formulae were conducted selecting the more suitable composition and technological procedure. Also, the

  13. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  14. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  15. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. A melt refining method for uranium-contaminated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, T.; Iba, H.; Hanawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    Melt refining of uranium-contaminated aluminum which has been difficult to decontaminate because of the high reactivity of aluminum, was experimentally studied. Samples of contaminated aluminum and its alloys were melted after adding various halide fluxes at various melting temperatures and various melting times. Uranium concentration in the resulting ingots was determined. Effective flux compositions were mixtures of chlorides and fluorides, such as LiF, KCl, and BaCl 2 , at a fluoride/chloride mole ratio of 1 to 1.5. The removal of uranium from aluminum (the ''decontamination effect'') increased with decreasing melting temperature, but the time allowed for reaction had little influence. Pure aluminum was difficult to decontaminate from uranium; however, uranium could be removed from alloys containing magnesium. This was because the activity of the aluminum was decreased by formation of the intermetallic compound Al-Mg. With a flux of LiF-KCl-BaCl 2 and a temperature of 800 0 C, uranium added to give an initial concentration of 500 ppm was removed from a commercial alloy of aluminum, A5056, which contains 5% magnesium, to a final concentration of 0.6 ppm, which is near that in the initial aluminum alloy

  17. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  18. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  19. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  20. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L; Morris, R C; Sellmeyer, D E; Todd, K; Sebastian, A

    2001-10-01

    Theoretically, we humans should be better adapted physiologically to the diet our ancestors were exposed to during millions of years of hominid evolution than to the diet we have been eating since the agricultural revolution a mere 10,000 years ago, and since industrialization only 200 years ago. Among the many health problems resulting from this mismatch between our genetically determined nutritional requirements and our current diet, some might be a consequence in part of the deficiency of potassium alkali salts (K-base), which are amply present in the plant foods that our ancestors ate in abundance, and the exchange of those salts for sodium chloride (NaCl), which has been incorporated copiously into the contemporary diet, which at the same time is meager in K-base-rich plant foods. Deficiency of K-base in the diet increases the net systemic acid load imposed by the diet. We know that clinically-recognized chronic metabolic acidosis has deleterious effects on the body, including growth retardation in children, decreased muscle and bone mass in adults, and kidney stone formation, and that correction of acidosis can ameliorate those conditions. Is it possible that a lifetime of eating diets that deliver evolutionarily superphysiologic loads of acid to the body contribute to the decrease in bone and muscle mass, and growth hormone secretion, which occur normally with age? That is, are contemporary humans suffering from the consequences of chronic, diet-induced low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis? Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity. We also found that neutralization of the diet net acid load with dietary supplements of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) improved calcium and phosphorus balances

  1. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  2. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  3. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  5. In-vitro studies of enteric coated diclofenac sodium-carboxymethylcellulose microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arica, B; Arica, M Y; Kaş, H S; Hincal, A A; Hasirci, V

    1996-01-01

    MIcrospheres containing diclofenac sodium (DS) were prepared using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as the main support material (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% (w/v)) and aluminum chloride as the crosslinker. Drug to polymer ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 were used to obtain a range of microspheres. The microspheres were then coated with an enteric coating material, Eudragit S-100, efficiency, % yield value, particle sizes an in-vitro dissolution behaviour were investigated. The surface of the enteric coated microspheres seemed to be all covered with Eudragit S-100 from scanning electron microscopy observation. It was also observed that increasing the CMC concentration led to an increase in the encapsulation efficiency, % yield value and particle size and decreased the release rate. Eudragit S-100 coating did not significantly alter the size but the release rate was significantly lower even when the lower concentration solution was used.

  6. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  7. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  8. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  9. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  10. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environmen...

  11. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Synthesis and thermolysis of sodium hexachloromolybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushakbaev, A.; Terishkhanova, I.G.; Parpiev, N.A.; Adylova, Sh.N.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of Na 3 MoCl 6 and the process of its thermal decomposition are described. Sodium hexachloromolybdate is synthesized by means of molybdenum chloride compolunds (MoCl 5 ; MoCl 5 +Mo, MoCl 3 ) interaction with sodium chloride at moderate temperatures in nitrogen atmosphere. It is shown, that Na 3 MoCl 6 thermolysis in conventional conditions takes place in two stages: the first one (570-600 K) corresponds to the formation of mixture MoO 2 +NaMoCl 4 +5NaCl, the second one (930 K) - to MoO 3 +3NaCl formation. In an inert atmosphere at 920 K a mixture of metal molybdenum and sodium chloride is observed

  14. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... rate of the Sn and stability of Sn ions in the solution layer play a significant role in the formation of dendrites, which is controlled by chloride concentration and potential bias. Morphology, composition, and resistance of the dendrites were dependent on chloride concentration and potential....

