Sample records for aluminum sodium chloride

  1. Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride (United States)

    Demirci, U. B.; Akdim, O.; Miele, P.

    The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) at 80 °C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl 3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl 3 reactivity was compared to those of AlCl 3·6H 2O, AlF 3, CoCl 2, RuCl 3 and NiCl 2. With AlCl 3 and a NaBH 4 solution having a gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) of 2.9 wt.%, almost 100% hydrogen was generated in few seconds, i.e., with a hydrogen generation rate (HGR) of 354 L min -1 g -1(Al). This HGR is one of the highest rates ever reported. Higher HGRs were obtained by mixing AlCl 3 with CoCl2, RuCl 3 or NiCl 2. For example, the system RuCl 3:AlCl 3 (50:50 mass proportion) showed a HGR > 1000 L min -1 g -1(Ru:Al). The hydrolysis by-products (once dried) were identified (by XRD, IR and elemental analysis) as being Al(OH) 3, NaCl and Na 2B(OH) 4Cl and it was observed that even in situ formed Al(OH) 3 has catalytic abilities with HGRs of 5 L min -1 g -1(Al). All of these preliminary results are discussed, which concludes that AlCl 3 has a potential as accelerator for single-use NaBH 4-based storage system.

  2. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南


    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao


    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao


    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  5. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.


    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  6. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride) (United States)

    ... Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. Learn more and ... sodium with these printable and sharable infographics. The Salty Six – Common Foods that Add the Most Sodium ...

  7. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)


    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  8. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;


    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  9. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min


    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  10. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei


    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  11. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts (United States)


    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  12. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi


    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  13. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)


    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters. (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul


    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  15. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  17. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride. (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H


    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  18. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军


    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  19. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing


    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  20. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.


    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  1. Vapor Pressure of Aluminum Chloride Systems. 3. Vapor Pressure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts (United States)


    were all as described previously (10). A .XCp/R log T(1, 2). mercury manometer was used as n additional external piessure The data were least-squares...the use of a mercury manometer and a NMLeod gauge, respectively, for pressure measurement; all other pressure measurements were made with a

  2. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. (United States)

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I


    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  3. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.


    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  4. Epithelial Sodium and Chloride Channels and Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Wang; Hong-Long Ji


    Objective:To focus on the asthmatic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/chlorine ion channel.Data Sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2015 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google Scholar.The terms used in the literature search were:(1) ENaCs;cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR);asthma/asthmatic,(2) ENaC/sodium salt;CF;asthma/asthmatic,(3) CFTR/chlorine ion channels;asthma/asthmatic,(4) ENaC/sodium channel/scnn1a/scnn1b/scnn1g/scnn1d/amiloride-sensitive/amiloride-inhibtable sodium channels/sodium salt;asthma/asthmatic,lung/pulmonary/respiratory/tracheal/alveolar,and (5) CFTR;CF;asthma/asthmatic (ti).Study Selection:These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies covering asthma pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to ENaC/chlorine ion channels within the last 25 years (from 1990 to 2015).The data involving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF obtained from individual studies were also reviewed by the authors.Results:Airway surface liquid dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction.ENaC and CFTR are closely related to the airway mucociliary clearance.Ion transporters may play a critical role in pathogenesis of asthmatic exacerbations.Conclusions:Ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthmatic pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease.

  5. Effect of coating of aluminum carboxymethylcellulose beads on the release and bioavailability of diclofenac sodium. (United States)

    Hosny, E A; al-Helw A al-R


    The production of spheres loaded with diclofenac sodium by the cross linking technique was achieved. The hydrophilic polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) which gels in the presence of a cross linking agent, aluminum chloride (AlCl3), was used as a matrix forming agent for the bead production. To obtain a regular and uniform rate of drug release, the produced beads were coated with sodium alginate to increase the pathway of the diffused medium. Two processing variables were studied, the flocculating agent concentration (20, 40 and 60% w/v) and different coating times (15, 30 and 60 min). The results show that the higher concentrations of aluminum chloride (40 and 60% w/v) produced more uniform and rounded beads than that prepared using 20% w/v salt. The particle size of the core beads decreased insignificantly (P > 0.05) as the flocculating agent concentration increased. The coating time did not affect the particle size of the coated beads within the same concentration of aluminum chloride. The dissolution studies showed that the release rate of diclofenac sodium from the core beads increased with the increase of AlCl3 concentration and that the rate of drug release was markedly reduced after the coating of the core beads with Na-alginate. The results also show a linear relationship for drug release over a 4-5 h period from the core beads where it showed a longer straight line relationship (7 h) for the coated beads. The coating of the Al-CMC beads, prepared using 60% w/v AlCl3.6H2O, with 2% w/v aqueous solution of Na-alginate resulted in a significant (P 24 increased insignificantly (P > 0.05) from 39.82 +/- 26.61 to 57.92 +/- 25.58 micrograms h/ml resulting in a relative bioavailability of 145.45% relative to Al-CMC beads.

  6. The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy


    This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

  7. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers. (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M


    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  8. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices]. (United States)

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M


    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  9. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.


    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  10. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  11. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG


    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  12. Enhancement by sodium caprate and sodium deoxycholate of the gastrointestinal absorption of berberine chloride in rats. (United States)

    Fan, Dongjiao; Wu, Xiaorong; Dong, Wenna; Sun, Wei; Li, Jinzhuo; Tang, Xing


    The aim of the investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two absorption enhancers, sodium caprate (C10) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), in increasing the bioavailability of a poorly absorbed paracellar flux drug, berberine chloride, across the intestinal mucosae of rats in vivo, together with examination of their effects on mucosal damage. In addition, all four intestinal segments were collected after administration of the enhancers and sodium saline. The results of the bioavailability experiments showed the oral absorption of berberine chloride was poor and both C10 and SDC could significantly improve the very poor absorption of berberine chloride. After co-administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine chloride was increased 41.1-fold by C10 (100 mg/kg) and 35.3-fold by SDC (100 mg/kg) compared with that in the absence of C10 and SDC, respectively. Local toxicity experiment indicated that both enhancers caused no specific damage to the intact intestine. This study demonstrates that C10 and SDC could significantly promote the absorption of berberine chloride from the gastrointestinal tract with few toxic effects, which might be due mainly to relaxing the absorption limitation while inhibiting the efflux transporter of berberine chloride by the enhancers. Besides, this could lead to the development of new drug-enhancers.

  13. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice. (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul


    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits.

  14. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah


    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  15. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年


    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  16. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis


    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  17. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao


    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  18. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

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    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  19. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M


    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  20. Analysis of corrosion behavior of LY12 in sodium chloride solution with wavelet transform technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 曹发和; 程英亮; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南


    Wavelet transforms(WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limitations of fast Fourier transforms(FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise(EN) data. The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposing electrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients(distinct type of events), which contains information about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. In this context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transform technique. The typical results show that the EN signal is composed of distinct type of events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants. Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot(EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of EN signals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q. Zhang; Z. Zhang; J.M. Wang; H.B. Shao; C.N. Cao


    Spontaneous electrochemical noise (EN) can be a rich source of information concerning the processes simultaneously occurring on a corroding interface. But the noise signal is often difficult to be analyzed due to the complicated nature of the specific systems being investigated. In this paper, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with different techniques. The typical results showed that the fractal dimension (D,n) obtained from spectral power density (SPD) is mainly directly proportional to the intensity of pitting corrosion and to the value of pitting parameter (SE) derived from dimensional analysis, while the fractal dimension (DE) obtained from EIS is mainly related to the uniform corrosion.

  2. Synthesis of Renewable Energy Materials, Sodium Aluminum Hydride by Grignard Reagent of Al

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    Jun-qin Wang


    Full Text Available The research on hydrogen generation and application has attracted widespread attention around the world. This paper is to demonstrate that sodium aluminum hydride can be synthesized under simple and mild reaction condition. Being activated through organics, aluminum powder reacts with hydrogen and sodium hydride to produce sodium aluminum hydride under atmospheric pressure. The properties and composition of the sample were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and so forth. The results showed that the product through this synthesis method is sodium aluminum hydride, and it has higher purity, perfect crystal character, better stability, and good hydrogen storage property. The reaction mechanism is also discussed in detail.

  3. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    of ice appearing to be resistant to road salt, a comparative study has been made on a number of different surfaces measuring the friction index. The friction measurements were performed with a Portable Skid-Resistance Tester. Discontinuous surfaces consisting of small islands of hydrohalite...... was classified as potentially slippery surfaces. It is therefore possible that the formation of hydrohalite contributes to accidents on slippery roads.......From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  4. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore. (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan


    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  5. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren


    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of an antiperspirant formulation containing aqueous aluminum chloride hexahydrate. (United States)

    Hölzle, E; Neubert, U


    To document deodorant efficacy the antimicrobial activity of a gelatinous antiperspirant formulation of aqueous aluminum chloride hexahydrate was investigated. In vitro assays demonstrated highly bactericidal activity on microorganisms comprising the resident axillary skin flora, including micrococcaceae and aerobic diphtheroid bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria and yeast were partially inhibited. In vivo experiments utilizing occlusive patches on forearm skin and bacterial sampling of the axilla showed pronounced bacteriostasis and persistence of aluminum chloride on the skin. Inhibition of microbial growth lasted more than 3 days after a single treatment of the axilla. Following repeated open applications to the volar aspect of the forearm, the skin remained virtually sterile for 3 days.

  7. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.


    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  8. Investigation of ozone and coagulant material’s (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime efficiency in “Kerman Kork” industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hussein Javid


    Full Text Available Background: Entry of untreated wastewater of wool scouring factories has been associated with many environmental hazards because of high rate of pollution. Presently effective treatment methods and reducing the costs of operation and maintenance from treatment units have always been under the attention of this industry owners. The aim of this survey is to present a suitable method for the treatment of wool scouring. Methods: In this study, chemical coagulant is used for wastewater treatment (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime. And then these materials with “ozone” as a strong oxidative in reduction of the amount of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in wastewater effluent has been surveyed. Results: The results of this work showed that only ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate among the above chemical coagulant had a high efficiency in the turbidity removal. Productivity of turbidity removal using ferric chloride with the pH of 4 to 5 was 99%, and turbidity was reduced from 166 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU to 1.5 NTU, and productivity of turbidity removal using aluminum sulfate within the pH 4.5 to 5 was 99.33% that reduced turbidity from 166 to 1.1 NTU. Results of ozonation with 5 g/hour and the oxygen flow of 2.5 litter per min with the pH assess of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min to wastewater from chemical treatment with ferric chloride showed that the rate of COD was reduced from 24700 mg/L to 2940 mg/L. In ozonation to wastewater of chemical treatment with aluminum sulfate within the above rang of time, the rate of COD was reduced from 22500 mg/l to 4800 mg/l. Conclusion: We can be hopeful that in near future, getting the cheap technology of ozone production in industrial scale, one can use this technology for the propose of removal of pollutants having removal preferable by help of advanced treatment approaches.

  9. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.


    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  10. Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative and Renal Stress in Rats

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    Necib, Youcef


    Full Text Available Backgroud: Reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress. Sodium selenite as an exogenous source of selenium is used for endogenous selenoprotein synthesis to scavenge the free radicals. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was served as the control, the second group was given sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg b.w, while the third group was given mercuric chloride (0.25 mg/kg, finally, the fourth group was given combined treatment of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride for 3 weeks.Results: The effects of sodium selenite on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, billirubin levels and LDH activity, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px, GST and catalase activities and hematological parameters. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, GST, and catalase activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight and erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels. Sodium selenite treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin levels, and LDH activity and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers and hematological parameters and atteneuated histopathological changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney.Conclusion: Our results indicate that sodium selenite could have a beneficial role against mercuric


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Babu


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintaining the lumen patency of Central venous catheters (CVCsusing low dose Heparin is recommended in many guidelines of CVC maintenance. This study is to compare the efficacy of low - dose Heparin 3ml (10U/ml and 0.9% Sodium chloride (10ml flush solutions to maintain Centra l venous catheter (CVC lumen patency. METHODS: We s tudied 100 adult patients between March 2012 and August 2012 who required short - term CVC insertion to compare two flush solutions , Heparin and0.9% Sodium Chloride on catheter lumen patency . RESULTS : The crude catheter non patency was 4% ( two lumensin Heparin group and 8% (four lumens in the Sodium Chloride group . There was no incidence of thrombocytopenia in both the study groups. CONCLUSION : This study has demonstrated no significant difference bet ween Heparin and 0.9% Sodium Chloride flushes with regards to catheter patency in adult patients with short - term use of CVCs .

  12. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy


    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  13. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕


    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  14. Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering


    The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

  15. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter. (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio


    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  16. Ginkgo biloba extract alleviates oxidative stress and some neurotransmitters changes induced by aluminum chloride in rats. (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa El-Shahat; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed E


    In the present study, twenty four adult male albino rats were classified into four groups. The control group received normal diet and water; the second group was treated daily with oral dose of Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) for 3 mo; the third group was treated daily with oral dose of aluminum chloride (10 mg/kg b.wt) for 3 mo; and the fourth group was treated with both Ginkgo biloba and aluminum chloride (200 and 10 mg/kg b.wt, respectively) using a stomach tube for 3 mo. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 to rats induced significant increase (P Ginkgo biloba group. It could be concluded that the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  17. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution


    Bellesia, Giovanni; Gnanakaran, S.


    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange m...

  18. Vitamin E and Sodium Selenite Against Mercuric Chloride-Induced Lung Toxicity in the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Celikoglu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to elucidate the possible protective role of vitamin E and / or sodium selenite on mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the lung tissue of the rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (1.0 mg/kg day for four weeks. Treatment with mercuric chloride led to oxidative stress by enhancing MDA level and also decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S transferaz (GST activities. However, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in histopathological changes in the lung tissue in the rats. MDA level and SOD, CAT GPx and GST activities and histopathological changes modulated in concomitantly supplementation of vitamin E (100 mg/kg day and /or sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg day to mercuric chloride-treated groups.

  19. Possibility of Using Moringa Peregrina Seeds Compared with Alum and Poly Aluminum Chloride in Sewage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Olyaie


    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objective: In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, urban runoff as a source of water restoration and is considered valuable. Wastewater treatment, while preserving the environment, it can be considered as water source. The aim of this study to evaluate the possibility of using powder grain Peregrina in wastewater treatment in comparing with Alum and PloyAluminum Chloride (PAC. "nMaterials and Methods: Flocculation and coagulation tests were done by Jar test. Wastewater quality parameters were measured according to standard method."nResults: Studies have been showed that in optimum Peregrina concentration, efficiency of turbidity reduction, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total E. Coli are 95.11, 38, 55.5, 46.6, 97 and 97 percent respectively. It is noted that turbidity reducing directly related with coli form reduction. As, with increasing turbidity reduction, coliform reduction is increased. The most reduction of E. coli with combination of Alum, Ploy Aluminum Chloride and Peregrina was 100 percent. In optimum concentration of Alum, Ploy Aluminum Chloride and Peregrina, the quality of treated wastewater would be in the range of environmental standards. Therefore, treated wastewater can be entering to surface water and reuse as irrigation water."nConclusion: The results derived from this study showed that the treated wastewater can be use in a variety of irrigation except sprinkler irrigation due to burn the leaves of plants. (high electrical conductivity.Also, the low cost of seed Peregrina and good performance in the refining operations, it is suggested that Peregrina as a replacement for poly aluminum chloride and an alum to be used for wastewater treatment.

  20. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats. (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L


    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  1. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization. (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F


    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC; glutathione reductase (GR, EC and peroxidases (POD, EC were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  2. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  3. Report of moderate or severe sodium and chloride disturbance on 82 cases with acute cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma shun-tian


    Abtract Objective: To decrease the fatality rate and prevalence rotc of acute cerebral stroke complicated with morderate or servere serum sodium and chioride disturbance by explonng the relation between the pathogency and prognosis Methods: Medical records were surveyed and clinical presentation, laboratory test, complicated。 Actiology pathogency and prognosis were analyzed m 82 cases with moderate or severe serum sodium and chloride disturbance among 736 cases with acute cerebral stroke collected, Results: The prevalence rate and fatality rate of acutc cerebral stroke complicated with moderate or severe serum sodium and chlorede disturbance were 11.3% (82/ 736) and 60.8% (49/52) which were different significantly form that complicated with normal or minimal sedium sodium and chloride disturbame (p (0.001) 。 The 82 cases occured at 3-13 days after hospitalization (mean 6 days) 。 The actiology and pathogency were mainly ralated with some endogenic and iatrogenic factors such as hypothalamic-pituitary system were destroyed resultly from acute cerbral stroke which led to SIADH。 Conclusion: The fatality rate of acute cerebral stroke complicatee with moderate or seyere serum sodium and chloride disturbance is mcreased significantly, Put prophylaxis first to decrease the prevalence rate and fatalty rate。 Pay attlention to comprehensive therapy of acute cerebral stoke to prevent endogenic sodium and chloride disturbance and especially place importance on iatrogenic disturbance。

  4. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.


    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  5. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel


    Nagel, Georg; Szellas, Tanjef; Riordan, John R.; Friedrich, Thomas; Hartung, Klaus


    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride ...

  6. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region. (United States)

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A


    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  7. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.


    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  8. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.


    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  9. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.


    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  10. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)


    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Electrical conductivity measurements for the ternary systems of glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water and their applications in cryopreservation. (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Woods, Erik J; Gao, Dayong


    Electrical conductivity of a solution is a property that can be easily determined through the measurement of a conductivity probe. The present study demonstrates the measurements of electrical conductivity for two ternary solutions: glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water. When the concentration of sodium chloride to water ratio (R) is fixed, the existence of either glycerol or ethylene glycol, both cryoprotective agents (CPAs), can be quantitatively determined by their depressive influence on electrical conductivity of the solution. The measurements were performed on solutions with a set of 10 different concentrations of CPAs, ranging from 3.2% to 50% (v/v), along with five ratios of NaCl/water solutions. Equations to fit the experimental measurements were devised to characterize the relations among electrical conductivity, CPAs concentration, and R. A conductivity meter used in this study required conductivity, which is faster than the measurement using osmometry method. The charts of ternary solutions associated with their electrical conductivity and concentrations make it especially useful for monitoring the cryopreservation processes, including addition and removal of CPAs, to prevent osmotic damages to biological samples.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  13. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T


    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  14. Sodium perbarate and benzalkonium chloride induce DNA damage in Chang conjunctival epithelial cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Huina; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Ye, Juan


    Content and objective: To investigate and compare the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and new type oxidative preservative sodium perborate (NaBO3) on DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell survival in immortalized human Chang conjunctival cells.

  15. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng


    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  16. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.


    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not m

  17. RasGRP1 stimulation enhances ubiquitination and endocytosis of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, B.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Cooke, L.L.; Moddes, L.N.; Deen, P.M.T.; Hoover, R.S.


    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the distal convoluted tubule. Recently, we described a novel pathway of NCC regulation in which phorbol esters (PE) stimulate Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), triggering a cascade ultimately activating ERK1/

  18. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim


    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  19. Clinical experience of supplying sodium chloride for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the effect and safety of supplying sodium chloride in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Methods Consecutive 51 hospitalized patients with severe heart failure and cardiac edema were included in this study. Normal diet (6g NaCl/d) was supplied

  20. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp. (United States)

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K


    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  1. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang


    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  2. Efficient Synthesis of β-Acetamido Ketones and Esters Using Aluminum Chloride as an Inexpensive and Green Catalyst%Efficient Synthesis of β-Acetamido Ketones and Esters Using Aluminum Chloride as an Inexpensive and Green Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Ali, Zolfigol; Ardeshir, Khazaei; Mohammad, Mokhlesi; Abdolkarim, Zare; Maliheh, Safaiee; Fatemeh, Derakhshan-Panah; Hassan, Keypour; Ahmad, Ali Dehghani-Firouzabadi; Maria, Merajoddin


    Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) efficiently catalyzes one-pot multicomponent condensation of enolizable ketones or alkyl acetoacetates with aldehydes, acetonitrile and acetyl chloride to afford β-acetamido ketone or ester derivatives in high to excellent yields and in relatively short reaction times. Moreover, by this synthetic method, some novel β-acetamido ketones and esters (i.e. one complex structure) are prepared.

  3. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  4. The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide. (United States)

    Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil


    In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg‒Al oxide) was investigated. Mg‒Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg‒Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg‒Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg‒Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg‒Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg‒Al oxide quantity.

  5. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011 (United States)

    Medalie, Laura


    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov


    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  7. Stability of piperacillin sodium-tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration. (United States)

    Choi, J S; Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Ulrich, R W; Gill, M A


    The stability of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Triplicate test solutions of piperacillin 40 mg/mL plus tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) or piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) were mixed 1:1 with ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The solutions were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for measurement of drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of sampling and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for color and precipitation, and pH was determined. At all sampling times, the concentrations of piperacillin, tazobactam, and ranitidine were > 90% of initial concentrations. There were no substantial changes in pH or color. Tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration. Piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration.

  8. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzymińska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  9. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.). (United States)

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana


    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions.

  10. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T


    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...... 500 mug digoxin showed a significant rise in CK, which lasted for 48 hours, and 6 of them had CK values exceeding the upper normal limit. Pentazocine in a dose of 30 mg given to 9 patients caused a significant rise in CK and LDH isoenzyme 1, but in no case did the level exceed the upper normal limit....... No rise in ASAT or total LDH was found after digoxin and pentazocine injections. No changes in enzymes were discovered after bumetanide or isotonic sodium chloride. In the diagnostic evaluation of acute myocardial infarction, a moderate rise in CK must be assessed with caution when the patients have...

  11. Monitoring sodium chloride during cod fish desalting process by flow injection spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy


    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Ildikó V. Tóth; Portela, Ana; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel,António O. S. S.


    In order to adapt to the market trends that are moving towards ready-to-use products cod !sh industry is including into their industrial operations as the desalting step. The desalting process is a high cost and time demanding operation. The optimization of the desalting process is of vital importance for the !sh industry in order to assure the homogeneity and predictable concentration of sodium chloride in the !nal hydrated cod !sh product. On the other hand, consumers are more a...

  12. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles. (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E


    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  13. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, Giovanni


    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  14. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  15. Determination of Potassium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection%复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:研究复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾含量的测定方法。方法分别采用四苯硼钠重量法和容量法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾的含量。结果四苯硼钠容量法测得氯化钾含量无显著性差异,符合分析准确度的要求。结论容量法测定方法迅速,简单快速,方便,适合药品制剂快速测定的要求。%Objective: To establish the method for the determination of the content of potassium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection. Methods: The contents of potassium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection were determined by sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method and sodium tetraphenylborate gravimetric method respectively, the results of which were compared. Results: There was no significant dif erence in the test comparison between the determination results of volumetric method and that of the gravimetric method, and the sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method meet the accuracy requirements analysis. Conclusion: The sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method is simple, fast and accurate, which is suitable for the requirements of rapid determination.

  16. Stability of Melphalan in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions Prepared in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags for Intravenous Injection. (United States)

    Desmaris, Romain-Pacôme; Mercier, Lionel; Paci, Angelo


    Melphalan is an alkylating agent frequently used in an intravenous formulation to treat hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in both adults and children. According to the manufacturer, melphalan is stable in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride for 90 min at room temperature (RT). Several authors have studied the stability of different concentrations of melphalan; however, most were not adapted to the current manufacturing process applied in pharmaceutical centralized units. This study was conducted to determine the stability of melphalan in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions at concentrations used for intravenous injection in practice. Melphalan is commonly prepared in diluted solutions ranging from 2 to 4 mg/ml for the treatment of adult patients and at lower concentrations (down to 0.5 mg/ml) for pediatric use. Accordingly, these were the three concentrations chosen for this study. Melphalan concentrations were measured with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). At RT, admixtures prepared at 4 mg/ml were stable for up to 8 h without protection from light; however, at lower concentrations, such as 0.5 and 2 mg/ml, stability did not exceed 2 h. When refrigerated, melphalan was stable for 24 h at 2 mg/ml; however, at 0.5 and 4 mg/ml, the drug was not stable. Melphalan solutions present with limited stability at 0.5, 2, and 4 mg/ml and are not adapted for delayed administration in pharmaceutical centralized units. However, at 4 mg/ml and at RT, a stability of 8 h is very interesting in practice and allows sufficient time for preparation, pharmaceutical control, transport, and administration.

  17. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride in the presence of silica chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah; Alinezhad; Mahmood; Tajbakhsh; Neda; Hamidi


    A simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of amines from aldehydes and ketones with sodium borohydride activated by silica chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described.A variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes,ketones and amines when mixed with NaBH_4/silica chloride at room temperature,afforded excellent yield of the corresponding amines.

  18. Role of Chloride Ion and Dissolved Oxygen in Electrochemical Corrosion of AA5083-H321 Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy in NaCl Solutions under Flow Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Flow-induced corrosion consists electrochemical and mechanical components. The present paper has to assessed the role of chloride ion and dissolved oxygen in the electrochemical component of flow induced corrosion for AA5083-H321 aluminum-magnesium alloy which is extensively used in the construction of high-speed boats, submarines, hovercrafts, and desalination systems, in NaCl solutions. Electrochemical tests were carried out at flow velocities of 0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 m/s, in aerated and deaerated NaCl solutions with different sodium chloride concentrations. The results showed that the high rate of oxygen reduction under hydrodynamic conditions causes an increase in the density of pits on the surface. The increase of chloride ions concentration under flow conditions accelerates the rate of anodic reactions, but have no influence on the cathodic reactions. Thus, in the current work, it was found that under flow conditions, due to the elimination of corrosion products inside the pits, corrosion resistance of the alloy is increased.

  19. Comparison of different methods for determination of sodium chloride in cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available The content of NaCl (weight fraction of Cl-ions, in % was analysed in different cheeses, which were bought in supermarkets, and made by domestic manufacturers. Sodium chloride in cheese samples was analysed after the extraction of chloride by nitric acid solution. Concentration of chloride ions was potentiometricly determined, with the chloride selective electrode and titrimetricly by Volhard method. According to the results in the analysis of the content of NaCl in %, by different methods it was determined that the share of NaCl in % ranged from 0.66 to 4.43% (determined by potentiometric route that is from 0.97 to 4.72% (determined by titrimetric route by Volhard method. The difference in received results in different methods is less if the share of NaCl, in % is higher than 3%. If the share is less than 3%, the difference in results rapidly increases, and the biggest difference is when the share is less than 1%. This analysis was done according to the results received by Volhard method, which is accepted as a standard method. As Volhard method is in connection with cheese resolving by intense oxidation means, azotic acid and potassium permanganate, obligatory in fume board (hood, it is not a practical method. On the other hand, the potentiometric method with usage of the chloride-selective electrode is very simple and gives reliable and reproductive results. In case of a small content of NaCl, in %, higher precision and accuracy of determination by chloride-selective electrode can be obtained by indirect measurement of chloride-ions (by standard addition method.

  20. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese. (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J


    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  1. Impaired intestinal sodium and chloride transport in the blind loop syndrome of the rat. (United States)

    Schulzke, J D; Fromm, M; Menge, H; Riecken, E O


    Self-filling blind loops of rat jejunum were used as a model for the blind loop syndrome in humans. Electrical resistance, short circuit current, and unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes were measured using the Ussing technique. Whereas net fluxes for sodium and chloride did not differ significantly from zero in the blind loop or in the control, unidirectional fluxes of either direction were decreased and electrical resistance was increased, indicating an increase in the tightness of the intestinal wall. Measurements of alternating current impedance and micropuncture experiments revealed that this was due to an increase in epithelial resistance from 9 +/- 1 omega X cm2 (n = 15, results of both methods) to 27 +/- 4 omega X cm2 (n = 15) and in subepithelial resistance from 40 +/- 2 omega X cm2 (n = 15) to 76 +/- 7 omega X cm2 (n = 15). As the ratio of epithelial to subepithelial resistance was similar in the blind loop and in the control, lower transport rates in the blind loop are indicative of impaired epithelial transport function. Subsequently, two different transport systems were characterized. First, the 3-o-methyl-glucose-induced, phlorizin-reversible increase in short circuit current, representing glucose-coupled sodium absorption, showed a 77% decrease in maximum velocity in the blind loop and no change in Km. Second, the chloride-induced, bumetanide-reversible increase in short circuit current in tissues stimulated simultaneously by prostaglandin E1 and theophylline, representing rheogenic chloride secretion, also showed a decrease in maximum velocity (of 83%) and no change in Km. A morphometric analysis revealed that the crypt surface area increased by 100% in the blind loop, whereas the villous surface area was not significantly different between blind loops and controls. We conclude that the jejunal self-filling blind loop is characterized by impaired active ion transport processes and an increase in epithelial and subepithelial resistance.

  2. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira


    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil

  3. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese. (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T


    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  4. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes. (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark


    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  5. Inhibition of sodium current by taurine magnesium coordination compound prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias. (United States)

    Yin, Yongqiang; Wen, Ke; Wu, Yanna; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi


    The mechanism(s) by which taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) inhibits experimental arrhythmias remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of TMCC against cesium chloride-induced arrhythmia in the rabbit heart and find whether the antiarrhythmic activity is related to inhibition of sodium current. Early afterdepolarization was induced by 1.5 mM cesium chloride (1 ml kg(-1)) through intravenous injection. The monophasic action potentials (MAP) and electrocardiograms were simultaneously recorded. The effect of TMCC on functional refractory periods (FRPs) in the left atrium was also observed in vitro. Arrhythmias onset was significantly retarded by TMCC. The number of ventricular premature contractions and incidence of monophasic ventricular tachycardia and polyphasic ventricular tachycardia in 10 min were decreased by TMCC. These effects can be abolished by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). MAP duration at 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged by TMCC, which can be prolonged even longer by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). In vitro experiments showed that FRPs was prolonged by TMCC which can be cancelled by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). TMCC prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias, and inhibition of sodium current, in part, contributes to the antiarrhythmic effect of TMCC.

  6. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams (United States)

    Barker, J.L.


    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  7. Intravenous bicarbonate and sodium chloride both prolong endurance during intense cycle ergometer exercise. (United States)

    Mitchell, T H; Abraham, G; Wing, S; Magder, S A; Cosio, M G; Deschamps, A; Marliss, E B


    To determine the effects of neutralizing exercise systemic acidosis via the intravenous route upon endurance and metabolic responses, eight lean, normal, postabsorptive men exercised to exhaustion at about 80% of their VO2 max (69 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer. Exercise studies were performed either with no infusion (control) or with a total infusion volume of about 1.5 L, mainly as 1.3% sodium bicarbonate or as 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl), infused (double-blind) throughout exercise. The sodium bicarbonate was to prevent acid-base change, the sodium chloride was as a control for the volume infused. Arterialized venous blood and breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases were obtained. [H+] (nmol.L-1) and [HCO3-] (mmol.L-1) at exhaustion were similar in control and NaCl (46.5 +/- 1.8, 19.9 +/- 0.9), but remained unchanged from rest values with bicarbonate (38.4 +/- 0.9, 24.8 +/- 1.5, p less than 0.005 vs control and NaCl). At exhaustion, VO2, VCO2, RER, heart rate, and systolic BP as well as FFA, glycerol, alanine, insulin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine did not differ among protocols. Endurance was markedly prolonged (p less than 0.01) with bicarbonate (31.9 +/- 5.8 min) and NaCl (31.8 +/- 4.1 min) compared with the control (19.0 +/- 2.9 min) condition. Plasma glucose at exhaustion was higher (p less than 0.025) in the control compared to bicarbonate and NaCl experiments, while lactate was higher (p less than 0.025) in the bicarbonate than in the control and NaCl experiments. Thus, the prolonged endurance with sodium bicarbonate infusion could not be explained either by its effect of maintaining blood acid-base equilibrium or concomitant metabolic changes.

