WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminum paint

  1. Paint-Bonding Improvement for 2219 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.; Cibula, Audrey Y.

    1987-01-01

    Bonding of adhesives and primers to 2219 aluminum alloy improved by delaying rinse step in surface-treatment process. Delaying rinse allows formation of rougher surface for stronger bonding and greater oxide buildup.

  2. The Total Hemispheric Emissivity of Painted Aluminum Honeycomb at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators or thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  3. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration

  4. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 552 Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); Knollenberg, P. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  5. Laser Peening on Aluminum Alloy 7049 Using Black Paint Surface Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alalkawi H. J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Black paint laser peening (bPLP technique is currently applied for many engineering materials , especially for aluminum alloys due to high improvement in fatigue life and strength . Constant and variable bending fatigue tests have been performed at RT and stress ratio R= -1 . The results of the present work observed that the significance of the surface work hardening which generated high negative residual stresses in bPLP specimens .The fatigue life improvement factor (FLIF for bPLP constant fatigue behavior was from 2.543 to 3.3 compared to untreated fatigue and the increase in fatigue strength at 107 cycle was 21% . The bPLP cumulative fatigue life behavior was improved by 1.786 at L-H and 1.55 at H-L due to black paint coating .

  6. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become a...

  7. Optimization of Anodized-Aluminum Pressure-Sensitive Paint by Controlling Luminophore Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sakaue

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP has been used as a global pressure sensor for unsteady flow measurements. We use a dipping deposition method to apply a luminophore on a porous anodized-aluminum surface, controlling the luminophore concentration of the dipping method to optimize AA-PSP characteristics. The concentration is varied from 0.001 to 10 mM. Characterizations include the pressure sensitivity, the temperature dependency, and the signal level. The pressure sensitivity shows around 60 % at a lower concentration up to 0.1 mM. Above this concentration, the sensitivity reduces to a half. The temperature dependency becomes more than a half by setting the luminophore concentration from 0.001 to 10 mM. There is 3.6-fold change in the signal level by varying the concentration. To discuss an optimum concentration, a weight coefficient is introduced. We can arbitrarily change the coefficients to create an optimized AA-PSP for our sensing purposes.

  8. A Dipping Duration Study for Optimization of Anodized-Aluminum Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ishii

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP uses the dipping deposition method to apply a luminophore on a porous anodized-aluminum surface. We study the dipping duration, one of the parameters of the dipping deposition related to the characterization of AA-PSP. The dipping duration was varied from 1 to 100,000 s. The properties characterized are the pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and signal level. The maximum pressure sensitivity of 65% is obtained at the dipping duration of 100 s, the minimum temperature dependency is obtained at the duration of 1 s, and the maximum signal level is obtained at the duration of 1,000 s, respectively. Among the characteristics, the dipping duration most influences the signal level. The change in the signal level is a factor of 8.4. By introducing a weight coefficient, an optimum dipping duration can be determined. Among all the dipping parameters, such as the dipping duration, dipping solvent, and luminophore concentration, the pressure sensitivity and signal level are most influenced by the dipping solvent.

  9. 外墙用水性金属闪光漆中铝粉的选择和定向分析%Analysis of Selection and Orientation of Aluminum Powder in Water Based Metallic Paint for External Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 闪晓刚

    2012-01-01

    The selection and orientation of aluminum powder in the water based metallic paint for external wall were analyzed. The influences of aluminum powder on the water based metallic paint for external wall in differentcondition were discussed.%对水性外墙金属闪光漆中铝粉的选择和定向进行分析。讨论不同情况下铝粉对水性金属闪光漆的影响。

  10. The influence of optical properties of paints and coatings on the efficiency of infrared nondestructive testing applied to aluminum aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, D.; Vavilov, V. P.; Pawar, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    IR NDT (Infrared Nondestructive Testing) is a popular method for detecting defects in composite, ceramic, and metallic structures. The effectiveness of IR NDT depends on various thermal and optical properties of the material being tested. The thermal properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density are important and have been discussed extensively in many treatises on IR NDT. However the optical properties of the surface are equally important and while the thermal properties cannot be changed, sometimes the optical properties can be. Bare metal surfaces have high reflectivities and low emissivities, and as a result, they are generally not good candidates for IR NDT. Painted, coated, anodized, and oxidized metal surfaces can, in some cases, be successfully tested with IR NDT, but the effectiveness depends on the optical properties of the surface. It is well known by IR NDT practitioners that the easy solution to the testing of reflective materials is to paint the surface black. However, this is not always practical and it may not be permitted by the "owner" of the part. This paper demonstrates a process of analyzing the interaction of spectral curves that are relevant to the IR NDT process. This process can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of an IR NDT process for use on real parts with specific coatings and can help select a coating that may improve the effectiveness. This paper shows examples of optical properties for some typical paints and coatings that may be used on aluminum aircraft structures. It shows the spectrum of a generic incandescent radiant heat source and how the energy from this source is absorbed by several of these paints. Further, it shows the interaction between an IR camera detector response curve and the other curves. And finally, it shows how these three can be combined to produce an "IR NDT" efficiency rating for several examples.

  11. Sign painting

    OpenAIRE

    Repstock, Anna Marie

    2012-01-01

    My MFA thesis project titled Sign Painting includes five oil paintings. Each painting contains two words squished together, eliminating the space between them: BOXINGGRIN, WHISKYMUSTACHE, SLOWAMBULANCE, PERISHOW, GRIZZLEND. In my painting practice I provocatively invite words into the visual space of oil paint. The provocation comes from the idea that language, which is verbal, and paint, which is purely visual, are opposed. But I have found that language inevitably asks to be painted. Poetic...

  12. Role(s) of pretreatment, inhibitors, and other process steps that effect surface composition on the under-paint corrosion of an aluminum-copper-magnesium alloy 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Daryl A.

    2006-12-01

    Under-paint corrosion is a surface corrosion that grows under a coating. The composition of an aluminum alloy, particularly Cu and Fe content, has a direct and dominant effect on the growth rate of filiform corrosion (FFC) and scribe-creep. The Cu and Fe content leads to formation of galvanic cells between intermetallic compounds (IMCs) or replated Cu and the aluminum-rich matrix. However, there is no model which describes scribe-creep behavior and can be used to predict the effect of material and surface pretreatment parameters such as inhibitors, chemical surface pretreatment, and alloy microstructure. Surface pretreatments and aging which control the amount of surface copper and alter IMC distributions decrease the growth rate of scribe-creep. Scribe-creep was observed to be enhanced by temperature, regardless of surface pretreatment, as well as by artificial aging and surface pretreatments. Scribe-creep was accelerated by pretreatments that increased surface copper or left a high capacity for Cu-replating such as Cu-containing IMCs. Pretreatment was rationalized to decrease the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate, which supports anodic undercutting at the head of the corrosion front. In this galvanic corrosion mechanism, the scribe-creep rate will be proportional to the rate of the anodic dissolution at the head. This, in turn, is proportional to the galvanic corrosion rate. Both charge transfer controlled and mass transport controlled cathodic reaction rates occurred at the fastest rates at the scratch and tail. The charge transfer controlled cathodic reaction rate was directly proportional to the surface coverage of Cu (thetaCu) while the mass transport limited rate was a complex nonlinear function of thetaCu . Based on enhanced understanding a galvanic couple model that describes scribe-creep rates in terms of the relevant processes at the tail and head as well as ohmic voltage between the head and tail was developed in order to explain scribe

  13. Lacquer Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In 1981, Ningxia archaeologists unearthed an ancient tomb from the tenth year of Taihe in Northern Wei (the year 486). A couple was buried in the tomb. The lacquer painting on the wooden coffin is regarded as a unique flower in the history of ancient Chinese painting. The coffin was decayed but analyzed from its lacquer

  14. Painted Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  15. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  16. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  17. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  18. Anodic Activation of Aluminum by Trace Element Tin

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Anodic activation of commercial and model aluminum alloys in chloride solution became of practical importance in connection with filiform corrosion of painted aluminum sheet in architectural application and aluminum components of brazed heat exchangers. Activation in chloride solution manifests itself in the form of a significant negative shift in the pitting potential relative to pure aluminum and a significant increase in the anodic current output at potentials where aluminum is normally ex...

  19. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  20. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, J B; Chan, T L

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2327324

  1. Investigation on the hazing of a Brazilian contemporary painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglieri, Thiago S.; Lavezzo, Ariane S.; Santos, Isabela F. S. dos; de Faria, Dalva L. A.

    2016-04-01

    A whitish crystalline-like coating was observed on the surface of the painting "Incêndio", 1990, produced by Emmanuel Nassar and awarded at the 6th Biennial of Cuenca. This work belongs to the Contemporary Art Museum of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP) and such coating modified the artwork characteristics, causing an unpleasant effect and compromising its exhibition. The choice of the proper conservation and restoration strategies involves the understanding of the degradation process, demanding the identification of the chemical compounds formed on the painting surface, as well as of the other components in the painting. The results here obtained from Raman and optical microscopies, FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDS and GC-MS, revealed that the efflorescence chemical composition is almost only palmitic acid, with minor contents of stearic acid and their methyl esters, and that the paints are composed by chrome yellow, amorphous carbon and toluidine red pigment; an aluminum silicate filler in the black paint applied on the aluminum ground was also detected. Hierarchical Cluster Analyses (HCA) of the Raman spectra also revealed that the concentration of the efflorescence minor components depends on the paint composition. It was suggested, therefore, that the degradation process resulted from segregation and migration of mainly palmitic acid from the dried paints. Restoration methodologies used in similar cases, as well as factors that contribute to this process, were discussed.

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  3. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  4. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  5. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G BLUSTEIN; C DEYÁ; R ROMAGNOLI

    2016-06-01

    The present work depicts synergism anticorrosive behaviour between zinc hypophosphite and zinc phosphate in a commercial pigment mixture. Also, the performance of anticorrosive paints was evaluated. Synergism anticorrosive behaviour was evaluated by corrosion potential and linear polarization measurements in pigment suspensions. The protective layer obtained with this pigment mixture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the anticorrosive properties of the pigment were assessed by incorporating it into alkyd and epoxy paints which were evaluated by salt spray test and electrochemical noise technique. The morphology and the nature of the protective layer grown under the paint film were also studied by SEM. Experimental results showed that improved anticorrosion protection is achieved in paints with reduced zinc phosphate contents as a consequence of the synergistic interaction between zinc hypophosphite and the other components of the pigment mixture. The electrochemical noise technique proved to be adequate to monitor corrosion in painted panels and is able to detectcorrosion under the paint film from very early stages. This paper identified the need to study synergism between anticorrosive pigments to try to reduce the phosphate content in anticorrosive paints.

  6. Paint-Overspray Catcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to catch paint overspray has been proposed. Overspray is an unavoidable parasitic component of spray that occurs because the flow of air or other gas in the spray must turn at the sprayed surface. Very small droplets are carried away in this turning flow, and some land on adjacent surfaces not meant to be painted. The basic principle of the paint-spray catcher is to divert the overspray into a suction system at the boundary of the area to be painted. The paint-spray catcher (see figure) would include a toroidal plenum connected through narrow throat to a nozzle that would face toward the center of the torus, which would be positioned over the center of the area to be spray-painted. The plenum would be supported by four tubes that would also serve as suction exhaust ducts. The downstream ends of the tubes (not shown in the figure) would be connected to a filter on a suction pump. The pump would be rated to provide a suction mass flow somewhat greater than that of the directed spray gas stream, so that the nozzle would take in a small excess of surrounding gas and catch nearly all of the overspray. A small raised lip at the bottom edge of the nozzle would catch paint that landed inside the nozzle. Even if the paint is directly piston pumped, the droplets entrain an air flow by time they approach the wall, so there is always a gas stream to carry the excess droplets to the side. For long-duration spraying operations, it could be desirable to include a suction-drain apparatus to prevent overflowing and dripping of paint from inside the lip. A version without an external contraction and with the throat angled downward would be a more compact version of catcher, although it might be slightly less efficient.

  7. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test.

  8. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    humidity. Contrary to the usual assumptions it was found that wax-resin linings on linen canvas responded to high relative humidity (RH) with higher contraction forces than was the case before lining. The contraction was evident at RH levels as low as 65%. Because the adhesive fills the voids in the linen...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...... canvas (both the original and the lining canvas), the contraction due to fiber swelling was immediate. There is some evidence that the same observation applies for liquid Beva in linen canvas. The results showed further, that glue-paste lining on a linen canvas offered significant support to a painting...

  9. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  10. Nanjing Painting & Calligraphy Academy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FOUNDED in 1979,the Nanj-ing Painting and CaligraphyAcademy consists of 20 profes-sional painters,over 40 invited paintersand a few brilliant graduates from sev-eral art schools.The academy hasemerged as a major art force,withmost of its members being young andmiddle-aged painters.The academy is composed of aChinese painting research studio,anexhibition section,arts and crafts salessection and an administrative office.In1992 the Nanjing municipal govern-ment made cotributions to the acade-my for the construction of a paintingstudio and an exhibition hall coveringa combined floor area of 1,000 square

  11. Miniature spray-painting booth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  12. A Painting Tells Its Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Separated parts of an ancient Chinese painting to be displayed together Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao told a story about a famous Chinese painting Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains at a press conference after the Third Session of the

  13. Oil Paintings by Ou Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ou Yang, professor of the Oil Painting Department of Guangdong Art College, has been pursuing perfection in the field of art for many years. With their rich emotional color, paintings by her do not simply

  14. Estimating the colors of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.; Linhares, João M. M.; João, Catarina A. R.; Amano, Kinjiro; Montagner, Cristina; Melo, Maria J.; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Observers can adjust the spectrum of illumination on paintings for optimal viewing experience. But can they adjust the colors of paintings for the best visual impression? In an experiment carried out on a calibrated color moni- tor images of four abstract paintings obtained from hyperspectral data were shown to observers that were unfamiliar with the paintings. The color volume of the images could be manipulated by rotating the volume around the axis through the average (a*, b*) point for eac...

  15. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting a...

  16. Paint it nanoblack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2016-08-01

    Ever since our ancestors painted images on the walls of caves, artists have sought pigments to represent the 10 million tints that humans can differentiate. Now they have a new ally: researchers who are using optical design principles, nanotechnology and inspiration from nature to create deeper blacks and purer whites.

  17. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  18. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  19. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...

  20. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  1. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  2. ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPLIANT CORROSION-ACTIVATED INHIBITOR SYSTEM FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The federal government is estimated to spend $1 billion on painting/repainting aircraft annually. Aircraft have surfaces composed of aluminum alloys that are highly susceptible to corrosion and must be protected with corrosion-preventative treatments that typically conta...

  3. Release and detection of nanosized copper from a commercial antifouling paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Oranu, Ekene A; Tao, Mengya; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-10-01

    One major concern with the use of antifouling paints is the release of its biocides (mainly copper and zinc) into natural waters, where they may exhibit toxicity to non-target organisms. While many studies have quantified the release of biocides from antifouling paints, very little is known about the physicochemical state of released copper. For proper risk assessment of antifouling paints, characterization of copper released into water is necessary because the physicochemical state determines the metal's environmental fate and effects. In this study, we monitored release of different fractions of copper (dissolved, nano, and bulk) from a commercial copper-based antifouling paint. Release from painted wood and aluminum mini-bars that were submerged in natural waters was monitored for 180 days. Leachates contained both dissolved and particulate copper species. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical phase of particles in the leachate. The amount of copper released was strongly dependent on water salinity, painted surface, and paint drying time. The presence of nanosized Cu2O particles was confirmed in paint and its leachate using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electron microscopy. Toxicity of paint leachate to a marine phytoplankton was also evaluated. PMID:27393962

  4. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  5. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), products containing iron, tetracycline (Sumycin, Tetracap, and others), ticlopidine (Ticlid), and vitamins.be aware that aluminum hydroxide may interfere with other medicines, making them less ...

  6. Shang Yang’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shang yang is a highly representative painter in the contemporary Chinese oil painting circle. In the past few decades, his painting style has changed several times; he abandoned his successful original style and familiar subjects when he turned from realism to abstraction. In the two pieces shown here, the people of the Loess Plateau are depicted as existing as an integral whole with nature, mutually inside and outside of it. Beholden to some techniques from traditional Chinese painting Shang’s

  7. TECHNICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING FOR PAINT STRIPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency and the U.S. EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory cooperated to investigate the feasibility of Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) as a paint removal technique for aluminum military shelters. The PMB process was compared in field t...

  8. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  9. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  10. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  11. SODIUM ALUMINATE IN CASTING PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative researches showed that sodium aluminate can be successfully used as a modifying addition into the foundry paints on the basis disthen-sillimanite and lignosulfonate, as well as the binder for the chill mould paints based on graphite.

  12. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  13. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  14. Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, C.; Doherty, B.; Gentili, P. L.; Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2008-07-01

    Naturally occurring dyes have been used to produce painting pigments, called lakes, by precipitation or adsorption of an organic dyestuff onto an insoluble inorganic substrate. Most natural dyes link to metal cations, by means of coordination bonds. The stable complexes formed precipitate together with solid amorphous hydrous aluminum oxide in alkaline solutions, yielding a hybrid material called a lake. Conventional chromatographic methods for lake analysis require dye extraction from the substrate; as a consequence, they do not provide any information about the organo-metallic complexes. In this work a comprehensive investigation based on X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible absorption and emission spectroscopies was carried out on 13 organic pigments derived from eight different natural sources. Three different kinds of substrate containing aluminum hydroxide were distinguished dependent on different preparation procedures. Information concerning the recipe and the dye composition was obtained by UV-visible spectroscopies. Dyes from different sources (animal or vegetal) could be distinguished. This study shows that the combined use of different spectroscopic techniques provides complementary information to high-performance liquid chromatography and therefore can be proposed for a molecular non-invasive investigation of these materials on works of art.

  15. Electrically Conductive Paints for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. E.; Wolf, R. E.; Ray, C.

    1977-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and test electrically conductive paint coatings for spacecraft. A wide variety of organic and inorganic coatings were formulated using conductive binders, conductive pigments, and similar approaches. Z-93, IITRI's standard specification inorganic thermal control coating, exhibits good electrical properties and is a very space-stable coating system. Several coatings based on a conductive pigment (antimony-doped tin oxide) in silicone and silicate binders offer considerable promise. Paint systems using commercially available conductive polymers also appear to be of interest, but will require substantial development. Evaluations were made based on electrical conductivity, paint physical properties, and the stability of spectral reflectance in space environment testing.

  16. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...... gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  17. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  18. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  19. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27490546

  20. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-08-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated.

  1. Development of magnetic separator for deironing of paint industrial stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, J.; Csoke, B.; Antal, G. [Univ. of Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1995-12-31

    From the waste material of the production of aluminum foil aluminum pigment is produced for the paint industry by grinding it in white spirit. During grinding 1--2% iron impurity gets into the product, weakening its quality, from the war of the mill armor and the grinding bodies and from the contamination of the raw material. For deironing the product, a stage-operated electrically induced magnetic filter separator was developed and put into operation. The separator was sited in an explosive environment and therefore required a special design and safety system. The paper describes the results of the development work, the device that was developed, the safety system as well as the results of and experiences with the operation of the separator.

  2. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  3. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... on interdisciplinary collaboration and on the knowledge of specialist conservators. Most current conservation protocols rely on empirical knowledge of conservators and are not necessarily based on a scientific understanding of the nature and behaviour of wood and paint layers. In order to move the field forward...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  4. REDUCTION OF TOTAL TOXIC ORGANIC DISCHARGES AND VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSIONS FROM PAINT STRIPPING OPERATIONS USING PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency and the U.S. EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory cooperated to investigate the feasibility of Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) as a paint removal technique for aluminum military shelters. The PMB process was compared in field te...

  5. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  6. NGAWANG JIGME'S MODERN WASH PAINTINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KELZANG; DORJE

    2007-01-01

    Having received a thorough college education.Ngawang Jigme naturally expresses his academic knowledge and skills through his washing paintings.Though he grew up on the plateau cating Tsampa and yak flesh,drinking yak buttered tea,living in the clear atmosphere,sunny sky and mountain scenery,he would hardly be expected to tolerate the monotone world of wash painting,which adopts black and white as its principal theme and acknow ledges"blur impression"as the ultimate aim.He strives for total absorption int...

  7. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  8. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond...

  9. Black painted pottery, Kildehuse II, Odense County, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trąbska, Joanna; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Runge, Mads Thagård

    2011-08-01

    This work aimed at characterization of a black layer covering a Bronze Age (period VI) pot surface. To solve research problems plane polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning microscopy with X-ray microanalyser (SEM/EDS), Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies were applied. Observation of the black layer under the PLM suggests that we deal with an opaque, isotropic layer, purposely put on leather-hard, burnished surface of a pot. No traces of organic substances that might have modified a pot surface before painting were detected. The black layer coats the pot with a continuous 0.2-0.4 μm thick layer. The black layer must have been applied while warm or hot. It is recognized that the black layer is a true painting layer. Spectroscopic analyses (Raman and FTIR) point that birch tar or a birch-pine tar had been applied. Carbon black should be definitely excluded. The analyzed organic substance is structurally ordered in various degrees, due to varying temperature influence. Some Raman spectra reveal, in second-order region of the spectrum (>2000 cm -1), the graphite presence. Scarce points reveal the presence of inorganic admixtures: clay minerals, feldspars and quartz. The next question is: Is it an organic paint or a carbon-based, "mixed" paint? Inorganic admixtures are only casual. Relatively high concentration of alumina is expected to have appeared due to aluminum mobility in acidic environment and this was provided by organic tar/pitch substances. Phosphorus (usually with calcium) mostly concentrates together with clay minerals. Thus, hypothesis on bone powder or ash addition to tar/pitch should be excluded. Some elements may originate not only from inorganic substances but also from wood ashes.

  10. Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Uri P.; Feiner, Yoram

    1995-04-01

    In this study the IR reflectivity of painted and rough surfaces was investigated, and an attempt was made to represent the surfaces by a complex refractive index. A CO2 laser was used as a collimated source in the thermal IR region, and the polarization properties of reflected radiation were measured. The samples chosen were flat surfaces of sandblasted aluminum, concrete, painted metal, and asphalt. Values of the bidirectional reflectance function were obtained in the two orthogonal states of polarization, based on sulfur as the Lambertian standard. Many samples, such as painted metals, showed specular behavior and could be characterized by Fresnel equations. For some of these surfaces optical constants were calculated from the reflectivity measurements. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured values of the percent of polarization for these surfaces.

  11. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  12. The Painting on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  13. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  14. Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Lawman, Samuel; Zheng, Yalin; Williams, Dominic; Zhang, Jinke; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an analytical tool for nondestructively characterizing the individual paint layer thickness of multiple layered automotive paints. A graph-based segmentation method was used for automatic analysis of the thickness distribution for the top layers of solid color paints. The thicknesses measured with OCT were in good agreement with the optical microscope and ultrasonic techniques that are the current standard in the automobile industry. Because of its high axial resolution (5.5 μm), the OCT technique was shown to be able to resolve the thickness of individual paint layers down to 11 μm. With its high lateral resolution (12.4 μm), the OCT system was also able to measure the cross-sectional area of the aluminum flakes in a metallic automotive paint. The range of values measured was 300-1850  μm2. In summary, the proposed OCT is a noncontact, high-resolution technique that has the potential for inclusion as part of the quality assurance process in automobile coating. PMID:27140390

  15. Washi Painting Exchanges Promote Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2014-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA),a washi painting exchange delegation headed by Umeko Iwai,President of Rainbow Society of Japan,a Hiroshima-based non-profit organization,visited Sichuan Province from November 3 to 5,2013.Rice paper was invented in China in ancient times.When the paper-making

  16. 76 FR 18521 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... History The following events have occurred since the Department published the Preliminary Determination on... Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 54302 (September 7, 2010) (Preliminary Determination). From September 17... bright-dip anodized), liquid painted, or powder coated. Aluminum extrusions may also be fabricated,...