  15. Diferença cátion-aniônica da dieta no balanço de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre em ovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820 Dietary cation-anion difference on sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur in sheep - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Marisa Azevedo Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças no balanço cátion-aniônico de sódio, potássio, cloro e enxofre da dieta (BCAD no balanço de minerais e na concentração sérica de sódio, potássio e cloro foram avaliados através de um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 16 carneiros machos, da raça Santa Inês, por um período de 26 dias, sendo 7 de adaptação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Para a manipulação do BCAD foram adicionados cloreto de cálcio e bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se os seguintes tratamentos: -12; +30; +76 e +133 mEq/kg MS da ração. Verificou-se que a manipulação do BCAD interferiu no metabolismo de macrominerais em carneiros adultos.The dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB differences in the sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur mineral balance and serum concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride were evaluated of digestibility trial used in sixteen adult sheeps, from Santa Inês breed, during 26 days, being 7 days for adaptation. The design used was randomized complete blocks with four treatments. For DCAB manipulations were added calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in order to achieve the values: -12; + 30; +76 and +133 mEq/kg DM. The manipulation of DCAB interfered the metabolism of macrominerals in sheeps.

  16. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  17. Fabrication of aluminum nitride crucibles for molten salt and plutonium compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to fabricate a calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride crucible and determine the compatibility of this crucible with molten chloride salts and plutonium metal in the DOR process. Calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride was preferred over yttrium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride because of (1) the presence of calcium chloride, calcium oxide, and calcium metal in the molten salts utilized in the DOR process, and (2) the higher volatility of the secondary phases formed compared with phases resulting from the addition of yttrium oxide during the aluminum nitride sintering process. The calcium oxide system may yield a higher purity crystal structure with fewer secondary phases present than in the yttrium oxide system. The secondary phases that are present in the grain boundaries may be unreactive with the calcium chloride salt due to the presence of calcium in the secondary phases

  18. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  19. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  20. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  1. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  2. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  3. Difusão do cloreto de sódio no processo de salga de queijos: modelagem matemática com o emprego do método de elementos finitos The sodium chlorid diffusion during cheese brining: matematical model applying the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio Ferreira SILVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A transferência de um soluto (cloreto de sódio, através de uma matriz sólida tridimensional (queijo foi estudada aplicando-se o método de elementos finitos. A formulação variacional (Galerkin do problema diferencial (modelo de difusão teve como base teórica a 2ª lei de Fick. Os procedimentos para integração no tempo foram o de Crank-Nicolson e o de Euler-modificado, que foram escolhidos por apresentarem estabilidade incondicional. O programa computacional desenvolvido mostrou-se versátil para resolver situações de amostragem em condições mais realistas e pode ser aplicado para geometrias complexas. O modelo proposto permitiu uma boa estimativa do ganho de sal no queijo, usando um coeficiente de difusão cujo valor pode ser obtido por extrapolação de dados experimentais. A aplicação do método numérico (MEF, com o esquema de Crank-Nicolson, na simulação da difusão do cloreto de sódio na salga de queijos, mostrou boa aproximação quando os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais encontrados na literatura especializada.Solute (sodium chloride transference through a three-dimensional matrix (cheese was studied applying the finite element method (MEF. The variational formulation (Galerkin of the differential problem (diffusion model had as the theoretical basis Fick’s second law. The methods for time integration were developed according to Crank-Nicolson (central difference, and modified Euler (backward difference, which presented unconditional stability. The computational program proved to be versatile in solving sampling situations in realistic condition and can be used in complex geometry. The proposed method gave good estimation of salt gain in the cheese when using a diffusion coefficient which value can be calculated by extrapolation of experimental data. The application of numeric method (MEF, with Crank-Nicolson scheme, in the simulation of diffusion of sodium chloride in the brining showed to be

  4. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  5. Electrolytic production of light lanthanides from molten chloride alloys on a large laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklarski, W.; Bogacz, A.; Strzyzewska, M.

    1979-01-01

    Literature data relating to electrolytic production of rare earth metals are presented. Conditions and results are given of own investigations into the electrolytic process of light lanthanide chloride solutions (LA-Nd) in molten potassium and sodium chlorides conducted on a large laboratory scale using molybdenic, iron, cobaltic and zinc cathodes. Design schemes of employed electrolysers are enclosed. (author)

  6. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Spectra of luminescence due to microdischarges on an aluminum valve anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizikov, A.M.; Vol'f, V.G.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum of visible and near-UV luminescence due to a microdischarge on an AMg-6 aluminum alloy was studied under conditions of valve anodization in solutions of sodium carbonate and other electrolytes. It was shown that emission spectra exhibit lines that characterize anodic (aluminum and magnesium) and electrolytic (sodium) components. The dependence of the temperature of the microdischarge on the electrolyte concentration and composition is discussed

  8. Titanocene(III) chloride mediated radical induced addition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reduction of the aldehyde 10 with sodium boro- hydride in the presence of CeCl3.7H2O furnished the alcohol 11 which was finally brominated using PBr3 to yield the dibromo compound 12.13. Thus, a series of bromoepoxides were prepared and subjected to radical cyclization using titanocene(III) chloride and the results ...