  8. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte


    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.O uso de cloreto de sódio (0,5 g/L e 1 g/L e zeolita (22,7 g/L foram avaliados durante o transporte (48 h de Ancistrus triradiatus em altas temperaturas (entre 24,5 e 34ºC. Os seguintes parâmetros foram monitorados: pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e amônia antes e depois do transporte. Também foi mensurada a concentração de glicose no sangue antes do transporte e 0, 24 e 48 h após o transporte. Foi realizado um teste de resistência a altas concentrações de cloreto de sódio após o transporte, sendo registrada a mortalidade no final do transporte e após 7 dias. As duas substâncias testadas aumentam a sobrevivência de A. triradiatus a altas temperaturas durante o transporte, porém o melhor resultado foi obtido com o uso de 1 g/L cloreto de sódio.

  9. Polyene Formation Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid and Aluminum Chloride in Thin Films of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Maly, A. B.


    Formation of linear polyenes -(CH=CH) n - during thermal dehydration of thin layers (9-20 μm) of poly(vinyl alcohol) containing phosphotungstic-acid and aluminum-chloride catalysts was investigated. It was found that the concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid increased smoothly with increasing annealing time although the kinetics of the dehydration were independent of the film thickness. The polyene ( n ≥ 8) formation rate in films containing aluminum chloride dropped quickly with decreasing film thickness and increasing annealing time. As a result, long-chain polyenes practically did not form regardless of the annealing time for a film thickness of 11 μm.

  10. Production of carbon nanofibers in high yields using a sodium chloride support. (United States)

    Geng, Junfeng; Kinloch, Ian A; Singh, Charanjeet; Golovko, Vladimir B; Johnson, Brian F G; Shaffer, Milo S P; Li, Yali; Windle, Alan H


    A new route for the highly convenient scalable production of carbon nanofibers on a sodium chloride support has been developed. Since the support is nontoxic and soluble in water, it can be easily removed without damage to the nanofibers and the environment. Nanofiber yields of up to 6500 wt % relative to the nickel catalyst have been achieved in a growth time of 15 min. Electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the catalytically grown carbon had relatively little thermal over-growth and possessed either a herringbone or a semi-ordered nanostructure, depending on the growth conditions.

  11. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde


    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna


    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic analysis of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride. experimental and DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, I.M., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt); El-Nahass, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Eid, Kh.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Physics department, Bukairiayh for Sciences & Arts, Quassim University, Quassim (Saudi Arabia); Ammar, H.Y. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and science, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia)


    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl). The FT-IR and Raman spectra of AlPcCl were recorded and analyzed. The density functional theory (DFT) computations have been performed at B3LYP/6-31g and B3LYP/6-311g to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensity and NLO properties. All the observed vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our DFT calculations as a primary source of attribution and also by comparison with the previous results for similar compounds. The natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were performed to study the atomic charge distribution of the investigated compound. The calculated results showed that dipole moment of the investigated compound was 4.68 Debye and HOMO-LUMO energy gap was 2.14 eV. The lowering of frontier orbital gap appears to be the cause of its enhanced charge transfer interaction.

  14. The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system. (United States)

    Hornbaek, Tina; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn


    To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes 4140P showed that the inhibitory effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the gelatin system was caused by the production and activity of leucocins 4010. The presence of sodium chloride (2.5% w/v) and sodium nitrite (60 mg/l) reduced the antilisterial effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the structured gel system compared to the use of Leuc. carnosum 4010 alone. Investigations carried out at 10 degrees C showed that the lag phase of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 was reduced from 71 to 58 h by the addition of sodium chloride and to 40 h by the addition of sodium nitrite. Addition of sodium chloride increased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 from 0.02 to 0.06 h(-1), whereas no change was observed by the addition of sodium nitrite. Compared to the antilisterial effect of leucocins 4010 alone, the addition of sodium chloride (2.5%, w/v) decreased the antilisterial effect at high concentrations of leucocins 4010 (5.3 and 10.6 AU/ml) as measured after 11 days of incubation at 10 degrees C. In gels with added leucocins 4010, the most pronounced reduction in growth of L. monocytogenes 4140 was observed at the highest concentration of leucocins 4010 (10.6 AU/ml) together with sodium nitrite (60 mg/l). More detailed information on the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of single colonies of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of leucocins 4010 was obtained using microscopy and image analysis. No pronounced difference in the growth of single colonies was

  15. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej


    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  16. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska


    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  17. Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbing He; Shiyuan Xu; Junjie Huang; Qingjuan Gong


    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the speciifc sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression in-creased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These ifndings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 1.

  18. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys in chloride containing solutions; Investigacao eletroquimica da corrosao de ligas de aluminio em solucoes contendo cloretos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Filho, Jorge Eustaquio de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail:; Neves, Celia de Figueiredo Cordeiro; Campos, Wagner Reis da Costa; Moreira, Marcilio Soares [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;


    Aluminum alloys have been used as cladding materials for nuclear fuel in research reactors due to its corrosion resistance. Aluminum owes its good corrosion resistance to a protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its surface. In pool type TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear in Belo Horizonte, previous immersion coupon tests revealed that aluminum alloys suffer from pitting corrosion, in spite of high quality of water control. Corrosion attack is initiated by breaking the protective oxide film on aluminum alloy surface. Chloride ions can break this oxide film and stimulate metal dissolution. In this study the aluminum alloys 1050, 5052 and 6061 were used to evaluate their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions. The electrochemical techniques used were potentiodynamic anodic polarization and cyclic polarization. Results showed that aluminum alloys 5052 and 6061 present similar corrosion resistance in low chloride solutions (0,1 ppm NaCl) and in reactor water but both alloys are less resistant in high chloride solution (1 ppm NaCl). Aluminum alloy 1050 presented similar behavior in the three electrolytes used, regarding to pitting corrosion, indicating that the concentration of the chloride ions was not the only variable to influence its corrosion susceptibility. (author)

  19. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung


    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake.

  20. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.


    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60 000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  1. Effect of algogenic organic matter (AOM) and sodium chloride on Nannochloropsis salina flocculation efficiency. (United States)

    Garzon-Sanabria, Andrea J; Ramirez-Caballero, Silvia S; Moss, Francesca E P; Nikolov, Zivko L


    This study evaluates the effect of polymer molecular weight and charge density, algogenic organic matter (AOM), and salt concentration on harvesting efficiency of marine microalgae. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), chitosan, and five synthetic cationic polymers of different molecular weights and charge density levels were used as flocculation agents. Polymer flocculation of marine microalgae was most efficient when using the highest charge density polymer (FO4990). The flocculant dosage irrespectively of the agent chemistry and charge density was affected by the amount of AOM secreted into the culture media. The presence of AOM increased the amount of required flocculant 7-fold when using synthetic cationic polymers; 10-fold with chitosan; and ~3-fold with AlCl3. Salt concentration of 5 or 35 g/L NaCl alone did not significantly affect removal efficiency, indicating that AOM were the main cause for the increased flocculant dosage requirement. The synthetic cationic polymer (FO4990) was the least expensive flocculation agent.

  2. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  3. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal


    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  4. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions. (United States)

    Quay, I; Tan, E


    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials



    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  7. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian;


    was the main electrolyte. The direct electrochemical treatment showed a first order degradation of COD with an optimal energy consumption of 110 kWh/kg CODr. At constant current, addition of sodium chloride resulted in increased degradation up to 2%, whereas no further degradation was obtained at higher....... The experiments proved that the obtained degradation of pesticide solely was caused by indirect electrochemical oxidation, mainly due to the electrolytic formation of hypochlorite during the treatment, and that direct electron transfer from the pesticide substances at the anode surface didn't significantly...... calculations of rate constants using the actual experimental conditions and reactor design. These calculations showed that assuming first order degradation rate, direct oxidation of the non-ionic pesticide substances due to mass diffusion, despite of turbulent conditions in the reactor, was negligible compared...

  8. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infrinite Dilution in Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭


    The molecular dynamics(MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2K to 763.2K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa ,Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation,an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed,Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data,and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2K to 803.2K and from 25 MPa to 50MPa show that this equation is applicable for calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  9. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour


    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  10. The effects of elevated levels of sodium chloride on ascites and related problems in turkeys. (United States)

    Morrison, W D; Ferguson, A E; Pettit, J R; Cunnigham, D C


    The response of young poults to diets containing 0.7, 1.2, 1.7 and 2.7 per cent sodium chloride was studied. Water intake, feed intake and wieght gain were not significantly influenced by treatment. Only the highest level caused a significant increase in mortality. Ascites was not a consistent finding even on high levels of salt. A straight line best described the response but confidence limits were large and this was also true for heart, kidney and lung lesions. Lesions showing myocardial distension with pericardial adhesions, severe congestion of the lungs and enlarged pale kidneys seemed more indicative of salt intoxication than classic ascites. Microscopically heterophilic (eosinophilic) lung and meningeal infiltrates accompanied by myocardial degeneration and adhesions were suggestive, but not specific, of salt intoxication.

  11. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.


    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  12. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)


    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  13. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad


    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B


    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  15. Supplementation of fibrin gels with sodium chloride enhances physical properties and ensuing osteogenic response. (United States)

    Davis, H E; Miller, S L; Case, E M; Leach, J K


    Modifying the relative concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin can control the physical properties of fibrin gels, while the viability of associated cells has been linked to the gel's final network structure. It was hypothesized that increasing the gel ionic strength during fabrication through supplementation with sodium chloride (NaCl) would provide an improved approach for tailoring the physical properties of fibrin gels and maintaining the viability and osteogenic potential of entrapped cells. Fibrin gels were formed by mixing fibrinogen, thrombin and calcium chloride with varying masses of NaCl (0-4.40% w/v), and the osteogenic potential of entrapped human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was examined over 14 days. Physical properties including gelation time, compressive modulus and fiber diameter were dependent upon NaCl content, with gels containing 2.60% NaCl possessing compressive moduli threefold higher than gels without NaCl. Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest for MSC entrapped in gels containing 2.15-2.60% NaCl after 14 days, and all gels exhibited increased calcium incorporation over the culture period. These data confirm that varying the salt concentration of the pre-gel solution can modulate the material properties of fibrin constructs without additional fibrinogen or thrombin, thereby offering a new approach for generating improved cell transplantation vehicles for use in bone tissue regeneration.

  16. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.


    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  17. Special topical approach to the treatment of acne. Suppression of sweating with aluminum chloride in an anhydrous formulation. (United States)

    Hurley, H J; Shelley, W B


    A new topical approach to acne treatment--the use of aluminum chloride hexahydrate in anhydrous ethanol (ACAE)--was studied in 141 patients. Using sequential treatment schedules, paired comparison techniques, and various concentrations of ACAE, we established maximal efficacy with minimal local irritation for the 6.25% strength solution. Clinical efficacy and lack of toxicity of this formulation were confirmed by the additional clinical study of 65 patients. The antiperspirant and antibacterial actions of 6.25% ACAE solution were then verified on acne skin areas. It is postulated that the clinical improvement in acne that follows the topical use of ACAE results from one or both of these actions.

  18. Preparation of new base-aluminum-chloride-loaded fiber as adsorbent for fast removal of arsenic(Ⅴ) from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Meng; Jin Nan Wang; Cheng Cheng; Xin Yang; Ai Min Li


    A new base-aluminum-chloride-loaded fiber [PET-AA-NN-Al2(OH)nCl6_n] was prepared with polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) as adsorbent for fast removal of arsenic (V) from water.This new fibrous adsorbent was characterized by using SEM and C NMR spectroscopy.Adsorption kinetic curve indicated that this new fibrous adsorbent could fast remove arsenic (V) from water,and adsorption isotherm also indicated that PET-AA-NN-Al2(OH)nCl6_n had high equilibrium adsorption capacity for arsenic (V).

  19. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim


    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  20. Copper, aluminum, iron and calcium inhibit human acetylcholinesterase in vitro. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav


    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important part of cholinergic nerves where it participates in termination of neurotransmission. AChE can be inhibited by e.g. some Alzheimer disease drugs, nerve agents, and secondary metabolites. In this work, metal salts aluminum chloride, calcium chloride, cupric chloride, ferric chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride were tested for their ability to inhibit AChE. Standard Ellman assay based on human recombinant AChE was done and inhibition was measured using Dixon plot. No inhibition was proved for sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. However, aluminum, cupric, ferric and calcium ions were able to inhibit AChE via noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. Though the inhibition is much weaker when compared to e.g. drugs with noncompetitive mechanism of action, biological relevance of the findings can be anticipated.

  1. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.


    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  2. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanhanen


    Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

  3. Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl. (United States)

    Klösters, G; Jansen, M


    The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm).

  4. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs. (United States)

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik


    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  5. CEN standard for water-soluble chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels; CEN standard for vandoploeseligt chlorid, natrium og kalium i faste biobraendsler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 2000 a European work of standardization for 'Solid bio-fuels' under CEN/TC 335 was started. In Denmark this work is followed through the Danish mirror committee S-358. Denmark was asked to prepare a draft for a European standard concerning determination of the water-soluble content of chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The draft should be based on the Danish 'Recommended analysis methods' no. 10 and 11 concerning respectively the determination of the water-soluble content of chloride and the water soluble content of sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a fuel is important for the use of the fuel, as high contents can contribute significantly to utilisation problems such as corrosion, fouling and slagging in furnaces. The gaseous emissions from the thermal processes may also be affected. Concerning sodium and potassium it is furthermore the content of the water-soluble and readily volatile salts which is problematic in relation with energy conversion processes. Sodium and potassium bound in non-water soluble compounds as clay minerals (silicates) normally will not volatilises during the process and therefore do not contribute to the formation of deposits. A determination of the water-soluble content of sodium and potassium is therefore not an alternative routine method for sodium and potassium, but a separate method for a determination of the 'aggressive' contents of sodium and potassium. For some solid bio-fuels the water-soluble contents will however be equal to the total contents, this goes for instance for potassium in straw. There is a very large variation in the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium for the different types of solid bio-fuel, from the low contents in clean wood to contents in percentage in straw. Knowledge of the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a bio-fuel is thus important in relation to e.g. plant design and fuel purchasing

  6. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbin Yu; Daming Yong; Shaojun Dong


    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants,an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant.Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study,which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal,resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity.We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucoseglutamic acid as an exogenous material.Under oxygen restriction,the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0,37℃ and reaction for 3 hr).The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method,using ferricyanide as a mediator.The current signal obtained represents the re oxidation of ferrocyanide,which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency,IC50,as a quantitative measure of toxicity.The IC50 values measured were 410,570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite,borax and aluminum potassium sulfate,respectively.The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods.Furthermore,the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be:sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate >blank,according to the atomic force microscopy images of E.coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions.The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  7. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.


    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  8. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites. (United States)

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W


    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  9. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

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    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  10. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride. (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao


    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (pbacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  11. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation. (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying


    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  12. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.


    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  13. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  14. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols (United States)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  15. Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-P Deposits in a Sodium Chloride Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits with phosphorous contents from 12% to 14% in sodium chloride solutions was studied. The deposits were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 29 d to obtain the electrochemical parameters and were examined in a standard salt spray test for 15 d respectively. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied by potentio-dynamic scan, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The patterns of XRD and the results of FE-SEM showed that the prepared deposits were amorphous. But after a 15 d standard salt spray test, a few pinholes appeared on the surface of the deposit and the weight content of phosphorus on the surface of the deposit was higher (which was beneficial to the formation of the passivation films) than that before the standard salt spray test when the nickel content was lower because the dissolved weight of nickel was greater than that of phosphorus. The results from potentio-dynamic scan and EIS showed that passivation films formed on the Ni-P deposit after immersion in the NaC1 solutions, which decreased the corrosion rate of Ni-P samples. The results of this work show their potential applications in marine corrosion.

  16. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.


    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  17. Uncoupling of sodium and chloride to assist breeding for salinity tolerance in crops. (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Oldach, Klaus; Taylor, Julian; Lyons, Graham H


    The separation of toxic effects of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) by the current methods of mixed salts and subsequent determination of their relevance to breeding has been problematic. We report a novel method (Na(+) humate) to study the ionic effects of Na(+) toxicity without interference from Cl(-), and ionic and osmotic effects when combined with salinity (NaCl). Three cereal species (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum with and without the Na(+) exclusion gene Nax2) differing in Na(+) exclusion were grown in a potting mix under sodicity (Na(+) humate) and salinity (NaCl), and water use, leaf nutrient profiles and yield were determined. Under sodicity, Na(+)-excluding bread wheat and durum wheat with the Nax2 gene had higher yield than Na(+)-accumulating barley and durum wheat without the Nax2 gene. However, under salinity, despite a 100-fold difference in leaf Na(+), all species yielded similarly, indicating that osmotic stress negated the benefits of Na(+) exclusion. In conclusion, Na(+) exclusion can be an effective mechanism for sodicity tolerance, while osmoregulation and tissue tolerance to Na(+) and/or Cl(-) should be the main foci for further improvement of salinity tolerance in cereals. This represents a paradigm shift for breeding cereals with salinity tolerance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Alves Bakke


    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  19. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  20. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag


    Rocchio MA; Belisle CD; Greenwood BC; Cotugno MC; Szumita PM


    Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of suc...

  1. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchio MA


    Full Text Available Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797.Methods: At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F], and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours.Results: The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL.Conclusion: Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

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    Camila Vespúcio BIS


    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

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    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  4. Pain and swelling after periapical surgery related to the hemostatic agent used: Anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor or aluminum chloride (United States)

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme; von-Arx, Tomas; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel


    Objective: To assess pain and swelling in the first 7 days after periapical surgery and their relationship with the agent used for bleeding control. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted between October 2006 and March 2009. Patients subjected to root surgery, who completed the questionnaire and who consented to the postoperative instructions were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the hemostatic agent used: A) gauze impregnated with anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor; or B) aluminum chloride. The patients were administered a questionnaire, and were asked to record the severity of their pain and swelling on a plain horizontal visual analog scale (VAS). Data were recorded by the patients on the first 7 postoperative days. In addition, the patients were asked to record analgesic consumption. Results: A total of 76 questionnaires (34 in group A and 42 in group B) were taken to be correctly completed. Pain was reported to be most intense two hours after surgery. At this point 52.6% of the patients had no pain. Seventy-five percent of the patients consumed analgesics in the first 24 hours. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the intensity of pain or in the consumption of analgesics. Swelling reached its maximum peak on the second day; at this point, 60.6% of the patients suffered mild or moderate swelling. The Expasyl™ group showed significantly greater swelling than the gauzes group. Conclusion: The type of hemostatic agent used did not influence either the degree of pain or the need for analgesia among the patients in this study. However, the patients belonging to the Expasyl™ group suffered greater swelling than the patients treated with gauzes impregnated with anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor. Key words:Hemostasis, periradicular surgery, aluminum chloride, pain, swelling. PMID:22322510

  5. K+-Na+ ion-exchanged sodium magnesium aluminum germanate glass waveguide amplifier operating in the first telecommunications window (United States)

    Yang, Dianlai; Zhang, Jie; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai


    Potassium-sodium (K+-Na+) ion-exchanged multimode channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated based on Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped sodium magnesium aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass substrates. The normalized optical and relative gain coefficients of a 2.20 cm long device were identified to be 3.65 dB/cm and 1.58 dB/cm, respectively, at a signal wavelength of 810 nm under 457 mW 980 nm laser diode excitation. These are the highest values reported, and the results indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NMAG glasses are an attractive material for optical amplification in the first telecommunications window.

  6. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminum chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, M. de la L, E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado Postal 14740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, A.; Vega-Perez, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado Postal 14740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Solorza-Feria, O. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado Postal 14740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico)


    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were deposited on sodalime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminum chloride. The effect of the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties was studied. A constant [Al]/[Zn] = 3 at.% ratio was used. As the substrate temperature increases, the electrical resistance decreases, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 3 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm, for as-grown films deposited at 475 deg. C. The Hall mobility and carrier concentration for these films were around 0.6 cm{sup 2}/(V s), and 3.42 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, respectively. Further decrease in the resistivity, in the order of 1.5 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm, was observed after a heat treatment in vacuum, during 1 h, at 400 deg. C. All the samples were polycrystalline, with a variation in the preferential growth. Samples deposited at 450 deg. C show a (0 0 2) preferential growth whereas films deposited at higher temperatures present a significant contribution of other planes. As the substrate temperature increases, the morphology shows slight changes, since the grain size increases. The transmittance in the visible region (400-700 nm) is high, typically of 85% at 550 nm, and band gap values oscillated around 3.3 eV. These results show that zinc pentanedionate can be a good candidate for the manufacturing of transparent conductive ZnO:Al thin films.

  7. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

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    P. S. Zhbannikov


    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  8. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro toxicological and genotoxic potential of aluminum chloride. (United States)

    Paz, Letícia Nazareth Fernandes; Moura, Laís Mesquita; Feio, Danielle Cristinne A; Cardoso, Mirella de Souza Gonçalves; Ximenes, Wagner Luiz O; Montenegro, Raquel C; Alves, Ana Paula N; Burbano, Rommel R; Lima, Patrícia Danielle L


    Aluminum and its compounds are common contaminants of water and food, as well as medications and cosmetics. The wide distribution of the element facilitates the demand for detailed studies of its biological and toxicological effects. This work aimed to evaluate the possible genotoxic and toxic activity resulting from in vivo and in vitro exposure to Al. For in vivo analysis, 40 Swiss mice were used, various concentrations of hydrated aluminum chloride were administered orally. They were analyzed for possible genic activity and metal cytotoxicity using a micronucleus test (MN), and for toxicity through histopathological evaluation of the extracted organs. For in vitro analysis, lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of 3 healthy donors were used. These cells were exposed to the same chemical agent in various concentrations. In vivo study revealed a significant increase in the number of MN in all Al concentrations. Furthermore, significant alterations in all the organs evaluated were verified by the presence of irreversible lesions (such as necrosis). Corroborating these findings, a significant increase in the quantity of MN in all concentrations with lymphocytes in vitro. In light of this, we suggest that this metal presents genotoxic potential and is potentially a cause of pathological disorders.

  9. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1 (United States)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.


    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  10. Effects of applied potential on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of 7003 aluminum alloy in acid and alkaline chloride solutions (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Song, Ren-guo; Sun, Bin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Chao


    Potentiodynamic polarization tests and slow strain rate test (SSRT) in combination with fracture morphology observations were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 7003 aluminum alloy (AA7003) in acid and alkaline chloride solutions under various applied potentials ( E a). The results show that AA7003 is to a certain extent susceptible to SCC via anodic dissolution (AD) at open-circuit potential (OCP) and is highly susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) at high negative E a in the solutions with pH levels of 4 and 11. The susceptibility increases with negative shift in the potential when E a is less than -1000 mV vs. SCE. However, the susceptibility distinctly decreases because of the inhibition of AD when E a is equal to -1000 mV vs. SCE. In addition, the SCC susceptibility of AA7003 in the acid chloride solution is higher than that in the alkaline solution at each potential. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen on SCC increases with increasing hydrogen ion concentration.

  11. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.


    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. Th

  12. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat (United States)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.


    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  13. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W


    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  14. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems. (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y


    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  15. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese. (United States)

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R


    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  16. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese. (United States)

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C


    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log₁₀ cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log₁₀ cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log₁₀ cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also

  17. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth. (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A


    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  18. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: Influence of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Goni, S. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Allegro, V.R. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5 M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 deg. C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  19. Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.


    Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and

  20. Removal of hydrogen chloride from gaseous streams using magnesium-aluminum oxide. (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Park, Kye-Sung; Grause, Guido; Yoshioka, Toshiaki


    Magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide) obtained by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) effectively removed HCl from gaseous streams. HCl removal was greater in the presence of added water vapor at all temperatures examined and increased with decreasing temperature in both the presence and absence of added water vapor. Wet and dry removal of gaseous HCl were attributed to the production of MgCl2 . 6H2O and MgCl2 . 4H2O, respectively. For the wet scrubbing process, the reconstruction reaction of Mg-Al LDH from Mg-Al oxide was the primary mechanism for increased HCl removal.

  1. Protective effect of selenium against aluminum chloride-induced Alzheimer's disease: behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats. (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Prakash, K Surya


    In present study, selenium was selected for evaluating effect of selenium on aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced Alzheimer's disease in rats. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six in each. Group I (control) received distilled water, group II-AlCl3 (100 mg/kg, p.o.), group III-selenium (1 mg/kg, p.o.), group IV-AlCl3 + vitamin E (100 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), and group V-AlCl3 + selenium (100 mg/kg, p.o. + 1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days. At end of experiment, various behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological assessments were carried out. The animals showed increase in time to reach platform in Morris water maze and decreased step-down latencies in passive avoidance test indicating learning and memory impairment in aluminum chloride-treated group, but administration of selenium decreased time to reach platform in Morris water maze, increased step-down latencies, and strengthened its memory action in drug-treated animals. There was decrease in muscle strength measured by rotarod test indicating motor incoordination and decrease in locomotor activity assessed by actophotometer test in AlCl3 control group, whereas in selenium-AlCl3 group, there was improvement in muscle strength and locomotion. Biochemical analysis of the brain revealed that chronic administration of AlCl3 significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of acetyl cholinesterase, catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase, an index of oxidative stress process. Administration of selenium attenuated lipid peroxidation and ameliorated the biochemical changes. There were marked changes at subcellular level observed by histopathology studies in AlCl3 group, and better improvement in these changes was observed in selenium + AlCl3group. Therefore, this study strengthens the hypothesis that selenium helps to combat oxidative stress produced by accumulation of AlCl3 in the brain and helps in prophylaxis of Alzheimer's diseases.

  2. Seletividade do pirofosfato de sódio e de cloretos não tamponados (CuCl2 e LaCl3 como extratores de alumínio associado à matéria orgânica em solos de restinga do estado de São Paulo Selectivity of sodium pyrophosphate and unbuffered chlorides (CuCl2 and LaCl3 as extractants of aluminum bound to soil organic matter in soils of the sandy coastal plain in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rizzato Coelho


    dos processos envolvidos na gênese dos Espodossolos tropicais derivados de sedimentos quartzosos costeiros.Aluminum in complexes with soil organic matter is usually determined by selective extraction techniques. A common extractant for this Al form is sodium pyrophosphate. Due to its lack of selectivity for some soil samples, unbuffered Al extractants, such as CuCl2 and LaCl3, have been recommended. The selectivity of sodium pyrophosphate (Al p and of unbuffered Cu (AlCu and La (AlLa chlorides to extract aluminum bound to soil organic matter (Al-humus was evaluated in soil samples from 31 pedons (Spodosols and Quartzipsamments representative of the sandy coastal plains of the state of São Paulo. The results were compared with those obtained by ammonium oxalate and KCl and the extraction capacity and selectivity of the reagents interpreted as commonly used in the literature. Pyrophosphate was not totally selective for some samples containing inorganic aluminum. CuCl2 and LaCl3, in turn, were more selective for Al-humus in the same samples and their order of extractability was: Al p>AlCu>AlLa . Based on the different extraction capacities and the relations between the reagents used the analytic evidences were converged in order to analyze and interpret parameters such as Al saturation in the soil organic matter and stability of C-metal interactions. The stability of the interaction C-metal and humus Al saturation of all horizons studied was greater in the Bs, Bhs and Bsm spodic horizons. Based on the results it was concluded that all reagents studied can be used as Al extractants since they allow establishing relations and interpretations that may help understanding the complex chemistry of Al-humus on the studied Restinga soil. These extractors are therefore adequate and promising to study and understand processes involved in the genesis of tropical Spodosols derived from sandy coastal plain sediments.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan


    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...... showed a difference which is caused by polarization effects, and demonstrated existing issues when indexing contamination levels on printed circuit board assemblies using a standardised solvent extract method. The experimental results showed that dendrite growth was dependent on the type and amount...

  4. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.


    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  5. A Study on the Optimization of Physical and Chemical Parameters for the Precipitate of Sodium Alkylsulfate with Cetylpyridinium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sun Wha; Moon, Sung Doo; Lee, Don Keun; Lee, Dong Jae; Kang, Young Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The optimum conditions for the most effective precipitate of surfactant complex of sodium alkylsulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride were studied in the aqueous solution. The parameters such as the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants, molar ratio of two surfactants, temperature and the concentration of added NaCl in the aqueous solution were correlatively studied for the productivity of the precipitate formation. By the productivity, the optimum conditions to produce complex of anionic surfactant with cationic surfactant were the longer alkyl chain, equivalent molar ratio between anionic and cationic surfactants, 0 .deg. C and 1.5 M NaCl

  6. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese. (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S


    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  7. Effect of Chitosan as a Coagulant Aid Combined With Poly Aluminum Chloride Removing of Turbidity From Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Chitosan, a biodegradable polymer, is used as an eco-friendly coagulant in a wide variety of applications in water and wastewater treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan as a coagulant aid combined with poly aluminum chloride (PAC to enhance coagulating efficiency for bentonite suspensions. A conventional jar test apparatus was used for the tests. The effect of various operational parameters, such as initial pH of the solution (5-9.5, dosage of chitosan (0.5-3.5 mg/L, dosage of PAC (5-35 mg/L and initial turbidity (50-200 NTU were investigated. The maximum turbidity removal rates were obtained as pH 8.5 for PAC and pH 7.5 for combined PAC and chitosan (CPC. The coagulating efficiency of bentonite using PAC and CPA was found to decrease with an increase in the pH value of the solutions. The maximum turbidity removal rate was achieved in coagulating by PAC (30 mg/L alone, and PAC (20 mg/L combined with chitosan (2.5 mg/L as coagulant aid with the removal rate of 87% and 96%, respectively. The optimum dosage of chitosan required to obtain the highest removal rate was 2.5 mg/L. Hence, using chitosan as a coagulant aid can not only reduce the required amount of coagulant (35% but can also enhance the removal turbidity efficiency.