  17. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  18. An electrochemical study of the corrosion behavior of primer coated 2219-T87 aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Higgins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion behavior for 2219-T87 aluminum coated with various primers, including those used for the external tank and solid rocket boosters of the Space Shuttle Transportation System, were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Corrosion potential time, polarization resistance time, electrical resistance time, and corrosion rate time measurements were all investigated. It was found that electrical resistance time and corrosion rate time measurement were most useful for studying the corrosion behavior of painted aluminum. Electrical resistance time determination give useful information concerning the porosity of paint films, while corrosion rate time curves give important information concerning overall corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. In general, the corrosion rate time curves all exhibited at least one peak during the 30 day test period, which was attributed, according to the proposed mechanisms, to the onset of the hydrogen evolution reaction and the beginning of destruction of the protective properties of the paint film.

  19. Effects of pre-aging treatments on the microstructures and properties before and after paint bake cycle for a 6016 aluminum alloy%预时效对6016铝合金烤漆前后组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯佳妮; 陈江华; 刘春辉; 廖元飞; 李祥亮

    2012-01-01

    本文利用显微硬度测试、拉伸试验、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和透射电子显微镜观察,研究了预时效对汽车车身板用6016铝合金烤漆前后微观组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明:经预时效处理的铝合金在室温放置1个月后硬度可保持在65 HV以下,延伸率可保持在25%以上,再经短时间烤漆处理后其硬度和屈服强度分别可提高至100 HV和220 MPa以上.与单级预时效处理后的合金相比,多级预时效处理后的铝合金烤漆前的力学性能更为稳定,烤漆后的硬度和强度更高.6016铝合金快速的烤漆强化效应与预时效处理后合金中形成的细小析出相在烤漆过程中快速长大有关.合金经预时效处理后铝基体内会形成非常细密且与基体完全共格的析出相,其长度约为2~3 nm,而经过烤漆处理后析出相沿〈001〉Al显著增长,长度大于10 nm.高分辨透射电镜分析显示烤漆后样品中形成的是具有单斜结构的针状GP区和β"前驱相.%The effects of pre-aging treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties before and after paint bake cycle for a 6016 aluminium alloy were investigated by micro-hardness measurement, tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) , and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) . The experimental results show that the hardness and elongation rate of the alloy treated by pre-aging after 1 month's duration at room temperature could remain below 65HV and above 25% , respectively. Then, after paint bake cycle for a short time, the hardness and yield strength increased to over 100HV and 220MPa, respectively. Compared with samples through one-step pre-aging, the stability of the mechanical properties of samples treated by two-step pre-aging were higher, and the hardness and strength after paint bake were even higher. The quick bake hardening response in 6016 alloy was associated with the marked growth of the fine precipitates formed in the pre

  20. Melody of Autumn (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps because of the nature of a woman, I take great interest in painting flowers and plants. But the difference is I prefer instead of the blooming flowers the dry flowers surviving the blossom. The dry cockscomb, sunflower, lotus and the wild flowers whose names I don’t know can always remind me of past stories. In recent years, my dried flawers have been displayed at exhibitions both at home and abroad and won appraisal and the top prize at the 1995 Eighth National Arts Exhibition. Some works have been collected by the China Art Gallery and private collectors from Hang Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Europe.

  1. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumers are choosing to complete do-it-yourself (DIY) projects in their homes. Using paint strippers in ... chance of flammable paint stripper fumes catching fire. DIY use of methylene chloride-based paint strippers has ...

  2. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  3. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F., E-mail: stephen.bartolucci@us.army.mil [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Paras, Joseph [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Rafiee, Mohammad A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Rafiee, Javad [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Koratkar, Nikhil, E-mail: koratn@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. {yields} Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. {yields} Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. {yields} The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  4. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  5. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  6. Zhang Leiping’s Traditional Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Though small and graceful, Zhang Leiping has a painting style that is straightforward and unconstrained. "Usually, I’m timid," she says. "But once I have the pointing brush in my hand, I become very bold." Inspired from within, this woman painter’s work is a natural revelation; her paint gives artistic life to the mountains, rivers, grasses and trees of her motherland.

  7. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calleja, E. M.; Cervantes, F.; de la Calleja, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff-Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock's paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock's paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri's Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri's Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks.

  8. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  9. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  10. Subsurface Raman analysis of thin painted layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Claudia; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Zerbi, Giuseppe; Matousek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Here we present, for the first time, an extension of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy to thin (tens of micrometers thick), highly turbid stratified media such as those encountered in paintings. The method permits the non-destructive interrogation of painted layers in situations where conventional Raman microscopy is not applicable due to high turbidity of the top layer(s). The concept is demonstrated by recovering the pure Raman spectra of paint sub-layers that are completely obscured by paint over-layers. Potential application areas include the analysis of paintings in art preservation and restoration avoiding the cross-sectional analysis used currently with this type of samples. The technique also holds promise for the development as a non-destructive subsurface tool for in situ analysis using portable instruments.

  11. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  12. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  13. [Obesity and thinness in painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller Pérez, Amador

    2004-01-01

    The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591

  14. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  15. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers. Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI and damage frequency (DF observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group ( P≤0.05. In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF were significantly greater than that for the control group ( P≤0.05. Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers.

  16. Imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry of a paint cross section taken from an early Netherlandish painting by Rogier van der Weyden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Katrien; Boon, Jaap J

    2004-03-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is introduced as an analytical technique for the examination of paint cross sections to obtain simultaneous information about the nature and distribution of pigments and the binding medium from a single sample. A sample taken from the virgin's blue robe in the panel painting The Descent from the Cross (Museo del Prado, Madrid) of the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400-1464) was selected for investigation. Data were compared with reference compounds and reference lead white linseed oil paint and egg tempera paint. The static SIMS technique gave position-sensitive mass spectra that were used to image the elemental distribution of pigments and the molecular signature of components of the oleaginous binding medium. SIMS ion images of sodium and aluminum superimposed with the blue pigment ultramarine and those of copper, lead, and calcium with the position of the mineral pigments of azurite, lead white, and chalk, respectively. Preserved monocarboxylic acids of palmitic and stearic acids present as fatty acids and fatty acid lead soaps pointed to the use of linseed oil as a binding medium. Images from the oleaginous binding medium fatty acids show a correlation with the three main paint layers. The observed palmitic/stearic acid ratios for the two ultramarine layers and azurite layers are 1.3, 1.4, and 1.8, respectively. Fatty acids and fatty acid soaps show highest ion yields near lead white, a mineral pigment that serves as a natural chemical drier and is proposed to act as a template for the initial grafting of the polyunsaturated triglycerides of the linseed oil. Almost no fatty acids were detected in other layers visible by light microscopy. The fatty acid lead soaps point toward a mature ionomeric oil paint system that developed over centuries. SIMS evidence for egg tempera, still used in the 15th century, is not detected in the paint cross section. SIMS images correlate well with SEM/EDX, FT

  17. Imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry of a paint cross section taken from an early Netherlandish painting by Rogier van der Weyden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Katrien; Boon, Jaap J

    2004-03-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is introduced as an analytical technique for the examination of paint cross sections to obtain simultaneous information about the nature and distribution of pigments and the binding medium from a single sample. A sample taken from the virgin's blue robe in the panel painting The Descent from the Cross (Museo del Prado, Madrid) of the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400-1464) was selected for investigation. Data were compared with reference compounds and reference lead white linseed oil paint and egg tempera paint. The static SIMS technique gave position-sensitive mass spectra that were used to image the elemental distribution of pigments and the molecular signature of components of the oleaginous binding medium. SIMS ion images of sodium and aluminum superimposed with the blue pigment ultramarine and those of copper, lead, and calcium with the position of the mineral pigments of azurite, lead white, and chalk, respectively. Preserved monocarboxylic acids of palmitic and stearic acids present as fatty acids and fatty acid lead soaps pointed to the use of linseed oil as a binding medium. Images from the oleaginous binding medium fatty acids show a correlation with the three main paint layers. The observed palmitic/stearic acid ratios for the two ultramarine layers and azurite layers are 1.3, 1.4, and 1.8, respectively. Fatty acids and fatty acid soaps show highest ion yields near lead white, a mineral pigment that serves as a natural chemical drier and is proposed to act as a template for the initial grafting of the polyunsaturated triglycerides of the linseed oil. Almost no fatty acids were detected in other layers visible by light microscopy. The fatty acid lead soaps point toward a mature ionomeric oil paint system that developed over centuries. SIMS evidence for egg tempera, still used in the 15th century, is not detected in the paint cross section. SIMS images correlate well with SEM/EDX, FT

  18. Fresh Paint: Brueghel Revisited by Anne Simpson

    OpenAIRE

    Barragão, Fernando Pedro Cleto Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Anne Simpson’s “Seven Paintings by Brueghel” is a crown of sonnets, a specific way of exploring the possibilities of the sonnet as a fixed form. Rather than dwelling on the noble history of this technical exploit, though, we are to observe the relation between Simpson’s text and the paintings by Brueghel she draws ideas from. We intend to examine in detail how Simpson paints her own images over Brueghel’s, while never losing sight of the Flemish painter’s stark imagery. Also important for our...

  19. Edge-Based Shading as a Depth Cue in Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, M. E.; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J; te Pas, Susan F

    2015-01-01

    We explored how an artist who uses a particular monochrome modern painting style generates the impression of relief in paintings. Three portraits, painted after model, were created especially for the experiment. Photographs of the paintings were presented on a computer screen. To investigate the per

  20. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead....

  1. [Study of Paints and Drawing Techniques of Fine Brushwork Yunlong Ripples Painting in Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Sheng-cai; Shi, Ji-long; Wang, Ji-gang; He, Qiu-ju; Qi, Xiao-kun; Zhou, Zhong; Zhou, Wen-hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the paints and techniques of decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves, the materials based on a Qing Dynasty meticulous painting were measured by three-dimensional video microscopy, Raman microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the green clothes was firstly colored by Paris green, the decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves were then painted by hematite, the edge was delineated by brass powder at last. The dark yellow area within the decorative patterns was presented due to the interaction of green and red paints. In addition, ultramarine blue was checked in the painting. According to the first synthesized time of ultramarine blue and Paris green, we can make sure the time limit of the painting finished. PMID:27209755

  2. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  3. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  4. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  5. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark......-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro...

  6. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  7. Raw materials for paint industry products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brushwell, W.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation as regards raw materials for the United States paint industry is outlined, under the following headings: availability of methanol, chemical products from methanol, alkyd resins, petrochemistry, coal chemistry, and ethanol production by fermentation.

  8. Darkness and depth in early Renaissance painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Contrast has always been appreciated as a significant factor in image quality, but it is less widely recognized that it is a key factor in the representation of depth, solidity and three-dimensionality in images in general, and in paintings in particular. This aspect of contrast was a key factor in the introduction of oil paint as a painting medium at the beginning of the fifteenth century, as a practical means of contrast enhancement. However, recent conservatorship efforts have established that the first oil paintings were not, as commonly supposed, by van Eyck in Flanders in the 1430s, but by Masolino da Panicale in Italy in the 1420s. These developments led to the use of chiaroscuro technique in various forms, all of which are techniques for enhanced shadowing.

  9. Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. B.; Mourou, M.; Whitaker, J. F.; Duling, I. N.; Williamson, S. L.; Menu, M.; Mourou, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The feasibility of applying time-domain, terahertz spectroscopic imaging to the evaluation of underdrawings and paint layers embedded within wall paintings is demonstrated. Metallic and dielectric paint patterns and a graphite drawing are resolved through both paint and plaster overlayers using a pulsed-terahertz reflectometer and imaging system. We calculated the bulk refractive indices of four common pigments and used them to confirm color domains in a terahertz-beam spectral image of a painting.

  10. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  11. A Canvas of Acrylic Painting from Pig Leather%用猪革作丙烯画底材

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹏; 许娄金; 谢鸣

    2012-01-01

    Acrylic painting is painted on various base materials by plying leather as base material for acrylic painting is nearly as that of requests for base material of acrylic: painting, pig hide was adopted as ufaeturing technique were applied, including special treatment before bined with low -dosage mimosa tanning, etc. So that the pig leather acrylic pigments instead of oil pigments. The process of ap- finishing leather with acrylic resin. According to the special raw materials and a relatively easy, convenient leather man- tanning, wet - white pre - tanning by aluminum salt com- base material suiting for acrylic painting was developed.%丙烯画是用丙烯颜料在各种底材上绘制的画。以真皮为底材制作丙烯画,与用丙烯酸树脂涂饰皮革有相似之处。根据丙烯画底材的特殊要求,以猪皮为原料,采用有针对性而且相对简捷的生产工艺,包括有针对性的鞣前处理工艺、铝预鞣白湿皮工艺并结合少用量的荆树皮栲胶植鞣工艺等,试制出了适宜于绘制丙烯画的猪革底材。

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  13. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  14. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  15. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  16. Burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttenberg, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An experimental investigation was conducted in which the burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles were measured using a windowed combustion bomb at atmospheric pressure and under gravity-fall conditions. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the size distribution of the initial aluminum particles and the aluminum oxide residue. Analysis of the residue indicated that the mass of aluminum...

  17. Titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid film on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong WANG; Lei WANG; Changsheng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Three titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid films were formed on AA6061 aluminum alloy by immersing in fluorotitanic acid and fluorozirconic acid based solution containing different phosphonic acids for protective coatings of aluminium alloy. The corrosion resistance of three hybrid films as the substitute for chromate film were evaluated and compared. The neutral salt spray test was explored,the immersion test was conducted and electrochemical test was also executed. The hybrid films exhibited well-pleasing corrosion resistance and adhesion to epoxy resin paints. It was found out that the hybrid films could efficiently be a substitute for chromate based primer over aluminium alloy.

  18. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  19. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Batista, Marcos Antônio Jacó; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging. PMID:20027445

  20. Paint selection for coating radioactive-waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is concluded that although the white epoxy Paint Sample E is suitable for coating waste drums, the additional pretreated costs of grit blasting prior to paint application would preclude adoption of that paint system. The specified 10.0-mil coating thickness of that coating would also incur higher costs. The Vorac epoxy-phenolic base paint (buff or yellow) was the only other paint that exhibited suitable corrosion and impact resistance required for coating the waste drums. In addition, that paint does not require a grit-blasted substrate or other costly pretreatment prior to coating

  1. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  2. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  3. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  4. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  5. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  6. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  7. Paint indusry and environmental problem. Toryo kogyo to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, A. (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-11

    Relating to the paint industry, introduction was made of environmental problem, particularly trend of the hydrocarbonexhaust regulation, and problem against the global warming gas and acid rain. Environmental pollution matter produced by the paint industry and painting industry being mainly hybrocarbon (organic solvent), the worldwide quantity of hydrocabon exhausted in the atmosphere is estimated to be annually 20 million tons, of which 18%, i.e., an annual quantity of 3.5 million tons is exhausted from the field of paint industry. The role to be played by the paint industry is important for the lowering in pollution by the hydrocarbon. Useful paints for the environmental maintenance comprise high solid paint, aqueous paint, slurry paint, powder paint and UV-hardened paint. The automobile coating is being also changed from the metallic coating to the aqueous coating. Low temperature hardening paint is used for the countermeasures against the global warming gas. For those against the acid rain, urethane hardening, hardening by the acid-epoxy group reaction, hardening by the alkoxyl froup reaction and other hardenings are developed to replace the conventional hardening by the melamine resin for heightening in acidproofness of paint film. 5 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Development of oxidation protection paint for titanium. Chitan yo sanka boshizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, I. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Titanium is easily oxidized, and moreover solves oxygen at ten-odd percent by weight at the part under the TiO2 scale, a peelable outermost layer. A titanium material that has solved oxygen has its extension value and area reducing value reduced, leading to a large cause of generating product flaws. This paper, therefore, described a development of an oxidation protection paint for titanium that can be used by simply painting it on a titanium material. Its main agent is made of a flake-like metallic aluminum powder, added with alkyd resin as a binder and toluene and xylene as a viscosity adjuster. A titanium material painted with this agent forms titanium aluminide having high oxidation resistance on the titanium surface during normal heating in the atmosphere. As opposed to the conventional oxidation preventing agent made mainly of glass whose effect has not been sufficient, the present agent can prevent effectively the formation of the above oxidation hardened layer. Excellent hardened layer suppression effect has been verified when this agent has been applied to the production process of blooming rolling. 5 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Electrochemical Impedance Study of Zinc Yellow Polypropylene-Coated Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of zinc yellow polypropylene-coated aluminum alloy 7B04 during accelerated degradation test is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been found that the zinc yellow polypropylene paint has few flaw and acts as a pure capacitance before accelerated test. After 336-hour exposure to the test, the impedance spectroscopy shows two time constants, and water has reached to the aluminum alloy/paint interface and forms corrosive microcell. For the scratched samples, the reaction of metal corrosion and the hydrolysis of zinc yellow ion can occur simultaneously. The impedance spectroscopy indicates inductance after 1008-hour exposure to the test, but the inductance disappears after 1344-hour exposure and the passivation film has pitting corrosion.

  10. Non-destructive XRF analysis of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z. E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu; Demeter, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kovacs, I

    2004-11-01

    The preservation and conservation of our cultural heritage has become one of the main concerns today all over the world. In particular there is an increasing need for non-destructive investigations, as sampling from the unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. In addition to the conventional analytical procedures, techniques utilising nuclear instruments and methods play increasing role in this field. The small, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers using radioisotope excitation allow in situ analysis in museums, galleries, or even on field. This paper presents illustrative applications of our XRF devices with radioisotope excitation. The detection of the presence of titanium in white spots of a painting provided scientific basis to decide that the painting in question was a fake. The difficulties caused by the simultaneous presence of Ti and Ba (a very frequent component white paints) are also discussed.

  11. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  12. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  13. Gloss paints in late paintings by Francis Picabia: a multi-analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkori, Maria; Hubert, Marie-Odile; Balcar, Nathalie; Barabant, Gilles; Sutherland, Ken; Casadio, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-analytical approach for the study of the materials used by Francis Picabia in two paintings dating from 1949 and 1950 is reported, with a particular reference to the possible use of enamel paints. The study is complemented by analysis of paints that had the appearance of glossy enamel sampled from the artist's easel in the collection of the Comité Francis Picabia. Analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-Py-GCMS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that only few paints match the composition of historical reference samples of Ripolin enamels, while the majority of the glossy paints sampled likely consist of mixtures of binders and varnishes made by the artist. This study confirms the importance of scientific testing and comparison with reference materials, when determining artists' use of enamel paints. Results should be interpreted in the context of documentary/historical evidence, for a more informed characterization of oleoresinous paint media.

  14. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lazzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works.

  15. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-04-19

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works.

  16. Painting the Soul of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chen Kezhi:a prestigious oil painter and a household name in Chinese fine arts circles,is add- ing luster to the cultural prosperity of the country with his artistic efforts.The latest sensation is over his masterpieces of the Three Gorges area.Since 1996,he has devoted himself to the Three Gorges series.These paintings reproduce the original impression of the Three Gorges area that will never be seen again.The paintings deliver the mystic atmosphere of the orient and the majestic scenery of China.Chen recently sat down with Beijing Review reporter Huang Jun to share his views and experience on these masterpieces.

  17. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works. PMID:27101221

  18. Treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by coagulation/electrochemical methods: Proposals for disposal and/or reuse of treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa F; Barbosa, Andreia D; de Paula, Heber M; Romualdo, Lincoln L; Andrade, Leonardo S

    2016-09-15

    This paper describes and discusses an investigation into the treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater (water-based acrylic texture) by coagulation (aluminum sulfate) coupled to electrochemical methods (BDD electrode). Two proposals are put forward, based on the results. The first proposal considers the feasibility of reusing wastewater treated by the methods separately and in combination, while the second examines the possibility of its disposal into water bodies. To this end, parameters such as toxicity, turbidity, color, organic load, dissolved aluminum, alkalinity, hardness and odor are evaluated. In addition, the proposal for water reuse is strengthened by the quality of the water-based paints produced using the wastewater treated by the two methods (combined and separate), which was evaluated based on the typical parameters for the quality control of these products. Under optimized conditions, the use of the chemical coagulation (12 mL/L of Al2(SO4)3 dosage) treatment, alone, proved the feasibility of reusing the treated wastewater in the paint manufacturing process. However, the use of the electrochemical method (i = 10 mA/cm(2) and t = 90 min) was required to render the treated wastewater suitable for discharge into water bodies.

  19. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  20. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  1. A New Orientation - The 3rd China Oil Painting Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXueying

    2004-01-01

    At the and of 2003,the 3rd China Oil Painting Exhibition displayed nearly 10,000 works from 34 three-phase selection process including publie appraisal, 20 works were granted China Oil Painting Artistic Awards.

  2. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  3. Pigeons' discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi

    1995-01-01

    Pigeons successfully learned to discriminate color slides of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Following this training, they discriminated novel paintings by Monet and Picasso that had never been presented during the discrimination training. Furthermore, they showed generalization from Monet's to Cezanne's and Renoir's paintings or from Picasso's to Braque's and Matisse's paintings. These results suggest that pigeons' behavior can be controlled by complex visual stimuli in ways that suggest cat...

  4. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given

  5. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicati

  6. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  7. Determination of poisonous metals in wastewater collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M A; Hussain, T

    2007-01-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was developed for determination of toxic metals in wastewater collected from local paint manufacturing plant. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm on the solid residue from wastewater collected from paint industry. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like, lead, copper, chromium, calcium, sulphur, magnesium, zinc, titanium, strontium, nickel, silicone, iron, aluminum, barium, sodium, potassium and zirconium, in paint wastewater were 6, 3, 4, 301, 72, 200, 20, 42, 4, 1, 35, 120, 133, 119, 173, 28 and 12mg kg(-1), respectively. The evaluation of potential and capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for paint industry effluent characterization is discussed in detail. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of our LIBS system through parametric dependence study. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) results were compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). The relative accuracy of our LIBS system for various elements as compared with ICP method is in the range of 0.03-0.6 at 2.5% error confidence. Limits of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the above mentioned elements. PMID:19071270

  8. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  9. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art o

  10. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  11. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K;

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning stu...

  12. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  13. Chinese Landscape Painting Stirs up French Viewers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenDali

    2004-01-01

    From April 1 to June 28, a largescale exhibition called "Holy Mountains" was held in the Grand Palace of Paris, showcasing some 100 works of 20 different Chinese landscape painting schools spanning from the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) to the late Qing Dynasty (1644-1911),

  14. Exhibition of Paintings By Fu Yiyao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoHui

    2004-01-01

    The CPAFFC mounted an exhibition of paintings by Fu Yiyao at the China National Museum of Fine Arts from April 15 to 26. As one of the activities to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the CPAFFC, the exhibition aimed to further promote the

  15. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  16. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  17. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana;

    2015-01-01

    MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  18. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  19. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  20. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  1. China’s Aluminum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The aluminum industry makes one of the keyindustries in China’s industrial and agriculturalmodernization and features a high degree ofrelevance with all industries.Of all the 124existing industries in China,113 use aluminum,representing an industrial relevance rate of91%.The consumption of aluminum is also ofhigh relevance with China’s GDP.