  9. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  10. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  11. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  12. Chemical Reduction Synthesis of Iron Aluminum Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Méndez, N. N.; la Torre, G. Carbajal-De; Ballesteros-Almanza, L.; Villagómez-Galindo, M.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Espinosa-Medina, M. A.

    In this study, a chemical reduction synthesis method of iron aluminum (FeAl) nano-dimensional intermetallic powders is described. The process has two stages: a salt reduction and solvent evaporation by a heat treatment at 1100°C. The precursors of the synthesis are ferric chloride, aluminum foil chips, a mix of Toluene/THF in a 75/25 volume relationship, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as initiator of the reaction. The reaction time was 20 days, the product obtained was dried at 60 °C for 2 h and calcined at 400, 800, and 1100 °C for 4 h each. To characterize and confirm the obtained synthesis products, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results of morphology and chemical characterization of nano-dimensional powders obtained showed a formation of agglomerated particles of a size range of approximately 150 nm to 1.0 μm. Composition of powders was identified as corundum (Al2O3), iron aluminide (FeAl3), and iron-aluminum oxides (Fe0. 53Al0. 47)2O3 phases. The oxide phases formation were associated with the reaction of atmospheric concentration-free oxygen during synthesis and sintering steps, reducing the concentration of the iron aluminum phase.

  13. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  14. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  15. Synergistic Effect of Superhydrophobicity and Oxidized Layers on Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Surface Textured by Nanosecond Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Modestov, Alexander D; Domantovsky, Alexandr G; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2015-09-02

    We report a new efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic oxidized surface of aluminum alloys with enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. The developed coatings are considered very prospective materials for the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and medicine. The method is based on nanosecond laser treatment of the surface followed by chemisorption of a hydrophobic agent to achieve the superhydrophobic state of the alloy surface. We have shown that the surface texturing used to fabricate multimodal roughness of the surface may be simultaneously used for modifying the physicochemical properties of the thick surface layer of the substrate itself. Electrochemical and wetting experiments demonstrated that the superhydrophobic state of the metal surface inhibits corrosion processes in chloride solutions for a few days. However, during long-term contact of a superhydrophobic coating with a solution, the wetted area of the coating is subjected to corrosion processes due to the formation of defects. In contrast, the combination of an oxide layer with good barrier properties and the superhydrophobic state of the coating provides remarkable corrosion resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing corrosion protective properties are discussed.

  16. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué, Kamal H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the first solid-state 27Al NMR study of three aluminum phthalocyanine dyes: aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, AlPcCl (1); aluminum-1,8,15,22-tetrakis(phenylthio)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine chloride, AlPc(SPh)4Cl (2); and aluminum-2,3-naphthalocyanine chloride, AlNcCl (3). Each of these compounds contains Al3+ ions coordinating to four nitrogen atoms and a chlorine atom. Solid-state 27Al NMR spectra, including multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) spectra and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra of stationary powdered samples have been acquired at multiple high magnetic field strengths (11.7, 14.1, and 21.1 T) to determine their composition and number of aluminum sites, which were analyzed to extract detailed information on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry parameters (η) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, and compared well with the results of quantum chemical calculations of these tensors. We also report the largest 27Al chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA), with a span of 120 ± 10 ppm, observed directly in a solid material. The combination of MQMAS and computational predictions are used to interpret the presence of multiple aluminum sites in two of the three samples.

  17. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  18. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  19. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-01-01

    formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste (∼3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges

  20. The aluminum-air battery for electric vehicles - An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The development of aluminum-air batteries as mechanically rechargeable power sources to be used in electric vehicles is discussed. The chemistry of the aluminum-air battery, which has a potential for providing the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of contemporary automobiles and is based on the reaction of aluminum metal with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of an aqueous sodium hydroxide/sodium aluminate electrolyte, is examined, and it is pointed out that the electric vehicle would be practically emissionless. The battery development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which includes evaluations of electrochemical and chemical phenomena, studies of the economics and energy balance of a transportation system based on aluminum, and power cell design and performance analysis, is presented. It is concluded that although difficult problems must be overcome before the technical and economic feasibility of aluminum-air batteries for electric vehicles can be established, projections indicate that the aluminum-air vehicle is potentially competitive with internal combustion vehicles powered by synthetic liquid fuels.