  8. Aluminum chloride induces neuroinflammation, loss of neuronal dendritic spine and cognition impairment in developing rat. (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Haoran; Huang, Wanyue; Xu, Feibo; Zhuang, Cuicui; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yanfei


    Aluminum (Al) is present in the daily life of humans, and the incidence of Al contamination increased in recent years. Long-term excessive Al intake induces neuroinflammation and cognition impairment. Neuroinflammation alter density of dendritic spine, which, in turn, influence cognition function. However, it is unknown whether increased neuroinflammation is associated with altered density of dendritic spine in Al-treated rats. In the present study, AlCl3 was orally administrated to rat at 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg for 90d. We examined the effects of AlCl3 on the cognition function, density of dendritic spine in hippocampus of CA1 and DG region and the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MHC II, CX3CL1 and BNDF in developing rat. These results showed exposure to AlCl3 lead to increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MCH II, decreased mRNA levels of CX3CL1 and BDNF, decreased density of dendritic spine and impaired learning and memory in developing rat. Our results suggest AlCl3 can induce neuroinflammation that may result in loss of spine, and thereby leads to learning and memory deficits.

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in binary water/ethanol systems for the design of a new drug delivery system for photodynamic therapy cancer treatment. (United States)

    Jayme, Cristiano Ceron; Calori, Italo Rodrigo; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio


    This study evaluated the behavior of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in a binary water/ethanol mixture using electronic absorption spectroscopy and static and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The electronic absorption spectra, resonance light scattering and fluorescence quenching of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in water/ethanol mixtures were studied at several concentrations. The electronic absorption spectra and fluorescence quenching changed significantly at approximately 50% water (v/v). Below 50% water, the dimerization constant values were negative (-2609.2 M(-1) and -506.5 M(-1) at 30% and 40% of water, respectively), indicating that the formation of aggregates under these conditions is not favored. However, at 50% water, the dimerization constant value was estimated to be 559.7 M(-1), which indicates the presence of dimers. Above 60% water, the aggregation process was responsible for the balance between large complexes (such as trimers, tetramers or oligomers) formed in the medium under these conditions. The appearance of new absorption bands at 387 nm and 802 nm and their bathochromic shift relative to the monomer bands suggested that some J-type aggregates form. These results are relevant to understanding the behavior and use of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine in the design of new drug delivery systems for clinical application in photodynamic therapy as a new approach to treat skin cancer.

  10. Effects of Ca on the distribution,structure and morphology of aluminum species in polyaluminum chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Huazhang; GE Xiaopeng; LUAN Zhaokun; JIANG Zhanpeng


    The flocculation efficiency of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is closely related to the distribution and structure of its Al species, and Al13 is the optimal species in PAC for fiocculation. A series of PAC containing Ca was prepared by adding Ca before and after the basifying reaction. The effects of Ca on the Al species were studied by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques. The experimental results show that the introduction of Ca increases the content of Aim and Al13 in PAC and decreases their chemical shifts in NMR spectra due to the electric repulsion between the positive Ca species and Al species and the formation of Al-O-Ca complexes.With the rise of Ca/AI molar ratio, the Al species in PAC tend to scatter. It is observed that the formerly branch-aggregated clusters are tending to form granule-aggregated ones whose diameter gets smaller and smaller, and the fioccule aggregates are formed at a higher Ca/Al molar ratio. The introduction of Ca to PAC, which increases the Al13 content, is certainly to enhance the fiocculation efficiency of PAC in water treatment.

  11. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride]. (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P


    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  12. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro


    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  13. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride. (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A


    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  14. The influence of sodium chloride salinity on the growth and mineral nutrition of horsegram, Dolichos biflorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. Nigwekar


    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus plants were grown in sand culture in the presence of five levels of sodium chloride ranging from 25 to 150 mM. The plant was found to possess a good salt tolerance capacity since a general decline in growth was evident only above NaCI concentration of 75 mM. Salt concentrations above 100 mM reduced the yield in terms of average pod number. The analysis of inorganic constituents revealed marked alterations in the mineral nutrition of the plant under saline conditions. Salt stress caused accumulation of sodium in all plant parts although it was more prenounced in roots and stem. The leaves accumulated large amounts of chlorides under saline conditions. The potassium content in the roots and stem markedly decreased due to salinity. The leaves retained a high potassium level up to 50 mM NaCl treatment. Salt stress caused an increase in the calcium content in leaves and roots. The accumulation of phosphorus and magnesium in different plant parts was favoured by salt stress. A reduction in the manganese content in salt stressed leaves was noticed while higher doses of salinity favoured iron accumulation in different plant parts. A possible involvement of these alterations in the salt tolerance behaviour of the plant is discussed.

  15. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  16. Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride. (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W


    Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite. (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R


    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  18. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Aytekin, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100 (Turkey); Makaraci, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Usta, Metin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)


    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R{sub a}) and critical load (L{sub c}) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 {mu}m, and 4.4 to 6.58 {mu}m, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  19. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  20. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahaid Al-Hashem


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  1. Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

  2. Effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and blood coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Wang; Wei-Xin Yang; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Xian Jiang


    Objective:To investigate the effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery.Methods:A total of 80 cases of hip joint replacement were divided into two groups according to the random number table method, 40 cases in each group. Patients in two groups were conducted with regular hip replacement, postoperative conventional symptomatic treatment. Based on it, patients of the observation group started to get the safflower yellow pigment and sodium chloride injection in the first week after operation, intravenous injection. A total of 3 weeks of treatment. blood rheological index were compared including plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity, red blood cell hematocrit and blood coagulation indexes: prothrombin time (PT), activation activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-Dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FIB) between the two groups postoperative 1 week, postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 4 weeks.Results:The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in control group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly higher than that of preoperative 1 week; while red blood cell volume, PT, APTT, TT, Fib were significantly lower than preoperative 1 week (P0.05). The PT, APTT in observation group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week, and the TT in observation group postoperative 4 week was significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week (P<0.05); The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in observation group were significantly lower, while the PT, APTT, TT, Fib in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group in the same time point (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hip replacement will cause the change of blood rheology in

  3. Influence of brine concentration on sugar and sodium chloride diffusion during the processing of the green olive variety Arauco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miras, N.


    Full Text Available The green olive variety Arauco were debittered using lye concentrations of, 2.50% NaOH.They were then subjected to two rinsing processes with tap water. Next, the olives were cured with brines at 7%, 10% and 13% sodium chloride concentration. During this curing process, the loss of reducing sugars from the olives, and the diffusion of sodium chloride into the olives were quantified. Effective diffusion coefficients of both solutes in the skin and the flesh were calculated for this period using a diffusion model for a composite hollow sphere. The skin effective diffusion coefficients for both solutes ranged from entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s to 4,04x10-13 m2/s. The flesh coefficients varied from 2,92x10-9 m2/s to 3,99x10-9 m2/s for sodium chloride and from 9,76x10-11 m2/s to 2,22x10-10 m2/s for reducing sugars.Aceitunas verdes variedad Arauco fueron tratadas con soluciones de hidróxido de sodio al 2,5%. Estas fueron luego sometidas a dos procesos de lavado con agua corriente. Posteriormente, las aceitunas fueron curadas en salmueras con concentraciones de 7%, 10% y 13% de cloruro de sodio. Durante este proceso de curado, se cuantificó la pérdida de azúcares reductores desde, y la difusión de cloruro de sodio hacia el interior de las aceitunas. Durante este período se calcularon los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel y la pulpa, utilizando un modelo de difusión en una esfera hueca compuesta. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel estuvieron en un rango entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s y 4,04x10-13 m2/s. Los coeficientes de la pulpa variaron entre 2,92x10-9 m2/s y 3,99x10-9 m2/s para el cloruro de sodio, y entre 9,76x10-11 m2/s y 2,22x10-10 m2/s para los azúcares reductores.

  4. Experimental research on the preparation of polyferric aluminum chloride by acid pickle and spent lye%以废酸、废碱液制备聚合氯化铁铝的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵青; 霍文敏; 苑运丽; 王震


    以钢厂含铁废酸和铝加工业含铝废碱及废铁屑为原料制备聚合氯化铁铝(PFAC).实验研究了废铁屑加入量等因素对Fe2+溶出率的影响,同时研究了Fe2+的氧化条件.结果表明,在25℃、反应时间为15~20 min、氧化剂氯酸钠加入量等于化学计量值时,Fe2+氧化率可达98.7%以上.用废碱液调整盐基度,PFAC盐基度为20%时,对活性蓝P-3R水溶液的A590去除率可达99.8%;并对PFAC样品进行了红外光谱表征.%Iron-containing acid pickle in steel works,aluminum-containing spent lye in aluminum processing industry and waste iron scraps have been used as raw materials for preparing polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC). The influence of waste iron scraps dosage and other factors on Fe2+ dissolution rate is studies. The oxidation rate of Fe2+ is 98.7%,when the oxidation conditions are as follows: its temperature is 25 ℃, reaction time 15-20 min,and the dosage of sodium chlorate equals to stoichiometric value. Spent lye is used for adjusting the PFAC basicity to 20%. The As90 removing rate of the activated Blue P-3R aqueous solution can reach 99.8%; and the PFAC samples are characterized by infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Discoloration of Compatibility between Cefotaxime Sodium and Ornidazole Sodium Chloride Injection%头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍变色的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 任美萍; 曾敬怀; 张润; 蒋英蓝


    目的 考察注射用头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后的稳定性.方法 测定两药配伍后的pH值,溶液颜色变化,采用紫外分光光度计测定吸收曲线变化及含量变化.结果 头孢噻肟钠在236nm,奥硝唑在319nm处有最大吸收;混合液在40min时,由微淡黄色澄清液变为淡粉红色;在4h内,混合液的外观、pH值、峰形、含量均无明显变化.结论 头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后可能会变色,临床应避免配伍.%Objective To investigate the compatible stability of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole chloride sodium injection. Methods The contents and absorption curves of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection after mix were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The appearance of the solution was observed and pH value was determined. Results The absorption peaks of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were at 236 nm and 319 nm, respectively. The mixture changed from light yellow clear liquid to pale pink at 40min.There were no evident changes in appearance, pH, content and absorption curves during 4 hours. Conclusion The solution might change in color after cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were mixed. Such compatibility should be avoided in the clinic.

  6. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov


    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  7. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro. (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A


    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  8. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B


    DAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1...

  9. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.; Hamer, R.J.


    Bread and cereals contribute 30% to the daily intake of sodium (Na) in the western human diet. Since the average Na intake is double the recommended intake, pressure has built up for the food industry to lower Na in their products. Especially replacing functionality of Na as a tastant remains very d

  10. Adsorption and chemical reaction of gaseous mixtures of hydrogen chloride and water on aluminum oxide and application to solid-propellant rocket exhaust clouds (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.


    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are major exhaust products of solid rocket motors (SRM). Samples of calcination-produced alumina were exposed to continuously flowing mixtures of gaseous HCl/H2O in nitrogen. Transient sorption rates, as well as maximum sorptive capacities, were found to be largely controlled by specific surface area for samples of alpha, theta, and gamma alumina. Sorption rates for small samples were characterized linearly with an empirical relationship that accounted for specific area and logarithmic time. Chemisorption occurred on all aluminas studied and appeared to form from the sorption of about a 2/5 HCl-to-H2O mole ratio. The chemisorbed phase was predominantly water soluble, yielding chloride/aluminum III ion mole ratios of about 3.3/1 suggestive of dissolved surface chlorides and/or oxychlorides. Isopiestic experiments in hydrochloric acid indicated that dissolution of alumina led to an increase in water-vapor pressure. Dissolution in aqueous SRM acid aerosol droplets, therefore, might be expected to promote evaporation.

  11. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin. (United States)

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender


    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry.

  12. Benefits of a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing o-cymen-5-ol, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride. (United States)

    Newby, Craig S; Rowland, Joanna L; Lynch, Richard J M; Bradshaw, David J; Whitworth, Darren; Bosma, Mary Lynn


    Fluoride toothpastes in conjunction with tooth brushing are used to clean teeth, control plaque build-up and for anti-caries benefits. Toothpastes are designed with attractive flavours and appearances to encourage regular prolonged use to maximise these benefits. The incorporation of additional ingredients into toothpaste is a convenient way to provide supplementary protection that fits into people's everyday oral care routine. Such ingredients should not compromise the primary health benefits of toothpaste nor discourage its use. o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride have been incorporated into a sodium fluoride (NaF)/silica toothpaste at 0.1%w/w and 0.6%w/w respectively to provide additional benefits. These include improved gingival health maintenance, in terms of the reduction of plaque, gingival index and bleeding, and an immediate and long lasting reduction in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) measured on breath. These benefits can be attributed to the antimicrobial and neutralisation actions of the toothpaste. The use of established fluoride models demonstrated no compromise in NaF bioavailability. The toothpaste was formulated without compromising product aesthetics. The combination of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride in toothpaste gave superior maintenance of gingival health and reduction in malodour related VSCs without compromising the primary health benefits of the toothpaste or diminishing attributes preferred for the product's use.

  13. The effect of an addition of sodium chloride and sodium triphosphate on fat oxidation products in cold stored beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bilska


    Full Text Available Introduction. Meat and processed meats, depending on the animal species and anatomical element from which they were obtained, exhibit a varied fat content (most typically from 10% to 80% dry matter. Fats are relatively unstable food components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an addition of model brines on lipid oxidation rate in the selected beef element stored under aerobic conditions and in vacuum at a temperature of 5°C. Material and methods. Material for analyses comprised beef: rump cut (R and the heel of round (L. Meat was cured (at 20% in relation to raw material weight with brine A, containing 1% NaCl in total weight and brine B, containing 1% NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate E 451i (including 56% P2O5 . Meat after being massaged was stored under aerobic conditions (T and in vacuum (P at a temperature of 5°C for 15 days. During storage of samples changes were determined in peroxide value (PV, contents of secondary fat decomposition products using the TBARS test as well as changes in pH value. Results.  It was observed that with an extension of sample storage time peroxide value was growing gradually, but the dynamics of this growth varied. Samples coming from the rump cut muscle, stored in the atmosphere with unlimited access of oxygen, were characterised by slightly, but statistically significantly higher peroxide values in comparison to the other tested samples. The highest increase in the TBARS test value was observed in samples stored under aerobic conditions and coming from the heel of round muscle, irrespective of the type of applied brine. Conducted analyses showed that vacuum packaging of meat, in comparison to the storage of samples at unlimited access of oxygen, effectively slowed down the increase in the content of secondary oxidation products determined by the TBARS test. The greatest effect of vacuum packaging was observed for the heel of round in brine A. Conclusions. Vacuum packaging, in

  14. 氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响%Effects of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Corn Starch and Guar Gum Mixed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      通过测定分析玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系在有无氯化钠和氯化钙存在条件下的糊化特性、动态与静态流变学特性,研究氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响。结果表明,氯化钠和氯化钙的加入,提高了玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的成糊温度,降低了崩解值和回升值,峰值黏度也略微下降;玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的弹性模量G′值显著减小,黏性模量G″值的频率依赖性较大;氯化钠和氯化钙使玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的假塑性增强,且氯化钙的作用大于氯化钠。%Through the analysis and determination of pasting property, dynamic and static rheological properties of corn starch and guar gum mixed system with or without sodium chloride and calcium chloride, the effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on corn starch and guar gum mixed system were studied. The results showed, the addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride increased the pasting temperature of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, decreased the breakdown value and consistence value, and the peak viscosity also dropped slightly. The G′ value of elastic modulus decreased significantly, the frequency dependence of G" value of viscous modulus was larger. The addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride enhanced pseudo-plasticity of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, and calcium chloride was more effective.

  15. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors. (United States)

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J


    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats.

  16. Dietary potassium: a key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride. (United States)

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W


    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension.

  17. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa


    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  18. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death). (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N


    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant.

  19. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering. (United States)

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel


    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  20. Determination of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte by EDTA back titration with ethanol-cuprous chloride-ammonium chloride-hydrochloric acid complex solvent separation%乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸复合溶剂分离-EDTA返滴定法测定铝电解质中单质铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲秋梅; 任凤莲; 曹福悦


    新型低温铝电解质体系物相组成复杂,单质铝的分离测定尤为困难.本文采用高选择性复合溶剂乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸(ECAH)直接分离后测定铝电解质中单质铝,成功解决了单质铝与其它铝的化合物分离困难的问题,有效降低了铝电解质溶样时铝的氟化物的微溶效应带来的误差,为铝电解质中单质铝的物相分析提供了可靠的研究方案.采用经典ED-TA络合返滴定法测得铝电解质样品中单质铝含量,加标回收率在97%~103%之间,RSD(n=6)为1.1%和1.5%.测定结果和Al-CAS-OP-CPC四元络合光度法测定结果进行比对,结果一致.%It was particularly difficult to separate and determine aluminum in new low-temperature aluminum electrolyte system because of its complicated components. In this paper, aluminum in aluminum electrolyte was directly separated and determined using high-selectivity ethanol -cuprous chlorideammomum chloride-hydrochloric acid (ECAH) as complex solvent. This method successfully settled the problem of difficult separation of aluminum from aluminum compounds, effectively reduced the determination error introduced by slight soluble effect of fluoride of aluminum during the dissolution of aluminum electrolyte, and provided a reliable research method for the phase analysis of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte. Aluminum in aluminum electrolyte samples was determined by classic EDTA complexing back titration method. The standard addition recoveries were 97%-103 %, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) were 1. 1 % and 1. 5 %, respectively. The determination results were in good agreement with those obtained by Al-CAS-OP-CPC quaternary complex photometry.

  1. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.


    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  2. Sodium Test (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  3. Impact of aluminum chloride on process performance and microbial community structure of granular sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Watari, Takahiro; Thao, Tran Phuong; Hatamoto, Masashi; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Anh, To Kim; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    In this study, granular sludge formation was carried out using an aluminum chloride supplement in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating natural rubber processing wastewater. Results show that during the first 75 days after the start-up of the UASB reactor with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.65 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1), it performed stably with a removal of 90% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sludge still remained in small dispersed flocs. However, after aluminum chloride was added at a concentration of 300 mg·L(-1) and the OLR range was increased up to 5.32 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1), the total COD removal efficiency rose to 96.5 ± 2.6%, with a methane recovery rate of 84.9 ± 13.4%, and the flocs began to form granules. Massively parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the sludge retained in the UASB reactor showed that total sequence reads of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp., reported to be the key organisms for granulation, increased after 311 days of operation. This indicates that the microbial community structure of the retained sludge in the UASB reactor at the end of the experiment gave a good account of itself in not only COD removal, but also granule formation.

  4. Effect of aluminum chloride hemostatic agent on microleakage of class V composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive (United States)

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmood; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mozafari, Aysan


    Objectives: Since hemostatic agents can induce changes on enamel and dentin surfaces and influence composite resin adhesion, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the aluminum chloride hemostatic agent on the gingival margin microleakage of class V (Cl V) composite resin restorations bonded with all-in-one adhesive. Study design: Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 60 sound bovine permanent incisors. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed 1.5 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 30. In group 1, the cavities were restored without the application of a hemostatic agent; in group 2, the cavities were restored after the application of the hemostatic agent. In both groups all-in-one adhesive and Z250 composite resin were used to restore the cavities with the incremental technique. After finishing and polishing, the samples underwent a thermocycling procedure, followed by immersion in 2% basic fuschin solution for 24 hours. The samples were sectioned and gingival microleakage was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare microleakage between the two groups. Statistical significance was defined at Padhesive with aluminum chloride hemostatic agent significantly increases restoration gingival margin microleakage. Key words:All-in-one adhesive resin, composite resin restoration, hemostatic agent, microleakage. PMID:22322497

  5. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan


    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  6. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo


    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  7. Dynamic absorption efficiency of sodium chloride in microwave drying%氯化钠在微波干燥中的动态吸波效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小标; 陈君若; 张伟峰; 彭金辉; 陈华; 郭胜惠; 陈菓


    The concept of reflection loss was introduced to study the dynamic absorption efficiency of materials.The microwave reflection loss (RL)of sodium chloride was calculated in the moisture content ranged from 1%to 5%at 20 ℃ and sodium chloride (moisture content 4%)at 20-100 ℃ and 2.45 GHz.The calculated reflection losses show that the maximum microwave absorption with RL of -68 dB can be obtained for sodium chloride (moisture content 4%)with a thickness of 0.014 m at 60 ℃.With increasing thickness,the RL of sodium chloride appears microwave absorption peak following the order of the moisture content from high to low in turn.The results demonstrate that higher microwave absorption throughout the heating process can only be achieved in sodium chloride with a small thickness in which a slight absorption peak shift (less than one-eighth wavelength in sodium chloride)occurs.%为了研究物料在微波干燥过程中的动态吸波效率,文中将反射损耗理论引入其中,计算了2.45 GHz微波频率下,20℃时含水率为1%-5%以及含水率为4%的氯化钠在20-100℃的反射损耗系数。计算结果显示,厚度为0.014 m含水率4%的氯化钠在60℃取得最大的微波吸收效率,达到-68 dB;不同含水率的氯化钠反射损耗系数随着厚度的增加,会按照含水率由高到低的顺序依次出现吸波峰。研究结果表明,只有在对应小于1/8波长的吸收峰偏移的较小厚度下,氯化钠才能在整个微波干燥过程中一直取得较高的吸波效率。

  8. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.


    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  9. Test Your Sodium Smarts (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  10. Metallocene electrochemistry. 2. Reduction-oxidation behavior of nickelocene in the room-temperature alkylpyridinium chloride-aluminum chloride melt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R.J.; Job, R.


    In neutral 1:1 molar ratio mixtures of AlCl/sub 3/-1-butylpyridinium chloride, at 40/sup 0/C, nickelocene undergoes a reversible 1-electron charge-transfer reaction, with E/sub 1/2/ = -0.165 V vs. Al (2:1) reference. Evidence is presented to show that both nickelocene and the nickelocenium (III) ion are unstable in chloride ion rich solvents. Spontaneous oxidation to the nickelocenium cation occurs in acidic (> 1:1) melts, and a stable dication is formed reversibly at E/sub 1/2/ = +0.912 V vs. Al (2:1) reference. Electronic spectra of nickelocene species in the II, III, and IV oxidation states have been recorded in these melts. The spectrum of the dication species contains bands at 412, 438, 532 nm.

  11. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies (United States)

    Chang, Hee Jung; Lu, Xiaochuan; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Son, Sori; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jung, Keeyoung; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Guosheng


    Developing advanced and reliable electrical energy storage systems is critical to fulfill global energy demands and stimulate the growth of renewable energy resources. Sodium metal halide batteries have been under serious consideration as a low cost alternative energy storage device for stationary energy storage systems. Yet, there are number of challenges to overcome for the successful market penetration, such as high operating temperature and hermetic sealing of batteries that trigger an expensive manufacturing process. Here we demonstrate simple, economical and practical sealing technologies for Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C. Conventional polymers are implemented in planar Na-NiCl2 batteries after a prescreening test, and their excellent compatibilities and durability are demonstrated by a stable performance of Na-NiCl2 battery for more than 300 cycles. The sealing methods developed in this work will be highly beneficial and feasible for prolonging battery cycle life and reducing manufacturing cost for Na-based batteries at elevated temperatures (<200 °C).

  12. 不同钠水摄入对大鼠血压的影响%Effects of different intakes of sodium chloride and water on rat blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国东; 全洪兵; 周路; 胡建锋; 梁劲生


    Backgrounds Long-term high intake of sodium chloride would result in high blood pressure, however the mechanism is uncertain. It is not conclusive whether there exists a retention of sodium and water, and it is still unclear regarding the interactions between sympathetic-adrenal system (SAS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS).Objective To analyze the effects of different sodium chloride amounts of intake and water on the blood pressure of Wistar rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups according to daily different intakes of sodium chloride and water with 5 rats in each group: low intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply,low intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d), high intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply, and high intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d).The intakes of water were measured daily, and urine samples were collected in the metabolic cages in each group.The difference values ( D-value) were calculated between the intake of water and the volume of urine daily.Weight and rat tail systolic arterial pressures were measured weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood noradrenalin (NE) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) 8 weeks later. Results The blood pressures in high sodium chloride intake groups with a slow increase of body weight were significantly higher than those of low intake of sodium chloride(P<0. 01 ) ;the D-value between the intake of water and the volume of urine, and Ang Ⅱ were significantly lower while blood NEs were higher. Furthermore, there exist significant differences in the blood pressures [(166.7±2.2)and (156.2±2.3)mm Hg], NEs [(3.5±0. 6) and (2.2 ± 0. 5 )μg/L] and Ang Ⅱ [(203. 5 ± 98.0 ) and(233.4 ± 101.7) ng/L] between high intake of sodium chloride group with physiologically-indispensable water and high intake of sodium chloride group with

  13. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.


    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  14. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen


    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  15. Mixed micellar properties of sodium n-octanoate(SOC) with n-octylammonium chloride(OAC) in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hwan [Korea University of Technology, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)


    The critical concentration(CMC) and the counterion binding constant(B) for the mixed micellization of sodium n-octanoate(SOC) with n-octylammonium chloride(OAC) were determined as a function of the overall mole fraction of SOC({alpha}{sub 1}). Various thermodynamic parameters(X{sub i}, {gamma}{sub i}, C{sub i}, a{sub i}{sup M}, and {delta}H{sub mix}) for the mixed micellization of the SOC/OAC systems have been calculated and analyzed by means of the equations derived from the nonideal mixed micellar model. The results show that there are great deviations from the ideal behavior for the mixed micellization of these systems. And other thermodynamic parameters({delta}G{sub m}{sup o}, {delta}H{sub m}{sup o}, and {delta}S{sub m}{sup o}) associated with the micellization of SOC, OAC, and their mixture({alpha}{sub 1}=0.5) have been also estimated from the temperature dependence of CMC and B values, and the significance of these parameters and their relation to the theory of the micelle formation have been considered and analyzed by comparing each other.

  16. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.


    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

  17. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaius Debi Eyu


    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  18. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols


    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.


    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface ...

  19. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on PEPT2 (SLC15A2) mediated renal clearance of cephalexin in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Tang, Audrey May Yi; Tan, Yen Ling; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon


    PEPT2 mediates the H(+) gradient-driving reabsorption of di- and tri-peptides, and various peptidomimetic compounds in the kidney. This study examines the influence of urinary pH modification through sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on the function of PEPT2 in healthy subjects, using cephalexin as the probe drug. Sixteen male subjects received a single oral dose of 1000 mg cephalexin under ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate treatment, respectively, with a wash-out period of one week. The study subjects were genotyped for PEPT2 polymorphic variants. Cephalexin concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean renal clearance of cephalexin was significantly higher under ammonium chloride treatment than that under sodium bicarbonate treatment (P < 0.01). This difference was significant for PEPT2*2/*2 (P = 0.017) but not for PEPT2*1/*1 (P = 0.128). No differences were observed for other pharmacokinetic parameters. The findings of this study suggest that urinary pH changes may alter the pharmacokinetics of PEPT2's substrates. This effect was more obvious for the PEPT2*2/*2.

  20. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平


    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  2. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium (United States)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.


    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  3. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes


    Trompette, Jean-Luc; Vergnes, Hugues


    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ionswere particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were o...

  4. Effect of Sodium Chloride and Cadmium on the Growth, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunsheng; XU Ying; JIANG Wei; LV Xin; DONG Xiaoyan


    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly under-stood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6%NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory ef-fect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  5. Curcumin Attenuates Gastric Cancer Induced by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea and Saturated Sodium Chloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawiya Sintara


    Full Text Available To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO, control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC, MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W, and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W. To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  6. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  7. Use of sodium-chloride difference and corrected anion gap as surrogates of Stewart variables in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Mallat

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether the difference between sodium and chloride ([Na(+] - [Cl(-] and anion gap corrected for albumin and lactate (AG(corr could be used as apparent strong ion difference (SID(app and strong ion gap (SIG surrogates (respectively in critically ill patients. METHODS: A total of 341 patients were prospectively observed; 161 were allocated to the modeling group, and 180 to the validation group. Simple regression analysis was used to construct a mathematical model between SID(app and [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and between SIG and AG(corr in the modeling group. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was also measured. The mathematical models were tested in the validation group. RESULTS: in the modeling group, SID(app and SIG were well predicted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and AG(corr (R(2 = 0.973 and 0.96, respectively. Accuracy values of [Na(+] - [Cl(-] for the identification of SID(app acidosis (47.5 mEq/L were 0.992 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.963-1 and 0.998 (95%CI, 0.972-1, respectively. The accuracy of AG(corr in revealing SIG acidosis (>8 mEq/L was 0.974 (95%CI: 0.936-0.993. These results were validated by showing excellent correlations and good agreements between predicted and measured SID(app and between predicted and measured SIG in the validation group (R(2 = 0.977; bias = 0±1.5 mEq/L and R(2 = 0.96; bias = -0.2±1.8 mEq/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SID(app and SIG can be substituted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and by AG(corr respectively in the diagnosis and management of acid-base disorders in critically ill patients.

  8. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties. (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan


    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  9. The use of chloride-sodium ratio in the evaluation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates. (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ozkiraz, Servet; Ince, Deniz Anuk; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Tarcan, Aylin


    Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and Stewart's physiochemical approach by quantifying anions of tissue acids (TA). It is hypothesized that an increase in tissue acids during metabolic acidosis would cause a compensatory decrease in the plasma chloride (Cl) relative to sodium (Cl-Na ratio) in order to preserve electroneutral balance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the use of Cl-Na ratio as a bedside tool to evaluate the identifying raised TA in neonates as an alternative to complex calculations of Stewart's physiochemical approach. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. Infants were included in the study when blood gas analysis reveals a metabolic acidosis; pH anion gap (AG), albumin-corrected AG (AG(corr)), strong ion difference (SID), unmeasured anions (UMA), and TA were calculated at each episode of metabolic acidosis. A total of 105 metabolic acidosis episodes occurred in 59 infants during follow-up. Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis occurred in 17 (16%) of samples, and all had increased TA. The dominant component of TA was UMA rather than lactate. There was a negative correlation between the Cl-Na ratio and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Also, there was a positive correlation between Diff(NaCl) and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Base deficit and actual bicarbonate performed poorly in identifying the TA. In conclusion, our study suggested that Diff(NaCl) and Cl-Na ratio are simple and fast, and may be an alternative method to complex Stewart's physiochemical approach in identifying raised UMA and TA in critically ill neonates.

  10. Curcumin attenuates gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and saturated sodium chloride in rats. (United States)

    Sintara, Kawiya; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Klaikeaw, Naruemon


    To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl)-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC), MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W), and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W). To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Liu; Fen-Fen Yu; Yi-Min Zhong; Xin-Xing Guo; Zhen Mao


    Background:Long-term use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved drugs is often associated with ocular surface toxicity.Ocular surface symptoms had a substantial impact on the glaucoma patients' quality of life and compliance.This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (SH) on ocular surface toxicity induced by BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.Methods:Fifty-eight patients (101 eyes),who received topical BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment and met the severe dry eye criteria,were included in the analysis.All patients were maintained the original topical anti-glaucoma treatment.In the SH-treated group (56 eyes),unpreserved 0.3% SH eye drops were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days.In the control group (55 eyes),phosphate-buffered saline were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days.Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire,break-up time (BUT) test,corneal fluorescein staining,corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining,Schirmer test,and conjunctiva impression cytology were performed sequentially on days 0 and 91.Results:Compared with the control group,SH-treated group showed decrease in OSDI scores (Kruskal-Wallis test:H =38.668,P < 0.001),fluorescein and rose Bengal scores (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test:z =-3.843,P< 0.001,and z =-3.508,P < 0.001,respectively),increase in tear film BUT (t-test:t =-10.994,P < 0.001) and aqueous tear production (t-test:t =-10.328,P < 0.001) on day 91.The goblet cell density was increased (t-test:t =-9.981,P < 0.001),and the morphology of the conjunctival epithelium were also improved after SH treatment.Conclusions:SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity,and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.