  2. [Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J; Doniec, J

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  3. Surface reflection properties of oil paints under various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nishi, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measurement and analysis of surface reflection properties of oil paints under a variety of conditions. First, the radiance factor of a painting surface is measured at different incidence and viewing angles by using a gonio-spectro photometer. The samples are made from different oil paint materials on supporting boards with different paint thicknesses. Next, typical reflection models are examined for describing 3D reflection of the oil painting surfaces. The models are fitted to the observed radiance factors from the oil paint samples. The Cook- Torrance model describes well the reflection properties. The model parameters are estimated from the least-squared fitting to the genio-photometric measurements. Third, the reflection properties are analyzed on the basis of several material conditions such as pigment, supporting material, oil quantity, paint thickness, and support color.

  4. Pingguo Aluminum Faces Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinalco Guangxi Pinggjuo Branch is an exemplary company of Chinalco. Many of its indicators including technology, management standard, and profit rank in leading position in the industry, but such a pace-setter company is also facing the dilemma of overstock of Alumina products, and loss in electrolytic aluminum business.

  5. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, J

    2008-01-01

    The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bac...

  7. Formulation of anticorrosive paints employing conducting polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Barroso, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    The intention and purpose of the present thesis is to prepare a series of protective coatings using some conducting polymers (CPs) as corrosion inhibitors. The use of organic paints is the most common method for corrosion prevention. Anticorrosive coatings form a class of high-performance systems with a very wide range of applications and being classified in two broad groups: heavy-duty coatings, for high performance, and light-duty coatings, for medium performance. The first class being requ...

  8. Blanching of paint and varnish layers in easel paintings: contribution to the understanding of the alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genty-Vincent, Anaïs; Eveno, Myriam; Nowik, Witold; Bastian, Gilles; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Cabillic, Isabelle; Uziel, Jacques; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Menu, Michel

    2015-11-01

    The blanching of easel paintings can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer with a blurring effect. The understanding of the physicochemical and optical phenomena involved in the whitening process remains an important challenge for the painting conservation. A set of ca. 50 microsamples from French, Flemish, and Italian blanched oil paintings, from sixteenth to nineteenth century, have been collected for in deep investigations. In parallel, the reproduction of the alteration was achieved by preparing some paint layers according to historical treatises and altering them in a climatic chamber in a humid environment or directly by immersing in ultrapure water. The observation of raw samples with a field-emission gun scanning electron microscope revealed for the first time that the altered layers have an unexpected highly porous structure with a pore size ranging from ca. 40 nm to 2 μm. The formation mechanism of these pores should mostly be physical as the supplementary analyses (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) do not reveal any noticeable molecular modification. Considering the tiny size of the pores, the alteration can be explained by the Rayleigh or Mie light scattering.

  9. Capability to Paint and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie Miller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although quite many qualitative studies on painting in Alzheimer’s disease (AD have been conducted, there is a lack of quantitative studies, examining the ability to paint in people with AD in relation to disease stages, and to what extent instructions are associated with actual performance. The present study aimed at investigating the capability to paint among nonartist AD participants (N = 17 in an instructed painting condition versus a noninstructed painting condition. Differences in time spent and area of canvas used in the two painting conditions were assessed and related to scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Clock Test. Number of colors used and color preferences were also assessed. A within-subjects experimental design was used. Analyses revealed a statistically significant difference between time and area used in the two painting conditions, where both time and area were used more in the noninstructed condition. MMSE scores and scores on the Clock Test correlated significantly with time spent in both conditions. Higher scores predicted longer painting sessions. Mean number of colors used was 5. Color preferences were bright colors in general and green in particular. Possible artistic development was noted. The overall conclusion is that people with AD have a preserved capability to paint, with and without instructions, even those in the later stages of the disease. The results also indicate that an artistic development is possible and that painting can be used as an appreciated and beneficial activity for people with AD.

  10. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

  11. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  12. Control of paint overspray in autobody repair shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, W A; Wallace, M E; Bryant, C J; Ruch, W E

    1995-10-01

    Commercially available controls for reducing worker exposure to paint overspray were evaluated in six autobody shops and a spray-painting equipment manufacturer's test facility. Engineering control measures included spray-painting booths, vehicle preparation stations, and spray-painting guns. The controls were evaluated by measuring particulate overspray concentrations in the worker's breathing zone, visualizing the airflow in spray-painting booths and vehicle preparation stations, and measuring airflow volumes and velocities. In addition, respirator usage observations were collected at five of the autobody repair shops, and quantitative fit tests were conducted on existing respirators at three shops. Several conclusions were drawn from this study. Downdraft spray-painting booths provide lower particulate overspray concentrations measured on the worker than crossdraft and semidowndraft spray-painting booths. In the latter two booths, the spray-painting gun can disperse as much as half the paint overspray into the incoming fresh air, increasing worker overspray exposure. Vehicle preparation stations have no walls to contain the overspray and, commonly, a single exhaust fan removes air from the painting area. Airflow patterns suggest that these do not control the paint overspray. Switching from a conventional spray-painting gun to a high-volume low pressure spray-painting gun reduced the particulate overspray concentration by a factor of 2 at a manufacturer's test facility. However, this change did not significantly affect solvent concentrations. Finally, respirator usage in five of the six shops studied was inappropriate. Respirators were poorly maintained and/or did not fit the workers, perhaps due to the absence of a formal respirator program. PMID:7572611

  13. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalili, M. [Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid. • 2 wt% of zinc dust in zinc-rich paint was substituted by aluminum nanoparticles. • Surface modified aluminum nanoparticle improved the cathodic period of protection. • Aluminum nanoparticles enhanced the corrosion protection of the zinc-rich coating. - Abstract: Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  14. The extraction and preliminary characterization of paint oil and paint wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yingjie; Wu Maoyu; Zhang Feilong

    2012-01-01

    To study the best technology of extraction of paint wax and paint seed oil, we performed the single factor experiment and analyzed the composition of different varieties of paint oil by infrared analysis. The results show that: the optimum conditions for paint wax, are that, using petroleum ether(30℃ -60℃ ) as extracting agent, extraction temperature 50℃, ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 20, the extraction time 12h, paint seed skin mesh size, greater than 100 ; optimum conditions for paint oil are that, petroleum ether( 30℃ -60℃ ) as extracting agent, extraction temperature 50℃, ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 30, the extraction time 3h, paint seed skin mesh size greater than 100. Extracted paint oil' s IR spectral peak positions are basically the same, which indicates that their chemical compositions are basically the same.%研究漆籽油和漆蜡提取的最佳工艺,进行单因素实验,对不同品种漆油进了红外分析。结果表明:漆蜡的最佳工艺条件是:石油醚(30℃~60℃)作为提取剂,提取温度为50℃,固液比为1∶20,提取时间12h,漆籽皮的目数是大于100目;漆油的最佳工艺条件是:石油醚(30℃~60℃)作为提取剂,提取温度为50℃,固液比为1∶30,提取时间3h,漆籽皮的目数是大于100目。通过萃取所得的漆油在红外图谱上出峰位置基本一致,表明其化学成分基本相同。

  15. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  16. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called stone on stone, explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  17. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, A. J. L.; Planken, P. C. M.; S. Meloni; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show that X-rays cannot be used to image through the lead white pigment which effectively blocks the X-rays. Although Infrared Reflectography is...

  18. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  19. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  20. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  1. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  2. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks.

  3. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B. [Central Mining Inst., Katowice (Poland). National Center for Implementation of Cleaner Production

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  4. Flood Overflows Jinshan Temple (Chinese Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese painting Flood Ouerflows Jinshan Temple draws its subject from a beautiful and well-known legend,The white Snake.In the tale Jinshan was an islet in the Yangtze River of yesteryear.Inorder to aave her husband kept in a temple at the top of the isle.Bai Niangzi.incarnation of the whitesnake.bravely fought Monk Fahat.She borrowed the Yangtze River’s water to overcome Jinshan Templeand force Fahai to release her husband.

  5. Mural Paintings in A Liao Tomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    It was a custom in the Liao Dynasty to decorate tombs with murals. The paintings in Zhao Dejun’s tomb, excavated in Beijing, provide a well-known example. During the Five Dynasties period, Zhao Dejun was a warlord in Youzhou, which became the southern capital of Nanjing in the Liao Dynasty (and even later, was renamed Beijing). The Zhaos grew to become a very powerful family in the area, as can be seen from the size of Zhao’s tomb and the value of the funerary objects buried with him. His tomb

  6. Tangka Painting Art of the Tibetan Race (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Tibetan painting art is mainly revealed in mural paintings aswell as tangka. Tangka incarnates not only the special character of Tibetan painting art but also the features of Tibetan traditional crafts and mounting.

  7. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  8. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V. M. Y; Trojanowski, J Q

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  9. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  10. Emotion in Painting and Art Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečni, Vladimir J

    2015-01-01

    Paintings are static 2-dimensional images with limited narrative means. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant laboratory scaling studies, museum studies, and neuroaesthetic work, the article reaches a negative conclusion about most paintings' ability to engage sufficiently with general viewers' associative-memory systems, so as to lead to identification and empathy, and induce fundamental psychobiological emotions. In contrast, designers of art installations can draw on subtle combinations of several classes of stimulus properties with psychological significance subsumable under the classical concept of the sublime (physical grandeur, rarity, an association with beauty and with biologically significant outcomes), so that some installations may induce the peak aesthetic emotional response, aesthetic awe--as defined in Aesthetic Trinity Theory (Konečni, 2005, 2011), along with the states of being moved and physiological thrills. The approach also involves an analytical skepticism about emotivism, defined as a culturological proclivity for unnecessary insertion of emotion into accounts of mental life and behavior, especially in the arts. Implications for the role of emotion theory in empirical aesthetics are examined.

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their handli

  12. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  13. 75 FR 39706 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... the antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China (75 FR 21347, April 23, 2010... revoke the order on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34097). In light of these developments, the Commission is... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  14. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings : From Realism to Magritte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; van Houte, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period 19

  15. Reconsidering Chinese Painting%中国画再审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁耀

    2001-01-01

    Reconsidering the traditional painting, including its philosophy and techniques, is always done by contemporary artists. The result is not very important. What we can concern is the expression in the painting, which would show the thinking progress, of the artist. Let's appreciate works of Mr. Liang Yao.

  16. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, I. K.; Jensen, K. A.; Schneider, T.

    2009-02-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 μm and two modes around 1 and 2 μm. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 μm modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  17. UN to lssue Stamps of Chinese Children’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A set of stamps designed by Chinese children who took peace as their theme will be issued by the United Nations on October 25, 1996. This will be the first time the United Nations has used children’s paintings in its stamps. The paintings chosen are prize-winners of the Chinese national stamp-designing

  18. The painting collection of baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M

    2004-01-01

    The Catholic Baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst (1613-1674) from Utrecht was an enthusiastic collector of paintings. In his translation of Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, Hendrick Bloemaert even lauded Willem Vincent's 'Lofweerdigh cabinet' (commendable cabinet) of paintings. The inventory Wyttenhorst m

  19. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Haack Christensen, Anne;

    as a constituent in paintings has still not been much investigated, neither with regard to the processing nor the trade of the material. Did it give a particular colour/structure in order to achieve a specific final effect of the painted surface? Was clay cheaper than chalk, calcium sulphate or earth pigments? Did...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or alkalies, employees shall be protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall...

  1. PAINTINGS IN TEACHING THE DISCIPLINE OF "GENETIC MONITORING"

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the use of paintings as illustrative and analytical material in the course of "Genetic monitoring", like sections of "Human Genetics", "Epigenetics". Using the paintings of great artists as the visual material in the learning process performs several tasks: analytical, informational and resourcefu

  2. PAINTINGS IN TEACHING THE DISCIPLINE OF "GENETIC MONITORING"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of paintings as illustrative and analytical material in the course of "Genetic monitoring", like sections of "Human Genetics", "Epigenetics". Using the paintings of great artists as the visual material in the learning process performs several tasks: analytical, informational and resourcefu

  3. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  4. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  5. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  6. Video-based running water animation in Chinese painting style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG SongHai; CHEN Tao; ZHANG YiFei; HU ShiMin; MARTIN Ralph

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for synthesizing animations of running water, such as water-fails and rivers, in the style of Chinese paintings, for applications such as cartoon making. All video frames are first registered in a common coordinate system, simultaneously segmenting the water from background and computing optical flow of the water. Taking artists' advice into account, we produce a painting structure to guide painting of brush strokes. Flow lines are placed in the water following an analysis of variance of optical flow, to cause strokes to be drawn where the water is flowing smoothly, rather than in turbulent areas: this allows a few moving strokes to depict the trends of the water flows. A variety of brush strokes is then drawn using a template determined from real Chinese paintings. The novel contributions of this paper are: a method for painting structure generation for flows In videos, and a method for stroke placement, with the necessary temporal coherence.

  7. Polyaniline and polypyrrole coatings on aluminum for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Shine; McClure, J.C. [Metallurgical and Materials Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigation en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); CAES, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Moreira, J.; Valenzuela, Edgar [CAES, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    The conducting polymers polypyrrole and polyaniline were deposited on 6061 aluminum using cyclic voltammetry and painting, respectively. These samples are intended for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications where surface contact resistance as well as bulk corrosion resistance are requirements for the bipolar plates that separate the cells. Corrosion current and voltage were measured on the samples as well as contact resistance between coated samples as a function of contact pressure. The polypyrrole samples showed neither improved corrosion resistance nor acceptable contact resistance. The painted polyaniline samples, however, showed about an order of magnitude reduction in corrosion current with only a minor increase in contact resistance. It is believed that in the more acidic environment of a fuel cell, the polyaniline will become even more conductive and that further reduction in contact resistance should be possible. (author)

  8. 75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Exposure Reduction. In the Federal Register dated April 22, 2008 (73 FR 21692), EPA promulgated final TSCA... are conducted in target housing and child-occupied facilities: 1. Establish the discipline of lead... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child...

  9. Hualu Aluminum Will Construct Large Coal-Power-Aluminum Aluminum Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter learned from relevant departments of Baiyin City that in order to further push forward industrial upgrading,fulfill expansion and consolidation of the enterprise,Gansu Hualu Aluminum Co.,Ltd(Hualu Aluminum)will implement Out-Of-City-Into-Park project,

  10. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  11. Development of a new anti-rust paint for rusted metal%新型带锈防锈漆的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应鹏展; 王雅晴

    2001-01-01

    A new anti-rust paint for rusted material was developed by addition of zinc phosphate, zinc oxide, aluminum tripolyphosphate, barium chromate and other auxiliaries, which result in phosphating, and chromating of rusted metal surface to obtain continuous, uniform and fine protective film. Addition of 0.05%~0.10% cobalt and manganese dryer can greatly improve drying rate of paint film. The anti-rust paint is stable in long-term storage and its parameters meet the requirement of national standard. Preparation of the title paint is simple and low cost.%研制了一种新型带锈防锈漆。通过加入磷酸锌、氧化锌、三聚磷酸铝、铬酸钡等助剂,使金属带锈表面锈层磷化、钝化,形成连续、均匀、致密的保护层。加入0.05%~0.10%的钴锰催干剂,显著提高了漆膜的干燥速度。该带锈防锈漆制备工艺简单、成本低、长期贮存性能稳定,各项指标均符合国家标准。

  12. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  13. Ultrahigh vacuum system with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakeable vacuum chamber (1500C continuous) consists of aluminum alloy beam pipe (6063-T6) and bellows (5052-F) with an aluminum alloy flange (2219-T87) and a metal seal [Helicoflex-HN: pure aluminum (1050) O-ring with an elastic core (Ni base super alloy Inconel 750) which supplies the sealing force] has been constructed. The beam pipe and the flange (6063-T6/2219-T87), and the bellows and the flange (5052-F/2219-T87) were welded by an alternate current (50 Hz) TIG process using an aluminum alloy filler wire (4043). The mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy (2219-T87) is suitable for using the Helicoflex O-ring but the groove surface for the gasket is weak for scratching. Cromium-nitride coating by ion plating method was carried out on the aluminum surface of the gasket groove [thickness: 16 μm, micro Vickers hardness: 1800]. Ordinary stainless steel vacuum system can be replaced by the aluminum vacuum system in an accelerator. (author)

  14. Application of Gold Nanoparticles to Paint Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hideo

    Metal nanoparticles possess unique properties that they do not exhibit in their bulk states. One of these properties is the color due to surface plasmon resonance. Gold nanoparticles appear red. This color has been utilized in glass for a long long time. In recent years, highly concentrated pastes of gold and silver nanoparticles have been successfully produced by using a special type of protective polymer and a mild reductant. The paste of gold nanoparticles can be used for paint and other materials as red colorants. In this article,application examples of gold nanoparticles as colorant are introduced. Recently, methods for producing bimetal nanoparticles such as gold/silver and gold/copper have been developed. These nanoparticles allow colors from yellow to green to be created. These methods and colors they produce are also described in this article.

  15. Thermal indicating paints for ammunition health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, James L., III; Iqbal, Zafar

    2010-04-01

    Thermochromic semiconductive polymers that change color in response to external stimuli, such as heat and radiation, can be utilized to monitor the temperature range and elapsed time profiles of stored and prepositioned munitions. These polymers are being tailored to create paints and coatings that will alert Army logistic staff of dangerous temperature exposures. Irreversible indication via color change in multiple thermal bands, 145 F - 164 F (63o-73°C), 165 F - 184 F (74° - 84° C) and over 185 F (>85°C) are possible with these thermochromic polymers. The resulting active coating can be visually inspected to determine if safe temperatures were exceeded. More detailed information, including cumulative time of exposure in certain temperature bands through changes in optical chromaticity describing the vividness or dullness of a color, can be assessed using a hand-held optical densitometer.

  16. Ikuo Hirayama Painting Exhibition Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 30th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the Ikuo Hirayama Painting Exhibition jointly sponsored by the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA), the China International Culture Association (CICA) and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA), was held in the National Art Museum of China from April 17 to 26. At the invitation of the CJFA, Tomiichi Murayama, former Japanese prime minister, and Ikuo Hirayama, president of the JCFA and famous painter, who led a delegation of over 200 people of various circles, paid a visit to China to attend the opening ceremony of the exhibition and take part in the relevant activities from April 16 to 20.

  17. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-01

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

  18. Paint removal and surface cleaning using ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry; Visaisouk, S.

    1995-04-01

    Research into the possibility of using ice particles as a blast medium was first initiated at Defence Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) in an effort to develop a more environmentally acceptable paint removal method. A paint removal process was also required that could be used in areas where normal grit blasting could not be used due to the possibility of the residual blasting grit contaminating machinery and other equipment. As a result of this research a commercial ice blasting system was developed by RETECH. This system is now being used to remove paint from substrates that cannot be easily blasted by conventional techniques and also to clean soiled or contaminated surfaces. The problems involved in the development of an ice blast system and its components and their functions are described. Due to the complexity of paint removal using ice blasting, parameters such as air pressure, ice particle size and ice particle flow rate were studied and adjusted to suit the nature of the particular coating and substrate of interest. The mechanism of paint removal by ice particles has also been investigated. A theoretical model has been developed to explain the different paint removal mechanisms such as erosion by abrasion and erosion by fracture as they relate to ice blasting. Finally, the use of ice blasting to removal paint from a variety of substrates is presented as well as examples of surface cleaning and surface decontamination.

  19. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples. PMID:18669265

  20. The female images in the tang dynasty painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽霞

    2014-01-01

    the tang dynasty is the most prosperous dynasties in ancient China. Both in the cultural, economic, political and artistic performance is very outstanding. Historical development of the era makes unprece-dented open people's minds, such open also natural y seep into the woman's behavior, they have a certain personal freedom and individuality liberation, the status of women is rising. This painting in the tang dy-nasty has very good reflected in the female image. At times like these, had appeared Zhang Xuan, zhou-fang painter, their painting art has ex-erts a far-reaching influence on the later tang dynasty figure painting.

  1. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    CERN Document Server

    Allada, K; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-01-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO$_2$ gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  2. An environmentally safe and effective paint removal process for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Joseph

    2001-03-01

    To reduce hazardous waste from fleet and depot aircraft paint stripping and to conform to regulations banning toxic chemical paint strippers, the U.S. Naval Air Systems Team (materials division, depots, and head-quarters) teamed with the U.S. Air Force at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center for concept development, characterization, and demonstration of a mature, advanced paint-removal system, the Boeing xenon/flashlamp CO2 (Flashjet®) process. Extensive metallic and composite-materials testing was conducted. This paper describes the development and characterization program leading to authorization of the process for use on fixed-wing navy aircraft.

  3. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  4. Leaded Paint in Cambodia—Pilot-scale Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sereyrath Lim; Thomas Murphy; Kenneth Wilson; Kim N. Irvine

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lead is a heavy metal that is well known to pose a threat to human health. Although the sale and use of lead paint has been banned in much of the developed world, lead is still commonly used in enamel paints in the developing world, including Cambodia. As Cambodia's economy grows, this may increase the purchase and use of lead-based paints, thus potentially exposing more of the population to the toxic effects of lead. Objective. This study was performed to evaluate the concentr...

  5. Reflections of consumerism in Damien Hirst’s Spot Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Blanché, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In what way do Damien Hirst’s artworks reflect (consumer) society? His Pharmaceutical Spot Paintings recall, Damien Hirst is often called a “brand”. Spot Paintings are one of his “product lines” and a logo at the same time. Hirst reflects this with a form of over identification (Slavoj Žižek). Since their transfer from wall to canvas in 1991 each Spot Painting hints at its status as a consumer object in positive, negative and ironic ways. They reflect belief in medicine, advertising and belie...

  6. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most...... were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate...

  7. Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

  8. Effects of Tactile Sensations during Finger Painting on Mindfulness, Emotions, and Scope of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja; Kaczmarek, Lukasz D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that creative performance, such as painting, influences affective and cognitive processes. Yet little is known about how tactile sensations experienced during painting determine what individuals feel and how they think while they create. Based on prior research, finger painting (compared to brush painting) was expected to…

  9. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint...

  10. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  11. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  12. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  13. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  14. Adaptation of an Ammonia Detecting Paint to Commerical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Renee C.; Mallow, William A.

    1994-01-01

    An ammonia-sensitive coating was developed in feasibility studies sponsored by Lockheed Engineering. The paint comprised a cellulosic binder, a dye, a family of solvents, and plasticizer. The resulting coating formulation proved to be very sensitive to trace levels of Lewis-bases and/or nucleophiles, but was limited to concentrations of approximately 1 ppm and higher. In the months following completion of this Lockheed project, efforts to perfect and optimize the paint formulation continued with internal funding. A unique sensitivity enhancing additive was identified and patented which when applied at concentrations of approximately 10% by weight, transcended the 1 ppm sensitivity barrier to fractional ppb. The paint composition was modified by the addition of certain proprietary agents, which promoted a much more intense yellow color in the coating and enhanced its durability in high-vacuum. Paint preparation is a simple one day procedure that can be completed using conventional equipment. Most of the materials are easily obtained.

  15. Minimal invasive control of paintings cleaning by LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, A.; Apostol, I.; Pascu, A.; Urzica, I.; Pascu, M. L.; Damian, V.

    2016-03-01

    In cultural heritage restoration and conservation, it has been proved that LIBS is an appropriate technique for pigments identification, analysis of multilayered paintings, and quantitative analysis of ancient materials. Generally, experiments involving the use of laser for paint cleaning and LIBS in order to identify the composition of the removed material are made. Here, we report LIBS studies on mastic and dammar varnishes removal using visible (532 nm) and UV (266 nm) laser pulses (5 ns) with fluences in the range 0.6-4.4 J/cm2. The studied varnish layers were on-purpose painted on glass supports or were part of several mock-up samples having dammar or mastic as final layer - gold foil, yellow ochre or cobalt blue egg tempera as painting layer - chalk or acrylic ground as link to an wooden support. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the layers and to analyze their composition.

