WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminum paint

  1. The Total Hemispheric Emissivity of Painted Aluminum Honeycomb at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators or thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  2. Laser Peening on Aluminum Alloy 7049 Using Black Paint Surface Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alalkawi H. J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Black paint laser peening (bPLP technique is currently applied for many engineering materials , especially for aluminum alloys due to high improvement in fatigue life and strength . Constant and variable bending fatigue tests have been performed at RT and stress ratio R= -1 . The results of the present work observed that the significance of the surface work hardening which generated high negative residual stresses in bPLP specimens .The fatigue life improvement factor (FLIF for bPLP constant fatigue behavior was from 2.543 to 3.3 compared to untreated fatigue and the increase in fatigue strength at 107 cycle was 21% . The bPLP cumulative fatigue life behavior was improved by 1.786 at L-H and 1.55 at H-L due to black paint coating .

  3. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel...... a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much....... Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65)....

  4. A Dipping Duration Study for Optimization of Anodized-Aluminum Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ishii

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP uses the dipping deposition method to apply a luminophore on a porous anodized-aluminum surface. We study the dipping duration, one of the parameters of the dipping deposition related to the characterization of AA-PSP. The dipping duration was varied from 1 to 100,000 s. The properties characterized are the pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and signal level. The maximum pressure sensitivity of 65% is obtained at the dipping duration of 100 s, the minimum temperature dependency is obtained at the duration of 1 s, and the maximum signal level is obtained at the duration of 1,000 s, respectively. Among the characteristics, the dipping duration most influences the signal level. The change in the signal level is a factor of 8.4. By introducing a weight coefficient, an optimum dipping duration can be determined. Among all the dipping parameters, such as the dipping duration, dipping solvent, and luminophore concentration, the pressure sensitivity and signal level are most influenced by the dipping solvent.

  5. The influence of optical properties of paints and coatings on the efficiency of infrared nondestructive testing applied to aluminum aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, D.; Vavilov, V. P.; Pawar, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    IR NDT (Infrared Nondestructive Testing) is a popular method for detecting defects in composite, ceramic, and metallic structures. The effectiveness of IR NDT depends on various thermal and optical properties of the material being tested. The thermal properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density are important and have been discussed extensively in many treatises on IR NDT. However the optical properties of the surface are equally important and while the thermal properties cannot be changed, sometimes the optical properties can be. Bare metal surfaces have high reflectivities and low emissivities, and as a result, they are generally not good candidates for IR NDT. Painted, coated, anodized, and oxidized metal surfaces can, in some cases, be successfully tested with IR NDT, but the effectiveness depends on the optical properties of the surface. It is well known by IR NDT practitioners that the easy solution to the testing of reflective materials is to paint the surface black. However, this is not always practical and it may not be permitted by the "owner" of the part. This paper demonstrates a process of analyzing the interaction of spectral curves that are relevant to the IR NDT process. This process can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of an IR NDT process for use on real parts with specific coatings and can help select a coating that may improve the effectiveness. This paper shows examples of optical properties for some typical paints and coatings that may be used on aluminum aircraft structures. It shows the spectrum of a generic incandescent radiant heat source and how the energy from this source is absorbed by several of these paints. Further, it shows the interaction between an IR camera detector response curve and the other curves. And finally, it shows how these three can be combined to produce an "IR NDT" efficiency rating for several examples.

  6. The Influence of Aluminum Tripolyphosphate on the Protective Behavior of an Acrylic Water-Based Paint Applied to Rusty Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective performance, in conditions of total immersion, of an acrylic water-based paint applied to rusty steel, has been studied using electrochemical techniques. There was no rust, blister, crack, or flake that occurred on coating after 500 h immersion. The data obtained have enabled the protective mechanism to be proposed. The specific pigments utilized in the formulation of the paint studied can release phosphates to form a protective layer on metal substrate, which can impede the access of aggressive species to substrate surface. The coatings performed electrochemical activity in the beginning of immersion; then the layer formed and resistance of coating increased.