  13. Effect of sodium fluoride and stannous chloride associated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the progression of enamel erosion. (United States)

    João-Souza, Samira Helena; Bezerra, Sávio José Cardoso; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Aranha, Ana Cecília; Scaramucci, Tais


    This study evaluated the progression of enamel erosion after treatment with gels containing sodium fluoride (NaF; 9047 ppm F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2; 3000 ppm Sn), associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Sixty enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and protected by a tape, leaving an exposed surface area of 4 × 1 mm. The specimens were immersed in 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3) for 10 min to create an initial erosion lesion. After, they were randomly divided into six groups: (C) control: gel without active ingredient; (F): NaF gel; (F + Sn): NaF + SnCl2 gel; (laser): Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.5 W; 50 mJ; ∼41.66 J/cm(2); 10 Hz; 40 s); (F + laser): NaF gel + Nd:YAG; (F + Sn + laser): NaF + SnCl2 gel + Nd:YAG. All gels had pH = 4.5 and were applied for 1 min. Laser irradiation was performed after gel application. The specimens were then submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization cycling model using 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3), six times per day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was analyzed by optical profilometry in the end of the cycling (in μm). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak tests (alpha = 0.05). The control and the laser groups presented the highest enamel loss (means ± SD = 53.52 ± 3.65 and 53.30 ± 2.73, respectively), followed by F + Sn (44.76 ± 2.83). The groups F (36.76 ± 2.28), F + laser (36.25 ± 3.59), and F + Sn + laser (39.83 ± 4.62) showed the lowest enamel loss, with no significant difference among them (p > 0.05). In conclusion, NaF by itself or associated with SnCl2 and Nd:YAG laser was able to reduce enamel erosion progression. Nd:YAG laser alone did not show a protective effect.

  14. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals. (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M


    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  15. 双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的测定%Determination of benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To develop a method to determine benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops. Methods Separation was performed on a CNW column (150 mmX4.6 mm, 5 urn). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: 5 mmol · L-1 ammonium acetate-1% triethylamine (adjusting pH to 5.0 ± 0.5 by acetic acid) = 65 : 35 (v/v). The UV detection was 214 nm. Results Benzalkonium chloride had a good linearity at 12.50 - 125.00 μg · mL-1, the average recovery of benzalkonium chloride was 99.0% and the RSD was 1.3%. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and it could be applied to determine benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops.%目的 采用HPLC双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的含量.方法 乙腈-5mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液(含1%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH值至5.0±0.5)(65:35)为流动相,CNW色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),检测波长为214 nm.结果 苯扎氯铵的测定在12.50~125.00 μg·mL-1与峰面积线性关系良好,苯扎氯铵的平均回收率为99.0%,RSD为1.3%.结论 方法简单、灵敏度高,可用于双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的测定.

  16. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes (United States)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.


    The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce2O3 and CeO2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  17. Sodium Chloride-Sodium Hypochlorite Method for Gold Recovery from Cyanide Residue%氯化钠—次氯酸钠法从氰化渣中回收金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史娟华; 于先进; 张亚莉


    The effects of ratio of solid to liquid, leaching temperature and time on the gold leaching rate were studied by adding a proper amount of sodium hypochlorite with sodium chloride as solvent. The results show that the gold leaching rate is above 41% under the optimum conditions including leaching temperature of 50 ℃ , leaching time of 3 h and ratio of solid to liquid of 4.%以氯化钠为溶剂,加入适量次氯酸钠,考察了液固比、浸出温度和时间对氰化渣中金浸出率的影响.结果表明,在下述最优试验条件下,金浸出率可以达到41%以上:浸出温度50℃、浸出时间3h、液固比4.

  18. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R


    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...

  19. Determination of Calcium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永鑫; 何宇新


    A method was established to determine the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection .By atom-ic absorption spectrometry , the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection was determined under the condition as follows:detection wavelength was 422.7 nm,the flame tape was air/acetylene(13.5∶2.0),the lamp current was 10 mA,slit width was 0.5 nm.Good linear relationship of concentration and absorption of Ca 2+was within the range of 1μg/mL-9μg/mL, the recovery rate range from 98.42%to 100.93%, detectability was 0.008206μg/mL,the RSD between results obtained from official method and ones obtained from comparative method is 1.21%.This method has good specificity, stability, reproducibility, and is accurate for de-tecting the content of Ca 2+,and can be supplementary method to official one .The concentration of calcium chloride in compound sodi-um chloride injection is between 0.0329296%g/mL and 0.0340398%g/mL, which meets the required quality standards .%目的:建立原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙含量的方法。方法:采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙的含量,检测波长为422.7 nm;燃气类型为空气-乙炔,燃气比为空气体积︰乙炔体积=13.5∶2;灯电流:10 mA;狭缝宽度:0.5 nm。结果:Ca2+浓度在1~9μg/mL之间,与对应吸光度值呈良好的线性关系,回收率在98.42%~100.93%,检测限为0.008206μg/mL,与药典方法含量检测结果之间的RSD值为1.21%。结论:该方法进行复方氯化钠注射液Ca2+含量的测定专属性好,精密度高,稳定性强,重复性好,可作为药典补充方法。复方氯化钠注射液CaCl2·2H2 O质量浓度测定结果为0.0329296%~0.0340398% g/mL,符合质量标准要求。

  20. Altered expression of renal bumetanide-sensitive sodium-pota-ssium-2 chloride cotransporter and Cl- channel -K2 gene in angiotensin Ⅱ-infused hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tao; LIU Zhi-quan; SUN Chao-feng; ZHENG Yong; MA Ai-qun; FANG Yuan


    Background Little information is available regarding the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) on the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), and the Cl- channel (CLC)-K2 at both mRNA and protein expression level in Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertensive rats. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of Ang Ⅱ with chronic subpressor infusion on nephron-specific gene expression of NKCC2, NCC and CLC-K2. Results Ang Ⅱ significantly increased blood pressure and up-regulated NKCC2 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney. Expression of CLC-K2 mRNA in the kidney increased 1.6 fold (P<0.05).There were no changes in NCC mRNA or protein expression in AngII-treated rats versus control. Conclusions Chronic subpressor Ang Ⅱ infusion can significantly alter NKCC2 and CLC-K2 mRNA expression in the kidney, and protein abundance of NKCC2 in kidney is positively regulated by Ang Ⅱ. These effects may contribute to enhanced renal Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in response to Ang Ⅱ.

  1. Influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection on cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Wen-Yun Xu; Juan Pu; Qing-Qing Zhang; Mou-Li Tian


    Objective:To study the influence degree of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH 40) for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer.Methods:A total of 60 patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were divided into the control group and the observation group, and 30 cases in each group according to the method of random number table. The control group was treated with conventional treatment, and the observation group was treated with HSH 40 on the treatment of the control group. The cardiac and pulmonary function indexes of two groups before and after the treatment at different time after the treatment were compared.Results:The hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the two groups before the treatment had no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the observation group at different time after treatment were all significantly better than those of the control group(allP>0.05).Conclusions:The influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer is better, and the application effect for the surgical patients is better.

  2. Electroless Growth of Aluminum Dendrites in NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.


    The spontaneous growth of aluminum dendrites after deposition was observed and examined in sodium chloride-aluminumchloride melts. The concentration gradient of AlCl3 in the vicinity of the cathode surface resulting from electrolysisconstitutes a type of concentration cell with aluminum dendrites...... as electrodes. The short-circuit discharge of thecell is found to be the driving force for the growth of aluminum dendrites. Such a concentration gradient is proposed to beone of the causes for dendrite formation in the case of metal deposition....

  3. Inadvertent injection of potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride during treatment of chronic low back ache with epidural injection leading to paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ranjan


    Full Text Available Epidural injection of steroid is given for back pain resistant to other conservative management. Normal saline (NS is used as diluent in 80 mg methylprednisolone and a local anesthetic. Due to a similar looking ampoule of NS and potassium chloride (KCl, there is a probability of accidental use of KCl instead of NS. We present a case of a 50 year old male patient having low back ache refractory to other conservative treatments. Epidural injection of steroid was given, but accidently KCl was mixed with methylprednisolone instead of NS. He developed severe cramps in the lower limbs, pruritus, and sweating, and finally paraplegia. Electrocardiography and blood showed features suggestive of hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent along with supportive measures. The patient recovered within 8 h. It is concluded that calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent can be used if accidentally KCl is injected in epidural space.

  4. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen


    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1–4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60–62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis. PMID:28045916

  5. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike


    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells...

  6. Photodynamic therapy of murine non-melanoma skin carcinomas with diode laser after topical application of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (United States)

    Kyriazi, Maria; Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Rallis, Michail; Trebst, Tilmann


    The aim of this work is to study pharmacokinetics and photodynamic efficiency of aluminium phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) in dimethylsulfoxide/Tween 80/water solution, after topical application on hairless mice bearing non-melanoma skin carcinomas. The concentration of photosensitizer in normal skin and tumor biopsies 1-6 hours after application was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy of chemical extractions. The concentration of photosensitizer was 40 times higher in tumor than in normal skin even 1 h after application. For photodynamic therapy (PDT) AlClPc was excited by a diode laser emitting at 670 nm, 1 h after application. Seven different combinations of therapeutic parameters were chosen. The efficiency was assessed as the percentage of complete tumor remission, the tumor growth retardation and the cosmetic outcomes. The highest complete remission 60% was achieved with the combination of 75 mW/cm2 with 150 J/cm2. No recurrence rate was observed in any treatment parameters group and the cosmetic outcome in all completely treated tumors was excellent. The results show that the effectiveness of PDT is highly dependent on fluence rate. In addition, they are promising for further investigation of this PDT scheme in preclinical studies mainly in non-melanoma skin carcinomas up to 7mm.

  7. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium. (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar


    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  8. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.


    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  10. Comparison of Poly Aluminum Chloride and Chlorinated Cuprous for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Color Removal from Kashan Textile Industries Company Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseindoost Gh.1 MSPH,


    Full Text Available Aims Textile wastewaters are the most important health and environmental problems in Kashan. This research was aimed to compare the poly aluminum chloride and chlorinated cuprous efficiency for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color from Kashan Textile Industries Company wastewater. Materials & Methods This experimental bench scale study in a batch system was conducted on 20 composed wastewater samples collected from Kashan Textile Industries Company raw wastewater. During 5 months, in the beginning of every week a day was selected randomly and in the day a composed sample was taken and studied. PAC at the doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg.l-1 and chlorinated cuprous at the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg.l-1 were applied. The optimum pH also optimum concentration of PAC and chlorinated cuprous were determined using Jar test. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and Fisher Exact test. Findings The average concentration of COD in the raw textile wastewater was 2801.56±1398.29mg.l-1. The average COD concentration has been decreased to 1125.47±797.55mg.l-1. There was a significant difference between the effects of these two coagulants efficiency (p<0.05. The average COD removal efficiency for chlorinated cuprous and PAC was 58.52% and 72.56%, respectively. Also, the average color removal efficiency by chlorinated cuprous and PAC were 17.23 and 64.45%, respectively. Conclusion PAC is more efficient than chlorinated cuprous for both COD and color removal from KTIC wastewater.

  11. Characterization of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides of a sodium chloride solution/water system by computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Kamiyama, Junya; Asanuma, Soto; Murata, Hiroyasu; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Hotta, Hiroki; Sato, Kiichi; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi


    A stable liquid/liquid optical waveguide (LLW) was formed using a sheath flow, where a 15% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution functioned as the core solution and water functioned as the cladding solution (15% NaCl/water LLW). The LLW was at least 200 mm in length. The concentration distributions of the liquid core and liquid cladding solutions in the LLW system were predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to validate the characteristics of the waveguide. The broadening of the region of the fluorescence of Rhodamine B excited by the guided light and the increase in the critical angle of the guided light with the increase in the contact time of the core and the cladding solutions were well explained by CFD calculations. However, no substantial leakage of the guided light was observed despite the considerably large change in the refractive index profile of the LLW; thus, a narrower and longer waveguide was realized.

  12. Identification of co-existing cationic surfactants with preliminary separation on silica HPTLC plates using mixed aqueous sodium chloride-ethanol as eluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad


    Full Text Available A new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic system comprising of silica gel 60 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and ethanol-5% aqueous sodium chloride (8:2 as mobile phase has been identified as most suitable for separation of quaternary mixture of cationic surfactants. Separation efficacy of developed method has been established by obtaining well-resolved densitogram of separated spots. To check the versatility, effects of presence of metal cations, inorganic anions, amino acids, vitamins and non-ionic surfactants as impurities were also examined. The chromatographic parameters like ΔRF, separation factor (α, resolution (RS and limit of detection were also calculated. The proposed method is applicable for the identification of surfactants in eye drops and Colgate Plax mouthwash.

  13. Determination of sodium chloride in ion - exchange membrane caustic soda%离子膜碱中氯化钠的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昕; 孙士娟; 邱雪松


    The determination of sodium chloride in ion- exchange membrane caustic soda by potentiometry and by spectrophotometry are introduced, and the results obtained by the above two methods are compared. It is concluded that potentiometry is suitable to macro analysis with characteristics of simple operation, rapid analysis and accurate measurement.%介绍了用电位滴定法和分光光度法测定离子膜碱中氯化钠含量的方法,并对这2种方法的测试结果进行了比较。电位滴定法适用于常量分析,具有操作简便、分析速度快、测量结果准确等特点。

  14. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.K. (Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh)); Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.


    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  15. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride). (United States)

    Binnor, Anil K; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Roy, Sunilendu B


    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  16. Microwave Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylborate with Aroyl Chlorides on Palladium-Doped KF/Al2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; JinXian


    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organoborate compounds with organic electrophiles is very attractive method for organic synthesis. These coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. 1 In the past few years a number of methods have been devoloped which permit the use of organoboron compounds that are thermally stable and inert to water and oxygen. Further these coupling reactions have been used successfully for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutical intermediates, and combinatiorial libraries of organic compounds. Sodium tetraphenylborate is a stable, non-toxic and has been used as a phenylating agent affording σ-phenyl complexes of various transition metals by the transfer of a phenyl group from boron to metals. Phenyl transfer from this reagent to some organopalladium complexes making a new carbon-carbon bond has also been noted. Uemura and Huang reported respectively that Pd(0) or Si-P-Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of acyl chlorides and NaBPh4 proceeded in THF to give the corresponding phenyl ketones. However, only one phenyl group out of four in the borate was available for transfer. Recently, Bumagin reported that the cross-coupling reaction of NaBPh4 with acyl chlorides in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Na2CO3 in dry or aqueous acetone to give high yields of unsymmetric ketones. However, the reaction time is long(1-6 h).  ……

  17. Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride. (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait


    This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment.

  18. Microwave Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylborate with Aroyl Chlorides on Palladium-Doped KF/Al2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organoborate compounds with organic electrophiles is very attractive method for organic synthesis. These coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. 1 In the past few years a number of methods have been devoloped which permit the use of organoboron compounds that are thermally stable and inert to water and oxygen. Further these coupling reactions have been used successfully for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutical intermediates, and combinatiorial libraries of organic compounds. Sodium tetraphenylborate is a stable, non-toxic and has been used as a phenylating agent affording σ-phenyl complexes of various transition metals by the transfer of a phenyl group from boron to metals. Phenyl transfer from this reagent to some organopalladium complexes making a new carbon-carbon bond has also been noted. Uemura and Huang reported respectively that Pd(0) or Si-P-Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of acyl chlorides and NaBPh4 proceeded in THF to give the corresponding phenyl ketones. However, only one phenyl group out of four in the borate was available for transfer. Recently, Bumagin reported that the cross-coupling reaction of NaBPh4 with acyl chlorides in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Na2CO3 in dry or aqueous acetone to give high yields of unsymmetric ketones. However, the reaction time is long(1-6 h).

  19. Vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons by surfactant micelles. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1984. [Solubilization data for system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.


    This final report describes vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives by aqueous micellar solutions. An automated vapor pressure apparatus and a manual apparatus incorporating a mercury-covered sintered-glass disk inlet valve were used to obtain highly precise data for the solubilization of hydrocarbons and aliphatic alcohols into aqueous solutions of the ionic surfactants sodium octylsulfate and n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (cetylpyridinium chloride). A mass-action model based on a modification of the Poisson distribution equations has been developed and applied to data for the system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/, and 45/sup 0/C. An excellent goodness of fit is achieved with the model. Tabulated experimental results (485 sets of activity and concentration data) are included in this report. 12 references, 2 figures.

  20. Effects of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the cross-linking reaction of cassava starch%氯化钠及硫酸钠对木薯淀粉交联反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小雅; 叶为标; 高群玉


    The experiment was designed to determine the relationships between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution,and the viscosity characteristics of the starch samples. Brabender viscometer was used for the determination of cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure. When sodium chloride was used as osmotic pressure enhancer in cross–linking reaction,with the increase of osmotic pressure,the initial gelatinization temperature increased,and the peak viscosity and the final viscosity decreased. As the osmotic pressure reached high,the retrogradation value and the breakdown value both tended to zero. When sodium sulfate was used instead of sodium chloride,as the osmotic pressure increased,the initial gelatinization temperature didn’t change significantly,the peak viscosity leveled off following decrease,the final viscosity increased(not significant)after decrease,the breakdown value was in contrast with the final viscosity,and the retrogradation decreased. The degree of crosslinking increased with the increase of osmotic pressure that produced by sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. In addition,we utilized polarizing microscope and FTIR to analyze the cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure,and measured their transparency,shear resistance and retrogradation resistance,the results showed that the corresponding properties of the cross–linked starch changed.%旨在确定渗透压与交联取代度和所得淀粉糊黏度间的关系。应用Brabender连续黏度计对渗透压处理交联木薯淀粉进行了测定。当氯化钠作为交联反应渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压增大,所得淀粉样品的起始糊化温度增加,峰值黏度和最终黏度减小;高渗透压时,凝沉值和崩解值都趋于0。而硫酸钠作渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压的增大,起始糊化温度变化不明显,峰值黏度先下降后缓慢下降,最终黏度先减后增(增加不显著),崩解值先增

  1. 降低肉制品中氯化钠含量研究进展%Progress towards Sodium Chloride Reduction in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海舟; 张迎阳; 唐静; 余翔; 黎良浩; 王建; 章建浩


    An excessive intake of meat products, particularly dry-cured meat products, is not recommended from a health point of view, at least for some population groups, due to their high levels of sodium. Nevertheless, despite the importance of sodium chloride in producing food, over-consumption of sodium has the propensity to develop hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper attempts are made to make a detailed review on the role of NaCl in processed meats, ways of reducing salt and their effect on the quality of meat precuts. It can provide some useful information for reducing salt levels of traditional meat products in our country and make meat products healthier.%从健康的观点来看,过度的摄入肉制品特别是传统的干腌肉制品不被推荐。因为这些肉制品钠含量较高,过度的摄入可能使人们导致高血压等心血管疾病。本文综述了氯化钠在肉产品加过过程中的作用、降低盐含量的方法以及他们对肉制品加工过程中品质的影响。为探索减低我国传统肉质品盐含量提供参考,有效提高肉制品的健康性。

  2. 硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液致肾损害%Renal injury caused by etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珲; 赵冠人; 李国栋; 冯端浩


    患者,男性,57岁,因腹膜后纤维化、双肾积水、泌尿系感染等症,给予硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液0.3 g静脉滴注,每天1次,连续用药9d后,尿素氮由6.74 mmol·L-1上升至9.85 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐由103.0μmol·L-1升至373.9 μmol·L-1.停药6d后尿素氮降至5.11 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐降至122.1 μmol·L-1.随后的20多天里,仍按上述方案间断使用该药,用药过程中尿素氮及血清肌酐随用药或停药而上升或下降.在停药2周并针对原发病治疗后尿素氮恢复至2.94 mmol·L-1,肌酐恢复至76.0μmol·L-1.调整给药方案为硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液,静脉滴注,0.15 g,每天2次,连续使用6d,尿素氮及血清肌酐未见明显升高.%One 57-year-old man with retroperitoneal fibrosis, bilateral hydronephrosis and urinary system infection was administrated with intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.3 g once daily. Nine days later, his urea nitrogen increased from 6.74 mmol·L-1 to 9.85 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine increased from 103.0 μmol·L-1 to 373.9 umol·L-1. Six days after etimicin withdrawal, his urea nitrogen decreased to 5.11 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 122.1 μmol·L-1. About 20 days after etimicin withdrawal, etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection was given again intermittently, urea nitrogen and serum creatine increased or decreased following the etimicin administration or withdrawal. After 2 weeks withdrawal combined with original disease treatment, his urea nitrogen decreased to 2.94 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 76.0 umol·L-1. And then the dosage regimen was regulated to intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.15 g twice daily. After six days of continuous administration, his urea nitrogen and serum creatine did not increase obviously.

  3. Corrosion Properties in Sodium Chloride Solutions of Al–TiC Composites in situ Synthesized by HFIHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif


    Full Text Available Al–TiC nanocomposite materials have been prepared by a new in situ synthesizing technique. A mixture of aluminum, titanium, and graphite has been prepared using ball milling technique and then melted in a high frequency induction heat furnace (HFIHF at different sintering temperatures, namely 900, 1100, and 1300 °C. The effect of sintering temperature on the corrosion of the Al–TiC composite in 3.5% NaCl solutions was investigated using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, chronoamperometric current-time, open-circuit potential, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The surface of the composites after their corrosion in the test solution was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. It has been found that all manufactured composites suffer uniform corrosion. All corrosion test techniques were consistent with each other and confirmed clearly that the corrosion resistance of Al composites increased according to their sintering temperature in the following order 900 > 1100 > 1300 °C.

  4. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.


    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  5. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers. (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J


    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  6. 烧伤回吸期持续性高钠高氯与侵袭性感染%Persistent High Level of Sodium and Chloride Ions and Invasive Infection in Resorption Phase Postburn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    目的:探讨大面积烧伤患者持续性高钠高氯产生的原因及防治措施;动态监测大面积烧伤后血清Na+,Cl-的临床意义。方法:回顾性分析了7例严重烧伤后持续性高Na+高Cl-和61例严重烧伤后非持续性高Na+,高Cl-患者的临床特点。结果:7例严重烧伤后持续高Na+,高Cl-患者均有严重侵袭性感染;且高Na+出现愈早,上升愈快,则感染愈重,愈后愈差。结论:1.烧伤后持续性高Na+,高Cl-产生的原因是严重侵袭性感染。2.动态监测血清Na+Cl-对感染的评价及抗感染效果有积极意义。3.预防措施包括平稳渡过休克,保护创面,避免长途转运。治疗上一旦出现持续性高钠高氯,除对症治疗外,根本措施是创面处理及抗感染。%Objective: To investigate the cause persistent high level of sodium and chloride ions in serum and methods for its prevention and treatment. The clinical significance of dynamic monitoring of serum sodium and chloride ion levels in severe burn patients. Method: To make a review of 7 cases with persistent high serum sodium and chloride ion levels and 61 cases without. Results: All of the severe cases had invasive infection. The earlier the presence of high serum sodium and chloride ion levels, the more dangerous the case. Conclusion: 1. Persistent high serum sodium and chloride ion levels is caused by invasive infection. 2. Dynamic monitoring of serum sodium and chloride ion levels is of great clinical significance. 3. Prevention measures include: to tide over shock stage, to protect burn wounds, to avoid long distance transfer. 4. Treating measures include careful management of burn wounds, anti-infection and expectant treatment.

  7. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad


    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  8. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Glazkova, I. S.; Kadyko, M. I.; Stefanovsky, O. I.


    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na2O, (20-x) Al2O3, x Fe2O3, 40 P2O5 (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60-75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  9. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina. (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R


    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  10. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef. (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R


    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  11. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina. (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R


    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  12. Thiazide diuretics directly induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by interacting with a sodium chloride co-transporter in bone. (United States)

    Dvorak, Melita M; De Joussineau, Cyrille; Carter, D Howard; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A; Gamba, Gerardo; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela


    Thiazide diuretics are used worldwide as a first-choice drug for patients with uncomplicated hypertension. In addition to their antihypertensive effect, thiazides increase bone mineral density and reduce the prevalence of fractures. Traditionally, these effects have been attributed to increased renal calcium reabsorption that occurs secondary to the inhibition of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule. The aim of the current study was to determine whether thiazides exert a direct bone-forming effect independent of their renal action. We found that the osteoblasts of human and rat bone also express NCC, suggesting that these bone-forming cells may be an additional target for thiazides. In vitro, NCC protein was virtually absent in proliferating human and fetal rat osteoblasts, whereas its expression dramatically increased during differentiation. Thiazides did not affect osteoblast proliferation, but directly stimulated the production of the osteoblast differentiation markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) and osteopontin. Using overexpression/knockdown studies in fetal rat calvarial cells, we show that thiazides increase the formation of mineralized nodules, but loop diuretics do not. Overall, our study demonstrates that thiazides directly stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation independent of their effects in the kidney. Therefore, in addition to their use as antihypertensive drugs, our results suggest that thiazides may find a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  13. Synergistic bactericidal action of phytic acid and sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells protected by a biofilm. (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk


    The food industry must prevent the build-up of strong Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms in food processing environments. The present study examined the bactericidal action of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran and the hulls/peels of legumes, against E. coli O157:H7 biofilms. The synergistic bactericidal effects of PA plus sodium chloride (NaCl) were also examined. E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were allowed for form on stainless steel coupons by culture in both rich (tryptic soy broth, TSB) and minimal (M9) medium at 22°C for 6days. Bacterial cells within biofilms grown in M9 medium were significantly more resistant to PA than those grown in TSB (pbiofilm effect of PA was significantly increased by addition of NaCl (2-4%) (pbiofilms without recovery (a>6.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Neither PA nor NaCl alone were this effective (PA, 1.6-2.7logCFU/cm(2) reduction; NaCl, food safety managers who encounter thick biofilm formation in food processing environments.

  14. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture. (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin


    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  15. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains. (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk


    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.

  16. Corrosion Resistance ofAA6063-TypeAl-Mg-SiAlloy by Silicon Carbide in Sodium Chloride Solution for MarineApplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ojo Sunday Isaac Fayomi; Malik Abdulwahab; Ferdinand Asuke


    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type Al-Mg-Si alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance (Rp), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  17. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li


    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  18. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite. (United States)

    Kartnaller, Vinicius; Mariano, Danielly C O; Cajaiba, João


    The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite has been known for its application as a source of heat because of its large enthalpy of reaction, for which it has been used by the oil industry. There have been no known calorimetric studies for the experimental determination of its molar enthalpy of reaction, which is necessary in order to predict the limits achieved for up-scale applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and reaction calorimetry were used to determine this value by using a simple methodology. Both techniques were used concomitantly as a source of information regarding the time-dependent moles converted (Δn) and the amount of exchanged heat (ΔH). The molar enthalpy of reaction was calculated to be -74 ± 4 kcal mol(-1). The percentage between the confidence interval and the calculated value was 5.4%, which shows that the methodology was precise. After the determination of the molar enthalpy of reaction, it was proved that the ATR FT-IR alone was able to be used as a substitute for the reaction calorimetry technique, in which the IR signal is converted to the heat information, presenting as an easier technique for the monitoring of the heat released by this system for future applications.

  19. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions. (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J


    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  20. 肌醇在氯化钠水溶液中的稀释焓和焓对相互作用%Dilution Enthalpy and Pairwise Enthalpic Interaction of Myo-inositol in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文清; 曲秀葵; 孙德志∗


      The dilution enthalpies of myo-inositol in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions had been determined with flow–mix-isothermal microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The enthalpic interaction coefficients in the different concentrations of sodium chloride had been calculated according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. The results showed that enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients (h2) of myo-inositol are negative in aqueous sodium chloride solutions and values of h2 become more positive with increasing the concentration of sodium chloride. It could be interpreted in terms of interactions of solute with solute and solute with solvent.%  应用微量热法测定了298.15 K时肌醇在纯水和氯化钠水溶液中的稀释焓,根据McMillan-Mayer 理论计算了肌醇在不同浓度的氯化钠溶液中的2到4阶焓相互作用系数.结果表明,肌醇在氯化钠溶液中的焓对相互作用系数h2均为负值,并且随着氯化钠浓度的增大, h2的值呈增大趋势.根据溶质-溶质相互作用和溶质-溶剂相互作用对焓对相互作用系数的变化趋势进行了解释.

  1. Determination of Sodium Chloride Content in Food(Ion chromatography)%食品中氯化钠含量的测定(离子色谱法)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Level of sodium chloride content in food was analyzed by using ion chromatography for the determination of anions in liquid sample.3.2mM Na_2CO_3+1.0mM NaHCO_3 were adopted as eluent solution,20~80mmol/L H_2SO_4 were adopted as suppression solution.Results showed that the detection limit of sodium chloride was 0.01%,the recovery was 95%.The method shows convenience,high accuracy,easy pretreatment,and can satisfy the analysis for sodium chloride in food.%利用离子色谱法测定样液中的阴离子含量,以3.2mM Na_2CO_3+1.0mM NaHCO_3为淋洗液,以20~80mmol/LH_2SO_4为抑制液,分析测定了食品中氯化钠的含量。结果表明,食品中氯化钠的检出限为0.01%,回收率达95%。该方法简便、快速、准确度高、前处理简单、能够满足食品中氯化钠的分析要求。

  2. Effect of Potassium Chloride as Partial Sodium Chloride Substitution in Salted Duck Eggs%KCl部分替代NaCl腌制咸蛋效果的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲; 孙静; 乐立强; 马美湖


    用KCl 5%、6.5%、8.5%、12.5%不同质量分数的替代量部分替代NaCl进行咸蛋腌制,25%的饱和食盐水浸泡作为腌制对照组,通过这种混合腌制的方法可直接降低食盐的添加量,改善腌制过程中咸蛋白口感偏重的问题,以腌制出品质优良的低盐咸蛋;另外,对咸蛋中NaCl含量、蛋黄出油率、水分的相关理化指标、质地结构、色度及对微观结构影响的测定,并且对咸蛋品质进行综合感官评定。结果表明:用6.5%部分替代NaCl组较好,蛋清NaCl含量从54.4mg/g降到40.1mg/g,降幅为26.29%。感官评定的结果表%Salted eggs are important egg products in our country.Sodium chloride(NaCl) is an essential component in the manufacturing of salted eggs,and can improve the structure and texture of eggs and special flavor formation.In this study,potassium chloride(KCl) was added at ratios of 5%,6.5%,8.5% and 12.5% as a partial substitute for NaCl to process salted duck eggs and 25% saturated NaCl immersion was used as the blank.Using this mixed method,the amount of salt addition was directly reduced,and partial substitution with KCl could improve the salting process.In addition,the oil release rate of egg yolk,the water contents of egg white and yolk,and the NaCl content,texture,structure,color parameters and microstructure of whole salted eggs were determined and the sensory quality of salted eggs was comprehensively evaluated.The results indicated that 6.5% sodium chloride was the best addition.The NaCl content in egg white protein was decreased from 54.4 to 40.1 mg/g with a range of 26.29%.Sensory evaluation revealed that potassium ions at excess concentrations could result in bitter taste.However,partial substitution of NaCl with KCl did not affect egg texture and the oil release rate and loose sand-like mouthfeel of egg yolk.Therefore,this method is feasible for reducing sodium content.