  16. A Scheduling Method for Painting Line under Pull Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Kyu; Shinbo, Kojiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    This paper concerns with a scheduling method for painting (preceding) line with much longer production lead-time than assembly (subsequent) line. In general, production schedule of the painting line is made independently based on the forecasted job requirement at the assembly line. When the job requirement changes at the assembly line by virtue of the change of customer order, therefore, production balance is destroyed between the both lines. To avoid the tardiness caused by such unbalance, we need to have many inventories for the painting line. Such countermeasure is taken place in many companies actually. Thus, to avoid the tardiness while keeping small inventory, we propose a scheduling method that makes a Pseudo-Pull production possible for the painting line. We have evaluated the proposed method through computer simulations.

  17. Fred Ferguson and Graffiti: Fresh Paint [CD review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas, Shavincia J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Living up to its name, the CD Fresh Paint certainly introduces a revamp to Bahamian favourites. Performed by Fred Ferguson and Graffiti, this exciting CD quickly captures the attention of listeners.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the environmental technology verification (ETV) of paint overspray arrestors undertaken as part of a program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technologies through third-party verififcation and reporting of performan...

  19. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150 grades C. (Author)

  20. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150 grades C. (Author)

  1. Method of making superhydrophobic/superoleophilic paints, epoxies, and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2016-05-10

    Superhydrophobic paints and epoxies comprising superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. superoleophilic particles.

  2. Diseases of Old Age in Two Paintings by Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two paintings of older men by Rembrandt (1609–1669 are examined to demonstrate that historical attitudes toward diseases of old age and the ageing person’s response to illness can be investigated in paintings. The works selected are of different genres and date from different stages of Rembrandt’s own life, one from his youth and one from his old age. Both paintings show figures who have joint pathologies typically associated with the ageing process, the first involving the subject’s foot and the second involving the subject’s hand. Despite the sometimes painful nature of these conditions, the subjects are shown accommodating their illnesses while maintaining both their intellectual and social engagement and their emotional composure. Although the seventeenth century offered older people very little effective medical treatment in comparison with what is presently available, these paintings nevertheless present a view of illness as a subsidiary rather than a dominant feature of old age.

  3. Manganese and Iron Catalysts in Alkyd Paints and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Hage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many paint, ink and coating formulations contain alkyd-based resins which cure via autoxidation mechanisms. Whilst cobalt-soaps have been used for many decades, there is a continuing and accelerating desire by paint companies to develop alternatives for the cobalt soaps, due to likely classification as carcinogens under the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals legislation. Alternative driers, for example manganese and iron soaps, have been applied for this purpose. However, relatively poor curing capabilities make it necessary to increase the level of metal salts to such a level that often coloring of the paint formulation occurs. More recent developments include the application of manganese and iron complexes with a variety of organic ligands. This review will discuss the chemistry of alkyd resin curing, the applications and reactions of cobalt-soaps as curing agents, and, subsequently, the paint drying aspects and mechanisms of (model alkyd curing using manganese and iron catalysts.

  4. Characterization of automotive paint by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chengming; Sun, Zhenwen; Mei, Hongcheng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Lei; Xie, Lanchi; Guo, Jingjing; Yan, Yuwen; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Xiaojing; Xue, Ping; Liu, Ningning

    2016-09-01

    Automotive paint is common trace evidence that plays a significant role in many vehicle-related criminal cases. However, the conventional methods of obtaining tomographic images tend to damage the samples. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method to obtain high-resolution and cross-sectional images of the automotive paints in a non-destructive, and high-speed manner. In this study, OCT was applied to image and analyze the automotive paint, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) as reference. Eight automotive paint samples of different brands were examined. The images of multi-layer structures provided by OCT system with 5μm depth resolution were consistent with those by SEM. To distinguish different paints with similar visual appearance, we extracted internal structural features from the images using peak analysis and optical attenuation fit. Six characterized parameters were found to distinguish the samples including the optical path length (OPL) of base coat, the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) of base coat, the OPL of clear coat, the back-scattering ratio (BSR) of clear coat and base coat, the OPL of primer surfacer, and the BSR of base coat and primer. Statistical differences were evaluated by an independent t-test with p<0.05. OCT was applied to analyze repainted paint as well. Three-dimensional OCT reconstruction of the paints was also implemented to create en face (transverse section) images for morphology examination and comparison. These results suggest that OCT imaging can provide additional new features for analyzing the automotive paints and thereby may be a promising supplement to traditional methods. Meanwhile, the OCT system is favorable for achieving in-situ and real-time examination at the scene of crime. PMID:27341546

  5. Critical realism art——On Russia Tour group Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜月英

    2012-01-01

      The Tour group Painting inherited and developed some precious qualities of the early 19th century critical realism. The Tour group Painting artists were deeply influenced by the Russian realistic literature. They cared about reality, the history of the nation, focusing on the expression of personal feelings. They agreed that the art has the responsibility to educate people, to improve their consciousness .In their opinion, artists are also social activists. So they tirelessly fought towards critical realism and national art.

  6. APPLICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERBORNE ROAD MARKING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Babić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal road markings are one of the essential safety features of modern roadways. All of the utilised systems consist of a pigmented coating containing partially embedded retroreflective elements such as glass beads. In addition to durability and functionality of the road marking, ease of application and effect on human health and environment are primary considerations for their selection. Road marking systems can be divided into plural component materials that cure due to chemical reaction occurring at the site of application, thermoplastics that require heat for application, and paints, drying upon evaporation of the dissolving medium. The focus of this paper is on road marking paints with a special emphasis on contemporary waterborne materials. Over 100 years old solventborne technology furnishes paints that afford consistent application properties under a variety of conditions such as lower temperatures and high humidity. Their environmental and human health impact is significant and durability quite poor. Modern waterborne paints are based on acrylic resins and incorporate developed in the 1990s quick-set chemical mechanism for drying. Under favourable weather conditions, they dry faster as compared to solventborne. However, their known weakness is risk of washout in case of rain and sluggish development of washout resistance at marginal application conditions like high humidity and low temperature. Impact of waterborne paints on human health and environment is very significantly minimised as compared to other materials. Their durability is significantly higher as compared to solvent-based paints. Analysis of characteristics of waterborne road marking paints and preliminary results from their trial application in Croatia are presented herein. Based on the presented comparison with solventborne materials, after results from test application become available, intelligent decisions regarding future use of waterborne road marking paints in

  7. Emission of isothiazolinones from water-based paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundov, Michael D; Kolarik, Barbara; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-06-17

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate for more than 42 days. MCI was emitted more slowly and peaked after several days. BIT emissions were all around the limit of detection. In the apartment we were able to detect emission of MI several days after application. Long lasting evaporation and thus chronic exposure give credibility to the clinical observations that MI can be an important cause of airborne contact dermatitis among painters and consumers. PMID:24869638

  8. MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF PAINTING, THEATRE AND EVERYDAY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Suvorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the works of Yu.M. Lotman, the author examines the process of interaction between painting and theater, and their mutual influence on the routine. The emphasis is on identifying the peculiarities of the interaction of theatre and painting in the period from the late XVIII – early XIX century. Theatre using expressive means of painting, created new forms of performing arts. The scenery becomes actors, not serving as a background for the actors. Acting technique was also being changed, the dynamics of the movements was changed into the static of dynamic postures. The identification of the scene and the picture led to the emergence of a new genre of "living paintings". Not only the art of painting influenced a theatre, creating new forms, but the theatre influenced painting too, creating a portrait typifying a model in accordance with the traditional theatrical characters. Gradually the boundary between art and commonplace had been crumbling, the theatre entered the life. It turned out that the theatricality of everyday life became the logical result of the considered process. Real life started to be considered as a performance that opened not only new possibilities in the prescribed range of permitted conduct, but also went beyond and was the legislator of individual behaviors, filled everyday reality with events, and thus, made a person free from the control of custom.

  9. Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States). Department of Chemistry; David, B. [Queensland Univ St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); Tuniz, C.; Lawson, E.; Jacobsen, G.; Hua, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO{sub 2} through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing {sup 14}C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented. Paper No. 25; 2 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Low-aluminum content iron-aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum program deals with the development of a Fe-Al alloy with aluminum content such as a produce the minimum environmental effect at room temperature. The FAPY is an Fe-16 at. % Al-based alloy developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the highest aluminum-containing alloy with essentially no environmental effect. The chemical composition for FAPY in weight percent is: aluminum = 8.46, chromium = 5.50, zirconium = 0.20, carbon = 0.03, molybdenum = 2.00, yttrium = 0.10 and iron = 83.71. The ignots of the alloy can be hot worked by extrusion, forging, and rolling processes. The hot-worked cast structure can be cold worked with intermediate anneals at 800{degrees}C. Typical room-temperature ductility of the fine-grained wrought structure is 20 to 25% for this alloy. In contrast to the wrought structure, the cast ductility at room temperature is approximately 1% with a transition temperature of approximately 100 to 150{degrees}C, above which ductility values exceed 20%. The alloy has been melted and processed into bar, sheet, and foil. The alloy has also been cast into slabs, step-blocks of varying thicknesses, and shapes. The purpose of this section is to describe the welding response of cast slabs of three different thicknesses of FAPY alloy. Tensile, creep, and Charpy-impact data of the welded plates are also presented.

  11. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  12. Degradation of Emerald green in oil paint and its contribution to the rapid change in colour of the Descente des vaches (1834-1835) painted by Theodore Rousseau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Keune; J.J. Boon; R. Boitelle; Y. Shimadzu

    2013-01-01

    Descente des vaches (1836) by Theodore Rousseau in the Mesdag Collection in The Hague is barely readable and its paint layers are in poor condition. The surface of the painting is strongly deformed and cracked, the whole painting has darkened and especially the greens have lost all or most of their

  13. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  14. Disease painting or painting disease: how does illness and hospitalisation affect children's artistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci, Benan; Forouz, Aria; Sahin, Ahmet B; Abali, Mustafa; Aliyeva, Gyulten Z

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous speculations about famous artists and how their perception was affected by their medical conditions. In this study, we examined how illness and hospitalisation affect children's art. A total of 157 paintings by 122 hospitalised children were interpreted by three reputed artists. Works of ill children were compared with those of a control group from an international art exhibition. We also comment on how diseases influenced the technique of famous artists to further examine the possible impact of illness on the artistry of hospitalised children. Developmental delay in painting was evident in the study group. Use of ready-made schemas was a common practice (55%). 56% of the work from patients older than eight years failed in perspective and site perception. The theme in 89% of the drawings had no human figures. Projection of self sufferings, prominent elementary lines, and reflection of distorted perception could be clearly recognised in various study materials; anxiety about assigned surgery was exhibited by scribbling. There exists a close relationship between medicine and humanities. The interpretation of fine art from a medical perspective may help to increase our appreciation of the suffering of an individual. It is obvious that diseases change the artistic style and inner perspective. The question is how do healthcare specialists view this? PMID:20120269

  15. Aetervinning av faerg och ridaevatten med ultrafiltrering (recycling of paint and water curtains with ultrafiltration)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortkamp, U.; Allard, A.S.; Ekengren, O.

    1997-12-01

    Painting in spray booths causes overspray that is collected by a water curtain. The mixture of water and paint is commonly treated by means of precipitation. By means of this method, water can be used again but a paint sludge is created. Within this project, it was investigated how the paint as well as the water can be recycled. Separation by membrane filtration was tested for different paints in laboratory scale (0.2 liter volume). It was possible to separate all tested paints from the water and to concentrate it. At large scale (15 to 75 liters volume), an emulsion paint and a dispersion paint were tested. Under the tested conditions, it was slightly easier to concentrate the emulsion paint than the dispersion paint. It was possible to concentrate the paints to the original dry substance percentage. An important aspect of membrane filtration is cleaning of the membrane when the performance decreases. It was possible to clean all the tested membranes, but in many cases it was difficult. A ceramic membrane and a membrane of polyaramide showed the best results with regard to flux and cleaning of the membrane under the tested conditions. During the performance of the project two new applications of membrane filtration of paint were found. The method can be used for waste minimization by only separating the paint in an easy way at low costs. A third application is treating cleaning water from paint manufacturing.

  16. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience. PMID:26779072

  17. Aesthetic emotions across arts: A comparison between painting and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971 interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  18. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  19. Forensic aspects of the weathering and ageing of spray paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Cédric; Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the degradation of spray paint samples, illustrated by Optical, FTIR and Raman measurements. As opposed to automotive paints which are specifically designed for improved outdoor exposure and protected using hindered amine light absorbers (HALS) and ultra-violet absorbers (UVA), the spray paints on their side are much simpler in composition and very likely to suffer more from joint effects of solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Six different spray paint were exposed to outdoor UV-radiation for a total period of three months and both FTIR and Raman measurements were taken systematically during this time. These results were later compared to an artificial degradation using a climate chamber. For infrared spectroscopy, degradation curves were plotted using the photo-oxidation index (POI), and could be successfully approximated with a logarithmic fitting (R(2)>0.8). The degradation can appear after the first few days of exposure and be important until 2 months, where it stabilizes and follow a more linear trend afterwards. One advantage is that the degradation products appeared almost exclusively at the far end (∼3000cm(-1)) of mid-infrared spectra, and that the fingerprint region of the spectra remained stable over the studied period of time. Raman results suggest that the pigments on the other side, are much more stable and have not shown any sign of degradation over the time of this study. Considering the forensic implications of this environmental degradation, care should be taken when comparing samples if weathering is an option (e.g. an exposed graffiti compared to the paint from a fresh spray paint can). Degradation issues should be kept in mind as they may induce significant differences between paint samples of common origin. PMID:26646736

  20. Forensic aspects of the weathering and ageing of spray paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Cédric; Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the degradation of spray paint samples, illustrated by Optical, FTIR and Raman measurements. As opposed to automotive paints which are specifically designed for improved outdoor exposure and protected using hindered amine light absorbers (HALS) and ultra-violet absorbers (UVA), the spray paints on their side are much simpler in composition and very likely to suffer more from joint effects of solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Six different spray paint were exposed to outdoor UV-radiation for a total period of three months and both FTIR and Raman measurements were taken systematically during this time. These results were later compared to an artificial degradation using a climate chamber. For infrared spectroscopy, degradation curves were plotted using the photo-oxidation index (POI), and could be successfully approximated with a logarithmic fitting (R(2)>0.8). The degradation can appear after the first few days of exposure and be important until 2 months, where it stabilizes and follow a more linear trend afterwards. One advantage is that the degradation products appeared almost exclusively at the far end (∼3000cm(-1)) of mid-infrared spectra, and that the fingerprint region of the spectra remained stable over the studied period of time. Raman results suggest that the pigments on the other side, are much more stable and have not shown any sign of degradation over the time of this study. Considering the forensic implications of this environmental degradation, care should be taken when comparing samples if weathering is an option (e.g. an exposed graffiti compared to the paint from a fresh spray paint can). Degradation issues should be kept in mind as they may induce significant differences between paint samples of common origin.

  1. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C.; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience. PMID:26779072

  2. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  3. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

  4. Development of fast response bi-luminophore pressure-sensitive paint by means of an inkjet printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel fast response bi-luminophore pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) by inkjet printing of sensor-dot arrays on an anodized aluminum (AA) substrate has been developed for unsteady flow measurements. A bi-luminophore AA-PSP, which is a combination of PSP and temperature-sensitive paint (TSP), is essential for precise pressure measurements, because the PSP result needs the temperature correction. However, a conventional bi-luminophore AA-PSP prepared by a dipping method does not work well due to the interference between the PSP and TSP luminophores. To overcome this problem, we have developed isolated dot arrays of PSP and TSP formed on an anodized aluminum substrate by an inkjet printing method. In this study, platinum tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) and ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) were employed as pressure- and temperature-sensitive dyes, respectively. A suitable solvent was chosen for each dye to form the dots with uniform, high luminescence intensity, and high sensitivity. The developed bi-luminophore AA-PSP could simultaneously measure pressure and temperature and could reduce the temperature effect of the PSP from −0.97%/K (without temperature correction) to −0.01%/K (with temperature correction). It showed a pressure response time of 17.8  ±  0.8 μs at 90% pressure rise to a step change of pressure, which is in the same range as a conventional AA-PSP. (paper)

  5. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely... additive, expressed as niacin, shall appear on the label of the food additive container or on that of...

  6. Baise to Build Ecological Aluminum Industry Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The government of Baise announced the construction of an ecological aluminum industry base over the next few years,pledging to turn the city into a major aluminum industry base in China and the rest of Asia.

  7. Environmental Control over the Primary Aluminum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To strengthen environmental control over theprimary aluminum industry,the State Environ-mental Protection Administration of China hasrecently issued a notice addressing the follow-ing points:Strengthening environmental control over theexisting primary aluminum companies

  8. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  9. OPTIMIZING AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Hajeeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the amount of scrap generated in an aluminum extrusion process. An optimizing model is constructed in order to select the best cutting patterns of aluminum logs and billets of various sizes and shapes. The model applied to real data obtained from an existing extrusion factory in Kuwait. Results from using the suggested model provided substantial reductions in the amount of scrap generated. Using sound mathematical approaches contribute significantly in reducing waste and savings when compared to the existing non scientific techniques.

  10. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59254). At the request of the State agency and a... Employment and Training Administration Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood... Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division, including on- site...

  11. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Asgari; Mahdi Ahmadi Moghaddam; Amirhossein Mahvi; Masoud Yonesian

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of A...

  12. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  13. Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum in Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hui; ZHU; Li-yang; LIN; Ru-shan; TAN; Hong-bin; HE; Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is one of cladding materials for nuclear fuel,it is important to investigate the electrolytic dissolution of aluminum in nitric acid.The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,polarization curve and cyclic voltammetry cure of anodic aluminum electrode in nitric acid under various conditions were collected(Fig.1).It turns out,under steady state,the thickness of the passivated film of aluminum

  14. Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Lynn [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Spencer, Dirk [Plant and Soil Science Department, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762-1447 (United States); Muntele, Claudiu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)]. E-mail: claudiu@cim.aamu.edu; Muntele, Iulia [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Guangxi Aluminum Giant Made Investment in Changfeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>A aluminum processing and supporting project (450,000 tons) of Hefei Guangyin Aluminum Company kicked off in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County recently. It is a project jointly invested by Guangxi Investment Group and Guangxi Baise Guangyin Aluminum in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County.

  16. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. Modern Changes of Colors in Chinese Painting%浅谈中国画的现代色彩观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉萍

    2003-01-01

    Affected by the view of literati painting, colors in Chinese painting were often neglected and belittled in visual aesthetics.Learning color application from Western arts and exploiting pigments are two major approaches to strengthening visual effects in traditional painting...

  20. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  1. Virtual hairy brush for digital painting and calligraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Songhua; Lau Francis C. M.; XU Congfu; PAN Yunhe

    2005-01-01

    The design of user friendly and expressive virtual brush systems for interactive digital painting and calligraphy has attracted a lot of attention and effort in both computer graphics and human-computer interaction circles for a long time. Providing a digital environment for paper-less artwork creation is not only challenging in terms of algorithmic design, but also promising for its potential market values. This paper proposes a novel algorithmic framework for interactive digital painting and calligraphy based a novel virtual hairy brush model. The algorithms in the kernel of our simulation framework are built upon solid modeling techniques. Implementing the algorithms, we have developed a virtual hairy brush prototype system with which end users can interactively produce high-quality digital paintings and calligraphic artwork. (The latest progress of our virtual brush project is reported at the website "http://www.cs.hku.hk/~songhua/e-brush/".)

  2. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  3. Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc-oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 yr in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent Sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

  4. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

  5. The clubfoot painted by Jusepe de Ribera: a controversial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, André; Tourame, Pierre; Montjean, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The Clubfoot painted by José de Ribera depicts a young beggar affected by a typical equinus clubfoot. He shows a contorted right hand and wrist. His left hand holds a begging note, suggesting some difficulty to speak. This condition may be caused by a cerebral palsy, consisting of a brain injury in the left hemisphere responsible for right hemiplegia and speech disturbance. Recently, it was suggested that the boy's condition is a consequence of arthrogryposis, perhaps amyoplasia or distal arthrogryposis type A1. Some clinical features may suggest the diagnosis of Sheldon-Hall syndrome. Considering all the signs represented on the painting, the diagnosis of hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy cannot be discarded. The present article is a novel analysis of the painting based on previously proposed diagnoses of the boy's condition, namely, hemiplegia and arthrogryposis. PMID:26414783

  6. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  7. uv radiation curable paints. Topical report on material identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-13

    The program for the development of ultraviolet radiation curing of paints for application on preformed structures is discussed. The starting point of this program was the matching of resins, photoinitiators, and pigments which will result in coatings that can be cured by ultraviolet radiation. The initial work was the identification of reactive diluents and base resins that are sensitive to the uv curing process. The reactive monomeric diluents tested included multifunctional acrylates, monofunctional acrylates, and non-acrylic unsaturated esters. The end point will be the application of these coatings to prefabricated metal structures to demonstrate the viability of this technique in producing commercially acceptable painted products. These uv curable paints should produce films that are hard, adherent, and opaque at a nominal thickness of one mil (0.001 inch).

  8. The “Nationalization” of Oil Painting and Cartoons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; Tan Mingxiang; Sun Hong

    2013-01-01

    1 .Breakout of Oil Painting After crushing the "gang of four"in October 1976, Deng Xiaoping returned to political power , and all China advocated “emancipating the mind , and seeking truth from facts”.Following this , peo-ple began to break through extreme leftist thought , and re -think the gains and losses which came from nationalization . It was only then that oil painting could experience a spring of letting “all flowers bloom together and all schools of thought contend together” .For instance,“Conquering the President’ s Mansion” painted by Chen Yifei and Wei Jingshan in 1977 used the former Soviet U-nion ’ s realism and French Romanticism; Gao Xiaohua , a representative of scar fine art School , painted “Why” and “Catch the Train” in 1978, which both presented the former Soviet Union ’ s realism style;“Father” painted by Luo Zhongli in 1980 shows the American surrealism style; “The Spring Wind Has Woken Up” painted by He Duolin in 1982 illustrates American realism style;“ Tibet Series ” by Chen Dangqing in 1982 re-flects Courbet ’ s realistic style; “Qu Qiubai in Prison” painted by Xin Shanyi in 1984 incorpo-rates a French Classical Style; “Field” made by Wang Yuqi in 1984 is a work painted with Rem-brandt ’ s realistic style; “Girls from the North”painted by Yang Feiyun in 1987 has a French clas-sical realism style .Of course , there were also art-ists who formed a “national form” from painting murals. These included Yuan Yunsheng , Xiao Huixiang, Li Huaji, Liu Bingjiang , even the“Nationalistic” painter , Wu Guanzhong . During this period, the creation of oil paint-ings had very specific, individual features.All works came from the painters ’ individual feelings and desires, and this broke away from having to choose a single “national style”.These works are the result of human -oriented rules which respec-ted artistic rules, and originated from the artists’ life experiences.In the

  9. Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-05-21

    Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

  10. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob; Lühr, Armin; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Jäkel, Oliver; Mortensen, Lise Saksø; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  11. Three-dimensional visual illusion of graphic painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静

    2012-01-01

    Visual illusion is the visual design of a special category.It is a set of technology and art in one of a unique form of artistic expression.Visual illusion can give people a taste of the spirit, with strong cultural con- tent and artistic appeal.So by this way of painting, it has a clever and unique perspective. Aspect If the plane can be realistic paintings to life, then the three-dimensional, two-dimensional space can be called even more powerful by aspects.