  7. Experimental Study on Paint Removal From Aluminum Surface Using Ice Jet%冰射流铝合金表面脱漆试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德玉; 段雄; 董星

    2014-01-01

    Icejet(blasting)technologyshowsapromisingprospectofapplicationandextensioninsurfacecleaningandde-painting engineering because of its environmentally friendly feature.The main objective of this work is to present a deeply experi-mental study on the organic paint removal from aluminum alloy(2A12)substrates and the surface damage development by ice jets. The effects of ice blasting pressure and blasting time on de-painting and damage to the substrate were mainly concerned.It was shown that at blasting pressure of 0.2MPa,organic paint coatings can be stripped from the 2A12 substrates.The paint coatings, moreover,are removed more effectively with increasing blasting pressure.Little changes of the roughness of the blasted substrate surface can be observed.SEMimages showed little plastic deformation at the blasting pressure of 0.5MPa existed on the surface. Whereas,a few of impact craters due to impact of high-velocity ice particles appeared at 0.7MPa for 7s of exposure time with its number increasing obviously for 15s.%针对铝合金2A12基体开展冰射流表面脱漆试验研究,重点研究了在定点喷射条件下,冰射流喷射压力和喷射时间对表面脱漆效果和基体表面形貌的影响。试验结果表明,在0.2 MPa喷射压力下,冰射流可有效清除铝合金表面有机油漆涂层,而且喷射压力越高,表面脱漆就越彻底。在各种冰射流条件下,脱漆后的基体表面粗糙度不存在明显的变化规律,同时基体表面的SEM图反映出在较低喷射压力0.5MPa下,基体表面未发生明显塑性变形;在0.7MPa喷射压力下,经过7s喷射时间,基体表面会出现少量由高速冰粒冲击产生的冲蚀坑,而且喷射时间为15s时,冲蚀坑的数量有所增加。

  8. Role(s) of pretreatment, inhibitors, and other process steps that effect surface composition on the under-paint corrosion of an aluminum-copper-magnesium alloy 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Daryl A.

    2006-12-01

    Under-paint corrosion is a surface corrosion that grows under a coating. The composition of an aluminum alloy, particularly Cu and Fe content, has a direct and dominant effect on the growth rate of filiform corrosion (FFC) and scribe-creep. The Cu and Fe content leads to formation of galvanic cells between intermetallic compounds (IMCs) or replated Cu and the aluminum-rich matrix. However, there is no model which describes scribe-creep behavior and can be used to predict the effect of material and surface pretreatment parameters such as inhibitors, chemical surface pretreatment, and alloy microstructure. Surface pretreatments and aging which control the amount of surface copper and alter IMC distributions decrease the growth rate of scribe-creep. Scribe-creep was observed to be enhanced by temperature, regardless of surface pretreatment, as well as by artificial aging and surface pretreatments. Scribe-creep was accelerated by pretreatments that increased surface copper or left a high capacity for Cu-replating such as Cu-containing IMCs. Pretreatment was rationalized to decrease the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate, which supports anodic undercutting at the head of the corrosion front. In this galvanic corrosion mechanism, the scribe-creep rate will be proportional to the rate of the anodic dissolution at the head. This, in turn, is proportional to the galvanic corrosion rate. Both charge transfer controlled and mass transport controlled cathodic reaction rates occurred at the fastest rates at the scratch and tail. The charge transfer controlled cathodic reaction rate was directly proportional to the surface coverage of Cu (thetaCu) while the mass transport limited rate was a complex nonlinear function of thetaCu . Based on enhanced understanding a galvanic couple model that describes scribe-creep rates in terms of the relevant processes at the tail and head as well as ohmic voltage between the head and tail was developed in order to explain scribe

  9. Painted Pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a six week art class project for elementary school children that lasted for six weeks. Explains that the students painted sunflowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh over the rust spots of a pickup truck. Reports that the painting served as great publicity for the art classes. (CMK)