  3. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K; Determinacion de las constantes de hidrolisis del lutecio (III), en medio de fuerza ionica 1M de cloruro de sodio, a 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica


    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  4. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨辉; 张利波; 彭金辉; 刘秉国; 夏洪应; 黄卡玛; 顾晓春; 史谊峰


    The open-ended coaxial sensor reflection method is adopted to measure the coefficient of wet sodium chloride with moisture from 0% to 5% , the influence of microwave frequency, water content and temperature on microwave absorbing ability and microwave drying technology of wet sodium chloride are studied. The results show that: the microwave frequency which is between 2. 3 ~2. 6 GHz almost has no effect on the microwave absorption property, the increase of water content in the sample can dramatically increase in the microwave absorption property, and the microwave absorption property of the sample has a linear relationship with water content, temperature increasing leads to significant increase in microwave absorption property of wet sodium chloride. Microwave drying technolo- gy of sodium chloride is studied thus the optimized microwave drying process parameters for sodium chloride are obtained as follows: drying temperature 60 ~70 ℃ , drying time 70~90 s with sample thickness 35 -45 mm.%采用终端开路同轴探头反射法测量了含水率0%~5%的氯化钠反射系数,研究了微波频率、含水率和温度对氯化钠含水物料吸波性能的影响,并对氯化钠的微波干燥工艺进行分析.结果表明:微波频率在2.3~2.6 GHz对物料的吸波性能影响不大,含水率的增加能显著提高物料的吸波能力和微波能的耗散,氯化钠的吸波性能与含水率之间存在线性关系,温度升高也会引起物料吸波性能显著提升;通过对物料微波干燥工艺研究得到较好的微波干燥工艺条件:干燥温度60~70℃、干燥时间70 ~90s、物料厚度35 ~45 mm.

  6. Absorption of silicon and aluminum by hens fed sodium zeolite A with various levels of dietary cholecalciferol. (United States)

    Rabon, H W; Roland, D A; Bryant, M M; Smith, R C; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M


    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 1) serum Si and Al is increased in hens intubated with sodium zeolite A (SZA); and 2) dietary cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) influences the absorption of Si or Al by hens fed SZA. In Experiment 1, hens were intubated at oviposition with 0, 1, or 2 g of SZA. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein at oviposition, and 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h postoviposition. Serum samples were analyzed for Si and Al. Peak serum Si and Al were observed at 4 and 8 h postoviposition, respectively. In Experiment 2, hens consumed commercial layer diets ad libitum containing five levels of dietary cholecalciferol (100 to 500 IU/kg) with or without .75% SZA for 6 wk. Blood samples were collected at the end of the 6-wk period by cardiac puncture at oviposition. When dietary cholecalciferol was increased from 100 to 200 IU/kg of diet there was an increase (P < .05) in serum Si but not Al. Levels of cholecalciferol above 200 IU/kg did not produce an additional increase in serum Si. The results showed increased (P < .01) serum concentrations of Si and Al for hens intubated with or fed SZA. It was concluded that Si and Al from SZA are absorbed by commercial Leghorn hens, and a possible involvement of Si or Al should be considered in the mechanism of action of SZA associated with improved eggshell quality and bone development.

  7. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings. (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E


    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings.

  8. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings. (United States)

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K


    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen.

  9. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols. (United States)

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M


    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.].

  10. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings. (United States)

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C


    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  11. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols. (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel


    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  12. Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths. (United States)

    Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro


    Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.8±33.2, 403.5±107.9, and 239.3±21.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of 282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.8±40.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings.

  13. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D.


    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses.

  14. The effect of water and sodium chloride intake on blood pressure and the mechanism%不同剂量水钠摄入对血压影响的基础研究及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全洪兵; 于国东; 陈伟才; 胡建锋


    Objective To investigate the mechanism of changes of blood pressure by different sodium chloride and water intake in Wistar rat.Methods Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups equally.Groop A received low - sodium chloride intake, and subdivided into group A1 and A2 equally.Group A1 was fed by dry food with 0.5% sodium chloride without limitation of water intake.Group A2 was fed by dry food with 0.5% sodium chloride and 40ml of water every day according to the physiological need for water.Group B received high - sodium chloride intake, and subdivided into group B1 and B2 equally.Group B1 was fed by dry food with 4% sodium chloride without limitation of water intake.Group B2 was fed by dry food with 4% sodium chloride and 40ml of water every day.The intake of water and the volume of urine, and the body weight and rat tail blood pressure were measured daily and weekly respectively for 8 weeks.Serum noradrenalin ( NE ), angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ )and creatinine (Cr) were analyzed after the 8 - week diet.Results Blood pressure in group B was higher than in group A ( P < 0.01 ), and higher in group B2 than in group B1 ( P < 0.01 ).The difference between the intake of water and the volume of urine volume in group B was less than that in group A ( P <0.01 ), similar between group A1 and group A2 ( P >0.05 ), significantly different between group B2 and group B1 ( P < 0.01 ).The body weight in group B was lower than that in group A ( P < 0.01 ).Ang Ⅱ level in group B was lower than that in group A ( P < 0.05 ), and lower in group B2 than that in group B1 ( P < 0.05 ).NE level in group B was higher than that in group A ( P < 0.05 ), and higher in group B2 than that in group B1 ( P < 0.05 ).However, there was no difference in the level of Cr between all groups ( P > 0.05 ).One rat in group B2 was dead at week 4 after experiment, and the cause was unknown.Conclusion High intake of sodium chloride would increase blood pressure.The increase

  15. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R


    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  16. Research on Purification of Polyaluminum Chloride by Aluminum-carbon Micro-electrolysis Technology%铝碳微电解技术净化聚合氯化铝的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The polyaluminum chloride produced by bauxite powder and by-product hydrochloric acid has many heavy metals and organic impurities. Referring to the principles of Fe-C micro-electrolysis, by artificially adding activated carbon and creating AL-C micro-electrolysis condition, the heavy metals and organic impurities of polyaluminum chloride can be removed. Under the condition of using the aluminum carbon ratio 1:1, the dynamic operation, the control parameters with the residence time at 1 hour, and the treatment costs about 6.67 yuan/ton, Pb2+content of polyaluminum chloride decreased from 23.3ppm to 5.8ppm, which is below the GB 10ppm requirements.%铝矿粉与副产盐酸生产的聚合氯化铝中重金属杂质和有机杂质往往较多,借鉴铁碳微电解原理,人为投加活性炭,创造铝碳微电解条件,用来去除聚合氯化铝中的重金属和有机杂质。在采用铝碳比1:1,动态操作,停留时间在1小时的控制参数,处理费用约6.67元/吨的条件下,原液铅Pb2+含量23.3ppm,处理后铅Pb2+含量下降到5.8ppm,低于国标10ppm的要求。

  17. Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation. (United States)

    Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel


    The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the

  18. Solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid: a molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges


    We report molecular dynamics studies on the solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([BMI][Tf2N] IL). We first consider the potential of mean force for dissociating a single Na+Cl- ion pair, showing that the latter prefers to be undissociated rather than dissociated (by ca. 9 kcal/mol), with a free energy barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol (at d approximately 5.2 A) for the association process. The preference for Na+Cl- association is also observed from a 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a concentrated solution, where the Na+Cl- ions tend to form oligomers and microcrystals in the IL. Conversely, the simulation of Na13Cl14- and Na14Cl13+ cubic microcrystals (with, respectively, Cl- and Na+ at the vertices) does not lead to dissolution in the IL. Among these, Na14Cl13+ is found to be better solvated than Na13Cl14-, mainly due to the stronger Na+...Tf2N- interactions as compared to the Cl-...BMI+ interactions at the vertices of the cube. We finally consider the solid/liquid interface between the 100 face of NaCl and the IL, revealing that, in spite of its polar nature, the crystal surface is solvated by the less polar IL components (CF3(Tf2N) and butyl(BMI) groups) rather than by the polar ones (O(Tf2N) and imidazolium(BMI) ring). Specific ordering at the interface is described for both Tf2N- anions and BMI+ cations. In the first IL layer, the ions are rather parallel to the surface, whereas in the second "layer" they are more perpendicular. A similar IL structure is found at the surface of the all-neutral Na0Cl0 solid analogue, confirming that the solvation of the crystal is rather "apolar", due to the mismatch between the IL and the crystal ions. Several comparisons with water, methanol, or different BMI+-based ILs as solvents are presented, allowing us to better understand the specificity of the ionic liquid-NaCl interactions.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III chloride as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III chloride (Fe mTA is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid were absorbed. There are no ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion data for meso-tartrate. From a 90-day rat study, the lowest calculated BMDLs (Benchmark Dose Level for Fe mTA were: 75 mg/kg body weight (bw per day for males (BMDL05 for serum bile acids and 267 mg/kg bw per day for females (BMDL10 for goblet cells hyperplasia. Several in vitro studies showed that there is no safety concern for genotoxicity. No reprotoxicity and developmental toxicity was reported, however no study was specifically designed for teratogenicity. No long-term or carcinogenicity studies were available. The Panel concluded that the toxicity database was insufficient to establish an ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake and calculated MoS (Margin of Safety by comparing the highest intake of Fe mTA of 0.092 mg/kg bw per day for children at the 97.5 percentile with the lowest BMDLs. The resulting MoS were 815 and 2 900 for males and females, respectively. Owing to the conservative assumptions included in the exposure assessment, the Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the single condition of use and use level of Fe mTA proposed. The Panel noted that this evaluation was based on a limited toxicity database, for a single use resulting in a very low exposure, and therefore concluded that any extension of use and/or use level of Fe mTA, would require a new risk assessment.

  20. Low Sodium Chloride and Low Blood the Prognosis of Acute Stroke Correlation%低钠血症与急性脑卒中预后的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To study the low sodium chloride and low blood acute brain stroke the correlation of prognosis, and draw the conclusion methods acute stroke patients collection, observation period prognosis and low sodium chloride the correlation between the low disease. Results:In this study in patients with acute stroke outcome 46%developed low sodium chloride low hematic disease, low sodium chloride low blood the prognosis of patients with serious influence. Conclusion:Hyponatremia is acute hemorrhagic stroke more common complications, the serious influence the prognosis of patients. Only in patients with hyponatremia understanding of the pathophysiology of mechanism, can effectively correct hyponatremia, and prevent possible complications. Introduce acute hemorrhagic stroke appear with hyponatremia were the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the pathogenesis and the progress of research.%  目的:研究低钠血症与急性脑卒中预后的相关性,并得出相应的结论。方法:收集急性脑卒中患者,观察期预后与低钠血症之间的相关性。结果:本研究中急性脑卒中预后患者中46%出现了低钠血症,低钠血症严重影响患者的预后。结论:低钠血症是急性出血性脑卒中较为常见的并发症之一,严重影响患者的预后。只有了解患者发生低钠血症的病理生理学机制,才能有效地纠正低钠血症,并防止可能出现的并发症。现介绍急性出血性脑卒中出现低钠血症患者的临床表现、诊断、发生机制及治疗方面的研究进展。

  1. 高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉用于前列腺电切术的可行性%The feasibility of using hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch in resection of prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武德; 兰莲莲


    目的:研究前列腺肥大的患者在腰硬联合麻醉下行前列腺电切术时输注高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉(hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch,HSH)预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.方法:随机将60例前列腺肥大患者分为A组(观察组)和B组(对照组)各30例.观察组术前先输注复方氯化钠,手术开始后输注HSH 5ml/kg.对照组仅输注复方氯化钠.抽取静脉血检测手术开始前(T0)、开始后30min(T30)、60min(T60)、90min(T90)各时点的电解质、HCT的变化.结果:观察组血中的电解质、HCT变化不大.对照组同一时点与观察组相比,Na+、HCT明显降低.结论:腰硬联合麻醉行前列腺电切术时输注HSH安全有效,有一定预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.%Objective:To study whether hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch (HSH) can prevent transurethral resection syndrome (TURS) in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for prostatic hypertrophy under combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Methods:Sixty patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly divided into two groups:observation group (n= 30 ) and control group (n = 30). In observation group inlravenous compound sodium chloride was administered before operation,aud after the beginning of operation intravenous 5mL/kg HSH was administered in each patient. In control group only intravenous compound sodium chloride was given. Venous samples were taken before operation (T0 ), after 30 minutes (T30) ,60 minutes (T6o) ,90 minutes (T9o) of operation beginning, to detect the change of blood electrolyte and HCT. Results:The change of blood electrolyte and HCT in observation group was not obvious. At the same time points,Na+ and HCT were obviously lower in control group than in observation group. Conclusions:Intravenous infusion of HSH is safe in TURP under CSEA ,and effective in preventing TURS.

  2. Effect of Sodium Molybdate Inhibitor on Corrosion Resistance of 5083 Aluminum Alloy Used for Drone%钼酸钠对靶用5083铝合金耐蚀性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志成; 周宽; 田志强


    目的:提高靶用5083铝合金材料的耐蚀性。方法分别运用阳极极化、交流阻抗及EDS等试验技术研究钼酸钠对5083铝合金在3%氯化钠溶液中的耐蚀性能影响。结果钼酸钠加入3%氯化钠溶液以后,该铝合金的腐蚀电位下降,点蚀电位与腐蚀电位分离,维钝电流减小,阻抗值增大,抗点蚀能力提高。结论钼酸钠对5083铝合金产生缓蚀作用。%Objective To improve the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy used for drone.Methods The polariza-tion, electrochemical impedance spectrum and energy dispersive spectrometer were employed to study the effect of sodium mo-lybdate inhibitor on the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy in 3% NaCl solution.Results After addition of sodium molybdate in the 3% NaCl solution, the corrosion potential was decreased and separated from the pitting potential, the passi-vated current was reduced, the impedance was increased, and the capability of inhibiting pitting was promoted.Conclusion So-dium molybdate had corrosion inhibition effect on 5083 aluminum alloy.

  3. The corrosion inhibition of iron and aluminum by various naturally occurring biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, E.; Hansen, D.C. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    Biological polymers that exhibit a strong affinity for metal surfaces are increasingly becoming the focus of research toward the development of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. This paper deals with the use of various naturally occurring organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors for iron or aluminum. Among the organic molecules considered are catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores isolated from bacteria, the adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. FTIR analysis, anodic polarization curves, and AC impedance measurements were used to determine the adsorption and effectiveness of the various organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors. Parabactin, a catecholate siderophore, was effective in inhibiting both the corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid and the pitting of aluminum in 0.1 M sodium chloride. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel was also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  5. Time exposure studies on stress corrosion cracking of aluminum 2014-T6, 2219-T87, 2014-T651, 7075-T651, and titanium 6Al-4V (United States)

    Terrell, J.


    The effect of a constant applied stress in crack initiation of aluminum 2014-T6, 2219-T87, 2014-T651, 7075-T651 and titanium 6Al-4V has been investigated. Aluminum c-ring specimens (1-inch diameter) and u-band titanium samples were exposed continuously to a 3.5% NaCl solution (pH 7) and organic fluids of ethyl, methyl, and iso-propyl alcohol (reagent purity), and demineralized distilled water. Corrosive action was observed to begin during the first and second day of constant exposure as evidenced by accumulation of hydrogen bubbles on the surface of stressed aluminum samples. However, titanium stressed specimens showed no reactions to its environment. Results of this investigation seems to suggest that aluminum 2014-T6, aluminum 7075-T651 and aluminum 2014-T651 are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in chloride solution (NaCl), while aluminum 2219-T87 seem to resist stress corrosion cracking in sodium chloride at three levels of stress (25%, 50%, and 75% Y.S.). In organic fluids of methyl, ethyl, and iso-propyl alcohol, 2014-T6 and 7075-T651 did not fail by SCC; but 2014-T651 was susceptible to SCC in methly alcohol, but resistant in ethyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol and demineralized distilled water.

  6. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens. (United States)

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H


    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  7. 加替沙星与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%Compatibility of Gatifloxacin for Injection With Ornidazole Sodium Chloride Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:评价加替沙星与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性。方法配置加替沙星、氯化钠溶液标准品,测定吸光度,绘制标准曲线,配置不同浓度配伍液,在不同时间段测定吸光度、pH值,肉眼观察物理变化,并进行回收率试验。结果测得加替沙星波长289.9 nm, C=22.3353△A+0.1576,奥硝唑测定波长319.7 nm,C=30.3313△A-0.1554;不同浓度配伍液体不同时间按段回收率、pH值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),无气泡、无沉淀产生。结论加替沙星与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性较好。%ObjectiveTo evaluate the gatifloxacin and ornidazole sodium chloride injection compatibility stability.MethodsConfigure gatifloxacin,sodium chloride standard measured absorbance,the standard curve,configured with different concentrations of the mixed solution,measuring absorbance, pH,physical changes visually observed at different time periods,and recovery test.Results The measured gatifloxacin wavelength 289.9 nm, C=22.335 3△A+0.1576,ornidazole measurement wavelength 319.7 nm,C=30.331 3△A-0.1554,compatibility of liquids with different concentrations at different times by segment recovery,pH value of the difference no statisticaly significant(P> 0.05),no bubbles,no precipitate. Conclusion Gatifloxacin and ornidazole sodium chloride injection compatibility better stability.

  8. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infinite Dilution in Supercritical Water%超临界水中NaCl无限稀释扩散系数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭


    The molecular dynamics (MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2 K to 763.2 K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa. Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation, an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed. Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data, and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2 K to 803.2 K and from 25 MPa to 50 MPa show that this equation is applicable for the calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  9. 氯化钠对锂离子电池石墨负极的修饰改性%Modification of Graphite Anode for Li-ion Batteries by Sodium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友元; 李新海; 郭华军; 王志兴; 杨勇; 朱文明


    The electrochemical performance of a graphite electrode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was improved by pretreatment of graphite powders with NaCl aqueous solutions. The procedure of the pretreatment was simple and easy. Graphite powders were dispersed in the aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, followed by stirring, heating and drying. The irreversible capacity at the initial cycle was suppressed by the modification. The sample modified with 1% NaCl had the best electrochemical performances with a reversible capacity of 364.8mAh·g-1, an irreversible capacity of 47.4 mAh·g-1, and an initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5%. The cycling stability of the Li/C cells with modified graphite as anodes was improved. The capacity retention ratio at the 30th cycle was up to 91.97%.

  10. Efeito da substituição de cloreto de sódio por cloreto de potássio em pão francês Effect of the substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in French rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karoline Ferreira Ignácio


    se produzir pão francês com até 30% de redução de sal (1,4% na formulação comercial, o que proporcionaria pães com a quantidade de sódio proposta para atender aos limites estabelecidos (234 mg.50 g-1, em relação a uma formulação padrão de 2% de sal (base farinha.There is a worldwide trend to reduce sodium in industrialized food products due to its relationship with high blood pressure. Since French rolls are one of the food products most contributing towards the ingestion of sodium by the Brazilian population, the objective of this research was to evaluate the substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl by potassium chloride (KCl in this product, as a way of complying with this tendency. Four formulations were evaluated, standard (FP with 2% NaCl, the substitution of 30% (F1 and 50% (F2 of this percentage by KCl, and F3 with no sodium chloride addition, equivalent to 307, 234, 176.5 and 4.5 mg sodium per French roll (50 g, respectively. All the reductions conformed with the recommendations made by ANVISA for 2014. The wheat flour used was characterized from its proximate composition, gluten content and index and the extensigraphic and farinographic analyses, being found adequate for breadmaking. The rheological characteristics of doughs prepared with saline solutions of the same concentrations as the formulations, were obtained using the extensigraph. The rolls were evaluated for specific volume and their sodium and potassium contents, and also submitted to an acceptance test with 53 bread consumers. The reduction in sodium content did not significantly alter their specific volumes. In the sensory analysis, it was not possible to differentiate up to 30% salt reduction in relation to the 2% salt standard, for all the attributes evaluated. However the formulation with 50% substitution was significantly less accepted for taste than the standard, its average acceptance score being equivalent to "I liked it slightly". The formulation with no added sodium chloride

  11. Effects of High Salt Concentration and Residue on Copper and Aluminum Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Ying; TAN Mike; Yong jun; SHU Li


    Traditional researches on metal corrosion under salt solutions deposit conditions are usually carried out by visual,electron microscopic observations and simple electrochemical measurement via a traditional one-piece electrode.These techniques have difficulties in measuring localized corrosion that frequently occur in inhomogeneous media.This paper reports the results from the experiments using specially shaped coupons and a relatively new method of measuring heterogeneous electrochemical processes,namely,the wire beam electrode(WBE).Preliminary results from copper and aluminum corrosion in highly concentrated sodium chloride solutions with and without solid deposits show that the method is useful in simulating and studying corrosion especially localized corrosion in pipelines.

  12. Observation Efficacy on Cerebral Hemorrhage Piracetam Sodium Chloride Injection Therapy%吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑出血的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Piracetam sodium chloride injection to be applied to the efficacy of the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage were observed and analyzed. Methods From March 2014 to September 2015 in our hospital, 238 cases of cerebral hemorrhage patients were divided into 2 groups and test groups of 119 cases of patients were to be mannitol treatment, and topiramate levetiracetam sodium chloride treatment. For the treatment groups were observed. Results Observed after treatment, the experimental group of patients with total efficiency than the conventional group, in addition to intracranial pressure and neuropeptide Y levels lower than conventional group. Conclusion Observed after treatment, the experimental group of patients with total efficiency than the conventional group, in addition to intracranial pressure and neuropeptide Y levels lower than conventional group.%目的:对吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液应用于治疗脑出血患者的疗效进行观察和分析。方法选取2014年3月~2015年9月来我院就诊并接受治疗的238例脑出血患者,分为常规组和试验组,每组119例,分别予以甘露醇治疗和吡拉西坦氯化钠进行治疗,对两组患者治疗效果进行观察。结果经治疗后观察比较,试验组患者的总有效率优于常规组,此外颅压和神经肽 Y 水平低于常规组。结论吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑出血能够获得较好效果。

  13. Investigation of the stability of the dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection and mecobalamin injection in sodium chloride injection%地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中的稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滔敏; 陈念祖; 王东蕾; 赖永华; 马勤; 闫晶超


    AIM To investigate the stability of dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection and mecobalamin injection in sodium chloride injection. METHODS Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and mecobalamin were determined by RP-HPLC method at 4℃ and normal temperature under natural illumination and nonillumination within 12 h. The appearance of the solution was observed and its pH value was determined. RESULTS No significant change was found in the terms of the appearance and the contents of the mixed solution, the changes of pH value were not more than 1.0 under nonillumination within 12 h. No significant change was found in the terms of the content of dexamethasone sodium phosphate under illumination within 12 h. However, more than 50% mecobalamin was degraded under natural illumination within 5 min. CONCLUSION The dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection and mecobalamin injection should not be simultaneously put in the sodium chloride injection for intravenous infusion.%目的 考察地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中的稳定性.方法 监测地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中配伍后于4℃、常温时自然光照射下及避光条件下12 h内的含量变化,同时考察配伍液pH值与外观的变化情况.结果 与配伍后0h比较,在避光条件下12 h内,pH、外观及两者含量均无显著变化;未避光条件下,地塞米松磷酸钠在12 h内无显著变化,5min内甲钴胺含量有显著变化,50%以上已降解.结论 建议地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂不要与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中配伍后用于静脉滴注.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林林; 丁洪生; 刘萍萍; 刘庆利


    The oligomerization of 1-decenes was studied using aluminum chloride-isopropanol complex as catalyst,and high viscosity poly-alpha-olefins (PAO) were synthesized. The effects of reaction conditions, such as catalyst amount, molar ratio of isopropanol/A1Cl3, reaction temperature, reaction time and various olefin feeds on the yield and property of PAO were investigated. The experimental results showed that under the conditions of an A1Cl3 mole fraction of 4 % ,an isopropanol/A1Cl3 molar ratio in the range of 0. 3-0. 7 , reaction temperature in the range of 20-60 ℃ and a reaction time of 4 h,the yield of high viscosity PAO could be more than 90%,and the product having low condensation point and high viscosity index.%使用AlCl3-异丙醇络合催化剂对1-癸烯齐聚反应进行研究,合成了高黏度聚α-烯烃合成润滑油(PAO).考察了催化剂用量、反应温度、反应时间以及烯烃原料对PAO收率的影响.结果表明,在AlCl3摩尔分数为4%、异丙醇与AlCl3摩尔比为0.3~0.7、反应温度20~60℃、反应时间4 h的条件下,合成高黏度PAO的收率在90%以上,并且具有低凝点、高黏度指数的特点.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate. (United States)


    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... manufacture of polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymers intended for use as articles or components of...

  16. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Krabbe


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  17. Inhibitive effect of Ce(III) and La(III) cations for AA2219 aluminium alloy corrosion in sodium chloride medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, G., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Sheik Mideen, A. [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Jha, Abhay K. [Materials Processing Division, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Kulandainathan, M. Anbu [Electro Organic Chemistry Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India)


    In this paper, the rare earth chlorides were used to mitigate the dealloying of Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate exposed to 0.6 M NaCl solution. The negative shift of cathodic branches of potentiodynamic polarisation curves revealed the cathodic inhibition towards intermetallic dealloying. The low and high frequency time constants obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra revealed an increase in the corrosion resistance due to precipitation of rare earth oxides/hydroxides on the porous surface of native oxide film of aluminium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that intermetallic inclusions are the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum deposits which suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions between the matrix and Al{sub 2}Cu particles. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal the intermetallic inclusions, the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum oxide/hydroxide precipitates which prevent intermetallic de-alloying, suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} act as cathodic inhibitors for AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy in 0.6 M NaCl. • Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles are the sites for the formation of Ce and La precipitates. • The decrease in surface potential by rare earth chlorides confirms their inhibition.

  18. Correlation between porosity and space holder content at different sintering temperatures of aluminum foam (United States)

    Rushdi, N. M. F. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.


    Aluminum foam is the most popular metal foam that can be used as energy absorbers, heat exchangers, air-oil separators and structure core of fuel cells. Melt-foaming agent, melt-gas injection, investment casting and powder-foaming agent techniques can be used to manufacture aluminum foam, but these techniques are too expensive. In this study, the aluminum foam was manufactured via a sintering dissolution process (SDP). Powders of aluminum and sodium chloride as space holder (25, 40, 50 wt. %) were mixed together to produce a homogeneous mixture. The mixture was compacted at 200 MPa followed by sintering at 500, 550 and 600˚C for 2 hours. A warm running water stream was used to dissolve the space holder that was embedded in the aluminum. The result showed that, the space holder content performed a significant role to control the total porosity to a value between 18 and 40%, and the porosity increased with increasing content of space holder and sintering temperature.

  19. Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters. (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Rehner, Anita B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M; Paquin, Paul R; Stubblefield, William A


    The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.

  20. 胞磷胆碱钠的葡萄糖注射液和氯化钠注射液的灭菌稳定性%The sterilization stability for Citicoline Sodium and Glucose Injection and Citicoline Sodium and Sodium Chloride Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明; 嵇杨; 高锦; 刘俊; 程洋; 赵春杰


    Purpose To study the sterilization stability of Citicoline Sodium and Glucose Injection (CG)and Citicoline Sodium and Sodium Chloride Injection ( CS) , so as to provide reference to the manufacturers for selecting the appropriate sterilization process. Methods The pH value, related substances content and absorption of CG and CS before and after sterilization ( five different sterilization conditions) were determined. The mice toxicity test was conducted. Results After sterilization, the pH value of CG decreased significantly and the absorption increased. A significant increase occurred in related substances content. The related substances content of CG(0.S mg/mL)has already exceeded the ChP( 2010) limits after five different sterilizations. The related substances content of CG(2.5 ,2 mg/mL) has already exceeded the ChP( 2010) limits after overkilled sterilization ( Fo>12). After sterilization, the pH value of CS decreased, the absorption did not change, the related substances content increase slightly and did not exceed the ChP(2010) limits. The mice toxicity was not caused by both. Conclusion CG(0. 5 mg/mL) should not choose terminal sterilization process,and CG(2.5,2 mg/mL)should choose residual probability method (8≤S F0<12)as the sterilization process instead of overkilled sterilization ( F0>12) , but should ensure SAL≤10-6. Compared to CG.CS is more suitable for large volume injection.%目的 研究3种规格胞磷胆碱钠葡萄糖注射液(CG)和4种规格胞磷胆碱钠氯化钠注射液(CS)的灭菌稳定性,为选择适宜灭菌工艺提拱参考.方法 分别测定5种不同灭菌条件下,灭菌前后注射液的pH值、有关物质及340和700 nm波长处吸光度差值,并考察对小鼠的毒性.结果 灭菌后CG的pH值明显降低,吸光度差值增高,规格为0.5 mg/mL的CG在5种灭菌条件下、规格为2.5和2 mg/mL的CG在Fo >12灭菌条件下灭菌后,有关物质超过中国药典规定的限度.灭菌后CS的pH值有一定

  1. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes. (United States)

    Trompette, J L; Vergnes, H


    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ions were particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were observed to have a neutral role. The results indicate that electrocoagulation can be realized at low anodic potential even in the presence of sulfate ions when the [Cl(-)]/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio is around or greater than 1/10. The detrimental effect of sulfates on electrocoagulation efficiency can be thwarted by the use of the ammonium salt thanks to its related buffer effect.

  2. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions. (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta


    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  3. Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model. (United States)

    Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A


    The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations.

  4. Oligomerization process of 1-octylene catalyzed by aluminum chloride-pentaerythritol complex%AlCl3-季戊四醇络合催化剂催化1-辛烯齐聚工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张于; 丁洪生; 刘岳松


    Poly-alpha-olefins are high quality lubricants base oil. Using aluminum chloride-pentaerythritol complex as the catalyst,the oligomerization of 1-octylene was studied. The effects of molar fractions of the catalyst, molar ratio of the pentaerythritol/ AlCl3, reaction temperature and reaction time on the yield of poly-alpha-olefins and the selectivity to polymer were investigated. The results showed that poly-alpha-olefins yield of 93, 4% was attained under the optimal process condition of synthetic lubricant as follows; using 1-octylene as the raw material, A1Cl3 molar fraction 2% ,pentaerythritol/AlC13 molar ratio 0.5 .reaction temperature 50 ℃ , reaction time 4 h. The product of poly-alpha-olefins was mainly consisted of tri-niers and tetrarners, which were the ideal lube components and had better selectivity.%聚α-烯烃是高品质的润滑油基础油.使用AlCl3-季戊四醇络合催化剂,对1-辛烯齐聚反应进行研究,考察催化剂物质的量分数、季戊四醇与AlCl3物质的量比、反应温度和反应时间对聚烯烃收率及不同聚合物选择性的影响.结果表明,1-辛烯齐聚合成聚α-烯烃最佳工艺条件:AlCl3物质的量分数为2%,季戊四醇与AlCl3物质的量比为0.5,反应温度为50℃,反应时间为4h,聚烯烃收率约为93.4%,合成的聚α-烯烃产品中润滑油的理想组分三聚体和四聚体选择性较好.