  12. Impressionist Painting in China: The Long Struggle for Acceptance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuiZhongtian

    2005-01-01

    The exhibition “Impressionist Masterpieces from France's National Collections”, which marks the start of the Year of France in China, debuted in Beijing in October 2004 and moved on to Shanghai and Hong Kong after six weeks in the Chinese capital. The exhibits consist of 51 masterpieces by major French impressionists, such as Claude Monet's series of paintings “Waterlilies”, Edgar Degas' series “Ballet Dancers” and Pierre-August Renoir's series “Women, Children.” This was the first large-scale exhibition of impressionist paintings ever displayed in China.

  13. Thermodynamics of Paint Related Systems with Engineering Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2001-01-01

    Paints are complex materials composed of polymers (binders) dissolved in one or more solvents, pigments, and other additives. The thermodynamics of such systems is essential, for example, for selecting improved solvents and understanding a number of phenomena related especially! to adhesion...... to solid surfaces and drying. Many engineering models have been applied over the last decades for solutions with commoditity polymers. In this work the performance of some of these models is investigated for paint-related systems, focusing on those drying by the so-called " lacquer mechanism " (evaporation...

  14. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  15. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  16. Requirements of environmental protection in the paint industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brushwell, W.

    1974-01-01

    Papers dealing with the problems of lead and mercury in paints, air and water pollution, and air pollution prevention in the paint industry and in finishing technologies in the USA are reviewed. The implementation of the Los Angeles Rule 66 has resulted in a reduction of the proportion of smog-forming solvents by over 90 percent. The standards on solvent emissions and solvent vapor concentrations in the air, as adopted in other states of the USA, differ from the California standards in view of the differences in climate. In finishing technology, substantial reduction of the solvent expenditure has been achieved by the use of water-dispersed acrylates. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  17. 78 FR 79058 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Chinese Paintings from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Chinese Paintings from Japanese..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Chinese Paintings...

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschau, Margit; Krätke, Renate

    2005-11-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. PMID:15955603

  19. EXPOSURE AND EMISSION EVALUATIONS OF METHYL ETHYL KETOXIME (MEKO) IN ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small environmental chamber tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of a toxic chemical compound -- methylethylketoxime (MEKO) -- from three different alkyd paints. It was found that MEKO emissions occurred almost immediately after each alkyd paint was applied to a pin...

  20. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2010-08-24

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  1. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke;

    impermanence and behaviour following light exposure [1, 2]. Several papers have been published investigating this phenomenon [2, 3] on laboratory paint models. By means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and digital microscopy...... of the blue pigment also highlighting some differences. The non-invasive analysis is complemented by the results collected on some micro-samples previously taken during restoration [4]. To rationalize the data and understand the degradation phenomenon occurring in the Danish Golden Age paintings, specifically...... conceived paint models have been prepared, aged under different conditions and investigated. Acknowledgements Financial support by the Access to Research Infrastructures activity in the H2020 Programme of the EU (IPERION CH Grant Agreement No. 654028) is gratefully acknowledged. References [1] Kirby, J...

  2. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA

    2011-01-01

    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...

  4. Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Jensen, Keld Alstrup;

    2012-01-01

    of boards painted with paints with and without nanoparticles were determined 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of 54 mu g in mice. Dusts from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers did not generate pulmonary inflammation or oxidative stress. Sanding dust from both the nanoparticle-containing...

  5. Study on Performance Improvement of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm Using Parallel Pattern Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performanc e of oil paint image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model . Oil Paint image processing, being very performance hungry, current research tries to find improvement using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially.

  6. Topographical scanning and reproduction of near-planar surfaces of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhuizen, W.S.; Zaman, T.; Verhofstad, W.; Jonker, P.P.; Dik, J.; Geraedts, J.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Paintings are near-planar objects with material characteristics that vary widely. The fact that paint has a material presence is often overlooked, mostly because we often encounter these artworks in the form of two-dimensional reproductions. Capturing paintings in the third dimension is not only imp

  7. Library Signage: Applications for the Apple Macintosh and MacPaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Jill A.; FitzGerald, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Describes specific applications of the Macintosh computer at Carnegie-Mellon University Libraries, where MacPaint was used as a flexible, easy to use, and powerful tool to produce informational, instructional, and promotional signage. Profiles of system hardware and software, an evaluation of the computer program MacPaint, and MacPaint signage…

  8. Simultaneous capture of the color and topography of paintings using fringe encoded stereo vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, T.; Jonker, P.P.; Lenseigne, B.A.J.; Dik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Paintings are versatile near-planar objects with material characteristics that vary widely. The fact that paint has a material presence is often overlooked, mostly due to the fact that we encounter many of these artworks through two dimensional reproductions. The capture of paintings i

  9. Study on performance improvement of oil paint image filter algorithm using parallel pattern library

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed study on the performanc e of oil paint image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model . Oil Paint image processing, being very performance hungry, current research tries to find improvement using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially.

  10. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  11. Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla; Tveit, David J.

    There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air....

  12. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  13. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMallon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  14. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  15. A Curious Reality: Exploring the Paintings of Philip C. Curtis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Pamela; Walkup, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the paintings of 20th-century American artist Philip C. Curtis defy clear classification. Curtis's artworks often show dreamlike and fantastical qualities and are therefore frequently pigeonholed as Surrealistic. While this classification is not completely erroneous, it fails to acknowledge some subtle differences between Curtis's artwork…

  16. Aesthetic experience and the emotional content of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Marković

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relationship between aesthetic experience and other emotional qualities judged in paintings. Aesthetic experience was defined as an exceptional state of mind in which a person is focused on a particular object, transcending its everyday uses and meanings and losing the awareness of surroundings and even of himself/herself. In this state a person has an exceptional emotional experience, that is a feeling of unity with the object. Our basic idea is that aesthetic experience is not reducible to pleasure or a positive hedonic tone, but a person can equally be fascinated with both pleasant and unpleasant objects. In preliminary studies we specified the stimulus set of figural and semi-figural paintings, and a set of descriptors of emotions, feelings and aesthetic experience. Participants judged the paintings on descriptors (seven-point scales. Factor analysis revealed two large factors: the bipolar factor Affective Tone (descriptors on the positive pole: lovely, charming, cheerful, etc; descriptors on the negative pole: scary, disgusting, hateful etc. and Aesthetic Experience (descriptors: exceptional, profound, unique, etc.. Additional analyses have shown no significant correlation between the two factors. These findings confirmed our idea that aesthetic experience is independent of pleasure or affective attraction, and that it can be induced by both pleasant and unpleasant paintings.

  17. Sukias House and its wall paintings: Reflection of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanian, Kouros

    Sukias House is one of the Armenian noble houses located in New Julfa Neighbourhood in Isfahan city in Iran and belongs to the Safavid period (1501-1736 AD). European itineraries who visited Isfahan in 16th and 17th centuries, existed literatures and conservation reports on the Armenian buildings in New Julfa particularly on Sukias house in conjunction with condition survey and in situ examination of the paintings were the main tools to study the Sukias House and its paintings. This indicates a strong connection of the house to Armenian and English people at the time of the paintings and support idea of the involvement of the British ambassador and his Armenian translator in building of Sukias House. The existence of English and Armenian inscriptions indicates a strong connection between Armenian and English people in decorating of the house using wall painting. In addition, the depicting of Queen Elizabeth in a tableau on the external walls increases the likelihood of this house having belonged to the English ambassador in Isfahan during the Safavid period. Alternatively, it may be that English people working in Isfahan for the East India Company lived there.

  18. Digital Tools: Enhancing Painting Skills among Malaysian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Azimah A.; Putih, Abu Talib; Hussin, Zaharah

    2016-01-01

    Digital tools refer to software applications in the production of artworks particularly in painting. Digital art work is materialized by using computers, software and a combination of computer peripherals such as tablet support. With the aid of electronic equipment, digital artists manipulate pixels or coloring with light to compose the work and…

  19. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  20. Influence of carbon nanomaterials on the properties of paint coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanok, S. A.; Krauklis, A. V.; Borisevich, K. O.; Prokopchuk, N. P.; Nikolaichik, A. V.; Stanovoi, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    The conditions for obtaining carbon nanomaterials with the use of a low-temperature plasma are described. The product obtained was analyzed using the electron microscopy and a laser diffraction particle-size analyzer. The influence of the carbon nanomaterials on the physicochemical properties of paint coatings, their adhesion, impact and bending strengths, hardness, and protection characteristics was investigated.

  1. Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

    2008-03-01

    Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

  2. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  3. 24 CFR 570.608 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.608 Lead... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 570.608 Section 570.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  5. Leaded Paint in Cambodia—Pilot-scale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereyrath Lim

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Based on our pilot-scale assessment, high levels of lead appear to be common in enamel paints in Cambodia, and a fuller assessment of the situation is warranted. Import and production of such toxic products should be avoided and appropriate labeling and public warnings should be provided.

  6. Modeling and Experiments of Spray System for Cable Painting Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-liang; Lü Tian-sheng; LI Bei-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Many cable-stayed bridges have been built in the world in the past decades,and cable-stayed structures have been adopted in many large constructions.The cable painting robot is safe and economically efficient for stay cable maintenance.In order to satisfy the need for spraying cables in hiigh attitude,an automatic cable spray system for cable painting robots is presented in this paper.Using the βdistribution,paint thickness distribution on a cylinder surface is modeled.The spray gun's number,angle and movement are analyzed to get coat evenness.Then a robotic spray system engineering prototype has been developed,which includes a cable electric running climbing base,a spray cover,four airless spray guns and a pressurized paint container.Experiments indicate that four airless spray guns can guarantee good coat quality for general stay cables.The field tests have been successfully conducted on Nanpu Bridge,Shanghai.

  7. Painting in Tongues: Faith-Based Languages of Formalist Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin Z.

    2007-01-01

    Cephalopods have a visual language that may be considered artful; they flash color-forms on their hides to communicate intents and emotions. Formalist inspired artists and their critic-expositors describe abstract pattern-painting as though it were a visual language equal to that of the cephalopod. In this article, the author argues that although…

  8. Moessbauer study of rock paintings from Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four samples of a wall containing rock paintings have been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction. Hematite and goethite were identified as the pigments responsible for the colors and the mineral tinsleyite, as the principal component of a light pink layer that is present in some parts of the wall. (orig.)

  9. Paint and Click: Unified Interactions for Image Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summa, B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Gooch, A. A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Scorzelli, G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Pascucci, V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.

    2015-06-22

    Image boundaries are a fundamental component of many interactive digital photography techniques, enabling applications such as segmentation, panoramas, and seamless image composition. Interactions for image boundaries often rely on two complementary but separate approaches: editing via painting or clicking constraints. In this work, we provide a novel, unified approach for interactive editing of pairwise image boundaries that combines the ease of painting with the direct control of constraints. Rather than a sequential coupling, this new formulation allows full use of both interactions simultaneously, giving users unprecedented flexibility for fast boundary editing. To enable this new approach, we provide technical advancements. In particular, we detail a reformulation of image boundaries as a problem of finding cycles, expanding and correcting limitations of the previous work. Our new formulation provides boundary solutions for painted regions with performance on par with state-of-the-art specialized, paint-only techniques. In addition, we provide instantaneous exploration of the boundary solution space with user constraints. Finally, we provide examples of common graphics applications impacted by our new approach.

  10. Egyptian Symbols and Figures. Hieroglyphs [and] Scroll Paintings. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson introduces students to the writing, art, and religious beliefs of ancient Egypt through hieroglyphs, one of the oldest writing systems in the world, and through tomb paintings. Hieroglyphs consist of pictures of familiar objects that represent sounds and were used in ancient Egypt from about 3100 BC to 400 CE. In the first part of the…

  11. Biocleaning of animal glue on wall paintings by Pseudomonas stutzeri

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Roig, María del Pilar; Regidor Ros, Jose Luis; Soriano Sancho, María Pilar; Montes Estellés, Rosa Mª

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on the Biocleaning of indoor wall paintings subjected to animal glue alterations applied in old restorations. The cleaning difficulties by traditional restoratoion methods make biocleaning strategy that uses a viable non-txic bacteria strategy. Presented in this article is the research about the Pseudomonas stutzeri cleaning of animal glue of Santos Juanes church of Valencia, Spain.

  12. METAPHOR AS A BASIC MECHANISM OF ART (PAINTING)

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya A. Korotchenko; Viktor F. Petrenko

    2012-01-01

    This article describes research on visual semantics, diff erent forms of metaphor used in rhetoric and philology (tropes: metonymy, hyperbole, litotes, oxymoron, and others), and images, which are metaphorical also. The research was carried out using paintings. The authors state that the function of metaphor is to transform the sense of the image from a psychological point of view.

  13. Process Development for Stamping Á-Pillar Covers with Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Rohatgi, Aashish; Smith, Mark T.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2015-02-20

    In this work, performed in close collaboration with PACCAR and Magna International, a 6XXX series aluminum alloy was used for the development of A-Pillar cover for the cab of a typical heavy-duty Class-8 truck. The use of Al alloy for the A-pillar cover represents an approximately 40% weight savings over its steel or molded fiberglass composite counterpart. For the selected Al alloy, a small amount of cold work (5% tensile strain), following prior hot-forming, was found to significantly improve the subsequent age-hardening response. The role of solutionizing temperature and rate of cooling on the age-hardening response after paint-bake treatment were investigated. For the temperature range selected in this work, higher solutionizing temperature correlated with greater subsequent age-hardening and vice-versa. However, the age-hardening response was insensitive to the mode of cooling (water quench vs. air cooling). Finally, a two-step forming process was developed where, in the first step, the blank was heated to solutionizing temperature, quenched, and then partially formed at room temperature. For the second step, the pre-form was re-heated and quenched as in the first step, and the forming was completed at room temperature. The resulting A-pillars had sufficient residual ductility to be compatible with hemming and riveting

  14. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和

    2004-01-01

    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  15. Microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Chen, C Y; Wei, C B; Lin, Y T

    1996-11-01

    Several microbes were isolated from the contaminated fuel-oil in Taiwan and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy A356-T6 was tested by MIL-STD-810E test method. Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and Cladosporium resinac ATCC 22712 had significant adsorption and pitting on the surface of aluminum alloy, Pseudomonas acruginosa AM-B5 had weak adsorption and some precipitation in the bottom, and Candida sp. AM-Y1 had the less adsorption and few cavities formation on the surface. pH of the aqueous phase decreased 0.3 to 0.7 unit for 4 months of incubation. The corrosion of aluminum alloy was very significant in the cultures of Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and C. resinac ATCC 22712. The major metabolites in the aqueous phase with the inoculation of C. resinac were citric acid and oxalic acid, while succinic acid and fumaric acid were the minors. PMID:10592801

  16. Production of Aluminum Dihydrogen Tripolyphosphate and Its Application in Coatings%三聚磷酸二氢铝的生产及其在涂料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2013-01-01

    介绍了三聚磷酸二氢铝的理化性质、发展现状及生产方法。综述了国内三聚磷酸二氢铝的粉体化、表面改性及防腐涂料应用研究情况。%Physicochemical properties, development status and production method process of aluminum dihydrogen tripolyphosphate were introduced. Research progress of powder, surface modification and application in anti-corrosive paint of aluminum dihydrogen tripolyphosphate in domestic were summarized.

  17. Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belval-Haltier, E. [Inst. de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I{sub 2} which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with {sup 131}I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I{sub 2} adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  18. Lorenzo Lotto's painting materials: an integrated diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Maria Letizia; Poldi, Gianluca; Barcelli, Sara; Baraldi, Pietro; Berzioli, Michela; Casoli, Antonella; Marras, Susanna; Pojana, Giulio; Villa, Giovanni C. F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive diagnostic investigation carried out on five paintings (three wood panels and two paintings on canvas) by Lorenzo Lotto, one of the most significant artists of the Italian Renaissance in the first half of 16th century. The paintings considered belong to 1508-1522 period, corresponding to the most significant years of Lotto's evolution. A wide array of non-invasive (reflectance spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence) and micro-invasive analytical techniques (optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, micro-FTIR spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry) were applied in order to provide a large set of significant data, limiting as much as possible the sampling. This study has proved that Lotto's painting palette was typical of Venetian practice of that period, but some significant peculiarities emerged: the use of two kinds of red lakes, the addition of calcium carbonate and colourless powdered glass, the latter frequently found in pictorial and ground layers. Moreover, the integrated investigation showed that Lotto's technique was sometimes characterized by the use of coloured priming and multi-layer sequences with complex mixtures. Chromatographic analyses allowed to identify in all specimens: azelaic, palmitic and stearic acids, generally referring to the presence of drying oils. The extension of additional non-invasive examination to about 50 paintings by the same author, spanning from 1505 to around 1556, helped to verify the evolution in the use of some pigments, such as the yellow ones, where Pb-Sb yellow was used alongside Pb-Sn yellow.

  19. Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yasuda, Takashi; Sawanaka, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-11-01

    We propose a paintmeter for noncontact and remote monitoring of the thickness and drying progress of a paint film based on the time-of-flight measurement of the echo signal of a terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulse. The proposed method is effectively applied to two-dimensional mapping of the painting thickness distribution for single-layer and multilayer paint films. Furthermore, adequate parameters for the drying progress are extracted from the THz pulse-echo signal and effectively applied to monitor the wet-to-dry transformation. The THz paintmeter can be a powerful tool for quality control of the paint film on the in-process monitoring of car body painting.

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-7 - Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxic heavy metal which, in humans, exerts its effects on the renal, hematopoietic, and nervous systems. Lead poisoning occurs most commonly when lead-containing paint chips in the environment are chewed or... following consumer products, in accordance with 16 CFR part 1303 and exemptions stated therein...

  1. Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, K.; Dik, J. [TU Delft, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Leeuw, M. [Atelier for Restoration and Research of Paintings, The Hague (Netherlands); Whitson, A. den [L3 Communications, Woburn, MA (United States); Tortora, J. [JK Consulting, Sudbury, MA (United States); Coan, P.; Nemoz, C.; Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2006-05-15

    X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Won; Jang, Ho Yun; Chun, Ho Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Hoon [Durachemie Company, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500{mu}m. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint.

  3. Experimental investigation of drag reduction effect of Si-Polyurea paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel Silicone-Polyurea paint has been newly developed and introduced for the antifouling marine paint. This paint is featured with such advantages as the shock-proofness and the scratch-proofness. In addition, the roughness of the resulting paint film is found to be much less than the conventional SPC AF paints. Ultra fast drying ability enables the formation of very thick paint film, e. g., 500μm. The Silicone-Polyurea resin exhibits similar material behavior as that of silicone rubber in terms of hardness and elongation. This material is regarded as a potent candidate to substantiate the compliant coating for the skin friction reduction. This study aims at the assessment of the drag reducing efficiency of the silicone-polyurea paint

  4. Study on the transverse painting during the injection process for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Qiu, Jing; Xu, Shou-Yan; Huang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    For the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), a combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). In this paper, firstly, the injection processes with different painting ranges and different painting methods were studied. With the codes ORBIT and MATLAB, the particle distribution and painting image were obtained. Then, the reasonable painting range which is suitable for the aperture size and magnet gap can be selected. Since the real field uniformity of BH3 and BV3 is not completely in conformity with the design requirement, the painting method and painting range also need to be selected to reduce the effects of bad field uniformity.

  5. Application of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Analysis of Oil Paint Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Cassandra; Formica, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique for both detecting and identifying chemical elements within a given sample. At North Georgia College and State University, a sealed tube x-ray source and slightly focusing polycapillary optic are used in nondestructive XRF analysis of oil paint pigments. Oil paints contain both organic and inorganic matter, and the inorganic ingredients such as titanium, vanadium, iron, zinc, and other elements are easily detected by XRF, which can be used to uniquely differentiate between various paint pigments. To calibrate the XRF system for paint color identification, six different colors of oil paint were fluoresced and identified based off of their characteristic spectra. By scanning the paint sample in two dimensions, the characteristic XRF spectra obtained were compiled to produce an XRF replica of the painting.

  6. Theoretical Study of Hydrogenated Tetrahedral Aluminum Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Wagatsuma, Ayumu; Watanabe, Kouhei; Szarek, Pawel; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2011-01-01

    We report on the structures of aluminum hydrides derived from a tetrahedral aluminum Al4 cluster using ab initio quantum chemical calculation. Our calculation of binding energies of the aluminum hydrides reveals that stability of these hydrides increases as more hydrogen atoms are adsorbed, while stability of Al-H bonds decreases. We also analyze and discuss the chemical bonds of those clusters by using recently developed method based on the electronic stress tensor.

  7. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum (Al) cation Al3 + is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3 + conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusio...

  8. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No....

  10. Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan

    2013-03-01

    Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface

  11. The Aluminum Deep Processing Project of North United Aluminum Landed in Qijiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On April 10,North United Aluminum Company respectively signed investment cooperation agreements with Qijiang Industrial Park and Qineng Electricity&Aluminum Co.,Ltd,signifying the landing of North United Aluminum’s aluminum deep processing project in Qijiang.

  12. [The corrosion resistance of aluminum and aluminum-based alloys studied in artificial model media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakhangirov, A Zh; Doĭnikov, A I; Aboev, V G; Iankovskaia, T A; Karamnova, V S; Sharipov, S M

    1991-01-01

    Samples of aluminum and its alloys, designed for orthodontic employment, were exposed to 4 media simulating the properties of biologic media. The corrosion resistance of the tested alloys was assessed from the degree of aluminum migration to simulation media solutions, which was measured by the neutron activation technique. Aluminum alloy with magnesium and titanium has shown the best corrosion resistance. PMID:1799002

  13. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D2/ = 1.9 x 10-2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup --1/2/ s-1cm-1. The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  14. Thin Wall Pipe Ultrasonic Inspection through Paint Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin; Petre, Cristian Cătălin

    Classical ultrasonic inspection of welds is currently done for plates thicker than 8 mm. The inspection of but welds in thin walled pipes has considerable implementation difficulties, due to guided waves dominating ultrasonic pulses propagation. Generation of purely symmetric modes, either torsional or longitudinal, requires a circumferential uniform distribution of transducers and dedicated inspection equipment, which are increasing the inspection costs. Moreover, if the surface is paint coated, the received signals are close to the detection level. The present work implies a single transducer, coupled to the painted surface. The proper choice of the guided mode and frequency range, allows the detection of a standard, small diameter through thickness hole. In this way, the inspection of pipe welds can use the same equipment as for thick materials, with only wedge adaptation.

  15. Video Texture Synthesis Based on Flow-Like Stylization Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an NP-video rendering system based on natural phenomena. It provides a simple nonphotorealistic video synthesis system in which user can obtain a flow-like stylization painting and infinite video scene. Firstly, based on anisotropic Kuwahara filtering in conjunction with line integral convolution, the phenomena video scene can be rendered to flow-like stylization painting. Secondly, the methods of frame division, patches synthesis, will be used to synthesize infinite playing video. According to selection examples from different natural video texture, our system can generate stylized of flow-like and infinite video scenes. The visual discontinuities between neighbor frames are decreased, and we also preserve feature and details of frames. This rendering system is easy and simple to implement.

  16. Concentration profiles in paint layers studied by differential PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si; Ursic, M.; Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trcek-Pecak, T.; Seme, B. [University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Erjavceva 23, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smrekar, A. [National Gallery of Slovenia, Puharjeva 9, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Langus, I. [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nemec, I.; Kavkler, K. [ZVKDS Restoration Centre RS, Poljanska 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-05-15

    Differential PIXE measurements varying the proton energy were used to probe the concentration profiles of metal-based pigments in paint layers. The algorithms developed earlier for metal targets were improved and enhanced to include light elements; the necessary information on chemical compounds has to be provided by complimentary methods. The de-convolution method employs slicing the target into layers characterized by mean production depths; the matrix inversion is replaced by a min {chi}{sup 2} problem. Two different methods of normalization are used: setting the sum of weight fractions of particular compounds to unity, and direct measurements of the projectile number, in our case through the argon line excited in the air. The efficiency of the two methods was compared for paint layers in frescoes, showing that smother concentration profiles are obtained using the measured proton numbers. Conversion of the layer areal densities into geometrical thicknesses is discussed.