  10. Painted Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  11. Monster Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  12. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  13. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  14. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  15. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  16. Huashan rock paintings and other simitar paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the countries with the rechest rock paintings in the world. The Huashan rock paintings features color paintings, quite different from those in the North China areas where petroglyphs were created by engraving, chiseling,incising,or grinding,such as those in Inner Mongolia and Helan Mountains in Gansu.The rock paintings at Ulanchabu of Inner Mongolia are regarded as works of the Neolithic age,bronze age and iron age ,featuring mainly such grassland animals as

  17. Example based painting generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-wen; YU Jin-hui; XU Xiao-dong; WANG Jin; PENG Qun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for generating paintings on photographic images with the style encoded by the example paintings and adopt representative brushes extracted from the example paintings as the painting primitives. Our system first divides the given photographic image into several regions on which we synthesize a grounding layer with texture patches extracted from the example paintings. Then, we paint those regions using brushes stochastically chosen from the brush library, with further brush color and shape perturbations. The brush direction is determined by a direction field either constructed by a convenient user interactive manner or synthesized from the examples. Our approach offers flexible and intuitive user control over the painting process and style.

  18. Tangka Painting of Gesar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAMBIAN; GYAMCO

    2002-01-01

    Rope and other patterns on pottery unearthed from the Karub cultural sites, dating back some 5,000 years, are considered to be the earliest examples of painting art known so far. Rock paintings believed to have come later constitute the embryo of Tibetan painting art.Tangka painting is closely related to frescoes in terms of painting art. Tangka is created to reproduce what is painted in the fresco. Cultures prevalent in China’s hinterland, India and Nepal exerted deep influence on Tibetan painting art.Both Princess Wencheng and Princess Jincheng brought the Han Chinese culture into Tibet, which proved to be a boon for the development of Tibetan painting art. With construction of the Potala Palace, Jokhang, Qamzhub and other monasteries, Tibetan painting art developed apace. Frescoes in Jokhang Monastery, Qamzhub Monastery and Potala Palace, still visible today, feature a simple nature, with rich colors and concise lines, while figures were painted in an

  19. Metal stearate distributions in modern artists' oil paints: surface and cross-sectional investigation of reference paint films using conventional and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Gillian; Boon, Jaap J; Puskar, Ljiljana; Drennan, John

    2012-10-01

    Zinc oxide is a prevalent industrial-age pigment that readily reacts with fatty acids in oil-based paints to form zinc carboxylates. Zinc stearate aggregates are associated with deterioration in late nineteenth and twentieth century paintings. The current study uses both conventional and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate metal carboxylate composition in a range of naturally aged artists' oil paints and reference paint film draw-downs. The paints contain zinc oxide alone or in combination with lead white, titanium white, and aluminum stearate and are prepared with linseed and safflower oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FT-IR using the conventional source identifies marked differences in carboxylate profiles between exposed and protected surfaces in a large number of samples. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy of thin paint cross-sections maps metal carboxylate distributions at high spatial resolution and resolves broad concentration gradients and micrometer-scale phase separation of carboxylate species. Aluminum stearate, a common paint additive, is found to influence the distribution of zinc carboxylates more strongly than pigment composition or oil type. The presence of aluminum stearate results in higher concentrations and more pronounced separation of saturated C16 and C18 chain zinc carboxylates in the margin of paint nearest the polyester substrate. The presence of aluminum stearate in association with zinc oxide has a clear influence on zinc carboxylate formation and distribution, with potential implications for long term stability of vulnerable paintings.

  20. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  1. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  2. Investigation on the hazing of a Brazilian contemporary painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglieri, Thiago S.; Lavezzo, Ariane S.; Santos, Isabela F. S. dos; de Faria, Dalva L. A.