  5. Characterization of the high-pressure structural transition and thermodynamic properties in sodium chloride: a computational investigation on the basis of the density functional theory. (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Qin-Sheng


    Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, the thermodynamic properties, and the structural phase transition between the B1 (rocksalt) and the B2 (cesium chloride) phases of NaCl are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method. The calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. On the basis of the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure Pt between the B1 phase and the B2 phase of NaCl is determined. The calculated values are generally speaking in good agreement with experiments and with similar theoretical calculations. From the theoretical calculations, the shear modulus, Young's modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio of NaCl are derived. According to the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we estimated the Debye temperature of NaCl from the average sound velocity. Moreover, the pressure derivatives of elastic constants, partial differentialC11/partial differentialP, partial differentialC12/partial differentialP, partial differentialC44/partial differentialP, partial differentialS11/partial differential P, partial differentialS12/partial differentialP, and partial differentialS44/partial differentialP, for NaCl crystal are investigated for the first time. This is a quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of NaCl, and it still awaits experimental confirmation.

  6. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham. (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario


    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  7. Organic Electrochemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts. (United States)


    Cyclic voltametry revealed adamantane and l-methyladamanta1ie to be electroactive at a tungsten electrode * well within the background limits of molten...diphenylmethane. Coulometry cyclic voltametry and ring-disc electrode studies were carried out to elucidate a mechanism for the reaction. It was shown that...the viscosity was found to be 25 cp and the • I conductivity, 3 x 1O~ ohm~ cm ’. A variety of electrode materials were surveyed via cyclic voltaninetry

  8. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin [Korea Polytechnic University, Shiheung (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jeon-Soo [Future Technology Research Laboratory, KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO{sub 2}{sup -}, the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO{sub 2}{sup -} caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO{sub 2}{sup -} acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass.

  9. 碳酸钠焙烧铝系钒铁炉渣共提取钒与铝%Recovery of Vanadium and Aluminum in Ferrovanadium Slag from Thermite Method by Sodium Carbonate-roasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明磊; 陈东辉; 石立新; 李兰杰; 周冰晶; 祁健


    通过对铝系钒铁炉渣碳酸钠焙烧-水浸全过程的矿物分析、热力学计算及对比实验,研究了炉渣中钒、铝同步转化、溶出的机理与规律.结果显示,焙烧进程中渣中镁铝尖晶石MgO·Al2O3相、CaO·2Al2O3相逐渐消失,MgO相生成,并生成碱熔相Na2O·Al2O3和钒酸盐.随焙烧温度及时间增加,Na2O·Al2O3和钒酸盐相明显增多,钒、铝溶出率增加.焙烧熟料经水浸后,液相呈碱性,钒、铝分别以可溶性钒酸钠和铝酸钠的形式进入水相,固相残留物为少量未反应的镁铝尖晶石及新生成的MgO和Ca(OH)2.在磨矿粒度<75μm、配碱系数1.0、焙烧温度1 000℃及焙烧时间4h的优化条件下,钒的溶出率可达90%,铝的溶出率可达75%.%By mineralogical analysis, thermodynamic calculation, and comparative experiments, the synchronous conversion of vanadium and aluminum was studied, and dissolving mechanism in the process of sodium carbonate roasting and water leaching on ferrovanadium slag. The results showed that magnesia-alumina spinel (MgO-Al2O3) and CaO-2Al2O3 phases gradually disappeared, and MgO phase, alkali melting phase of Na2O-Al2O3 and phase vanadate were generated in the roasting process. Na2O-Al2O3 and vanadate phases increased obviously with the increase of roasting temperature and time, resulting in the dissolution increase of vanadium and aluminum. Vanadium and aluminum, in vanadate and sodium aluminate, could be dissolved into water solution, as the solution was alkaline when the clinker was leached by water. The solid residues were a small amount of unreacted magnesia-alumina spinel and new generated MgO and Ca(OH)2. The optimum roasting conditions were obtained as follows: grinding particle size below 75 μm, molar ratio of Al2O3 and V2O5 to Na2CO3 1:1, roasting temperature 1000 ℃and roasting time 4 h. Under these conditions, the leaching rates of vanadium and aluminum were up to 90% and 75%, respectively.

  10. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes. (United States)

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques


    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate.

  11. Study of the sensitization of tetradecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride for the color development reaction between lysine and sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and the determination of lysine in pharmaceutical and biological samples (United States)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Tiantian


    A rapid, simple and sensitive method for the determination of lysine (Lys) using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) and tetradecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (Zeph) is presented in this paper. The method is based on the russety product formed from Lys, NQS and Zeph in a buffer solution of pH 9.60, and the stoichiometric ratio of the product is 1:2:2. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.09-18 μg ml -1 of Lys at the maximum absorption of 474 nm ( ɛ474 is 8.1 × 10 5 l mol -1 cm -1). The equation of linear regression is A = 0.40427 + 0.06112 C, with a linearly correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The limit of detection is 0.07 μg ml -1, R.S.D. 0.8%, and average recovery rate in a range of 98.9-100.1%. This paper further optimizes the determination of Lys compared with the previous methods, and the reaction mechanism is studied intensively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Lys in pharmaceutical and biological samples. The common components as nutritional additives in pharmaceuticals and other compounds in biological samples nearly do not interfere with the proposed method.

  12. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3). (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J


    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented.

  13. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.


    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  14. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense. (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M


    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  15. 呼吸道上皮细胞钠/氯离子通道与支气管哮喘%Epithelial sodium and chloride channels and bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯; 吉宏龙


    支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)是一种慢性气道疾病,表现为气道高反应性和气道炎症导致的可逆性气道阻塞.研究显示,呼吸道上皮细胞钠/氯离子通道(ENaC/CFTR)调节黏液纤毛系统从而参与了慢性气道疾病的发病机制.ENaC及CFTR共同调节黏液的水质层,从而影响气道纤毛清除能力.调节上皮通道蛋白的特异性拮抗剂或激活剂将为哮喘和其他慢性气道疾病的预防和治疗开拓新的研究前景.%Bronchial asthma (asthma) is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyper-responsiveness and inflammation.Airway cilia system is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases.Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are closely related to the mucociliary clearance.ENaC and CFTR jointly adjust the water layer of mucus, which affects the airway cilia clearance ability.Specific antagonists or activating agents of ENaC and CFTR could be novel pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention and treatment of asthma as well as other chronic airway diseases.

  16. Fontes de Sódio e Relação Sódio: Cloro para Frangos de Corte Sodium Chloride Levels in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva


    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 2.880 pintos de corte, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes fontes de sódio (Na+ e relações sódio:cloro (Na+:Cl- na ração. As aves receberam ração e água ad libtum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade não foram influenciados (p>0,05 pela substituição da fonte tradicional de Na e pelas diferentes relações Na:Cl. A umidade da cama foi afetada pela fonte e níveis de Na na ração. Os resultados mostraram que pode-se utilizar o NaHCO3 como fonte parcial à exigência de Na para frangos de corte de 1 a 47 dias de idade.A trial was carried out with 2,880 day old chicks to evaluate different sources of sodium (Na+ and Na+:Cl- ratio in diets. Water and diets were available in "ad libitum" feeding. Experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six repetitions. The performance (feed intake, body weight, feed conversion and mortality was not affected (P>0.05 by treatments, but different levels and sources of Na+ increased litter moisture. The NaHCO3 can be used in chicken broilers diets in partial substitution of Na for day 1 to 47.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez


    Full Text Available Resumen. Una propuesta para reducir los niveles de sodio en productos cárnicos, y desarrollar productos más saludables, es disminuir la cantidad de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en las formulaciones. En este estudio fue evaluado el efecto de disminuir y sustituir NaCl por KCl modificado, sobre los niveles de sodio y las características sensoriales y microbiológicas en una salchicha tipo Seleccionada. El porcentaje de reducción y sustitución de NaCl por KCl modificado con relación a un control fue de 50 y 75%, respectivamente. La reducción de NaCl en estos niveles, causó efectos significativos (P≤0,05 sobre el contenido de sodio en el producto final en relación al control, lo que implicaría beneficios nutricionales. De otro lado, diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las propiedades de textura, tanto a nivel instrumental como sensorial, fueron detectadas en la formulación con reducción del 75% de NaCl. En cuanto a la estabilidad microbiológica, y demás atributos sensoriales, no se detectaron diferencias entre los tratamientos y el control. Este estudio sugiere que es posible reducir la concentración de NaCl en un 50% en salchichas tipo Seleccionada mediante el uso de KCl modificado, sin cambios desfavorables en las características sensoriales y microbiológicas. Esta reducción permitiría una disminución en los niveles de sodio del 24% en el producto final.Abstract. A proposal to reduce the sodium levels in meat products to develop healthier products is to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl in the formulations. In this study, the effect of reducing NaCl and its substituting by modified KCl on sodium levels, sensory and microbiological characteristics in a selected type sausage was evaluated. The percentage of reduction and substitution of NaCl by modified KCl compared to control was 50 and 75%, respectively. The reduction of NaCl caused significant effects (P≤0.05 on the sodium content in the end product relative to the

  18. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG


    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  19. Compatible Stability of Fluconazole Injection with Levofloxacine Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection%氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液的配伍稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 卢海波; 魏志奇; 李鹏


    OBJECTIVE: To study the compatible stability of Fluconazole injection and Levofloxacine lactate and sodium chloride injection. METHODS: The change of appearance, pH value and indissoluble particle in the mixture within 8 h at 20 °C were observed after Fluconazole injection combined with Levofloxacine lactate and sodium chloride injection. The contents of drugs were determined by HPLC. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: No significant change was found in content, pH value, appearance and indissoluble particle in 8h after Fluconazole injection combined with Levofloxacine lactate and sodium chloride injection.%目的:考察氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性.方法:考察20℃下8h内氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液配伍后,其配伍液的外观、pH值、不溶性微粒变化,并用高效液相色谱法测定药物的含量.结果与结论:氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液配伍后8h内的含量、pH值、外观及不溶性微粒均无明显变化.

  20. HPLC法测定磷酸钠盐灌肠液中防腐剂苯扎氯铵的含量%Deternination of Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride in Sodium Phos-phate Rectal Solution by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅素华; 叶兴法; 韩鹏; 田利洪


    目的:建立测定磷酸钠盐灌肠液中防腐剂苯扎氯铵的含量。方法采用高效液相色谱法。色谱柱为 Ultimate AQ-C18柱(5μm,4.6×250mm);流动相:乙腈-5mmoL醋酸铵溶液(含1%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH值至5.0±0.5)(65∶35);流速:1.0mL· min -1;柱温:35℃;检测波长214nm。结果苯扎氯铵n-C12H25取代同系物在0.1839μg~0.5517μg范围内线性关系良好。(r=0.9999,n =5);平均回收率为100.5%, RSD为1.45%(n=9)。结论该方法简便快速,结果准确,可用于测定磷酸钠盐灌肠液中防腐剂苯扎氯铵的含量。%OBJECTIVE To establish a method for the the Deternination of preservative benzalkonium chloride in Sodium Phosphate Rectal Solution.METHODS HPLC, Liquid chromatography column was Ultimate AQ-C18 (5μm,4.6 ×250mm);mobile phase was acetonitrile-5mmol· L-1 ammonium acetate solution (Containing 1%three triethylamine;dilute Glacial aceticacld pH 5.0 ±0.5 ) ( 65∶35 );flow rate was 1.0 mL · min-1;column temperature was 35℃;detection wavelength was 214 nm.RESULTS The calibration curve of n-C12 H2 5 substituted congeners in benzalkonium chloride was linear in the sample volume range of 0.1839μg~0.5517μg ( r=0.9999 ).The average recovery was 100.5%(RSD=1.45%,n=9).CONCLUSION The method is simple,rapid and accurate,can be the product quality control methods.

  1. Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ preparation and use in electrolysis process for aluminum production (United States)

    Hsu, C.C.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    A continuous process for producing aluminum sulfide and for electrolyzing the aluminum sulfide to form metallic aluminum in which the aluminum sulfide is produced from aluminum oxide and COS or CS/sub 2/ in the presence of a chloride melt which also serves as the electrolysis bath. Circulation between the reactor and electrolysis cell is carried out to maintain the desired concentration of aluminum sulfide in the bath.

  2. Response of Atmospheric Methane Consumption by Maine Forest Soils to Exogenous Aluminum Salts†



    Atmospheric methane consumption by Maine forest soils was inhibited by additions of environmentally relevant levels of aluminum. Aluminum chloride was more inhibitory than nitrate or sulfate salts, but its effect was comparable to that of a chelated form of aluminum. Inhibition could be explained in part by the lower soil pH values which resulted from aluminum addition. However, significantly greater inhibition by aluminum than by mineral acids at equivalent soil pH values indicated that inhi...

  3. 注射用头孢噻肟钠与注射用氯诺昔康的配伍稳定性研究%Stability and compatibility of cefotaxime sodium and lornoxicam in 0.9 % sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 陈富超; 方宝霞; 李鹏


    Objective To study the stability and compatibility of cefotaxime sodium injection with lornoxicam in 0.9% sodium chloride injection(NS)at room temperature.Methods At(25 ± 1)℃,the contents changes of cefotaxime sodium and lornoxicam in NS were determined simultaneously by gradient-elution high performance liquid chromatography at several time points after mixing within 6 hours.The appearance of mixing solution was observed and the pH value was determined. Results The relative percentage of cefotaxime and lornoxicam decreased for the mixed solution within 6 hours. The pH value decreased and the colour gradually deepened gradually.Conclusion The mixture of cefotaxime sodium injection with lornoxicam in NS at ambient temperature is unstable,accordingly clinical application should not be compatible.%目的 考察室温下注射用头孢噻肟钠与注射用氯诺昔康在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的配伍稳定性.方法 在(25±1)℃下,采用高效液相色谱梯度洗脱法同时测定头孢噻肟钠与氯诺昔康在0.9%氯化钠注射液中配伍后6h内各时间点的含量变化,并观察和检测配伍液的外观及pH变化.结果 配伍液6h内头孢噻肟钠与氯诺昔康的含量逐渐下降,pH随时间变化亦逐渐降低,溶液颜色随时间变化逐渐加深.结论 室温条件下,注射用头孢噻肟钠与注射用氯诺昔康在0.9%氯化钠注射液中不稳定,临床应用应单独给药.

  4. 旋光法测定硫酸西索米星氯化钠注射液中西索米星的含量%Content Determination of Sisomicin in Sisomicin Sulfate and Sodium Chloride Injection by Polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴月华; 邰顺章; 王冲


    目的:建立测定硫酸西索米星氯化钠注射液(SSJ)中西索米星含量的方法.方法:采用旋光度-标准曲线法(旋光法)测定SSJ中西索米星的含量.以钠光谱的D线(589.3 nm)测定旋光度,测定管长度为2 dm,测定温度为20℃,并与标准方法——微生物检定法测定结果进行比较.结果:西索米星检测浓度线性范围为0.4~2.0 mg·mL- 1(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为97.6%,RSD=0.80%(n=6);旋光法与微生物检定法含量测定结果一致,RSD分别为0~0.07%、0.57%~1.2%.结论:旋光法测定SSJ中西索米星含量的方法简便、准确,且重现性优于微生物检定法.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for content determination of sisomicin in Sisomicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection (SSJ). METHODS: The optical rotation-standard curve method (polarimetry) was adopted for the content determination of sisomicin in SSJ. The D line of sodium spectrum (589.3 nm) was adopted to determine the optical rotations with the length of determination tube of 2 dm and determination temperature of 20 ℃, and it was compared with standard method--microbial method. RESULTS: The linear range of sisomicin was 0.4~2.0 mg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 97.6% (RSD= 0.80%, n=6); results of polarimetry (RSD=0~0.07%) was in line with that of microbial method (RSD=0.57%~1.2%). CONCLUSION : The method is simple and accurate, and the reproducibility of it is better than microbial method.

  5. 氯化钠对分蘖葱头根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响及其致畸效应%Effect of Sodium Chloride on Mitotic Index and Chromosome Aberration of Root Tip Cell of Allium cepa var. aggreatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 齐莹; 王晓伟; 李岩; 顾地周


    With the root tip as experimental materials, toxic effect of sodium chloride on Allium cepa var. aggreatum root tip was investigated. The Allium cepa var. aggreatum root tip cells were exposed to aqueous solution of sodium chloride with different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mol/L) for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. And then the mitotic index, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration of the Allium cepa var. aggreatum root tip cell were investigated. The experimental results indicated that with the elevated concentrations of sodium chloride aqueous and the increase of exposing time, the mitotic index decreased, chromosome aberration rate and micronucleus rate increased gradually. Moreover, the maximum value was reached when the concentration of sodium chloride aqueous was 0.3 mol/L and the exposure time was 48 h, which indicated that sodium chloride is a kind of stress factor.%以分蘖葱头根尖为试验材料,研究了氯化钠对分蘖葱头根尖的毒性效应.用不同浓度(0.05、0.1、0.2、0.3 mol/L)的氯化钠水溶液对分蘖葱头根尖细胞染毒12h、24 h、48 h,观察分蘖葱头根尖细胞有丝分裂指数、微核率以及染色体畸变情况.结果表明:在试验剂量范围内,随着氯化钠水溶液浓度的升高,染毒时间增长,分蘖葱头根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数逐渐降低,染色体畸变率和微核率逐渐升高,并且均在氯化钠水溶液浓度为0.3 mol/L、染毒时间为48 h时达到最大值,说明氯化钠是一种胁迫因子.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA


    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  7. XPS of fast-frozen hematite colloids in NaCl aqueous solutions: I. Evidence for the formation of multiple layers of hydrated sodium and chloride ions induced by the {001} basal plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchukarev, Andrei; Boily, Jean F.; Felmy, Andrew R.


    The influence of the {001} basal plane of hematite on the composition of fast-frozen centrifuged wet pastes of hematite prepared at pH 4 and 9 and at ionic strengths of 0, 10 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two hematite preparations consisted of micrometer-sized platelets with 42% (HEM-1) and 95% (HEM-8) of the surface terminated by the {001} basal plane. A third preparation of spherical shape with no recognizable crystal plane (HEM-control) was used as a control to these experiments. All hematite samples responded to changes in pH and ionic strength, showing that acid/base reactions of surface hydroxyl groups control the composition of the paste. The HEM-1 and HEM-8 sample exhibited divergent properties at the highest ionic strength (100 mM) with energy loss features in the Na 1s and Cl 2p spectra and an important water content. As the spectra were typical of hydrated Na+ and Cl- ions and that the surface concentrations were unusually large, the HEM-1 and HEM-8 samples are proposed to induce the formation of a three-dimensional distribution of these ions in the paste. The sodium, chloride and water content was also correlated to the fraction of the {001} basal plane present in the sample and provided evidence for an approximate stochiometric Na:Cl:H2O ratio of 1:1:2. The {001} basal plane of hematite is consequently proposeD to be the cause of this feature.

  8. Determination Method Improvement about Tinidazole Sodium Chloride Injection Content and Related Substances%替硝唑氯化钠注射液含量及有关物质检测方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰辉; 李新图; 陈跃


    Objective To use purified water instead of the mobile phase containing methanol as diluent measure tinidazole sodium chloride injection content and related substances. Methods Hromatographic column:Amethyst C18-H, 150 mm×4.6 mm, 5μm. mobile phase:0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution-methanol water (20∶80) .flow rate : 1.0 mL/min, column temperature : 35℃, detection wavelength: 310 nm. Results Two determination result no significant difference. Conclusion Purified water instead of the mobile phase containing methanol as diluent convenient, safe, etermination result is accurate.%目的用纯化水代替含甲醇的流动相作为稀释剂测定替硝唑氯化钠注射液含量及有关物质。方法色谱柱:Amethyst C18-H,150mm ×4.6mm,5μm;流动性:0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液-甲醇水(20∶80);流速:1.0mL/.min;柱温35℃;检测波长:310nm。结果两种方法测定结果一致,没有显著性差异。结论用纯化水代替含甲醇的流动相作为稀释剂方便、安全,测定结果准确。

  9. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES


    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  10. 吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑出血的临床疗效分析%Analysis of Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam Sodium Chloride Injection in the Treatment of Cerebral Hemor-rhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective] To explore the clinical efficacy of piracetam sodium chloride injection in the treatment of pa-tients with cerebral hemorrhage .[Methods] Totally 120 patients with cerebral hemorrhage in our hospital from Aug . 2010 to Aug .2012 were chosen and randomly divided into two groups .The experiment group( n=60) was treated with 20% piracetam sodium chloride injection 100ml by fast infusion every 6~8h for continuous 7d ,and then instilled by rou-tine velocity for 7d after 7d .The control group( n=60) was treated with intravenous injection of 20% mannitol 125ml every 6~8h for continuous 7d .All patients received consecutive monitoring of intracranial pressure .The changes of in-tracranial pressure ,plasma neuropeptide Y and neural function deficit score before ,7d and 14d after treatment were ob-served .[Results] There was no significant difference in intracranial pressure before treatment between experiment group and control group( P>0 .05) .Compared with before treatment ,intracranial pressure in two groups after drug therapy were obviously decreased ,and there was significant difference between before and after treatment ( P0 .05) .Compared with before treatment ,neural function deficit score and neuropeptide in two group were obviously decreased ,and there was significant difference between before and after treatment ( P<0 .05) .Neural function deficit score and neuropeptide in experiment group were decreased more obviously than that in control group ,and there was significant difference ( P<0 .05) .[Conclusion]Piracetam sodium chloride injection for the treatment of patients with cerebral hemorrhage can obviously reduce intracranial pressure ,improve the nerve function deficit score and markedly de-crease plasma level of neuropeptide .%【目的】探讨应用吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑出血患者的临床效果。【方法】选择本院2010年8月至2012年8月间进行诊治的120例脑出血患者,将其随

  11. Sodium chloride intake: is lower always better? (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers; Ritz, Eberhard


    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide a critical assessment of post hoc analyses of recent interventional and observational studies on the effect of salt intake on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. To evaluate the mechanisms and safety of reduced salt intake, studies specifically designed to assess salt intake as an endpoint are needed. This approach will have implications for health care policies and labeling of the salt content of purchased foods.

  12. Sodium Chloride Intake : Is Lower Always Better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Ritz, Eberhard


    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.H.Cao; J.Q.Zhang; 等


    Spontaneous electrochemical noise(EN)can be a rich source of information concern-ing the processes simultaneously occurring at a corroding interface.Potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure aluminum in different concentration of neutral sodium chloride solution are investigated,and the breakdowm and restoration of passive metal's film are studied using potentiodynamic scanning(PDS)measure-ments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS)technique.Two capacitance loops are observed in the Nyquist plots in two kinds of concentration,and the corro-sion process is under activation control at first,then become diffusion control within the oxide film and corrosion products of (Al(OH)p-mClm-)accumulated on the surface of the corroding electrode.It is suggested that the pitting corrosion is much easier to occur for pure aluminum in 7.0wt% than in 2.0wt% NaCl solution,and the high concentration of chloride ion in solution inhibits the repassivation of a metastable pit.The corrosion rate deterministic step does not involve Cl-.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.H. Cao; Z. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; J.F. Li; J.Q. Zhang; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao


    Spontaneous electrochemical noise (EN) can be a rich source of information concern-ing the processes simultaneously occurring at a corroding interface. Potential noisefluctuations during the free corrosion of pure aluminum in different concentration ofneutral sodium chloride solution are investigated, and the breakdown and restorationof passive metal's film are studied using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measure-ments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Two capacitanceloops are observed in the Nyquist plots in two kinds of concentration, and the corro-sion process is under activation control at first, then become diffusion control withinthe oxide film and corrosion products of (Al(OH)p-m Cl-m) accumulated on the surfaceof the corroding electrode. It is suggested that the pitting corrosion is much easierto occur for pure aluminum in 7.0wt% than in 2.0wt% NaCl solution, and the highconcentration of chloride ion in solution inhibits the repassivation of a metastable pit.The corrosion rate deterministic step does not involve Cl-.

  15. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  16. Mutation of neuronal channels of sodium and chloride associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (gefs+ Mutaciones de los canales neuronales de sodio y cloro asociadas a epilepsia generalizada con convulsiones febriles plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bedoya Berrío


    Full Text Available Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+ is a frequent entity characterized by generalized seizures with a wide phenotypic variety; the age of onset is 3 months and it persists beyond 6 years. Seizures may or may not be induced by fever. The disease has shown an autosomic dominant trait, incomplete penetrance and association with mutations on the genes that encode voltage-dependent sodium channels and the chloride neuronal channels on the central nervous system. The wide spectrum GEFS+ phenotype has been related with others entities such as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI and Intractable Childhood Epilepsy with Frequent Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures (ICEGTC; they have mutations in common with GEFS+ according to several recently published articles. This review compiles up to date information about EGCF+ with the aim of giving the reader a knowledge of this entity and of its association with mutations that participate in its pathogenesis. La Epilepsia Generalizada Con Convulsiones Febriles Plus (EGCF+, es una entidad relativamente común. Se caracteriza por convulsiones de tipo generalizado con una gran variabilidad fenotípica; se presenta desde los 3 meses de edad y persiste más allá de los 6 años; las convulsiones pueden ser precipitadas por fiebre pero se presentan también sin ella. La enfermedad se ha asociado a herencia autosómica dominante con penetrancia incompleta, en la que intervienen mutaciones de los genes que codifican los canales iónicos de sodio dependientes del voltaje y de los canales iónicos de cloro en las neuronas del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC. El amplio fenotipo de la EGCF+ se ha encontrado en asociación con otras entidades como la Epilepsia Mioclónica Severa del Lactante (EMSL y la Epilepsia Generalizada Tónico-Clónica Intratable de la Infancia (EGTCII, las cuales han presentado mutaciones comunes con las de la EGCF+, según informes recientemente publicados. Esta revisi

  17. Role of additives; sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Gajanan, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Dixit, Supriya; Shrivastava, A.K. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, M.P. (India)


    In the present study Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised in aqueous solution phase at mild reaction temperature 100 °C in moderate alkaline medium (pH = 9.5), and the role of external additives; like sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on the morphology and size of the products has been explored on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses data. ZnO hexagonal nano-plates, core–shell like spherical/ellipsoidal Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O structures and thin sheets, thorn/needle mixed shaped Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O structures have been observed in TEM and SEM images. Zn(OH){sub 2} formed in moderate alkaline medium, converted to Zn(II) hydroxo complex ions on dissolution, which further recrystallizes to produce wurtzite ZnO at 100 °C. From XRD and EDX analysis, successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions at the Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO host has been proved. In the photoluminescence spectra, the observed blue shifts in NBE peaks and decrease of emissions intensity on Mn doping have thoroughly been discussed in the present investigation. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs have been prepared in aqueous solution at mild temperature 100 °C. • Shifts in XRD lines and NBE peaks in PL spectra proved doping of Mn{sup 2+} in the ZnO. • ZnO is formed via dissolution–recrystallization of ε-Zn(OH){sub 2}–ZnO. • Additives SDS and MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O play important role on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs. • Mn contents increased extrinsic defects, which decreased intensity of PL spectra.

  18. Aluminum alloy (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  19. Fosfato de sódio e cloreto de potássio na micropropagação de videira e amoreira-preta = Sodium phosphate and potassium chloride concentrations: micropropagation of grapevine and blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente trabalho testar diferentes concentrações de fosfato de sódio (NaH2PO4.H2O e cloreto de potássio (KCl do meio White e adicionadas ao meio Knudson, na multiplicação in vitro de videira e amoreira-preta. O meio foi constituído de sais doKnudson, acrescido de 25 g L-1 de sacarose e 6 g L-1 de ágar, e o pH ajustado para 5,8 antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrações de NaH2PO4.H2O (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 mg L-1 e de KCl (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 mg L-1, em todas as combinações possíveis e do porta-enxerto de videira ‘R110’ e da amoreira-preta cv. Cherokee. Segmentos nodais, oriundos de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro foram excisados eintroduzidos em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio de cultura. Posteriormente, os tubos de ensaio foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, irradiância de 32 mmol m–2 s–1 efotoperíodo de 16 horas diárias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado, utilizando-se 4 repetições com 12 plântulas cada. O experimento foi avaliado após 60 dias de cultivo in vitro e o maior comprimento da parte aérea e peso fresco de calos foram verificados em meio Knudson, na ausência de cloreto de potássio. A adição de cloreto de potássio ao meio Knudson não influenciou no aumento do comprimento da parte aérea das duas frutíferas e namassa fresca de calos do porta-enxerto de videira ‘R110’. Não é necessário adicionar fosfato de sódio ao meio para se obter maior massa fresca da parte aérea das frutíferas.This work aimed to test different concentrations of sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4.H2O and potassium chloride (KCl taken from the White medium and added to the Knudson culture medium, in the in vitro multiplication of grapevine rootstocks and blackberry. The culture medium was constituted of Knudson salts, added of 25 g L-1 of sucrose and 6 g L-1 of agar, and the adjusted pH to 5

  20. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo


    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  1. 铝合金7A04在干湿周浸条件下的腐蚀行为研究%The Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 7A04 under Cyclic Wet-Dry Immersion Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和荣; 李晓刚; 肖葵; 董超芳


    采用扫描电镜、X光电子能谱、失重法和电化学交流阻抗技术研究了铝合金7A04在0.6 mol/L NaCl溶液和0.6 mol/LNaCl+0.02mol/L NaHSO3溶液中干湿周浸后的腐蚀行为和规律,并测试了3种材料力学性能的变化.研究结果表明,随试验时间的延长,铝合金腐蚀产物不断增多,腐蚀失重符合指数规律C=A tn,抗拉强度和延伸率呈下降趋势;表面腐蚀产物形貌呈块状,在0.6 mol/L NaCl溶液中腐蚀产物主要为氢氧化铝和氯化铝,而在0.6 mol/LNaCl+0.02 mol/LNaHSO3溶液中腐蚀产物主要为氢氧化铝、氯化铝和硫酸铝.电化学交流阻抗谱显示铝合金7A04在0.6 mol/L NaCI+0.02 mol/0L NaHSO3溶液中的腐蚀速率远大于在0.6 mol/L NaCl溶液的腐蚀速率,并探讨了其腐蚀机理.%The corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 7A04 under cyclic wet-dry immersion conditions was investigated in 0.6 mol/L sodium chloride solution and 0.6 mol/L sodium chloride+F0.02 mol/L sodium sulfite solution by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDS),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),mass loss method,mechanical capability test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The results showed that the mass loss increases with corrosion time prolonging,and according with the rule as C=Atn,strength and elongation percentage are declining.Surface observation revealed that corrosion product is agglomerated and accidented.The corrosion products are AI(OH)3 and aluminum chloride in 0.6 mol/L sodium chloride solution,and Al(OH)3,aluminum sulfate and chloride in 0.6 mol/L sodium chloride and 0.02 mol/L sodium anlfite solution.The EIS results indicated that corrosion rate in 0.6 mol/L sodium chloride and 0.02 mol/Lsodium sulfite solution is higher than that in 0.6 mol/L sodium chloride solution.The corrosion reaction mechanism was discussed.