  17. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  18. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-01

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  19. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  20. On the First Case of Pre-action Injunction Granted in Beijing: Red Lion Paint Co., Ltd. v. Red Lion Jing Paint Trading Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The case in brief The Beijing Red Lion Paint Co., Ltd. (the RL for short) is a business that manufactures and markets paint, and the proprietor of several registered trademarks of the "RED LION" words, device and the combination thereof. The registered "RED LION" trademark has been, on several occasions, rewarded by the relevant departments the title of Famous Trademark in Beijing.

  1. Comparative chromosome painting discloses homologous Segments in distantly related mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Scherthan, Harry; Cremer, Thomas; Arnason, U; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Lima-De-Faria, A.; Fönicke, L.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative chromosome painting, termed ZOO-FISH, using DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 1,16,17 and X, and mouse chromosome 11 discloses the presence of syntenic groups in distantly related mammalian Orders ranging from primates (Homo sapiens), rodents (Mus musculus), even-toed ungulates (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis and Muntiacus reevesi) and whales (Balaenoptera physalus). These mammalian Orders have evolved separately for 55-80 million years (Myr). We conclud...

  2. Colloids in Paints Colloids and Interface Science, Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Tadros, Tharwat F

    2011-01-01

    The first modern approach to relate fundamental research to the applied science of colloids, this series bridges academic research and practical applications, thus providing the information vital to both. Written by the very best scientists in their respective disciplines, this volume describes the role of colloids in paints, highlighting the importance of fundamental research in industrial applications.For surface, polymer and physicochemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers.

  3. On the fluid mechanics of electrochemical coating and spray painting

    OpenAIRE

    Olivas, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Finite-volume methods have been used for modeling of fluidflows involved in forced convection electrochemical coating androtating spray painting systems. Electrodeposition on a singlecircular cylinder under forced convection for Reynolds numbers10 and 200 was simulated. Comparisons with earlier numericaland theoretical results are presented and it is shown that theunsteady wake that appears for Reynolds numbers greater than 50affects the mass transfer from the surface of the cylinder onlyin a...

  4. ECOLOGICAL CLEANING SYSTEMS FOR OLD ICONS PAINTED IN TEMPERA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvea Pruteanu; Petronela Spiridon; Viorica Vasilache; Ion Sandu

    2014-01-01

    Old icons, especially those involved in liturgical rituals are affected in time by external agents factors (temperature, humidity, light, pollution, microbiological attack, abrasion etc.), resulting changes of the appearance and of the structural integrity, dirt deposits, altered varnish and painting layer, cracks, material loss etc. In order to remove the dirt deposits, there are used cleaning systems with dry wiping, vacuuming, scraping, washing with organic solvents, ion exchange solutions...

  5. Direct 3D Painting with a Metaball-Based Paintbrush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Huagen; JIN Xiaogang; BAO Hujun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a direct 3D painting algorithm for polygonal models in 3D object-space with a metaball-based paintbrush in virtual environment.The user is allowed to directly manipulate the parameters used to shade the surface of the 3D shape by applying the pigment to its surface with direct 3D manipulation through a 3D flying mouse.

  6. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dorland

    Full Text Available Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites. There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  7. Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata

    OpenAIRE

    Zori Roberto T; McGuire Peter M; Gray Brian A; Stone Gary; Dennis Thomas R; Burkett Sandra; Kellogg Margaret E; Stanyon Roscoe

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow) have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Results The human autosomal a...

  8. Automatic control of paint spray booth with integrated dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Živec, Marko

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents a solution for automatic control of a paint spray booth with integrated dryer. The conditions in the booth must be as constant as possible to assure better quality of surface coating applied on a particular object, while also lowering the consumption of energy sources and improving the working environment. The thesis includes descriptions of physical elements used for control and regulation, the software solution, which includes algorithms for the regulation of the tempera...

  9. 3D synchrotron x-ray microtomography of paint samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ester S. B.; Boon, Jaap J.; van der Horst, Jerre; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Synchrotron based X-ray microtomography is a novel way to examine paint samples. The three dimensional distribution of pigment particles, binding media and their deterioration products as well as other features such as voids, are made visible in their original context through a computing environment without the need of physical sectioning. This avoids manipulation related artefacts. Experiments on paint chips (approximately 500 micron wide) were done on the TOMCAT beam line (TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs) at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, CH, using an x-ray energy of up to 40 keV. The x-ray absorption images are obtained at a resolution of 350 nm. The 3D dataset was analysed using the commercial 3D imaging software Avizo 5.1. Through this process, virtual sections of the paint sample can be obtained in any orientation. One of the topics currently under research are the ground layers of paintings by Cuno Amiet (1868- 1961), one of the most important Swiss painters of classical modernism, whose early work is currently the focus of research at the Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA). This technique gives access to information such as sample surface morphology, porosity, particle size distribution and even particle identification. In the case of calcium carbonate grounds for example, features like microfossils present in natural chalks, can be reconstructed and their species identified, thus potentially providing information towards the mineral origin. One further elegant feature of this technique is that a target section can be selected within the 3D data set, before exposing it to obtain chemical data. Virtual sections can then be compared with cross sections of the same samples made in the traditional way.

  10. Art expertise reduces influence of visual salience on fixation in viewing abstract-paintings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Koide

    Full Text Available When viewing a painting, artists perceive more information from the painting on the basis of their experience and knowledge than art novices do. This difference can be reflected in eye scan paths during viewing of paintings. Distributions of scan paths of artists are different from those of novices even when the paintings contain no figurative object (i.e. abstract paintings. There are two possible explanations for this difference of scan paths. One is that artists have high sensitivity to high-level features such as textures and composition of colors and therefore their fixations are more driven by such features compared with novices. The other is that fixations of artists are more attracted by salient features than those of novices and the fixations are driven by low-level features. To test these, we measured eye fixations of artists and novices during the free viewing of various abstract paintings and compared the distribution of their fixations for each painting with a topological attentional map that quantifies the conspicuity of low-level features in the painting (i.e. saliency map. We found that the fixation distribution of artists was more distinguishable from the saliency map than that of novices. This difference indicates that fixations of artists are less driven by low-level features than those of novices. Our result suggests that artists may extract visual information from paintings based on high-level features. This ability of artists may be associated with artists' deep aesthetic appreciation of paintings.

  11. Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafał; Zięba-Palus, Janina

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ΔE < 3). The values of ΔE between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one - a logarithmic function.

  12. The Reading of a Painting%读画

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁实秋

    2012-01-01

    本刊2000年第3期曾刊登朱纯深先生所翻译并导读的《读画》·文,本篇汉英对照与前篇稍有改动,作为附录附于正文之后,以飨读者。%Yuan Mei has this to say in his Suiyuan Notes on Poetry: "Artists believe in the reading of a painting, yet I can find nothing to be read in a painting -- What one reads is the poetry it bears." The old gentleman was making a good point here. Reading means reciting, or chanting aloud the words to appreciate the meaning, so one must have the words, the text, before one can do the reading. As such, how can you read a painting? The so-called reading of a painting, therefore, should be reading the poetry it carries.

  13. Painting cracks: A way to investigate the pictorial matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, Frédérique; Pauchard, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    An old painting generally exhibits a wide variety of crack patterns. From a strictly aesthetic point of view, cracks are undesirable; nevertheless, they can be seen as the fingerprints of the painting and provide valuable knowledge about the art piece. Precisely, the morphology of crack patterns can be related to the mechanical properties of the pictorial matter or they can reveal information about the methods used by the artist or the conditions of conservation. In the present paper, we show how drying dispersions of colloidal particles in a volatile solvent on a non-porous substrate provides a good candidate to study crack formation in a solid layer. We recover the crack patterns observed in paintings, and we investigate the role of the substrate, e.g., the sub-layer, and of the thickness of the layer in the crack spacing. We show how to deduce mechanical properties of a sub-layer, provided the thickness and the elastic modulus of the layer are known. These experiments aim to propose a potentially non-invasive method to deduce quantitative information about mechanical properties of a pictorial matter which could be of great interest for cultural heritage.

  14. Using Hypermedia in Teaching Art & Design: Baroque Dutch Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas A. Alkholy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the whole world adapts ICT -information and communication technologies- in learning and teaching visual arts for the benefit of both the student and the society, the Middle East is motionless. ME teachers need training, institutional support and motivation to apply ICT in classrooms. Preparing a traditional lecture, including visual projected examples by data show takes less time. Doing comparisons and contrast, going through formal analysis or juggling between visual examples is complex within classrooms' technological limitations of having one projector. There is an urgent need to alter traditional methods of teaching art and design and integrate pictorial approaches. This paper discusses design/art pedagogy via a suggested model lesson, which utilizes hypermedia to resemble internet interface. The lesson teaches Dutch Baroque interior design through a selection of Vermeer's paintings. Vermeer accurately painted interior elements in his paintings. The development of technology stimulates students’ imagination and develops their understanding of more influencing graphical forms. Any other art and design themes and styles can be taught by using the same interface.

  15. Emotional Dimensions of Music and Painting and their Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Bueno, J J; DeJuan-Ayala, O; Montoya, Pedro; Birbaumer, N

    2015-07-20

    Usually it is accepted that human manifestations such as music or painting share a common artistic trait. However, very little is known about the genetic, behavioral, developmental and neurobiological basis of such a musical-pictorial "universal". In an attempt to approach commonalities and differences between the psychology of music and pictorial art in Experiment 1 we investigated the emotional dimensions valence and arousal in a large sample (N =156, M age = 21,44 years, SD = 3,89 years, range = 16-35 years) using a representative selection of musical and pictorial artistic stimuli. We found a stronger variability of valence and arousal with paintings and stronger effects of music on valence. In Experiment 2 (N =202, M age = 21,35 years, SD = 3,57 years, range = 16-35 years) we present first quantitative data on the interaction between the two artistic categories of stimuli on a behavioral level, again observing effects of pictorial art and music on valence and arousal. Furthermore in Experiment 2 we replicated a more pronounced effect of music on the valence of pictures, particularly on positive valence the results of the ANOVA showed an increase in group A2: F(1, 120) = 6.23, p music, group A1: F(1, 127) = 19.69, p music over painting.

  16. Organogel formulations for the cleaning of easel paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Piero; Bonelli, Nicole; Chelazzi, David; Chevalier, Aurelia; Dei, Luigi; Domingues, Joana; Fratini, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico; Martin, Morgane

    2015-11-01

    Gels are particularly useful for the cleaning of works of art, as they allow the controlled delivery of cleaning fluids on solvent-sensitive substrates such as easel paintings. Owing to the presence of covalent cross-links between the polymer chains, chemical gels exhibit mechanical properties that allow their easy handling and their residue-free removal from artistic surfaces after the cleaning intervention. Organogels based on the cross-linking of methyl methacrylate (MMA) can be prepared as loaded with solvents for the controlled removal of unwanted layers from the surface of canvas paintings. Here, we propose MMA-based organogels obtained by solubilizing MMA in pure organic solvents (e.g., ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and ketones) and using a dimethacrylate cross-linker. The uptake/release behavior of the gels has been investigated, and their mesoporosity has been characterized through small-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the gels have been used for the removal of historical varnishes from canvas painting samples, checking the absence of gel residues with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

  17. A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

  18. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  19. Meiosis and chromosome painting of sex chromosome systems in Ceboidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M D; Rahn, I M; Solari, A J

    2001-06-01

    The identity of the chromosomes involved in the multiple sex system of Alouatta caraya (Aca) and the possible distribution of this system among other Ceboidea were investigated by chromosome painting of mitotic cells from five species and by analysis of meiosis at pachytene in two species. The identity of the autosome #7 (X2) involved in the multiple system of Aca and its breakage points were demonstrated by both meiosis and chromosome painting. These features are identical to those described by Consigliere et al. [1996] in Alouatta seniculus sara (Assa) and Alouatta seniculus arctoidea (Asar). This multiple system was absent in the other four Ceboidea species studied here. However, data from the literature strongly suggest the presence of this multiple in other members of this genus. The presence of this multiple system among several species and subspecies that show high levels of chromosome rearrangements may suggest a special selective value of this multiple. The meiotic features of the sex systems of Aca and Cebus apella paraguayanus (Cap) are strikingly different at pachytene, as the latter system is similar to the sex pair of man and other primates. The relatively large genetic distances between species presently showing this multiple system suggest that its origin is not recent. Other members of the same genus should be investigated at meiosis and by chromosome painting in order to know the extent and distribution of this complex sex-chromosome system. PMID:11376445

  20. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  1. Effect analysis of oil paint on the space optical contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-lian; Lv, He; Han, Chun-xu; Wei, Hai-Bin

    2013-08-01

    The space contamination of spacecraft surface is a hot topic in the spacecraft environment project and environment safeguard for spacecraft. Since the 20th century, many American satellites have had malfunction for space contamination. The space optical systems are usually exposed to the external space environment. The particulate contamination of optical systems will degrade the detection ability. We call the optical damage. It also has a bad influence on the spectral imaging quality of the whole system. In this paper, effects of contamination on spectral imaging were discussed. The experiment was designed to observe the effect value. We used numeral curve fitting to analyze the relationship between the optical damage factor (Transmittance decay factor) and the contamination degree of the optical system. We gave the results of six specific wavelengths from 450 to 700nm and obtained the function of between the optical damage factor and contamination degree. We chose three colors of oil paint to be compared. Through the numeral curve fitting and processing data, we could get the mass thickness for different colors of oil paint when transmittance decreased to 50% and 30%. Some comparisons and research conclusions were given. From the comparisons and researches, we could draw the conclusions about contamination effects of oil paint on the spectral imaging system.

  2. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  3. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Monitor Stress Kinetics in Drying Process of Commercial Latex Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo de Lourenço

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 μm to 21 μm in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint, and one part paint and one part water (50% paint. It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 μm and 10.4 μm were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings.

  4. The Visual Poetry of Chinese Bamboo: Some Notes on Traditional Chinese Xieyi Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maningning C. Miclat

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese painting (Huo Hua which dates back to the Han Dynasty (25 A.D.-135 A.D. has two traditions: the Xieyi and the Gong Pi. Xieyi means "writing the meaning down" and its practitioners are literati artists who execute expressionistic and gestural strokes. Gong Pi painting is known for its application of colors and fine strokes. It is a naturalistic rendition of the subject that imitates the superficial likeness of the world. While Xieyi painting aims to capture the Qi or the vital spirit in the practice of painting and calligraphy,1 the naturalistic rendition of Gong Pi painting exhibits the dexterity of the artist. However, capturing the Qi is a more sophisticated preoccupation as far as the Chinese scholars of the classical times are concerned.Xieyi painting is associated with literati paintings or the Wen Ren Hua practiced by scholars. It includes mainly landscapes, flora and fauna, human figures, and the Si Jun Zi Hua2 or the Four Noblemen Painting. In the Si Jun Zi Hua painting of the Bamboo, the different brushstrokes of Chinese calligraphy are applied.3 Unlike Gong Pi painting, which takes many days or weeks to finish,4 the Xieyi painting is finished in one sitting. A Xieyi painting is composed by the artist on the spot. The blank paper signifies Yin and the brush strokes signify Yang. To balance a composition is to achieve harmony and wholeness. A good composition is achieved when the spirit or the essence of the subject is captured with the masterful brush strokes and a good sense of balance in the composition.In this paper, I will examine the history of Chinese literati painting, its materials, its tradition and milieu, the symbolism of its themes, and its practice in post-Cultural Revolution China.

  5. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the behavioural and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task—administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioural data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain’s attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings.

  6. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  7. Sanmenxia strives to create aluminum industrial base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Contradiction between rich alumina resource and relatively weak electrolytic aluminum production capacity is the "bottleneck" inhibiting development of aluminum industry in San-menxia. During the period of "11th Five-Year Development", Sanmenxia will relay on its

  8. Wilson's disease; increased aluminum in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, M; Yoshimasu, F; Yase, Y; Uebayashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Interaction of trace metal metabolism was studied in a patient with Wilson's dease. Atomic absorption analysis showed markedly increased urinary excretion of copper and aluminum and an increased aluminum content was found in the biopsied liver by neutron activation analysis. These findings suggest a complicated pathogenetic mechanism involving other metals besides copper in the Wilson's disease.

  9. Aluminum honeycomb impact limiter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaksh, M.C.; Thompson, T.C. (Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)); Nickell, R.E. (Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Poway, CA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Design requirements for a cask transporting radioactive materials must include the condition of the 30-foot free fall of the cask onto an unyielding surface. To reduce the deceleration loads to a tolerable level for all the components of the cask, a component (impact limiter) is designed to absorb the kinetic energy. The material, shape, and method of attachment of the impact limiter to the cask body comprises the design of the impact limiter. The impact limiter material of interest is honeycomb aluminum, and the particular design examined was for the NAC Legal Weight Truck cask (NAC-LWT) for spent fuel from light water reactors. The NAC-LWT has a design weight of 52,000 pounds, and it has a nominal length of 200 inches. The report describes the numerical calculations embodied in the FADE program to determine the accelerations and crush strain resulting from an arbitrary height and angle of orientation. Since the program serves as a design tool, static tests are performed to assess the effect of the shell containing the honeycomb aluminum. The static tests and their results are contained in the study. The static tests are used to demonstrate for licensing purposes the level of accelerations imposed on the cask during a 30-foot drop. 3 refs., 41 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  11. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... (FeAl3), which start to become operative when the degree of deformation is raised from 15 to 30 pct. The temperature of nucleation and of recrystallization decreases when the degree of deformation is increased and the initial grain size is decreased. The recrystallized grain size follows the same...... trend and it is observed that the refinement of the recrystallized grain size caused by an increasing degree of deformation and decreasing initial grain size is enhanced by the FeAl3 particles (when the degree of deformation is raised from 15 to 30 pct). Finally, the structural and kinetic observations...

  12. Biological availability of lead in a paint aerosol. 1. Physical and chemical characterization of a lead paint aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, D; Schumacher, R; Covert, D; Eaton, D L

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of an aerosol of lead-based paint, generated in an industrial spray operation, that might influence the biological availability of lead present in inhaled aerosols. Paint aerosols were collected, and mass-size distribution was determined using a portable cascade impactor under actual occupational conditions. Approx. 2% of the particulate mass collected was in the respirable range (less than 10 micron mean aerodynamic diameter), although the maximum airborne concentration of lead was found to be 2-3 mg/m3. The lead concentration in a dried aerosol was very resistant to chemical digestion. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy showed approx. 11% lead by dry weight, although the wet weight concentration of lead reported by the manufacturer was 12.8%. PMID:6485003

  13. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  14. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  15. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  16. Gelling nature of aluminum soaps in oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Rackaitis, Mindaugas

    2009-03-15

    Aluminum soaps are notable for their ability to form soap-hydrocarbon gels of high viscosity. For more than half a century, it has been believed that the gelling mechanism is due to a formation of polymeric chains of aluminum molecules with the aluminum atoms linking along the axis and with the fatty acid chain extended sideways. Here we report results from an investigation using high-resolution electron microscopy and rheology measurements that clearly resolve the ambiguity. Our results reveal that the gelling mechanism stems from the formation of spherical nano-sized micelles from aluminum soap molecules, and those colloidal micelle particles then aggregate into networks of highly fractal and jammed structures. The earlier proposed polymer chain-like structure is definitely incorrect. The discovery of aluminum soap particles could expand application of these materials to new technologies.

  17. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  18. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  19. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  20. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, M.; Waugh, D. G.; Colston, B. J.; Lawrence, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer - a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  1. Frames as visual links between paintings and the museum environment: An analysis of statistical image properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eRedies

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Frames provide a visual link between artworks and their surround. We asked how image properties change as an observer zooms out from viewing a painting alone, to viewing the painting with its frame and, finally, the framed painting in its museum environment (museum scene. To address this question, we determined three higher-order image properties that are based on histograms of oriented luminance gradients. First, complexity was measured as the sum of the strengths of all gradients in the image. Second, we determined the self-similarity of histograms of the orientated gradients at different levels of spatial analysis. Third, we analyzed how much gradient strength varied across orientations (anisotropy. Results were obtained for three art museums that exhibited paintings from three major periods of Western art. In all three museums, the mean complexity of the frames was higher than that of the paintings or the museum scenes. Frames thus provide a barrier of complexity between the paintings and their exterior. By contrast, self-similarity and anisotropy values of images of framed paintings were intermediate between the images of the paintings and the museum scenes, i.e., the frames provided a transition between the paintings and their surround. We also observed differences between the three museums that may reflect modified frame usage in different art periods. For example, frames in the museum for 20th century art tended to be smaller and less complex than in the two other two museums that exhibit paintings from earlier art periods (13th-18th century and 19th century, respectively. Finally, we found that the three properties did not depend on the type of reproduction of the paintings (photographs in museums, scans from books or images from the Google Art Project. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the relation between frames and paintings by measuring physically defined, higher-order image properties.

  2. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.

  3. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation

  4. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Michael L.; Sohn, H. Y.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    2013-11-01

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB2) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB2 in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB2 beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB2 and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB2 exhibited O2-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O2 than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB2 suggested that Al2O3-B2O3 interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al2O3 on aluminum particles into a Al4B2O9 shell, while the same Al4B2O9 developed a needle-like morphology in AlB2 that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB2, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments.

  5. Characterisation of paint samples by infrared and Raman spectroscopy for criminalistic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, Janina; Michalska, Aleksandra; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    Infrared microspectrometry and Raman microscopy were applied in characterisation of paint coatings, i.e. in identification of pigments and in differentiation between paint samples of similar colour and shade. The use of different excitation lasers enabled us to reduce the fluorescence of the sample and identify the main pigments present in the sample. It was shown that Raman mapping has great potential for the forensic study of paint samples. It is useful because paints are usually chemically complex and heterogeneous mixtures and spectroscopic images allow an assessment of the chemical heterogeneity of a specimen in terms of the spatial distribution of the molecular constituents.

  6. Application of Parallel Algorithm Approach for Performance Optimization of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially. I have also observed in various blogs and forums, the questions for faster oil paint have been asked repeatedly.

  7. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

  8. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: loeschau@ut.tu-berlin.de; Kraetke, Renate [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: r.kraetke@bfr.bund.de

    2005-11-15

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed.

  9. Estimation of Polishing and Leaching Behaviour of Antifouling Paints Using Mathematical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, Claus Erik;

    2003-01-01

    such as proteins or biocides, as well as for the estimation of release rates from different compositions of paints under various seawater conditions. Insoluble matrix, soluble matrix and self-polishing paints will be considered. Simulations from recent publications that show the effects of dynamic......The development of chemically active antifouling paints has traditionally been based on an empirical approach. Optimisation and evaluation of novel and existing products are frequently conducted by means of, for example, systematic paint rotary tests in the laboratory or at sea sites. In this...

  10. Questioning the “classical” in Persian painting: models and problems of definition

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Gruber

    2012-01-01

    In scholarship on Persian book arts, paintings have tended to be organized according to a rise-and-fall model. Within this overarching framework, the Ilkhanid period represents the birth of painting and the Qajar era its supposed decline, while Timurid and Safavid painting mark a high point for the development of pictorial arts in Iran. As a result, scholars have used the term ‘classical’ to describe both Timurid and Safavid painting. The many definitions of ‘classical’ – which alternatively ...