    2016-04-01

    A whitish crystalline-like coating was observed on the surface of the painting "Incêndio", 1990, produced by Emmanuel Nassar and awarded at the 6th Biennial of Cuenca. This work belongs to the Contemporary Art Museum of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP) and such coating modified the artwork characteristics, causing an unpleasant effect and compromising its exhibition. The choice of the proper conservation and restoration strategies involves the understanding of the degradation process, demanding the identification of the chemical compounds formed on the painting surface, as well as of the other components in the painting. The results here obtained from Raman and optical microscopies, FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDS and GC-MS, revealed that the efflorescence chemical composition is almost only palmitic acid, with minor contents of stearic acid and their methyl esters, and that the paints are composed by chrome yellow, amorphous carbon and toluidine red pigment; an aluminum silicate filler in the black paint applied on the aluminum ground was also detected. Hierarchical Cluster Analyses (HCA) of the Raman spectra also revealed that the concentration of the efflorescence minor components depends on the paint composition. It was suggested, therefore, that the degradation process resulted from segregation and migration of mainly palmitic acid from the dried paints. Restoration methodologies used in similar cases, as well as factors that contribute to this process, were discussed.

  3. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  4. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  5. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  6. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G BLUSTEIN; C DEYÁ; R ROMAGNOLI

    2016-06-01

    The present work depicts synergism anticorrosive behaviour between zinc hypophosphite and zinc phosphate in a commercial pigment mixture. Also, the performance of anticorrosive paints was evaluated. Synergism anticorrosive behaviour was evaluated by corrosion potential and linear polarization measurements in pigment suspensions. The protective layer obtained with this pigment mixture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the anticorrosive properties of the pigment were assessed by incorporating it into alkyd and epoxy paints which were evaluated by salt spray test and electrochemical noise technique. The morphology and the nature of the protective layer grown under the paint film were also studied by SEM. Experimental results showed that improved anticorrosion protection is achieved in paints with reduced zinc phosphate contents as a consequence of the synergistic interaction between zinc hypophosphite and the other components of the pigment mixture. The electrochemical noise technique proved to be adequate to monitor corrosion in painted panels and is able to detectcorrosion under the paint film from very early stages. This paper identified the need to study synergism between anticorrosive pigments to try to reduce the phosphate content in anticorrosive paints.

  7. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test.

  8. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  9. Paint for Motherland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On August 15, the Chinese Outstanding Art Exhibition in calligraphy and painting will bc held in mid-ring of Hong Kong, where Olympic equestrian events co-hosted, representing the masterpieces of China mainland artists. The event is a part of exchange during the 2008 Olympic period among Olympic co-hosting cities. The most eyeball-attracting showpiece will be a 960 m2 painting. "Ten Thousand Miles of Motherland", from the hand of Zhao Xiufeng.

  10. Homesickness (Decorative Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally. nchly colored Chinese painting is widely recognized for its line and rhythm. As early as 1.1000 years ago. the Dunhuang frescos of the Tang Dynasty (618907) reached a high level. "Homesickness" represents a female figure thinking about the motherland. The painter uses traditional painting techniques in reference to linn and color. The dragon and phoenix motif in the background represents the 5.000 year-old cultural history of

  11. Experiments on Paint Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

  12. Nanjing Painting & Calligraphy Academy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FOUNDED in 1979,the Nanj-ing Painting and CaligraphyAcademy consists of 20 profes-sional painters,over 40 invited paintersand a few brilliant graduates from sev-eral art schools.The academy hasemerged as a major art force,withmost of its members being young andmiddle-aged painters.The academy is composed of aChinese painting research studio,anexhibition section,arts and crafts salessection and an administrative office.In1992 the Nanjing municipal govern-ment made cotributions to the acade-my for the construction of a paintingstudio and an exhibition hall coveringa combined floor area of 1,000 square

  13. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  14. Oil Paintings by Ou Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ou Yang, professor of the Oil Painting Department of Guangdong Art College, has been pursuing perfection in the field of art for many years. With their rich emotional color, paintings by her do not simply