  2. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo


    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  3. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating. (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan


    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  4. Standard test method for measurement of corrosion potentials of Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measurement of the corrosion potential (see Note 1) of an aluminum alloy in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride with enough hydrogen peroxide added to provide an ample supply of cathodic reactant. Note 1—The corrosion potential is sometimes referred to as the open-circuit solution or rest potential. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA


    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  6. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y


    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  7. 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性考察%Study on Compatible Stability of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and Sodium Chlorid Injection Mixed with Fluconazole Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 张丽梅


    目的 考察盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性.方法 分别观察配伍液在室温(20±1)℃下放置8 h内的外观并测定pH变化,用紫外分光光度法测定主药含量.结果 两药配伍后4 h内,外观、pH、含量均无明显变化.结论 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液在4 h内可以配伍使用.%Objective To observe the compatibility of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and sodium Chloride Injection with Fluconazole Injec-tion. Methods The change in appearance and pH value of the compatible solution placed at room temperature (20 ± 1) ℃ for 8 h was ob-served, while the content of moxifloxacin and fluconazole was determined by UV spectrophotometry as well. Results There were no signifi-cant changes in appearance, pH value and concentration after the mixture of the two drugs within 4 h. Conclusion Moxifloxacin Hydrochlo-ride and Sodium Chloride Injection can be mixed with Fluconazole Injection for use within 4 h.

  8. Solution phase synthesis of aluminum-doped silicon nanoparticles via room-temperature, solvent based chemical reduction of silicon tetrachloride (United States)

    Mowbray, Andrew James

    We present a method of wet chemical synthesis of aluminum-doped silicon nanoparticles (Al-doped Si NPs), encompassing the solution-phase co-reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) by sodium naphthalide (Na[NAP]) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME). The development of this method was inspired by the work of Baldwin et al. at the University of California, Davis, and was adapted for our research through some noteworthy procedural modifications. Centrifugation and solvent-based extraction techniques were used throughout various stages of the synthesis procedure to achieve efficient and well-controlled separation of the Si NP product from the reaction media. In addition, the development of a non-aqueous, formamide-based wash solution facilitated simultaneous removal of the NaCl byproduct and Si NP surface passivation via attachment of 1-octanol to the particle surface. As synthesized, the Si NPs were typically 3-15 nm in diameter, and were mainly amorphous, as opposed to crystalline, as concluded from SAED and XRD diffraction pattern analysis. Aluminum doping at various concentrations was accomplished via the inclusion of aluminum chloride (AlCl3); which was in small quantities dissolved into the synthesis solution to be reduced alongside the SiCl4 precursor. The introduction of Al into the chemically-reduced Si NP precipitate was not found to adversely affect the formation of the Si NPs, but was found to influence aspects such as particle stability and dispersibility throughout various stages of the procedure. Analytical techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, and ICP-optical emission spectroscopy were used to comprehensively characterize the product NPs. These methods confirm both the presence of Al and surface-bound 1-octanol in the newly formed Si NPs.

  9. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  10. Influences of different sodium chloride concentrations on growth and biological characteristics of Candida etchellsii CICIM Y0600%不同氯化钠浓度对Candida etchellsii CICIM Y0600生长和生物特性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杰; 詹晓北; 郑志永; 王栋; 林叶; 张丽敏


    在酱油发酵过程中增香酵母的代谢产物能显著提高酱油产品的风味和品质.为了提高增香酵母菌在酱醪中的适应性,通过逐步提高氯化钠浓度的方法对酵母菌的耐盐度进行驯化培养.通过分析表明,经过5个批次的驯化,增香酵母菌的耐氯化钠浓度由180 g/L提高到240 g/L.对驯化后的三株耐不同氯化钠浓度的增香酵母菌株进行生物特性研究.结果表明,在200 g/L氯化钠浓度的培养基中,Candida etchellsii CICIM Y0600产游离氨基酸和酸解氨基酸总量分别达到2.01g/L和7.00 g/L.和其他不同氯化钠浓度条件下比较,其产有机酸种类没有变化,挥发性酯类物质含量最高,为0.80 g/L.耐盐度的提高使增香酵母菌更好地适应了在酱油发酵中的高盐度环境.%The metabolic products of aromatic yeast can significantly improve the flavour and quality of soy sauce. In order to enhance the adaptability of an aromatic yeast in soy sauce mash, the yeast was acclimatized by gradually increasing sodium chloride concentration in medium. Results showed that the tolerant acclimation of aromatic yeast to sodium chloride increased from 180 g/L to 240 g/L after 5 batches acclimation. Biological characteristics of three high sodium chloride tolerant strains were studied after acclimatized. The results showed that total free and acid hydrolysis amino acid reached to 2. 01 g/L and 7. 00 g/L respectively by Candida etchellsii CICIM Y0600 with 200 g/L sodium chloride in medium. Compared with the strains in other different concentration of sodium chloride in medium, the type of organic acids produced by Candida etchellsii CICIM Y0600 did not change and the volatile ester content was reached to the highest of 0. 80 g/L. The salt tolerance enhancement made the aromatic yeast better adapted to the high salinity environment in soy sauce fermentation.

  11. Observation on the compatible stability of injected cefoxitin sodium and dexamethasone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qing Xie


    Objective:To observe the compatible stability of cefoxitin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Methods:The cefoxitin sodium was compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 25℃. HPLC was used to determine the change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h. The appearance of pharmaceutical liquids was observed, and the change of PH value was detected.Results:No obvious change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h, and no change of PH value, appearance, and characteristics were observed. The insoluble particles conformed to the specifications.Conclusions:Cefoxitin sodium can be compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection within 6 h.

  12. Characterization of aluminum surfaces: Sorption and etching (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Jeannette Clera

    Aluminum, due to its low density and low cost, is a key material for future lightweight applications. However, like other structural materials, aluminum is subject to various forms of corrosion damage that annually costs the United States approximately 5% of its GNP [1]. The main goal is to investigate the effects of various solution anions on aluminum surfaces, and specifically probe pit initiation and inhibition. Using surface analysis techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, results have been correlated with those obtained from electrochemical methods and a radiolabeling technique developed in the Wieckowski laboratory. Analysis of data has indicated that important variables include type of anion, solution pH, and applied electrode potential. While aggressive anions such as chloride are usually studied to elucidate corrosion processes to work ultimately toward inhibition, its corrosive properties can be successfully utilized in the drive for higher energy and smaller-scale storage devices. Fundamental information gained regarding anion interaction with the aluminum surface can be applied to tailor etch processes. Standard electrochemical techniques and SEM are respectively used to etch and analyze the aluminum substrate. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are comprised of aluminum anode foil covered by an anodically grown aluminum oxide dielectric film, electrolytic paper impregnated with electrolyte, and aluminum cathode foil. Two main processes are involved in the fabrication of aluminum electrolytic capacitors, namely etching and anodic oxide formation. Etching of the anode foil results in a higher surface area (up to 20 times area enlargement compared to unetched foil) that translates into a higher capacitance gain, permitting more compact and lighter capacitor manufacture. Anodic oxide formation on the anode, creates the required dielectric to withstand high voltage operation. A

  13. The ionic product of water in concentrated tetramethylammonium chloride solutions. (United States)

    Sipos, P; Bódi, I; May, P M; Hefter, G T


    The ionic product of water, pK(w) = - log[H(+)][OH(-)] has been determined in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride over the concentration range of 0.1-5.5 M at 25 degrees C using high-precision glass electrode potentiometric titrations. pK(w) data relating to aqueous potassium and sodium chlorides at ionic strengths up to 5 M are markedly lower than the tetramethylammonium chloride results. These differences are almost certainly due to weak associations between potassium and (especially) sodium and hydroxide ions.

  14. The influence of plasma protein concentration on potassium,sodium and chloride measurement by ion-selective-electrodes%血浆蛋白水平对间接离子选择电极法检测钾钠氯离子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇; 肖鹿骋; 顾桂兰; 曹娟; 张超; 盛敏


    目的 探讨血浆蛋白水平变化导致间接和直接离子选择电极法(ISE)结果间存在的差异,揭示直接ISE与间接ISE测定血浆钾、钠、氯离子结果之间的差异与血浆蛋白水平之间的关系.方法 选取低、中、高血浆蛋白的独立样本,研究直接与间接离子选择电极法对血浆钾、钠、氯检测结果差异以及与蛋白水平之间的线性关系.结果 间接法与直接法检测钠离子结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),钠离子结果差异与总蛋白、清蛋白离子回归方程分别为Y=-0.129 4X+9.604 1和Y=-0.195X+7.807 8,相关系数r(r2)分别为0.76(0.57)和0.61(0.37),均P<0.001.结论 采用间接ISE法检测血浆钠离子时,对血浆蛋白水平的变化具有影响,直接与间接ISE法检测血浆钠离子结果差异和总蛋白、白蛋白水平之间线性回归等式可以成立.在总蛋白和(或)清蛋白水平明显异常时,直接ISE法测定血浆钠离子结果应当作为临床正确的依据.%Objective To test the hypothesis that the difference between indirect and direct potassium, sodium and chloride assays would be related to the plasma protein concentration, and to derive the relationship between the difference of direct and indirect ion selective electrode(ISE) measurements of plasma potassium,sodium and chloride and the protein concentration. Methods Independent specimens,that covered the whole level of the protein range, were selected,and linear relationships between the difference between direct and indirect ISE measurements of plasma potassium,sodium,chloride and the total protein and albumin concentration were analyzed. Results Significant biases were observed between indirect and direct ISE measurement of sodium level. The regression equations of the difference and the total protein level, albumin level were Y= - 0. 129 4X + 9. 604 1 和 Y = - 0. 195X + 7. 807 8, with r(r2 )of 0. 76(0. 57)and 0. 61(0. 37)and with P<0. 001. Conclusion The plasma sodium

  15. [Sodium and hypertension]. (United States)

    de Wardener, H E


    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  16. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.


    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  17. Enhancement of Aminoacylase Activity by Sodium Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于范利; 曹志方; 李森; 周海梦


    Kidney and other tissues of animals and humans have a high concentration of citrate which is an important intermediate substance in the citrate cycle. Citrate may play an important physiological role in metabolism. In this paper, we studied the interaction of the sodium salt of citrate with aminoacylase which is an important enzyme in metabolism and found sodium citrate can enhance the activity of aminoacylase. The maximum enzyme activity induced by sodium citrate increased approximately 3 folds over the enzyme activity without sodium citrate. The initial reaction rates (Ⅴ) for different concentrations of sodium citrate were obtained, showing that sodium citrate is a non-competitive activator. The result of the ANS binding fluorescence measurements for aminoacylase indicated that increasing sodium citrate concentrations markedly increased the ANS binding fluorescence with a blue shift of the emission spectra peak. This suggests the formation of more hydrophobic regions. Aggregates formed quickly when aminoacylase was incubated with sodium citrate (0.3 mol/L) and guanidinium chloride (0- 3. 5 mol/L). Aminoacylase lost enzyme activity in the guanidinium chloride more quickly in the presence of sodium citrate than in the absence of sodium citrate. The intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity decreased more quickly and the red shift of the emission spectra peak was larger than that without sodium citrate.

  18. 丁苯酞氯化钠注射液治疗急性脑梗死32例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 32 Cases of Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection in Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探究急性脑梗死采用丁苯酞氯化钠注射液治疗的临床疗效.方法 选取我院64例急性脑梗死患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,各组均32例,对照组采用常规治疗,观察组采用丁苯酞氯化钠注射液联合常规治疗.结果 观察组患者治疗总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05),且患者NIHSS(神经功能缺损)评分低于对照组(P<0.05),BI(日常生活能力)评分高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 急性脑梗死采用丁苯酞氯化钠注射液治疗,治疗效果良好.%Objective The clinical curative effect of acute cerebral infarction treated by butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection was analyzed.Methods Selected 64 cases of acute cerebral infarction in our hospital,according to the random number method,they were divided into the control group and the observation group, 32 cases each. The control group was treated with conventional therapy,the observation group using butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection combined with conventional treatment.Results The total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05),and patients with NIHSS(neurological function defect) score was lower than the control group(P<0.05),BI(daily living ability)was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Acute cerebral infarction by butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection treatment,the treatment effect is good.

  19. 10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液在老年人失禁性皮炎治疗中的应用%Application of 10% sodium chloride soaking liquid of saffron to elderly incontinence-associated dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进翠; 刘瑜; 陈芳


    Objective To observe the effects of 10%sodium chloride soaking liquid of saffron on elderly incontinence-associated der-matitis.Methods All the seventy-four old patients with incontinence-associated dermatitis were randomized into control group (38 pa-tients) and observation group (36 patients).In the control group, patients’ local skin soaked by defecation was thoroughly rinsed with warm water and dried with a sterile gauze , in order to keep clean and dry .Patients in the observation group were applied with 10%so-dium chloride soaking liquid of saffron based on the treatment of the control group .Results The efficacy and the healing time in the observation group was much more significant than those in the control group ( P<0.05).Conclusions It’s convenient and practical to apply 10%sodium chloride soaking liquid of saffron to the elderly with incontinence-associated dermatitis .It can improve the effica-cy and shorten the healing time as well .%目的:观察10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液治疗老年人失禁性皮炎的临床效果。方法将74例老年人失禁性皮炎患者随机分为观察组38例,对照组36例。对照组用温水彻底清洗被大小便浸渍的皮肤,用无菌纱布擦干,保持皮肤清洁干燥。观察组在此基础上用10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液湿敷患处。结果观察组治疗效果显著优于对照组(P<0.05),治愈时间显著短于对照组( P<0.05)。结论10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液湿敷治疗老年人失禁性皮炎,方便实用;可提高治疗效果;缩短治愈时间。

  20. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC: CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose


    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20–220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650–1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5–1.0 L min−1 aerosol flow rate, 20–30°C inlet temperature, 4–34 K m−1 temperature gradient. For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations.

    High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5–7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature.

    To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05–2%, the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH42SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH42SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff

  1. The treatment of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection for craniocerebral injury accompanied with hypovolemic sock%高渗盐复合液抗颅脑损伤并低血容量性休克

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙怡; 李辉; 曾红科


    目的 探讨高渗盐复合液(高渗盐水羟乙基淀粉 HSH)在颅脑损伤合并低血容量性休克中的疗效及对颅内压(ICP)的影响.方法 为前瞻、对照性研究.选择2007年9月至2008年7月入住广东省人民医院ICU及脑外科颅脑损伤且平均动脉压(MAP)低于60 mmHg的患者60例,其中男51例,女9例,年龄18~69岁,平均(41.5±9.5)岁.排除标准:年龄70岁的患者;孕妇、月经期妇女;严重肝肾功能障碍;高血压、冠心病、糖尿病病史者;大出血未止住;治疗前数小时内应用过其它血管活性物质;受伤超过24 h者;脑死亡.随机分成3组(每组加例),3组年龄性别构成具可比性,分别以平衡液(平衡液LR组)500 ml、5%氯化钠(高渗盐水HIS组)4 ml/kg、HSH(HSH组)4 ml/kg进行液体复苏,记录复苏前及复苏30、60、120 min时的血压、呼吸、心率、尿量等,抽静脉血检测凝血功能、电解质,应用颅内压无创检测分析仪测量ICP.采用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行统计学处理数据,各组复苏前后指标应用重复测量设计资料的方差检验分析,组间比较应用(one_way analysis of variance ANOVA)检验分析,以P0.05).结论 在颅脑损伤合并低血容量性休克的救治中HSH复苏效果及降低颅内压作用显著且持久,有利于保护脑功能.%Objective To investigate the effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl 40 injection (HSH)on craniocerebral injury accompanied with hypovolemic shock and ICP.Method Sixty patients suffering from craniecerebral injury accompanied with the hypovolemic shock and admitted to ICU and Neurosurgical Department of Guang dong General Hospital from September 2007 to June 2008,were chosen into the study prospectively.Those who was younger than 18years or older than 70 years,and those who were pregnant or meustruous women,or serious hepatic and renal insufficiency,hypertension,coronaxy artery disease,diabets mellitue,uncontrolled bleeding,brain death,erc were excluded

  2. Sodium Oxybate (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Sodium Phosphate (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  4. 反相高效液相色谱法测定盐酸倍他司汀氯化钠注射液中主药含量%Content Determination of Betahistine Hydrochloride in Betahistine Hydrochloride Sodium Chloride Injection by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:建立测定盐酸倍他司汀氯化钠注射液中盐酸倍他司汀含量的反相高效液相色谱( RP-HPLC )法。方法色谱柱为Thermo-C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为0.01 mol/L醋酸钠缓冲液(含0.004 mol/L庚烷磺酸钠,0.2%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH=4.0)-甲醇(70:30),流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温为30℃,检测波长为261 nm。结果盐酸倍他司汀进样量在0.1023~1.0230μg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系( r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.61%,RSD=0.21%( n=9)。结论该方法准确度、灵敏度及重复性均较好,可用于盐酸倍他司汀氯化钠注射液中盐酸倍他司汀的含量测定。%Objective To establish an RP-HPLC method for the Content Determination of betahistine hydrochloride in Betahistine Hy-drochloride Sodium Chloride Injection. Methods The chromatographic column was Thermo-C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm);the mobile phase was 0. 01 mol/L sodium acetate buffer(containing 0. 004 mol/L heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt,0. 2% triethylamine,regu-lated to pH 4. 0 glacial acetic acid)-methanol(70 :30);the flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min;the column temperature was 30 ℃;the detection wavelength was 261 nm. Results Betahistine hydrochloride showed good linear relationship with the peak area in the range of 0. 102 3-1. 023 00 μg( r=0. 999 9),the average recovery was 99. 61%,RSD=0. 21%( n=9). Conclusion This method is accurate,sensitive and repeatable,and can be used as the content determination of betahistine hydrochloride in Betahistine Hydrochloride Sodium Chloride Injection.

  5. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils


    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  6. The effect of the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of different concentration of sodium chloride on the Pulse Oxygen Saturation%不同浓度氯化钠溶液超声雾化吸入对支气管哮喘急性发作期患者血氧饱和度和肺通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建勇; 曾玉琴; 邝军; 陈功; 张立波; 何敏


    Objective To study the effect of the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of different concentration of sodium chloride on the Pulse Oxygen Saturation (SPO2 ) and pulmonary ventilation function of the patients with bronchial asthma in acute episode. Methods The mild-middle patients with bronchial asthma in acute episode (case group, n= 110) and health people ( health group, n= 58) were chosen randomly. After the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of distilled water,0.45%, 0. 9% and 1. 8% sodium chloride solution for 15 minutes, SPO2, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured at different time points. Results After the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of the different solution, the SPO2 of two groups were lower than before. The FEV1, PEF levels in the case group decreased gradually with the increase of sodium chloride concentration. There was significant difference( t= 2. 253 ~6. 751, P<0.05). Conclusion Compared to the inhalation of 0.45 %, 0.9% and 1.8% sodium chloride solution, ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of distilled water would had the least side effect on pulmonary ventilation function for the patients with bronchial asthma in acute episode.%目的 研究不同浓度氯化钠溶液超声雾化吸入对支气管哮喘急性发作期患者血氧饱和度和肺通气功能的影响.方法 随机选取支气管哮喘急性发作期轻、中度病人110例(病例组)和健康人群(健康组)58例,通过超声雾化分别吸入蒸馏水、0.45%、0.9%、1.8%氯化钠溶液各15 min,然后将吸入不同溶液时的血氧饱和度(SPO2)、第一秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)和最大呼气流量(PEF)值进行比较.结果 两组超声雾化吸入各种溶液时SPO2均有下降;在病例组随着超声雾化液中氧化钠浓度的增高,FEV.、PEF值依次降低,差异具有统计学意义(t=2.253~6.751,P<0.05).结论 与0.45%、0.9%、1.8%氯化钠溶液相比较,超声雾化吸入蒸馏水对支气管

  7. Clinical observation of Shuxuening injection combined with piracetam and sodium chloride injection in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,and improving senile dementia%舒血宁注射液和吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液联用治疗心脑血管疾病并改善老年痴呆的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:舒血宁注射液和吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液联用治疗心脑血管疾病并改善或延缓老年痴呆的疗效观察。方法:本社区门诊患者70例,脑梗死患者轻微智能障碍35例,冠心病35例,采用随机单盲法分为两组,其中观察组36例用舒血宁注射液联用吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液静滴,1次/d,对照组34例单用吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液静滴,1次/d,连续2周。结果:观察组与对照组治疗心脑血管疾病并改善或延缓老年痴呆,神经心理学量表检查疗效比较86.1%与55.9%,神经影像学检查疗效比较72.2%与44.1%。结论:舒血宁注射液和吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液联用是治疗心脑血管疾病并改善或延缓老年痴呆的理想配伍用药。%Objective:To observe the curative effect of Shuxuening injection combined with piracetam and sodium chloride injection in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,and improving or delaying senile dementia.Methods:70 cases were selected.35 patients with cerebral infarction were mild intelligent obstacle,and 35 cases were coronary heart disease.The patients were divided into two groups by using the random single blind method.The observation group in 36 cases were given Shuxuening injection combined with piracetam and sodium chloride injection intravenous drip,1 time one day.The control group in 34 cases were given single piracetam and sodium chloride injection intravenous drip,1 time one day,for 2 weeks.Results:The observation group and the control group treated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,and improved or delayed senile dementia,the effect comparison of neuropsychological scale examination was 86.1% and 55.9% .The effect comparison of neuroimaging examination was 72.2% and 44.1%.Conclusion:Shuxuening injection combined with piracetam and sodium chloride injection is the ideal combination medication for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and improving

  8. Effect of Cerium Chloride on Corrosion Resistance of Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6061%氯化铈对铝合金铬酸盐转化膜防护性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣麟; 李维维; 张小麟; 马强; 遥远; 王圆圆


    The corrosion resistance of the chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) formed on AA6061 in chromate solutions with cerium chloride (0 ~ 60 mg/L) as additive was investigated by electrochemical measurement technology. The results of potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the values of the pitting corrosion potential (Epit) and corrosion potential (Eoorr) of the CCCs raised greatly by adding a small amount of CeCl3 (20~40 rng/L). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the values of normalized Rp also greatly increased. The two tests indicate that an appropriate amount of CeCl3 (20~40 mg/L) can improve effectively the corrosion resistance of the CCCs, whereas an excessive CeCl3 (e. g 60 mg/L) may deteriorate the property of the CCCs.%采用电化学方法研究了6061铝合金在以CeCl3(0~60 mg/L)为添加剂的铬酸盐处理液中所得转化膜的防护性能.极化曲线测试结果表明,加入适量的CeCl3(20~40 mg/L),使电极的腐蚀电位Ecorr和点蚀电位Epit提高很多;电化学阻抗(EIS)测试结果表明,加入CeCl3后,膜层的阻抗大幅度增加.研究表明,加入适量的CeCl3可以有效改善膜层的防护性能,而过量的CeCl3(60 mg/L)却使其性能变差.

  9. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira


    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  10. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.


    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  11. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials. (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A


    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  12. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio e da película de alginato de sódio na conservação de laranja 'Pera' minimamente processada Effect of calcium chloride and film of sodium alginate in the conservation of minimally processed 'Pera' orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Daniel Groppo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de solução de cloreto de cálcio e película de alginato de sódio na conservação de laranja 'Pera' minimamente processada. A qualidade da laranja minimamente processada submetida aos tratamentos com cloreto de cálcio a 1%, alginato de sódio a 1% e o controle (sem aplicação de tratamento foi monitorada a cada três dias, por análises físicas e químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais por um período de 12 dias de armazenamento a 5 ºC. O tratamento com alginato de sódio (1% apresentou menor perda de massa ao longo do período de armazenamento, porém, as amostras submetidas a este tratamento, tiveram sua qualidade prejudicada quanto aos teores de ácido ascórbico, açúcares, teor de sólidos solúveis e firmeza. No final do armazenamento, o tratamento com cloreto de cálcio (1% apresentou a melhor eficiência na manutenção das características iniciais do fruto, preservando os teores de ácido ascórbico, acidez titulável, 'ratio', açúcares e firmeza, evidenciada pela menor solubilização de pectinas. Análise microbiológica detectou valores insignificantes para bactérias psicrotróficas, bolores e leveduras e coliformes totais em todos os tratamentos, mostrando que os cuidados tomados com as condições higiênicas levaram à obtenção de um produto com padrão microbiológico de acordo com a legislação de alimentos, apresentando ausência de Salmonella e ausência de coliformes a 45 ºC. Sensorialmente, a laranja minimamente processada tratada com cloreto de cálcio (1% e o controle, apresentou-se em condições de consumo por nove dias de armazenamento.The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a calcium chloride solution and a film of sodium alginate on the conservation of minimally processed 'Pera' oranges. The quality of minimally processed orange submitted to treatments with 1% calcium chloride and 1% sodium alginate and the control (without treatment

  13. New preparation of benzylic aluminum and zinc organometallics by direct insertion of aluminum powder. (United States)

    Blümke, Tobias D; Groll, Klaus; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Knochel, Paul


    The reaction of commercial Al-powder (3 equiv) and InCl(3) (1-5 mol %) with benzylic chlorides provides various functionalized benzylic aluminum sesquichlorides under mild conditions (THF, 20 °C, 3-24 h) without homocoupling (organometallics reacted smoothly with various electrophiles (Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings, or Cu-mediated acylations, allylations, or 1,4-addition reactions). Electron-poor benzylic chlorides or substrates prone to Wurtz coupling can be converted to benzylic zinc compounds by the reaction of Al-powder in the presence of ZnCl(2).

  14. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.


    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sodium and Food Sources (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  16. Sodium in diet (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  17. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography (United States)

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.


    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  18. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels


    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  1. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.


    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  2. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.


    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  3. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  4. 氯化钠-正丙醇-硫氰酸铵-水体系析相萃取分离和富集锡(Ⅳ)%Separation and enrichment of stannum (Ⅳ) by phase extraction in sodium chloride-1-propanol-ammonium thiocyanate-water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 陈彬; 马万山


    The behavior and conditions for extraction separation and enrichment of stannum (Ⅳ) from other metal ions in sodium chloride-1-propanol-ammonium thiocyanate-water system were investigated.The results showed that 1-propanol aqueous solution could be well divided into two phases in presence of sodium chloride.During the phase separation process,[Sn(SCN)5~6] [(5~6)-4]-formed from stannum (Ⅳ) and ammonium thiocyanate could reacted with protonized 1-propanol of C3H7OH2 + to form associated complex of [Sn(SCN)5~6][C3 H7OH2]1-2,which could be fully extracted by 1-propanol phase.When acidity of the solution was fixed at pH 2.0,and the concentration of 1-propanol,ammonium thiocyanate and sodium chloride was 30%(V/V),0.09 mol/L and 0.17 g/mL,respectively,the extraction yield of stannum(Ⅳ) was more than 98.3%.Simultaneously,Fe(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ),Pb(Ⅱ),Al (Ⅲ),Mg(Ⅱ),Mn(Ⅱ),Ce(Ⅲ),Cr(Ⅲ),Zn(Ⅱ),Ag(Ⅰ),Cd(Ⅱ)and V(V) could not be extracted,realizing the separation of stannum (Ⅳ) from these metal ions.The method has been applied to the separation and determination of stannum (Ⅳ) in Pb-Ca-Sn-Al alloy sample with recovery of 97.4% and relative standard deviation(n=7) of 2.1%.%研究了氯化钠-正丙醇-硫氰酸铵-水体系析相萃取分离和富集Sn(Ⅳ)的行为及与一些金属离子分离的条件.结果表明,氯化钠能使正丙醇的水溶液分成两相,在分相过程中,Sn(Ⅳ)和硫氰酸铵生成的[Sn(SCN)5~6][(5~6)-4]-与质子化正丙醇C3H7OH2+形成的缔合物[Sn (SCN)5~6][C3H7OH2]1-2能被正丙醇相完全萃取.固定溶液酸度为pH 2,当正丙醇、硫氰酸铵和氯化钠的浓度分别为30% (V/V)、0.09 mol/L和0.17 g/mL时,Sn(Ⅳ)的萃取率在98.3%以上,Fe(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Pb(Ⅱ)、Al(Ⅲ)、Mg(Ⅱ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Ce(Ⅲ)、Cr(Ⅲ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ag(Ⅰ)、Cd(Ⅱ)和V(Ⅴ)不被萃取,实现了Sn(Ⅳ)与上述金属离子的分离.方法用于Pb-Ca-Sn-Al合金中Sn的分离和测定,平均回收率为97.4

  5. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  6. Effects of cyclic chloride exposure on penetration of concrete cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, K.; Hooton, R.D.


    Concretes are in a state of flux between saturated and partially saturated conditions as they undergo continuous cycles of wetting and drying. In saturated concrete, dissolved ions enter through diffusion, whereas in partially saturated concrete, ion-containing fluids are absorbed by capillary suction and concentrated by evaporation of water. The primary focus of this study was to examine the effects of cyclic wetting and drying with sodium chloride solution on chloride ingress into concrete. Chloride profiles of samples exposed to various lengths and numbers of cycles were determined for three mixtures of concrete: two containing slag and/or silica fume with a 0.4 w/cm (water to cementing materials ratio) and one with a 0.3 w/cm. It was found that longer drying times increase the rate of chloride ingress. A good relationship exists between the depth of chloride penetration and the square root of the number of cycles.

  7. Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast. (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R


    Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1-0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and both calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate were tested for their effects on pink cooked color in whole breast muscle. The combination of calcium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, not calcium chloride alone, was necessary for a reduction in pink cooked color induced by nicotinamide. Subsequently, in the presence of phosphate, both calcium chloride and sodium citrate reduced pink cooked color and were most effective in combination. Tricalcium phosphate also was capable of reducing pink cooked color in ground turkey, however substituting tricalcium phosphate for sodium tripolyphosphate resulted in lower pH and cooking yields. Neither calcium chloride nor tricalcium phosphate was capable of reducing pink cooked color in whole turkey breast. Currently, a combination of sodium tripolyphosphate, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate represents the most suitable means for reducing or preventing the pink color defect in uncured ground turkey.

  8. Friction and wear performances of borates and lanthanum chloride in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Boshui; FANG Jianhua; WANG Jiu; LI Jia; LOU Fang


    The antiwear and friction-reducing performances of sodium borate, potassium borate and lanthanum chloride in water were evaluated on a four-ball friction tester. The topographies, element distribution and chemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion of X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The results indicated that sodium borate, potassium borate and lanthanum chloride increased extreme pressure, antiwear and friction-reducing capacities of water to a certain extent, of which potassium borate was the best candidate. Combination of lanthanum chloride with sodium borate and potassium borate respectively further improved antiwear and friction-reducing capacities. Scratches of worn surfaces lubricated with water containing borates and lanthanum chloride were less severe than those lubricated with water containing borates alone. A tribochemical film mainly composed of oxides of lanthanum, boron and iron reduced friction and wear for water lubricant formulated with both borates and lanthanum chloride.