  11. Fast Responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work focuses on implementing fast-response pressure-sensitive paint for measurements of unsteady pressure in rotorcraft applications. Significant...

  12. [Damage to ancient mural paintings and petroglyphs caused by Pseudonocardia sp. - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoxuan; Ge, Qinya; Pan, Jiao

    2015-07-01

    The historical relics exposed to the natural environment during the long-term were vulnerable to microbial invasion. According to some new studies, microorganism of Pseudonocardia may is one of the main groups on the surface of mural paintings and petroglyphs, causing damage to the paints. Based on recent research progress, we reviewed the phenomenon according to the relationship between the ancient paintings and the growth conditions of Pseudonocardia, which could provide a new theory basis for the protection of cultural relics especially mural paintings and petroglyphs.

  13. Development of Alcoa aluminum foam products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.D.; Crowley, M.D.; Wang, W.; Wilhelmy, D.M.; Hunter, D.E. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new lightweight aluminum foam product was described. The foam was made through the controlled decomposition of carbonate powders within molten aluminum and was able to resist both coalescence and drainage. The fine-celled aluminum foam derived its physical and mechanical properties from the properties of the aluminum alloy matrix from which they were produced. The rheology of the molten aluminum was modified to provide a superior mesostructure. Stabilization was achieved by creating a solid-gas-liquid suspension initiated by the addition of carbonates into an aluminum alloy melt. A cascade of chemical reactions then occurred within the melt to create a foamable suspension. Carbon monoxide (CO) was generated to initiate an additional sequence of chemical reactions which resulted in the formation of solid particles within the liquid metal. CO reacted with liquid Al to form graphite. The graphite then reacted with Al to form aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}). The microstructural, mesostructural, and mechanical character of the foams produced under different processing conditions were examined. Details of experimental test procedures were also described. It was concluded that the specific crush energy absorption was as high as 20 kJ/kg. The foam exhibited a bending stiffness that was approximately 20 to 30 times higher than balsa and polymer foams. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  15. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  16. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  17. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  18. Changes in porosity of foamed aluminum during solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to control the porosity of foamed aluminum, the changes in the porosity of foamed aluminum melt in the processes of foaming and solidification, the distribution of the porosity of foamed aluminum, and the relationship between them were studied. The results indicated that the porosity of foamed aluminum coincides well with the foaming time.

  19. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  20. The possible use of EPR spectroscopy for paint pigment identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Bacci, M.; Lotti, F.; Casini, A.; Picollo, M. [Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence, Italy (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Visible and near-infra-red reflectance spectroscopy are now routinely used for the identification of paint pigments in Renaissance painting, thus playing a part in authentication and restoration. Since most of the pigments are minerals, and many minerals either contain traces of paramagnetic ions, or have paramagnetic ions in their main components (e.g., chromic oxide, haematite), it seemed logical to determine whether EPR could distinguish between different pigments. 14 pigments of different colours were tested in a Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer, at a frequency of {approx} 9.1 GHz. Measurements were made at room ({approx} 20 deg C) and liquid N{sub 2} temperatures, in the standard special quartz sample tubes. The active volume is 0. 15 ml, but at most, a volume of sample (powder) one tenth of this was used. The spectra (to be shown) clearly demonstrate that EPR can distinguish between different pigments. The power was 1 milliwatt, the modulation amplitude 4 gauss, the total field sweep 10,000 gauss, centred 5000 gauss and the amplification between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4}, as indicated on the charts. The signal to noise ratio is excellent, and sensitivity could be increased (if necessary) by a factor of {approx} 10{sup 3}, thus allowing much smaller samples to be tested. Because the signals are so strong it should be possible to scan at least small painted canvases by the following non-destructive technique, using existing equipment. All that is required is a modified resonant cavity; it must have a high Q, and a slot where the magnetic field is maximum, and the electric field zero. The canvas can thus be placed flush with the waveguide, to interact with the microwave magnetic field emanating from the slot

  1. Comparative chromosome painting discloses homologous segments in distantly related mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, H; Cremer, T; Arnason, U; Weier, H U; Lima-de-Faria, A; Frönicke, L

    1994-04-01

    Comparative chromosome painting, termed ZOO-FISH, using DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 1, 16, 17 and X, and mouse chromosome 11 discloses the presence of syntenic groups in distantly related mammalian orders ranging from primates (Homo sapiens), rodents (Mus musculus), even-toed ungulates (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis and Muntiacus reevesi) and whales (Balaenoptera physalus). These mammalian orders have evolved separately for 55-80 million years (Myr). We conclude that ZOO-FISH can be used to generate comparative chromosome maps of a large number of mammalian species. PMID:8054973

  2. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

    El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La

  3. The influence of modern Chinese architectural landscape landscape painting aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永伟

    2016-01-01

    the modern architecture to the spread of Chinese localization were style of architecture, this article is based on the research on localization urban landscape to explore traditional Chinese landscape painting aesthetics and the cognitive way of Chinese garden aesthetics art, through the Chinese traditional aesthetics to explore the modern people and the nature harmonious living environment, the traditional aesthetic concept of “landscape” for the development of Chinese modern city landscape, qian xuesen proposed the concept of “landscape city” and the development, purpose is to find the environment concept of Chinese national culture characteristics.

  4. Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zori Roberto T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Results The human autosomal and X chromosome paints delimited a total of 44 homologous segments in the manatee genome. The synteny of nine of the 22 human autosomal chromosomes (4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 20 and the X chromosome were found intact in the manatee. The syntenies of other human chromosomes were disrupted in the manatee genome into two to five segments. The hybridization pattern revealed that 20 (15 unique associations of human chromosome segments are found in the manatee genome: 1/15, 1/19, 2/3 (twice, 3/7 (twice, 3/13, 3/21, 5/21, 7/16, 8/22, 10/12 (twice, 11/20, 12/22 (three times, 14/15, 16/19 and 18/19. Conclusion There are five derived chromosome traits that strongly link elephants with manatees in Tethytheria and give implicit support to Paenungulata: the associations 2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the loss of the ancestral eutherian 4/8 association. It would be useful to test these conclusions with chromosome painting in hyraxes. The manatee chromosome painting data confirm that the associations 1/19 and 5/21 phylogenetically link afrotherian species and show that Afrotheria is a natural clade. The association 10/12/22 is also ubiquitous in Afrotheria (clade I, present in Laurasiatheria (clade IV, only partially present in Xenarthra (10/12, clade II and absent in Euarchontoglires (clade III. If Afrotheria is basal to eutherians, this association could be part of the ancestral eutherian karyotype. If afrotherians are not at the root of the eutherian tree, then the 10

  5. Democracy in Conservation – Wall Painting Conservation and Church Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2007-01-01

    Wall painting conservation in Denmark has been functioning within a democratically organised church infrastructure for more than 100 years, which permits an overview of community involvement in conservation over a longer period. The case stories presented here show widely varying attitudes held...... by church communities, and how inconstant some value attributions are, particularly when compared to present day attitudes. The present situation is characterized predominantly by a one-way flow of information about conservation goals from the professionals to the community. Lack of knowledge pertaining...

  6. Painting Self-Consistent Beam Distributions in Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Jeffrey Alan; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2005-01-01

    We define self-consistent beam distributions to have the following properties: 1) time-independence or periodicity, 2) linear space charge forces, and 3) maintainance of their defining shape and density under all linear transformations. The periodic condition guarantees zero space-charge-induced halo growth and beam loss during injection. Some self-consistent distributions can be manipulated into flat, or even point-like, beams, which makes them interesting to colliders and to heavy-ion fusion. This paper presents methods for painting 2D and 3D self-consistent distributions and for their manipulation to produce flat and point-like beams.

  7. Fantasy, Somnambulism and Games in Liu Ye's Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINXIAOPING

    2003-01-01

    LIU Ye's paintings are a surrealistic blend of fantasy and reality. His canvases are a conglomeration of images of happy childhood and of catastrophic events unrelated to daily life. They combine to express a dread of reality. Liu beckons his viewers to join in the games of this visionary world,playing whatever roles they see fit. A girl and boy dressed in sailor suits look bemused, and two youths that magnetize the viewer's attention are in an obscure relationship. Spears, pistols, telescopes, pictures and books are all life's toys to Liu, the kind of life envisioned by postmodern artists and espoused by French philosopher Derrida.

  8. Applying Pressure Sensitive Paint Technology to Rotor Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Crafton, Jim; Gregory, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This report will present details of a Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) system for measuring global surface pressures on rotorcrtaft blades in simulated forward flight at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The basics of the PSP method will be discussed and the modifications that were needed to extend this technology for use on rotor blades. Results from a series of tests will also be presented as well as several areas of improvement that have been identified and are currently being developed for future testing.

  9. Digital radiographic techniques in the analysis of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the authors use the term digital radiography to mean any method of radiographic image production in which the silver halide-based film is replaced by an electronic sensor for production of an image. There are essentially three types of digital radiographic systems available at present, but others will be developed. These differ primarily in the method of image production and the rapidity with which images can be produced. The three methods discussed are digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and the scanned point source radiography. Each has certain characteristics which, if properly utilized, will allow improved x-ray analysis of paintings

  10. Analysis of Roman wall paintings found in Verona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Rudello, Danilo; Murgia, Emanuela

    2007-09-01

    The present paper deals with the analysis of roman wall paintings fragments recovered from twelve buildings of Verona, Italy. The analytical techniques used were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, Xray powder diffraction (XRD) Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. The wall preparation generally consisted of three layer: the pictorial layer, an intonachino layer of hydrated lime and a plaster one made of slaked lime and sand. The pigments found in the studied domus are different reflecting the taste and culture of Xa Regio of Italy but also the economical possibilities of the dominus and the building period. PMID:17970297

  11. Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villanueva, L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life of the material. They likewise served as a basis for ensuring the proper evacuation of water vapour in walls, and use of the capacity of the porous network in plaster products to regulate moisture content or serve as a water vapour barrier to avoid condensation.Briefly, the research showed that pigments, water-based paints and silicon-based water repellents scantly raised vapour resistance. Plastic paints, enamels and lacquers, however, respectively induced five-, ten- and twenty-fold increases in vapour resistivity, on average.Se estudia el fenómeno de la resistividad al vapor de los de yeso y el efecto impermeabilizante que producen los recubrimientos de pintura sobre diversos tipos de yeso y escayola. Para ello, se ensayan probetas desnudas y recubiertas con distintos tipos de pintura, así como coloreados en masa. Se obtienen valores experimentales de la difusividad o permeabilidad al vapor o su inverso la resistividad al vapor de agua.Los datos obtenidos son muy útiles para valorar el fenómeno del intercambio de humedad entre el yeso y el ambiente, tanto durante el proceso de su secado inicial, como en el transcurso de su vida. Así como para disponer soluciones adecuadas para la evacuación del vapor de agua a través de los cerramientos, para utilizar la capacidad de regulación de la humedad, que proporciona el entramado poroso de los productos de yeso, o para impedir el paso del vapor de agua y evitar condensaciones.Como resumen de la investigación, se

  12. TRANSVERSE PHASE SPACE PAINTING FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING INJECTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    The result of investigation and comparison of a series of transverse phase space painting schemes for the injection of SNS accumulator ring [1] is reported. In this computer simulation study, the focus is on the creation of closed orbit bumps that give desired distributions at the target. Space charge effects such as tune shift, emittance growth and beam losses are considered. The results of pseudo end-to-end simulations from the injection to the target through the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) system [2] are presented and discussed.

  13. Lévi-Strauss, Caduveo Body Painting and the Readymade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiseman, Boris Nicholas Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore some convergences between aesthetics and the anthropology of art, two disciplines often thought of as incompatible or mutually exclusive. Its impetus is the conviction that we have much to gain by a more systematic and concerted attempt at constituting an ethno......-aesthetics, i.e. a decentred aesthetics enriched by the dynamic of cross-cultural comparison. I will take as my starting point Lévi-Strauss's classic studies of Caduveo body painting and try to show how, beyond the clichés often repeated about structuralism, they provide valuable insights for an understanding...

  14. Treatment of wastewater from a paint industry using polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kori, M.M.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Eleven polyelectrolytes were tried separately to treat the wastewater from a paint manufacturing industry. Among these, Zetag 66, a cationic polyelectrolyte was found to be most effective. A dosage of 5 mg/L of this polyelectrolyte was found to be adequate to achieve 65% COD removal, 97% suspended solids removal, and 90% heavy metals removal. The use of this polyelectrolyte assumes significant importance as it eliminates the use of alum completely. This elimination of alum consumption results in considerable reduction of effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge, which is a hazardous waste. The savings that results in the primary treatment is an added advantage.

  15. Diffuse Parenchymal Diseases Associated With Aluminum Use and Primary Aluminum Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum use and primary aluminum production results in the generation of various particles, fumes, gases, and airborne materials with the potential for inducing a wide range of lung pathology. Nevertheless, the presence of diffuse parenchymal or interstitial lung disease related to these processes remains controversial. The relatively uncommon occurrence of interstitial lung diseases in aluminum-exposed workers—despite the extensive industrial use of aluminum—the potential for concurrent exp...

  16. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  17. South West Aluminum: Next year The Capacity of Auto-use Aluminum Sheet will Reach 5000 Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Following supplying supporting aluminum products for"Shenzhou"spacecraft,"Long March"rocket,Boeing and Airbus,South West Aluminum again tapped new economic growth points,i.e.automobile-use aluminum products.According to what the reporter has learned from South West Aluminum Group recently,this group has finished early stage

  18. Southwest Aluminum Increase Two Production Lines and May Become the Largest Aluminum Fabricator In the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Recently,Wu Bing,Director of Chongqing Economic Committee,announced at the"Industrial Economy Meeting"that the city will"facilitate the technical upgrade and capacity expansion of the existing production lines at Southwest Aluminum with great efforts on the construction of one additional hot continuous rolling line and one cold continuous rolling line so as to have a comprehensive production ca- pacity of 1.2 million tons on aluminum processing profiles for the achievement of building Southwest Aluminum into the world largest aluminum processing enterprise".

  19. Preliminary Study on Aluminum Content of Foods and Aluminum Intake of Residents in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUGe-Sheng; JINRng-Pei; 等

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum contents of 64 kinds of foods in Tianjin were detrmined.The results showed that the aluminum levels in diffeent kinds of foods varied greatly,and most foodstuffs from natural sources(including contamination from food processing)contained less than 10mg/kg,Aluminum contents were higher in foodstuffs of plant origin,especiallydry beans containing large amounts of aluminum naturally.Lower concentration of aluminum seemed to be present in foodstuffs of animal origin.It was estimated that the potential daily intake of aluminum per person from natural dietary sources in Tianjin was about 3.79 mg.This estimated figure of dietary aluminum intake was very close to the measured data from 24 daily diets of college students.which was 4.86±1.72mg.Considering all the potential sources of natural aluminum in foods.water and the individual habitual food,it would apear that most residents in Tianjin would consume 3-10mg aluminum daily from natural dietary sources.

  20. Infiltration of molten aluminum in aluminum-nickel powder preform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown by the present author that when molten aluminum comes in contact with nickel, an exothermic reaction is initiated and both stiochiometric and non-stiochiometric phases form at the interface. For nickel powders, such reaction is expected to be much faster due to high surface area to volume ratio of the fine particles. Infiltration of molten metals in ceramics powder preforms has long been used to fabricate near or net-shaped Metal Matrix Composite components. For metallic preforms however, it is important to see if the exothermic reaction compromises the infiltration of the molten metal constituent, i.e. defective components. The current project studied the fabrication of near net-shaped Intermetallic Matrix Composites, (IMC) via molten metal infiltration and subsequent reaction with the metal powder preform. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical and SEM microscopes were used to characterize the infiltration, reaction and the resulted microstructure. It is expected that the molten metal temperature, holding time within the molten metal, the infiltration pressure, i.e. metallostatic pressure and the preform compaction pressure are all important parameters to be considered carefully to achieve sound components. The current report examined the feasibility of such fabrication technique and the resultant microstructure. (author)

  1. Profit of Aluminum Industry Dropped Sharply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On August 2nd,the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology published the performance of nonferrous metal industry in the first half of 2011.Relevant data showed that due to cost increase,aluminum smelting enter

  2. Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Chen, Wei Ting; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Wu, Pin Chieh; Wang, Chih-Ming; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-05-13

    We report a phase-modulated multicolor meta-hologram (MCMH) that is polarization-dependent and capable of producing images in three primary colors. The MCMH structure is made of aluminum nanorods that are arranged in a two-dimensional array of pixels with surface plasmon resonances in red, green, and blue. The aluminum nanorod array is patterned on a 30 nm thick SiO2 spacer layer sputtered on top of a 130 nm thick aluminum mirror. With proper design of the structure, we obtain resonances of narrow bandwidths to allow for implementation of the multicolor scheme. Taking into account of the wavelength dependence of the diffraction angle, we can project images to specific locations with predetermined size and order. With tuning of aluminum nanorod size, we demonstrate that the image color can be continuously varied across the visible spectrum.

  3. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, L.; Fan, D.; Bie, B. X.; Zhou, X. M.; Suo, T.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, M. W.; Liu, C. L.; Qi, M. L.; Zhu, M. H.; Luo, S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Deformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (˜106 s-1 ) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates.

  4. China Aluminum Processing Industry Development Report 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry maintained a high growth rate,with the aluminum output reaching 23,456,000tons,up 20.6% y-o-y.Overshadowed by complicated situation both at home and abroad,China’seconomy slowed down and declined by2.2% y-o-y.In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry showed a downward tendency,that is,it grew at a high speed before the3rd quarter,but suffered from a shortage of orders in the remaining time of the year and the growth rate fell increasingly.Between January and August,China’s aluminum output rose by 26% y-o-y;

  5. Shock wave compression behavior of aluminum foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程和法; 黄笑梅; 薛国宪; 韩福生

    2003-01-01

    The shock wave compression behavior of the open cell aluminum foam with relative density of 0. 396 was studied through planar impact experiments. Using polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) piezoelectric gauge technique, the stress histories and propagation velocities of shock wave in the aluminum foam were measured and analyzed. The results show that the amplitude of shock wave attenuates rapidly with increasing the propagation distance in the aluminum foam, and an exponential equation of the normalized peak stress vs propagation distance of shock wave is established, the attenuation factor in the equation is 0. 286. Furthermore, the Hugoniot relation, νs = 516.85+ 1.27νp,for the aluminum foam is determined by empirical fit to the experimental Hugoniot data.

  6. Aluminum-CNF Lightweight Radiator Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal relates to a new materials concept for an aluminum-carbon nanofiber composite, high thermal conductivity ultra lightweight material that will form the...

  7. Over-heated Investment in Aluminum Hub Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Aluminum hub is one of typical products with the comparative advantages.China’s aluminum hub industry is very competitive.In recent years,the value of export for the aluminum hub soared,increasing from USD130 millions in 1999 up to nearly USD1 billion in 2004.The main exporter are Wanfeng Auto Holding Group,Shanghai Fervent Alloy Wheel MFG Co.,Ltd.,Nanhai Zhongnan Aluminum Co., Ltd.,Taian Huatai Aluminum Hub Co.,Ltd.

  8. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  9. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  10. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  11. ALUMINUM FOIL REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Alekseev; PREDTECHENSKIY M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In our research, the method of manufacturing an Al-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite by hot pressing and cold rolling was attempted. The addition of one percent of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by OCSiAl provides a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum. The tensile strength of the obtained composite material is at the tensile strength level of medium-strength aluminum alloys.

  12. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB2) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB2 in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB2 beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB2 and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB2 exhibited O2-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O2 than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB2 suggested that Al2O3–B2O3 interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al2O3 on aluminum particles into a Al4B2O9 shell, while the same Al4B2O9 developed a needle-like morphology in AlB2 that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB2, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB2 in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time–temperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy

  13. Transfer and transport of aluminum in filtration unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum salt coagulants were used prevalently in various water works. In this article, the effects of filtration on residual aluminum concentration and species distribution were researched by determining the concentration of different Aluminum species before and after single layer filter, double layer filter, and membrane filtration units. In the research, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to separate colloidal and soluble aluminum, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) was used to separate organic and inorganic aluminum, and inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the aluminum concentration. The results showed that the rapid filtration process had the ability of removing residual aluminum from coagulant effluent water, and that double layer filtration was more effective in residual aluminum removal than single layer filtration, while Nano filtration was more effective than micro filtration. It was found that when the residual aluminum concentration was below 1mg/L in sediment effluent, the residual aluminum concentration in treated water was above 0.2 mg/L. The direct rapid filtration process mainly removed the suspended aluminum. The removal of soluble and colloidal aluminum was always less than 10% and the natural small particles that adsorbed the amount of soluble or small particles aluminum on their surface were difficult to be removed in this process. Micro filtration and nano filtration were good technologies for removing aluminum; the residual aluminum concentration in the effluent was less than 0.05 mg/L.

  14. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vineet

    2011-12-01

    Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

  15. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  16. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Long-term performance of different aluminum alloy designs as sacrificial anodes for rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rincón, O.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of various cathodic-protection designs using Aluminum alloys to protect prestressed piles. The results obtained with different system designs (bracelete type-Al/Zn/In alloy, thermosprayed aluminum (3-year evaluation and conventional Al/Zn/In anocies in an epoxy-painted steel bracelet (12-year evaluation, indicated that all of these systems may be used as sacrificial anodes for pile protection. However, the thermosprayed aluminum type can not be used in prestressed concrete piles because the very negative potentials ( < -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4 they supply to the reinforcement could lead to hydrogen embrittlement.

    Este trabajo presenta la realización de varios diseños de protección catódica utilizando aleaciones de aluminio para la protección de pilotes pretensados. Los resultados obtenidos con diferentes diseños (aleación de Al/Zn/In, tipo brazalete y aluminio termorociado (3 años de evaluación y ánodos convencionales de Al/Zn/In colocados en un brazalete de acero pintado con epoxy (12 años de evaluación, indicaron que todos estos sistemas pueden ser utilizados como ánodos de sacrificio para la protección de los pilotes. Sin embargo, el sistema con aluminio termorociado no puede ser utilizado en pilotes de acero pretensado debido al potencial muy negativo alcanzado por la armadura (<-1100 mV vs Cu/CuSO4, lo cual podría inducir a daños por hidrógeno.

  18. Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses and Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  19. On the beauty of nature, paintings and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Çoraklı

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of things that are classified by humans in terms of their level of beauty. The word ‘beautiful’ is used to define some of the natural entities living and nonliving, unnatural objects or ideas produced by humans, and the works of art, which are unique products of human hand and brain. Beauty, as a concept awakening a common feeling of pleasure, may mean something deeper than we are aware of. This meaning is perhaps hidden in its deeper aspects, which we have to give effort to analyze. Hence, within context of this paper, common and specific properties of the beauty of nature, paintings and music will be discussed. In addition, the stages of the perception of the beauty of all kinds will be called into question, and an account about the process of the judgment of beauty will be suggested. The specific types of beauty analyzed through the paper are limited with the beauty of nature, paintings and absolute music (music without words, following an opening remark about the beauty in general.