  9. Difusão do cloreto de sódio no processo de salga de queijos: modelagem matemática com o emprego do método de elementos finitos The sodium chlorid diffusion during cheese brining: matematical model applying the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio Ferreira SILVA


    Full Text Available A transferência de um soluto (cloreto de sódio, através de uma matriz sólida tridimensional (queijo foi estudada aplicando-se o método de elementos finitos. A formulação variacional (Galerkin do problema diferencial (modelo de difusão teve como base teórica a 2ª lei de Fick. Os procedimentos para integração no tempo foram o de Crank-Nicolson e o de Euler-modificado, que foram escolhidos por apresentarem estabilidade incondicional. O programa computacional desenvolvido mostrou-se versátil para resolver situações de amostragem em condições mais realistas e pode ser aplicado para geometrias complexas. O modelo proposto permitiu uma boa estimativa do ganho de sal no queijo, usando um coeficiente de difusão cujo valor pode ser obtido por extrapolação de dados experimentais. A aplicação do método numérico (MEF, com o esquema de Crank-Nicolson, na simulação da difusão do cloreto de sódio na salga de queijos, mostrou boa aproximação quando os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais encontrados na literatura especializada.Solute (sodium chloride transference through a three-dimensional matrix (cheese was studied applying the finite element method (MEF. The variational formulation (Galerkin of the differential problem (diffusion model had as the theoretical basis Fick’s second law. The methods for time integration were developed according to Crank-Nicolson (central difference, and modified Euler (backward difference, which presented unconditional stability. The computational program proved to be versatile in solving sampling situations in realistic condition and can be used in complex geometry. The proposed method gave good estimation of salt gain in the cheese when using a diffusion coefficient which value can be calculated by extrapolation of experimental data. The application of numeric method (MEF, with Crank-Nicolson scheme, in the simulation of diffusion of sodium chloride in the brining showed to be

  10. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal. (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto


    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  11. Sodium - blood (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  12. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves. (United States)

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C


    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  13. 高效液相色谱法测定门冬氨酸洛美沙星氯化钠注射液的含量%Determination of Lomefloxacin Aspartate and Sodium Chloride Injection by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卉; 杨菲; 樊红梅; 吴沂


    目的 建立测定门冬氨酸洛美沙星含量的高效液相色谱法.方法 采用Agilent TC-C18柱(250 mm×4.6mm,5μm),以0.05mol/L枸橼酸溶液-乙腈(82:18,用三乙胺调pH至4.0)为流动相,流速1.0 mL/min,检测波长为288 nm.结果 洛美沙星质量浓度在13.59~67.93 μg/mL(r=1.000)范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为100.04%,RSD=1.53%(n=9).结论 该方法准确度高,灵敏度好,专属性强,适合于门冬氨酸洛美沙星的含量测定.%Objective To establish a HPLC method for determining the enantiomers content in valsartan capsules. Methods The α — acidic glycoprotein column ( AGP, 100 mm × 4. 0 mm, 5 μm) was adopted with phosphate buffer ( taking sodium dihydrogen phosphate 2.51 g and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.91 g, adding water for dissolution and diluting to 1 000 mL, adjusting pH 7.0 with 1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution) —isopropanol (98:2) as the mobile phase. The detecting wavelength was 227 nm, the flow rate was 0. 8 mL/min and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Results The enantiomers in valsartan capsules showed a good linear relation in the range of 0.009 44-0.188 8μg. The detecting limit was 1. 510 4 ng and the quantitative limit was 3. 398 4 ng. Conclusion This method is simple, accurate, sensitive, strongly specific and applicable to examine enantiomers in valsartan capsules.

  14. The Management of Victory in Accordance with Law Firm Belief and Strong Management--Study on Analysis of Dafeng Bureau and Feed Additives and Sodium Chloride Case Proceedings%依法行政获胜诉坚定信念强管理--对大丰局查处饲料添加剂氯化钠一案诉讼过程的剖析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The of Dafeng City, salt administration investigate Dafeng deer fisheries cooperatives to buy feed additives sodium chloride case litigation process analysis and study, elaborates the importance and necessity of strengthening feed additives such as sodium chloride involving salt products supervision. It is pointed out that the salt administrative organs and salt law enforcement personnel to the mission, firm faith, to defend their duties to ensure stability of salt market order and people's safety of salt.%文章通过对大丰市盐务管理局查处大丰市金鹿渔业专业合作社购买“饲料添加剂氯化钠”一案诉讼过程的剖析研究,阐述加强饲料添加剂氯化钠等涉盐产品监管工作的重要性和必要性,指出盐业行政机关和盐政执法人员要不辱使命,坚定信念,守土尽责,确保盐业市场秩序的稳定和人民群众的食盐安全。

  15. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  16. Aluminum-induced changes in properties and fouling propensity of DOM solutions revealed by UV-vis absorbance spectral parameters. (United States)

    Zhou, Minghao; Meng, Fangang


    The integration of pre-coagulation with ultrafiltration (UF) is expected to not only reduce membrane fouling but also improve natural organic matter (NOM) removal. However, it is difficult to determine the proper coagulant dosage for different water qualities. The objective of this study was to probe the potential of UV-vis spectroscopic analysis to reveal the coagulant-induced changes in the fouling potentials of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and to determine the optimal coagulant dosage. The Zeta potentials (ZPs) and average particle size of the four DOM solutions (Aldrich humic acid (AHA), AHA-sodium alginate (SA), AHA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AHA-dextran (DEX)) coagulated with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) were measured. Results showed that increasing the aluminum coagulant dosage induced the aggregation of DOM. Meanwhile, the addition of aluminum coagulant resulted in an increase in DSlope(325-375) (the slope of the log-transformed absorbance spectra from 325 to 375 nm) and a decrease in S(275-295) (the slope of the log-transformed absorption coefficient from 275 to 295 nm) and SR (the ratio of Slope(275-295) and Slope(350-400)). The variations of these spectral parameters (i.e., DSlope(325-375), S(275-295) and SR) correlated well with the aluminum-caused changes in ZPs and average particle size. This implies that spectral parameters have the potential to indicate DOM aggregation. In addition, good correlations of spectral parameters and membrane fouling behaviors (i.e., unified membrane fouling index (UMFI)) suggest that the changes in DSlope(325-375), S(275-295) and SR were indicative of the aluminum-caused alterations of fouling potentials of all DOM solutions. Interestingly, the optimal dosage of aluminum (40 μM for AHA, AHA-BSA, and AHA-DEX) was obtained based on the relation between spectral parameters and fouling behaviors. Overall, the spectroscopic analysis, particularly for the utilization of spectral parameters, provided a convenient approach

  17. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))


    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  18. Aluminum Ion Removal from Monoaluminum Ovotransferrin by Pyrophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Ying-Qi(李英奇); YANG,Bin-Sheng(杨斌盛)


    The rates at which aluminum was removed from the N- and C-terminal monoaluminum ovotransferrins by pyrophosphate were evaluated by UV difference spectra in 0.01 mol/L Hepes, pH=7.4 and at 37 ℃. Pesudo first-order rate constants as a function of pyrophosphate concentration were measured. The results indicate that the pathways of aluminum removal are different. For the N-terminal binding site, aluminum removal follows simple saturation kinetics, while the removal of aluminum from the C-terminal binding site reverts to the combination of saturation and first-order kinetics. The saturation component is consistent with a rate-limiting conformational change in the protein as has been reported. We propose that the first-order kinetics mechanism is attributed to a pre-equilibrium process. The rate constants of saturation kinetics are accelerated from both terminals with the addition of 0.1 mol/L chloride to the monoaluminum ovotransferrin solutions, whereas the rates of the first-order kinetics are decreased for the C-terminal binding site. The effect of chloride ionic strength causes a continuing increase on kobs for the N- and C-terminal binding sites. Moreover, the kinetics behavior of the N-terminal is more easily affected by chloride than that of the C-terminal. In the experiment presumably the N-terminal site is apparently kinetically more labile than the C-terminal site.

  19. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per;


    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...

  20. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.


    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  1. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin


    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  2. 乳酸钙部分替代氯化钠对西式盐水火腿感官品质的影响%Effect of calcium lactate as sodium chloride substitute on the quality of cooked ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯雅; 刘登勇; 周光宏; 徐幸莲


    Calcium lactate was selected to replace part of NaCl in cooked ham.A series of substitution ratios such as 5%,10%,15% and 20% according to mass based on 2% total sodium were investigated.Effect of calcium lactate as NaCl substitution at various ratios on color,texture,sensory evaluation and water content in cooked pork ham were studied.Results indicated that calcium lactate resulted in a significant increase in brightness,redness,yellowness and hardness of cooked ham.However,excessive calcium lactate would result in a negative effect on springiness,cohesiveness,gumminess,chewiness,resilience and sensory quality of cooked pork ham.The optimal substitution ratio was 10%.%在西式盐水火腿加工中应用乳酸钙部分替代氯化钠,在氯化钠使用总量2%的前提下,按照氯化钠质量的5%、10%、15%、20%设计乳酸钙的替代比,单因素实验观察不同替代比对切片西式盐水火腿色差、质构、水分含量和感官指标的影响。结果发现,适量使用乳酸钙可以显著提高西式盐水火腿的亮度L*值、红度a*值、黄度b*值和硬度;但是当替代比过大时对产品的弹性、内聚性、胶着性、咀嚼性有一定负面影响;适当的使用乳酸钙替代氯化钠对产品感官品质有积极影响,适宜的替代比为10%左右。

  3. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué, Kamal H.


    We report the first solid-state 27Al NMR study of three aluminum phthalocyanine dyes: aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, AlPcCl (1); aluminum-1,8,15,22-tetrakis(phenylthio)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine chloride, AlPc(SPh)4Cl (2); and aluminum-2,3-naphthalocyanine chloride, AlNcCl (3). Each of these compounds contains Al3+ ions coordinating to four nitrogen atoms and a chlorine atom. Solid-state 27Al NMR spectra, including multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) spectra and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra of stationary powdered samples have been acquired at multiple high magnetic field strengths (11.7, 14.1, and 21.1 T) to determine their composition and number of aluminum sites, which were analyzed to extract detailed information on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry parameters (η) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, and compared well with the results of quantum chemical calculations of these tensors. We also report the largest 27Al chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA), with a span of 120 ± 10 ppm, observed directly in a solid material. The combination of MQMAS and computational predictions are used to interpret the presence of multiple aluminum sites in two of the three samples.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B


    formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional

  5. 化学增强铝硅酸盐玻璃扩散性能研究%The Diffusion Performance of Potassium and Sodium in Ion Exchanged Aluminum Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金树; 赵薇; 肖子凡


    了解碱金属离子在玻璃表面的扩散对生产高强度铝硅酸盐系统离子交换玻璃具有重要意义.通过外加Al,讨论不同Al/Na对碱离子扩散影响.采用EPMA测得玻璃断面K+、Na+分布曲线,根据Boltzmann- Matano计算方法得到K+、Na+的扩散系数,根据Arrhenius公式计算得到K+、Na+的扩散活化能.实验证明,随着Al/Na的增加,K+、Na+扩散深度逐渐增加,互扩散系数逐渐增加,K+、Na+平均活化能逐渐增加.讨论玻璃体内Al/Na比例是研究高强度离子交换玻璃的一个重要方向.%In the production of ion exchanged aluminum silicate system glass, the alkali ion diffusion on the glass surface is an important process which must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the impact of additional Al on the diffusion of alkali ions. The penetration depth profiles of alkali ions were obtained by EPMA methods. The diffusion coefficients of alkali ions were calculated by Boltzmann-Matano equation. And the active energy of alkali ions were gotten by Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the penetration depth, the interdiffusion coefficient and the average active energy increased with the increase of Al/Na ratios. It means the Al/Na ratios have a great effect on the diffusion of alkali i-ons.

  6. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery. (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  7. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?


    Lidsky, Theodore I.


    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  8. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan


    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  9. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis dead? (United States)

    Lidsky, Theodore I


    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust.

  10. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  11. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills. (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others


    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  12. Synthesis and characterization of TiO{sub 2} doped sodium Beta{sup -}Alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X.L.; Yang, H.; Shen, X.D. [Nanjing Univ. of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering


    The application of low resistivity ionic conductor sodium-beta{sup -}alumina in sodium-sulfur batteries and sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) batteries was investigated. Sodium-beta{sup -}alumina is usually synthesized by a solid-state reaction that requires prolonged heating which results in a loss of sodium, thus affecting ionic conductivity. Previous studies have suggested that TiO{sub 2} may promote the sintering of alumina by enhancing the aluminum-ion diffusion, and that barium and titanium dopants may have an influence on the ionic conductivity and phase composition of sodium-beta-alumina. This study focused on the influence of TiO{sub 2} as single additives to sodium-beta{sup -}alumina. Na-{beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte materials with 0-2 wt per cent TiO{sub 2} doping was synthesized by solid state reaction using boehmite, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and MgO as the starting material. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electronic universal testing were used to study the obtained Na-{beta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples. Four probe methods were also used to determine their ionic conductivities. The sample prepared without TiO{sub 2} doping were found to contain only 95.2 per cent % {beta}{sup p}hase, while all the other samples containing 0.5 to 2 wt per cent TiO{sub 2} had more than 96 per cent {beta}{sup p}hase. The TiO{sub 2} doping samples had plump grains and a compact, uniform microstructure, while the sample without TiO{sub 2} had a loose structure with imperfect grains. An increase in TiO{sub 2} enhanced the bending strength of the specimens. It was concluded that TiO{sub 2} doping can accelerate the grain growth and improve the density, thereby increase ionic conductivity and mechanical performance of the material. 5 refs.

  13. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants. (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka


    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm.

  14. The aluminum smelting process. (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor


    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  15. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)


    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  16. Effect of Ammonium Molybdate Inhibition on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel in Chloride and Sulphide Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo S. Afolabi


    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 3.0 M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulphide using various concentrations of ammonium molybdate was investigated in this work. The inhibition effect of this reagent in these media was monitored by weight loss and pH measurements. The analyses of the weight loss results showed that the corrosion susceptibility of mild steel in 3.0 M sodium chloride was more pronounced than in 0.5 M of sodium sulphide due to the aggressive chloride ions in the former and the weak nature of the latter. Ammonium molybdate produced a better inhibition performance of mild steel in 0.5 M sodium suphide than in 3.0 M sodium chloride medium and the higher the concentration of ammonium molybdate the more the inhibition performance on mild steel in the media studied. Optimum inhibition was obtained at 2.5 M ammonium molybdate in both media. The pH values in chloride medium remained acidic throughout the exposure period while those of sulphide medium shifted to alkaline region with exposure time; an effect that was traceable to higher inhibition obtained in the latter medium.

  17. 吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑卒中并颅内高压的临床疗效观察%Clinical Effect of Piracetam and Sodium Chloride Injection in Treating Stroke Patients Complicated With Intracranial Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯绪林; 沈曙晶; 厉三明; 李敏


    Objective To observe the clinical effect of piracetam and sodium chloride injection in treating stroke patients complicated with intracranial hypertension. Methods A total of 80 stroke patients complicated with intracranial hypertension were selected in the people′s Hospital of Yingde from August 2013 to August 2015,and they were divided into control group and study group according to random number table,each of 40 cases. patients of both groups received conventional treatment after admission,and patients of control group were given extra mannitol injection,while patients of study group were given extra piracetam and sodium chloride injection. Clinical effect,intracranial pressure before treatment,decreasing range of intracranial pressure,time for intracranial pressure reached to valley value,duration of intracranial hypertension,incidence of adverse reactions,urine output during treatment and after treatment were compared between the two groups. Results No statistically significant differences of clinical effect was found between the two groups( u = 0. 34,P > 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of intracranial pressure before treatment,decreasing range of intracranial pressure,time for intracranial pressure reached to valley value or duration of intracranial hypertension was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of urine output during treatment or after treatment was found between the two groups( P >0. 05),urine output after treatment of the two groups were statistically significantly less than those during treatment(P 0.05)。两组患者用药前颅内压、降压幅度、颅内压达谷值时间、颅内高压持续时间比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。两组患者治疗期间及治疗后排尿量比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);两组患者治疗后排尿量均少于治疗期间,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。对照组患者治疗第5天、第6天出现

  18. 氯化钠-硫氰酸钾-正丙醇体系析相萃取分离和富集钛(Ⅳ)%Study on extraction and enrichment of titanium(Ⅳ) by phase separation with sodium chloride-potassium thiocyanate-1-propanol system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢先春; 司学芝; 马冬冬; 许春萱


    研究了正丙醇-硫氰酸钾-水体系析相萃取分离和富集Ti(Ⅳ)的行为及与一些金属离子分离的条件.结果表明,氯化钠能使正丙醇的水溶液分成两相,在分相过程中,Ti(Ⅳ)和硫氢化钾生成的Ti(SCN)62-与质子化正丙醇C3 H7OH2+形成的缔合物[Ti(SCN)62-][C3 H7OH2+]2能被正丙醇相完全萃取.当正丙醇、硫氰酸钾和氯化钠的浓度分别为30%(V/V)、8.0×10-2 mol/L和0.17 g/mL时,Ti(Ⅳ)的萃取率达到98.9%以上,V(Ⅴ)、Ce(Ⅲ)、MgⅡ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Cd(Ⅱ)、Cr(Ⅲ)、Al(Ⅲ)、Fe(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Ag(Ⅰ)和W(Ⅵ)不被萃取,实现了Ti(Ⅳ)与上述金属离子的分离.对合成水样中的钛进行分离和测定,结果满意.%The enrichment and extraction behaviors of titanium(Ⅳ) in 1-propanol-potassium thiocyanate-aqueous system and the separation conditions from other metal ions were investigated. The results showed that the 1-propanol aqueous solution could be well divided into two phases in the presence of sodium chloride. The complex of [Ti(SCN)62- ][C3H7OH2+]2 formed from protonized 1-propanol ( [C3H7OH2 + ]2) and [Ti(SCN)62-] (which was generated by titanium (Ⅳ) and potassium thiocyanate) could be completely extracted by 1-propanol during the phase separation process. When the concentration of 1-propanol, potassium thiocyanate and sodium chloride was 30%(V/V) , 8. 0×10~2 mol/L and 0. 17 g/mL, respectively, the extraction yield of titaniumf(Ⅳ) was higher than 98. 9% while V(Ⅴ) Ce(Ⅲ), Mg(Ⅱ), Mn(Ⅱ), Cd(Ⅱ), Cr(Ⅲ), AI(Ⅲ), Fe(Ⅱ) , Zn(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ), Ag(Ⅰ) and W(Ⅳ) were not extracted to realize the separation of titanium(Ⅳ) from the above-mentioned metal ions. This method has been successfully applied to the determination and extraction separation of titanium in the sample of synthetic water with satisfactory results.

  19. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tomperi


    Full Text Available In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models. The purpose was to find out which variables affect the amount of residual aluminum and create simple and reliable prediction models which can be used in an early warning system (EWS. Accuracy of ANN and MLR models were compared. The new nonlinear scaling method based on generalized norms and skewness was used to scale all measurement variables to range [−2...+2] before data-analysis and modeling. The effect of data pre-processing was studied by comparing prediction results to ones achieved in an earlier study. Results showed that it is possible to predict the baseline level of residual aluminum in drinking water with a simple model. Variables that affected the most the amount of residual aluminum were among others: raw water temperature, raw water KMnO4 and PAC/KMnO4 (Poly-Aluminum Chloride/Potassium permanganate-ratio. The accuracies of MLR and ANN models were found to be almost the same. Study also showed that data pre-processing affects to the final prediction result.

  20. Extraction separation of Pt and Pd by potassium iodide-n-propanol system in the presence of sodium chloride%氯化钠存在下丙醇-碘化钾体系萃取分离铂、钯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云涛; 吴立生


    A study of extraction behaviour of Pt and Pd by potassium iodide-n-propanol system in the presence of sodium chloride has been performed and the conditions of phase separation of n-propanol and water in HCl were investigated.The experimental results indicate that the method can extraction simultaneously Pt(Ⅱ) and Pd(Ⅱ) in HCl ,the extraction effeciency of Pt and Pd are 99.8%,99.4%,respectively,the proposed method can separation Pt and Pd from Fe,Al,Pb,Zn,Ca,Mg ,Mn et al based metals and has been used for the separation Pt and Pd in anode slime ,placer platinum and wasted catalyst,and the results agreed well with those of other method.%研究了氯化钠存在下丙醇-碘化钾体系对铂(Ⅱ)、钯(Ⅱ)萃取行为及体系在盐酸介质中的分相条件。在盐酸介质中,体系可同时萃取铂(Ⅱ)、钯(Ⅱ),萃取率分别为 99.8%、99.4%,方法可用于从贱金属中分离铂、钯。对阳极泥、砂铂矿、废催化剂样品中的铂、钯进行了分离,分析结果与其它方法相符,并对萃取机理也进行了探讨。

  1. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  2. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.


    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  3. 丁苯酞氯化钠注射液与甲磺酸倍他司汀联合治疗椎-基底动脉供血不足的临床研究%Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection plus Betahistine Mesylate in Treatment of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency:A Clinical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 徐菁; 何万珍; 周长胜


    目的:观察丁苯酞氯化钠注射液与甲磺酸倍他司汀联合治疗椎-基底动脉供血不足的临床疗效。方法:选择椎-基底动脉供血不足患者128例,经给予安慰剂洗脱2周后随机分为观察组和对照组,每组64例。观察组在常规治疗基础上给予丁苯酞氯化钠注射液200 ml/d、甲磺酸倍他司汀18~36 mg/d;对照组在常规治疗基础上给予甲磺酸倍他司汀18~36 mg/d;疗程均为2周。分别在用药前、用药后14 d观察患者临床疗效,血清内皮素( ET)、一氧化氮( NO)、不对称二甲基精氨酸( ADMA)水平,血液流变学指标(全血比黏度、血浆比黏度、血细胞比容、红细胞聚集指数),双侧椎-基底动脉血流平均流速(Vm)和收缩峰值(Vs)等指标的改善情况。结果:治疗后2组患者临床疗效,血清ET、NO、ADMA水平,血液流变学,双侧椎基底动脉Vm、Vs等指标的改善程度与用药前比较差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05),且观察组明显优于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:丁苯酞氯化钠注射液联合甲磺酸倍他司汀治疗椎-基底动脉供血不足临床疗效确切,可显著改善血管内皮功能、血液流变学和椎基底动脉血流速度,预防脑卒中的发生,值得临床推广应用。%OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection plus betahistine mesylate in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.METHODS: 128 patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency were selected and given placebo elution for 2 weeks before being randomly divided into observation group and control group, of 64 cases each.The observation group received conventional treatment plus butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection (200 ml/d) and betahistine mesylate (18-36 mg/d) for two weeks, while the control group received conventional treatment plus

  4. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)


    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  5. Low sodium diet (image) (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  6. Chelation of aluminum by combining deferasirox and deferiprone in rats. (United States)

    Saljooghi, Amir Shokooh


    The hypothesis that two known chelators deferasirox and deferiprone (L1) might be more efficient as combined treatment than as single therapies in removing aluminum from the body was tested in a new acute rat model. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats received chelators: deferasirox (orally [p.o.]), L1 (p.o.) or deferasirox + L1 as 100 or 200 mg/kg dose half an hour after a single intraperitoneal administration of 6 mg Al/kg body weight in the form of chloride. Serum aluminum concentration, urinary aluminum and iron excretions were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Both chelators were effective only at the higher dose level. While deferasirox was more effective than L1 in enhancing urinary aluminum excretion, L1 was more effective than deferasirox in enhancing urinary iron excretion. In the combined treatment group, deferasirox did not increase the L1 effect on aluminum and L1 did not increase the effect of deferasirox on iron elimination. Our results support the usefulness of this animal model for preliminary in vivo testing of aluminum chelators. Urinary values were more useful due to the high variability of serum results.

  7. Chloride test - blood (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  8. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum. (United States)

    Muller, Bodo


    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  9. Advances in aluminum anodizing (United States)

    Dale, K. H.


    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  10. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰


    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.


    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.


    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  12. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species. (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano


    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  13. Analysis of Nitrogen in Sodium by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sodium sample in which nitrogen exists in form of sodium nitride, lithium nitride and calcium nitrideis solved by distilled water and produce ammonia. Ammonia is relieved when solution is heated, then it isabsorbed by hydrochloric acid to produce ammnium chloride. In alkaline solution, ammonium chlorideconverts into ammonia. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite and phenol that produces a blue indophenol.Nitrogen is determined by 751G type spectrophotometry at the absorption wavelength of 635 nm. The work condition of 751G type spectroscopy, colorimetric condition, smicture of the apparatus

  14. The Effect of Applied Stress on Environment-Induced Cracking of Aluminum Alloy 5052-H3 in 0.5 M NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Alyousif


    Full Text Available The environment-induced cracking (EIC of aluminum alloy 5052-H3 was investigated as a function of applied stress and orientation (Longitudinal rolling direction—Transverse: LT and Transverse—Longitudinal rolling direction: TL in 0.5 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl using a constant load method. The applied stress dependence of the three parameters (time to failure; tf, steady-state elongation rate, Iss, and transition time at which a linear increase in elongation starts to deviate, tss obtained from the corrosion elongation curve showed that these relationships were divided into three regions, the stress-dominated region, the EIC- dominated region, and the corrosion-dominated region. Aluminum alloy 5052-H3 with both orientations showed the same EIC behavior. The value of tss/tf in the EIC-dominated region was almost constant with 0.57±0.02 independent of applied stress and orientation. The fracture mode was transgranular for 5052-H3 with both orientations in the EIC-dominated region. The relationships between log Iss and log tf for 5052-H3 in the EIC-dominated region became a good straight line with a slope of −2 independent of orientation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan H.


    Full Text Available The yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG long fibers were prepared by the sol-gel method using aluminum chloride, aluminum powder, yttrium oxide and acetic acid as raw materials. The grain growth law is given by Dn – D0n = Kt (D0 = initial grain size, D = average grain size at time t, n = grain growth exponent and K = reaction constant. The grain growth exponent and activation energy of YAG fibers are ≈ 3 and 200 kJ/mol, respectively. The grain-growth behaviors of YAG were influenced by experimental conditions such as raw materials, initial particle size, initial particle distribution, etc.

  16. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells. (United States)

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan


    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion.

  17. The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lizarazo Marriaga


    Full Text Available  Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion. 

  18. The Aldosterone Paradox: differential regulation of the sodium chloride cotransporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Lubbe (Nils)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Maintaining total body Na+ and K+ balance is essential to the survival of most species. Hypovolemia (Na+ deficit) and hyperkalemia (K+ surplus) elicit different constellations of responses to maintain homeostasis. During hypovolemia, the extracellular fluid volume needs

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis for the Refining Ability of Salt Flux for Aluminum Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Hiraki


    Full Text Available The removability of impurities during the aluminum remelting process by oxidation was previously investigated by our research group. In the present work, alternative impurity removal with chlorination has been evaluated by thermodynamic analysis. For 43 different elements, equilibrium distribution ratios among metal, chloride flux and oxide slag phases in the aluminum remelting process were calculated by assuming the binary systems of aluminum and an impurity element. It was found that the removability of impurities isn’t significantly affected by process parameters such as chloride partial pressure, temperature and flux composition. It was shown that Ho, Dy, Li, La, Mg, Gd, Ce, Yb, Ca and Sr can be potentially eliminated into flux by chlorination from the remelted aluminum. Chlorination and oxidation are not effective to remove other impurities from the melting aluminum, due to the limited parameters which can be controlled during the remelting process. It follows that a proper management of aluminum scrap such as sorting based on the composition of the products is important for sustainable aluminum recycling.

  20. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne


    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  1. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.


    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  2. Efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Effect of sodium chloride on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sal (NaCl sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Para isso, juvenis de tambaqui (42,38 ± 0,47 g; 13,90 ± 0,06 cm foram transferidos para tanques de 350L e aclimatados por um período de 24 horas. Os ensaios foram conduzidos utilizando as concentrações de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 g de sal comum L-1 de água, nos tempos de exposição de 30, 60 e 120 minutos, com três repetições por tratamento. A tolerância dos tambaquis ao sal e a eficácia deste sobre os helmintos monogenóides foi avaliada mediante análise dos indicadores fisiológicos (glicose, cloretos, sódio e potássio plasmático e parasitológicos (número total de parasitas e prevalência. Tambaquis expostos a 4 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos, 6 e 8 g NaCl L-1 por 60 e 120 minutos apresentaram maior elevação da glicose plasmática e na concentração de 8 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos maiores níveis de cloreto plasmático. A prevalência de monogenóides nas brânquias foi de 100% e todas as concentrações de sal avaliadas neste estudo não foram eficazes na redução dos helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of salt (NaCl on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Juveniles of tambaqui (42.38 ± 0.47 g; 13.90 ± 0.06 cm were transferred to 350L tanks and acclimated for a period of 24 hours. The assays were conducted using the concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of NaCl L-1 of water, exposed to 30, 60 and 120 minutes, with three replicates in each treatment. The tambaqui tolerance to salt and the efficacy against monogenean were evaluated by physiological analysis (glucose, chloride, sodium and potassium plasmatic concentrations and parasitic indices (total number of parasites and prevalence. Tambaquis exposed to 4 g NaCl L-1 for 120 minutes, 6 and 8 g NaCl L-1 for 60 and 120

  3. Neuronal chloride accumulation and excitatory GABA underlie aggravation of neonatal epileptiform activities by phenobarbital. (United States)

    Nardou, Romain; Yamamoto, Sumii; Chazal, Geneviève; Bhar, Asma; Ferrand, Nadine; Dulac, Olivier; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khalilov, Ilgam


    Phenobarbital produces its anti-epileptic actions by increasing the inhibitory drive of γ-aminobutyric acid. However, following recurrent seizures, γ-aminobutyric acid excites neurons because of a persistent increase of chloride raising the important issue of whether phenobarbital could aggravate persistent seizures. Here we compared the actions of phenobarbital on initial and established ictal-like events in an in vitro model of mirror focus. Using the in vitro three-compartment chamber preparation with the two hippocampi and their commissural fibres placed in three different chambers, kainate was applied to one hippocampus and phenobarbital contralaterally, either after one ictal-like event or after many recurrent ictal-like events that produce an epileptogenic mirror focus. Field, perforated patch and single-channel recordings were used to determine the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid and their modulation by phenobarbital, and alterations of the chloride cotransporters were investigated using sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 and potassium chloride cotransporter 2 antagonists, potassium chloride cotransporter 2 immunocytochemistry and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 knockouts. Phenobarbital reduced initial ictal-like events and prevented the formation of a mirror focus when applied from the start. In contrast, phenobarbital aggravated epileptiform acti