  20. Comparative environmental assessment of biocides used in antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2002-05-01

    In response to increasing scientific evidence on the toxicity and persistence of organotin residues from antifouling paints in the aquatic environment, the use of triorganotin antifouling products was banned on boats of less than 25 m length in many countries during 1987. Alternatives to tributyltin (TBT) paint are mainly copper based coatings containing organic booster biocides to improve the efficacy of the formulation, and have been utilised on small boats for the last 10 years. With policies encouraging a total ban on TBT, it is expected that these biocides will be used to a greater extent in the future. Limited data and information are available on the environmental occurrence, fate, toxicity, and persistence of these biocides, and thus any decisions on policies regulating antifoulants cannot be fully informed. In this study, a multicriteria comparison of alternative biocides, based on a general assessment of available information in the literature, provided support for the use of the precautionary principle with respect to policies on antifouling products. This assessment was validated by a more detailed comparison of four selected biocides and TBT. Results indicate that TCMS pyridine and TCMTB demonstrate environmental characteristics similar to TBT and thus detail risk assessments are needed before their use is permitted. The widespread use of the other biocides should be allowed only after research to fill the gaps in knowledge with respect to their toxicity and persistence in aquatic environments. PMID:12079074

  1. Polymer transistors fabricated by painting of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. P.; Russell, D. M.; Newsome, C. J.; Kugler, T.; Shimoda, T.

    2006-09-01

    In this letter the authors describe the fabrication of high performance polymer thin film transistors using an aqueous based silver colloid to form source and drain electrodes patterned by brush painting. The electrode dimensions were controlled by a surface energy pattern defined by soft contact printing of a self-assembled monolayer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl-trichlorosilane on a SiO2 surface which acted as a dewetting layer for the painted silver particle suspension. Another self-assembled monolayer of 1H ,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol was also used to increase the work function of the patterned silver electrodes in order to decrease the barrier for charge injection into the polymer semiconductor. The field-effect mobility of the thin film transistors fabricated by this method approached 0.02cm2V-1s-1 with an on/off current ratio of 105. The relative high mobility may be influenced by the ordering of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) semiconductor layer by the self-assembled monolayer used to define the source and drain electrodes.

  2. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.R. Muniz

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650°C. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  3. ECOLOGICAL CLEANING SYSTEMS FOR OLD ICONS PAINTED IN TEMPERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvea Pruteanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Old icons, especially those involved in liturgical rituals are affected in time by external agents factors (temperature, humidity, light, pollution, microbiological attack, abrasion etc., resulting changes of the appearance and of the structural integrity, dirt deposits, altered varnish and painting layer, cracks, material loss etc. In order to remove the dirt deposits, there are used cleaning systems with dry wiping, vacuuming, scraping, washing with organic solvents, ion exchange solutions, polyelectrolytes, surfactants, and so on, by enzymatic systems or by laser pyrolysis. The last two processes being considered aggressive and highly invasive, although they do clean very well adherent dirt deposits, which strongly degraded the varnish to total blackening (the iconographic image cannot be seen. Based on the literature in the field, regarding the nature of the materials used during the painting process and of the types and structures of the deposits, a series of alcoholic solutions of different concentrations were made, as such or basified, which were compared with ecologic synergic systems based on organic uncolored vegetable juices and decoctions from dried plants. The cleaning effectiveness was done by visual analysis and CIE L*a*b* reflection colorimetry, space proposed by the CIE (International Commission on Illumination in 1976, was used. This technique permitting to determine by color deviations the critical point where the patina and polychromes layer.

  4. Spectroscopic study of an icon painted on wooden panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sofija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian icon painted on wooden panel analyzed in this work is interesting for art historians because there is no precise information in which workshops it was made or who the author was. Similar icons are often found in churches and monasteries in our region. In order to obtain information about materials used for creation of investigated icon two micro-analytical techniques were used: Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results confirmed presence of following materials: lead-white, vermilion, minium, ultramarine, brown and green earth pigments and silver in combination with yellow organic varnish, which served to an iconographer for gilding. Ground layer was made of calcite. Blue pigment ultramarine was probably used for blue colour as well as for obtaining particulars hues in several parts of the paint layer. This can be important information for further research concerning particular workshop in which the icon was made. Identified materials are typical for Russian iconography of the 19th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 177021 i OI 177012

  5. Chromosome painting defines genomic rearrangements between red howler monkey subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigliere, S; Stanyon, R; Koehler, U; Agoramoorthy, G; Wienberg, J

    1996-06-01

    We hybridized whole human chromosome-specific DNA libraries to chromosomes of two supposed subspecies of Alouatta seniculus: Alouatta seniculus sara and Alouatta seniculus arctoides. The number of hybridization signals per haploid set is 42 in A. s. sara and 43 in A. s. arctoidea; the two karyotypes differ by at least 16 chromosomal rearrangements, including numerous translocations. An unusual sex chromosome system is shared by both taxa. The sex chromosome system results from a Y translocation with a chromosome homologous to parts of human chromosome 3/15 and can be described as X1X2Y1Y2/X1X1X2X2 (male/female). Both red howlers also have microchromosomes, a highly unusual karyological trait not found in other higher primates. These microchromosomes are not hybridized by any human chromosome paint and therefore are probably composed of repetitive DNA. It is well known that New World monkeys have high karyological variability. It is probable that molecular cytogenetic analyses including chromosome painting will permit an accurate reconstruction of the phylogeny of these monkeys and help establish the ancestral karyotype for higher primates. PMID:8817065

  6. Penetration of tritiated water vapor through hydrophobic paints for concrete materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edao, Y., E-mail: edao.yuki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kawamura, Y.; Yamanishi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Fukada, S. [Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Behavior of tritium transfer through hydrophobic paints of epoxy and acrylic-silicon resin was investigated experimentally. The amounts of tritium permeating through their paint membranes were measured under the HTO concentration condition of 2–96 Bq/cm{sup 3}. Most of tritium permeated through the paints as a molecular form of HTO at room temperature. The rate of tritium permeating through the acrylic-silicon paint was correlated in terms of a linear sorption/release model, and that through the epoxy paint was controlled by a diffusion model. Although effective diffusivity estimated by a diffusion model was obtained 1.1 × 10{sup −13}–1.8 × 10{sup −13} m{sup 2}/s for epoxy membranes at the temperature of 21–26 °C, its value was found to be hundreds times larger than that for cement-paste coated with epoxy paint. Hence, resistance of tritium diffusion through interface between cement-paste and the epoxy paint was considered to be the most effective in the overall tritium transfer process. Clarification of tritium transfer behavior at the interface is important to understand the mechanism of tritium transfer in concrete walls coated with various paints.

  7. An Investigation into the Viability of Removal of Lead Soap Efflorescence from Contemporary Oil Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sawicka; A. Burnstock; F.C. Izzo; K. Keune; J.J. Boon; K. Kirsch; K.J. van den Berg

    2014-01-01

    Metal soap efflorescent hazes and crusts are one of the most visually disturbing of all metal soap related alterations in paintings. The phenomenon presents particular challenges for conservators as the surface deposits that form are insoluble and intimately bound with the paint film. The superficia

  8. Development of a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser paint removal process usually leaves behind traces of combustion product i.e. ashes on the surface. An additional post-processing such as light-brushing or wiping by some mechanical means is required to remove the residual ash. In order to strip out the paint completely from the surface in a single step, a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process has been investigated. The 1.07 μm wavelength of Yb-fiber laser radiation has low absorption in water; therefore a high power fiber laser was used in the experiment. The laser beam was delivered on the paint-surface along with a water jet to remove the paint and residual ashes effectively. The specific energy, defined as the laser energy required removing a unit volume of paint was found to be marginally more than that for the gas-jet assisted laser paint removal process. However, complete paint removal was achieved with the water-jet assist only. The relatively higher specific energy in case of water-jet assist is mainly due to the scattering of laser beam in the turbulent flow of water-jet

  9. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, A.R. [CCR-Centro de Conservação e Restauro, R. do Ginjal, 11, 2950-685 Palmela (Portugal); Rodrigues, P.A. [LATR, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken’s workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist’s works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings.

  10. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent...

  11. Development and Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Diagnostic Test Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children’s health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnost...

  12. From Sun King to Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France from the Musee Picardie, Amiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the traveling exhibition from the Musee de Picardie in Amiens, France, called "From the Sun King to the Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France," that provides an overview of French paintings from the reign of Louis IV to the fall of the monarchy. (CMK)

  13. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  14. THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 75,000,000 lbs. of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste (and similar streams in other industries) make a significant contribution to landfills. A proposed solution is to recycle the paint sludge into compounding ingredients...

  15. Treatment and Analysis of a Paint Chip from "Water Lilies": A Fire Damaged Monet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Tollis, Greg

    2001-01-01

    A museum fire in 1958 severely damaged a Monet 'Water Lilies' (1916-1926) painting that was on display. The surface of the painting is very dark with areas of blistering and charring. Over the years, traditional techniques have been found to be ineffective at removal of the soot and char from the surface. The painting, which is now in the care of the New York University (NYU) Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, was the subject of a study to determine if atomic oxygen treatment could remove the soot and char without damaging the fragile painting underneath. For test purposes, a small chip of paint was removed from the edge of the painting by a conservator at NYU and supplied to NASA Glenn Research Center for atomic oxygen treatment and analysis. The diffuse spectral reflectance, at three locations on the paint chip, was monitored at intervals during the atomic oxygen treatment process. Photo documentation of the chip during treatment was also performed. The color contrast was calculated from the spectral reflectance data as a function of treatment duration. Results of the testing indicated that the contrast improved as a result of the treatment, and the differentiation of colors on the surface was significantly improved. Soot and char could be removed without visibly affecting the gross surface features such as impasto areas. These results indicate the feasibility for the treatment of the 'Water Lilies' painting.

  16. Estimation of polishing and leaching behaviour of antifouling paints using mathematical modelling: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, Claus E; Pedersen, Michael S; Codolar, Santiago Arîas

    2003-04-01

    The development of chemically active antifouling paints has traditionally been based on an empirical approach. Optimisation and evaluation of novel and existing products are frequently conducted by means of, for example, systematic paint rotary tests in the laboratory or at sea sites. In this review, the usefulness of combining rotary experiments with the development of detailed mathematical models of paint behaviour will be discussed with reference to the relevant literature. Mathematical models can generally be used in the design of suitable release systems for various active components such as proteins or biocides, as well as for the estimation of release rates from different compositions of paints under various seawater conditions. Insoluble matrix, soluble matrix and self-polishing paints will be considered. Simulations from recent publications that show the effects of dynamic changes in seawater on paint behaviour will be presented. Examples of potential uses of paint models for accelerated polishing and leaching tests and screening of novel paint components will also be discussed. Directions of future modelling work are suggested. PMID:14618702

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart A of... - Prohibition of Lead-Based Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... National Consumer Health Information and Health Promotion Act of 1976, Public Law 94-317. II. Policy The... rehabilitated for human habitation with financial assistance provided by this agency. Paints used on applicable... paints, of the symptoms and treatment of lead poisoning, and of the importance and availability...

  18. Residue detection for real-time removal of paint from metallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Dolgin, Benjamin; Marzwell, Neville

    2001-01-01

    Paint stripping from large steel ships and other metallic surfaces is a major issue in the maintenance and refurbishing of structures, and environmental concerns are greatly limiting the possible options. As a result, waterjet with water recycling has become the leading form of paint stripping and robotic manipulators with scanning bridges were constructed by various manufacturers to address this need. The application of such scanning bridges is slow and their access is constrained by the complex shape of the ship hull and various features on the surface. To overcome these limitations, a robotic system that is called Ultrastrip (UltraStrip Systems, Inc., Stuart, FL) is developed. This system uses magnetic wheels to attach the stripper to the structure and travel on it while performing paint stripping. To assure efficient paint stripping feedback data is required to control the travel speed by monitoring the paint thickness before and during the stripping process. Efforts at JPL are currently underway to develop the required feedback capability to assure effective paint stripping. Various possible sensors were considered and issues that can affect the sensitivity, reliability and applicability of the sensors are being investigated with emphasis on measuring the initial conditions of the paint. Issues that affect the sensory data in dynamic conditions are addressed while providing real-time real feedback for the control of the paint stripper speed of travel.

  19. Development of a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukar, Yuvraj K.; Mullick, Suvradip; Nath, Ashish K., E-mail: aknath@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2013-12-01

    The laser paint removal process usually leaves behind traces of combustion product i.e. ashes on the surface. An additional post-processing such as light-brushing or wiping by some mechanical means is required to remove the residual ash. In order to strip out the paint completely from the surface in a single step, a water-jet assisted laser paint removal process has been investigated. The 1.07 μm wavelength of Yb-fiber laser radiation has low absorption in water; therefore a high power fiber laser was used in the experiment. The laser beam was delivered on the paint-surface along with a water jet to remove the paint and residual ashes effectively. The specific energy, defined as the laser energy required removing a unit volume of paint was found to be marginally more than that for the gas-jet assisted laser paint removal process. However, complete paint removal was achieved with the water-jet assist only. The relatively higher specific energy in case of water-jet assist is mainly due to the scattering of laser beam in the turbulent flow of water-jet.

  20. Seeing History: Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" Painting and Pan-African Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Maureen G.

    2010-01-01

    Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" (2004) is an acrylic painting that depicts 24 portraits of leading poets of the African Diaspora. Commissioned by Dr Joanne Gabbin, English professor and director of the Furious Flower Poetry Center at James Madison University, the painting is part of a larger programme of poetry education. The…

  1. Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipovšek, B.; Krč, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Topič, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-fi

  2. The Use of Analytical Methods in Evaluation of Coptic Wall Paintings Conservation - A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a lot of ancient monasteries and churches, which were decorated with different kinds of wall paintings. Structure of these wall paintings consists of support, plaster and painting layers. Paintings deterioration is primarily due to physicochemical, natural and human factors. The most detrimental factors are bat patches, old varnish and organic waste of birds. All these lead to the gradual disappearance of paintings. Modern technology of conservation is focused on application of new materials for cleaning of wall paintings. Here we report on the use of enzymes, for cleaning surface of coptic wall paintings. Analytical techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission, Fourier transform infrared and optical microscopy were used to evaluate the enzymatic cleaning processes of coptic wall paintings and to identify the chemical composition of red, yellow and white pigments. Particle induced X-ray emission results indicated that there is no change in the chemical composition of the materials and pigments due to enzymatic cleaning. Fourier transform infrared and optical microscopy results confirmed the stability of organic medium before and after treatment of different kind of patches. (author)

  3. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Weinell, Claus Erik; Pedersen, M. S.;

    2002-01-01

    A Fundamental mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint was used to conduct a parameter study. The aims were to show how a mathematical model can reduce the amount of experimental work needed to estimate the behaviour of self-polishing antifouling paints at different conditions, a...... for the pertinent rate-influencing steps....

  4. 24 CFR 200.77 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-based paint poisoning prevention. Requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 35 apply to these programs. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 200.77 Section 200.77 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  5. Estimation of Polishing and Leaching Behaviour of Antifouling Paints Using Mathematical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, Claus Erik;

    2003-01-01

    The development of chemically active antifouling paints has traditionally been based on an empirical approach. Optimisation and evaluation of novel and existing products are frequently conducted by means of, for example, systematic paint rotary tests in the laboratory or at sea sites. In this rev...

  6. Reaction rate estimation of controlled-release antifouling paint binders: Rosin-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer Yebra, Diego; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    Biofouling on ship hulls is prevented by the use of antifouling (A/F) paints. Typically, sea water soluble rosin or rosin-derivatives are used as the primary means of adjusting the polishing rate of the current chemically active self-polishing paint systems to a suitable value. Previous studies...

  7. Perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions of experience of abstract and representational paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the difference between representational and abstract paintings in judgments on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions was investigated. Two groups of participants judged the sets of representational and abstract paintings on three groups of dimensions: perceptual (Form, Color, Space and Complexity, semantic (Illusion-Construction of Reality, Expression, Ideology and Decoration, and affective (Hedonic Tone, Arousal, Relaxation and Regularity. The results have shown that representational paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimensions of Form and Complexity, the semantic dimension of the Illusion of Reality (the opposite pole of the Construction of Reality, and the affective dimension of Regularity. On the other hand, abstract paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimension of Color, the semantic dimensions of Construction of Reality (the opposite pole of the Illusion of Reality and Expression, and the affective dimension Arousal. A discriminant analysis indicated that all three sets of dimensions are relatively good predictors of the classification of representational and abstract paintings (61-100%. The results suggest that the subjective categorization of paintings is generally based on the recognizability of pictorial content (representational vs. abstract, but some formal or stylistic properties play a role in the categorization, as well: some expressionistic representational paintings were classified in an abstract category, and some geometrically abstract paintings were classified as representational.

  8. The Arnolfini Portrait in 3d: Creating Virtual World of a Painting with Inconsistent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.H.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Arnold, D. B.; Ferko, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on creating a 3d virtual reconstruction of the scene shown in "The Arnolfini Portrait" by Jan van Eyck. This early Renaissance painting, if painted faithfully, should confirm to one-point perspective, however it has several vanishing points instead of one. Hence our 3d reconstruction had t

  9. Nanotitanium dioxide toxicity in mouse lung is reduced in sanding dust from paint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known of how the toxicity of nanoparticles is affected by the incorporation in complex matrices. We compared the toxic effects of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle UV-Titan L181 (NanoTiO(2)), pure or embedded in a paint matrix. We also compared the effects of the same paint...

  10. The heavenly court : a study on the Iconopraxis of Daoist temple painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesterkamp, Lennert

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates four complete sets of Daoist wall paintings, termed Heavenly Court paintings (chaoyuan tu) and depicting a court audience of Daoist deities in heaven, of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in the context of related Daoist ritual practices, mural production, and personali

  11. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  12. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints

  13. On Oil Painting of Landscape%油画山水谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚玉

    2012-01-01

    油画山水是将中国传统文人山水画意识融入油画风景而形成的一个新的画种。本文笔者结合自己的艺术探索和实践,具体从油画山水的哲学基础,油画山水的气韵和意境,油画山水的写生等几个方面来探讨该课题。%Oil painting of landscape is a new research subject that appears in the academic communities of oil painting. The new painting type is formed because the consciousness of Chinese traditional scholars' landscape painting blend into oil painting of landscape. The author combines her own atistic exploration with practice, exploring the subject from the philosophical basis of oil painting of landscape, the spirit and artistic conception of oil painting of landscape, and sketching of oil painting of landscape. The main purpose of this thesis is to stimulate public discussion on the topic.

  14. Biodiscovery of aluminum binding peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2013-05-01

    Cell surface peptide display systems are large and diverse libraries of peptides (7-15 amino acids) which are presented by a display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high affinity binders to a given target of interest, and those binders quickly identified. Peptide display systems have traditionally been utilized in conjunction with organic-based targets, such as protein toxins or carbon nanotubes. However, this technology has been expanded for use with inorganic targets, such as metals, for biofabrication, hybrid material assembly and corrosion prevention. While most current peptide display systems employ viruses to host the display scaffold, we have recently shown that a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, displaying peptides in the ubiquitous, membrane protein scaffold eCPX can also provide specific peptide binders to an organic target. We have, for the first time, extended the use of this bacterial peptide display system for the biodiscovery of aluminum binding 15mer peptides. We will present the process of biopanning with macroscopic inorganic targets, binder enrichment, and binder isolation and discovery.

  15. Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s

  16. A holistic multimodal approach to the non-invasive analysis of watercolour paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogou, Sotiria; Lucian, Andrei; Bellesia, Sonia; Burgio, Lucia; Bailey, Kate; Brooks, Charlotte; Liang, Haida

    2015-11-01

    A holistic approach using non-invasive multimodal imaging and spectroscopic techniques to study the materials (pigments, drawing materials and paper) and painting techniques of watercolour paintings is presented. The non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic techniques include VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and multispectral imaging, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The three spectroscopic techniques complement each other in pigment identification. Multispectral imaging (near-infrared bands), OCT and micro-Raman complement each other in the visualisation and identification of the drawing material. OCT probes the micro-structure and light scattering properties of the substrate, while XRF detects the elemental composition that indicates the sizing methods and the filler content. The multiple techniques were applied in a study of forty-six nineteenth-century Chinese export watercolours from the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) and the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) to examine to what extent the non-invasive analysis techniques employed complement each other and how much useful information about the paintings can be extracted to address art conservation and history questions. A micro-destructive technique of micro-fade spectrometry was used to assess the vulnerability of the paintings to light exposure. Most of the paint and paper substrates were found to be more stable than ISO Blue Wool 3. The palette was found to be composed of mostly traditional Chinese pigments. While the synthetic pigment, Prussian blue, made in Europe, was found on some of the paintings, none was found on the RHS paintings accurately recorded as being between 1817 and 1831 even though it is known that Prussian blue was imported to China during this period. The scale insect dyes, lac and cochineal, were detected on nearly every painting including those that fall within the identified date range. Cochineal is known to have

  17. Droplet:A Virtual Brush Model to Simulate Chinese Calligraphy and Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoFeng Mi; Min Tang; Jin-Xiang Dong

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a virtual brush model based on droplet operation to simulate Chinese calligraphy and traditional Chinese painting in real time. Two ways of applying droplet model to virtual calligraphy and painting are discussed in detail. The second droplet model is more elaborated and can produce more vivid results while being slightly more time-consuming. The novel feature of the proposed droplet virtual brush model successfully enables the simulation painting system to overcome the poor expressional ability of virtual brush based on particle system and avoids the complex evaluation of physical brush with solid model. The model,derived from the actual calligraphy and painting experience, due to the simplicity of the droplet operation and its powerful expressive ability, considerably improves the performance of the simulation system and maintains painting effect comparable with real brush by supporting special Chinese brush effect such as dry brush, feng and stroke diffusion.

  18. AN INNOVATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR NOISE REMOVAL CUM EDGE DETECTION FOR DIGITIZED PAINTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Karuppiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The older paintings suffer from breaks in the substrate, the paint, or the varnish. When we digitized these paintings, they can be modified using mathematical algorithms and cracks are eliminated so as to maintain the quality. The field of computer vision is concerned with extracting features and information from images in order to make analysis of images easier, so that more and more information can be extracted. The primary goal of this study is to use novel approach for noise removal cum unwanted edge from digitized paintings. The method used for both noise removal and edge detection is mathematical morphology. On the basis of set theory, mathematical morphology is used for image processing, analyzing and comprehending. It is a powerful tool in the geometric morphological analysis and description. The results exhibit that the new method overcomes the deficiency of conventional methods and efficiently removes the noise and detects the edges for digitized paintings.

  19. Evaluation of paint coating thickness variations based on pulsed Infrared thermography laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani, S.; Perrin, E.; Vrabie, V.; Bodnar, J. L.; Marthe, J.; Cauwe, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a pulsed Infrared thermography technique using a homogeneous heat provided by a laser source is used for the non-destructive evaluation of paint coating thickness variations. Firstly, numerical simulations of the thermal response of a paint coated sample are performed. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thickness of both coating and substrate layers, optimal excitation parameters of the heating source are determined. Two characteristic parameters were studied with respect to the paint coating layer thickness variations. Results obtained using an experimental test bench based on the pulsed Infrared thermography laser technique are compared with those given by a classical Eddy current technique for paint coating variations from 5 to 130 μm. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach and suggest that the pulsed Infrared thermography technique presents good perspectives to characterize the heterogeneity of paint coating on large scale samples with other heating sources.

  20. Application of microspectrometry in the visible range to differentiation of car paints for forensic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, B.; Zięba-Palus, J.; Kościelniak, P.

    2009-04-01

    The first step to be taken in forensic investigation of paint samples is their comparative analysis in terms of colour. Microspectrometers allow an objective measurement of colour as opposed to the subjective results of visual colour comparison. In this paper, results of assessment of the usefulness of spectral information obtained by Vis microspectrometry in differentiation of small paint coat fragments for criminalistic purposes are presented. Fragments of red, blue, brown and green car paints were measured in reflectance mode both directly on a cross-section of the paint chip and via the top layer using a light beam falling perpendicular to the top surface of the sample, and in transmittance mode. It was found that the results obtained were reproducible. The variation in colour of paint samples measured via the top layer was greater. The reflectance curve obtained constitutes a representation of colour.