  15. A Painting Tells Its Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Separated parts of an ancient Chinese painting to be displayed together Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao told a story about a famous Chinese painting Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains at a press conference after the Third Session of the

  16. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  17. Estimating the colors of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M. M., ed. lit.; João, Catarina A. R.; Amano, Kinjiro; Montagner, Cristina; Melo, Maria J.; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Observers can adjust the spectrum of illumination on paintings for optimal viewing experience. But can they adjust the colors of paintings for the best visual impression? In an experiment carried out on a calibrated color moni- tor images of four abstract paintings obtained from hyperspectral data were shown to observers that were unfamiliar with the paintings. The color volume of the images could be manipulated by rotating the volume around the axis through the average (a*, b*) point for eac...

  18. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...

  19. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...

  20. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  1. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  2. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  3. The Farmers’ Woodcut Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Folk art is not constrained by scholastic regulations such as proportion and perspective. Taking rural life as their subject matter, farmers from the Hubei mountains by the Yangtze River’s Xiling Gorge create woodcut paintings with a humorous and unpretentious charm. Recently, more than a hundred works created by these farmer painters were exhibited in the China Art Gallery in Beijing.

  4. Paint it nanoblack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2016-08-01

    Ever since our ancestors painted images on the walls of caves, artists have sought pigments to represent the 10 million tints that humans can differentiate. Now they have a new ally: researchers who are using optical design principles, nanotechnology and inspiration from nature to create deeper blacks and purer whites.

  5. Improved Paint Removal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-25

    4 (Phenol)1: p1P4 ji:i Condition of Point Surface Condition of Paint: Surface 4 after 45 minutes ufter 25 minutes Ten~t Pronsidure No. I. on~ Tent ...the ,.I .- pit so high velume water flow can be used to flush the pit floor clean at I the end of each day. Installation of removable grating is also

  6. Painting for public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

  7. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  8. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  9. Shang Yang’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shang yang is a highly representative painter in the contemporary Chinese oil painting circle. In the past few decades, his painting style has changed several times; he abandoned his successful original style and familiar subjects when he turned from realism to abstraction. In the two pieces shown here, the people of the Loess Plateau are depicted as existing as an integral whole with nature, mutually inside and outside of it. Beholden to some techniques from traditional Chinese painting Shang’s

  10. Aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  11. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  12. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  13. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  14. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  15. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  16. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  17. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  18. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based...

  19. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-08-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated.

  20. Overview of paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  1. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  2. NGAWANG JIGME'S MODERN WASH PAINTINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KELZANG; DORJE

    2007-01-01

    Having received a thorough college education.Ngawang Jigme naturally expresses his academic knowledge and skills through his washing paintings.Though he grew up on the plateau cating Tsampa and yak flesh,drinking yak buttered tea,living in the clear atmosphere,sunny sky and mountain scenery,he would hardly be expected to tolerate the monotone world of wash painting,which adopts black and white as its principal theme and acknow ledges"blur impression"as the ultimate aim.He strives for total absorption int...

  3. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  4. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...... and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting...

  5. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  6. Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Uri P.; Feiner, Yoram

    1995-04-01

    In this study the IR reflectivity of painted and rough surfaces was investigated, and an attempt was made to represent the surfaces by a complex refractive index. A CO2 laser was used as a collimated source in the thermal IR region, and the polarization properties of reflected radiation were measured. The samples chosen were flat surfaces of sandblasted aluminum, concrete, painted metal, and asphalt. Values of the bidirectional reflectance function were obtained in the two orthogonal states of polarization, based on sulfur as the Lambertian standard. Many samples, such as painted metals, showed specular behavior and could be characterized by Fresnel equations. For some of these surfaces optical constants were calculated from the reflectivity measurements. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured values of the percent of polarization for these surfaces.

  7. Black painted pottery, Kildehuse II, Odense County, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trąbska, Joanna; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Runge, Mads Thagård

    2011-08-01

    This work aimed at characterization of a black layer covering a Bronze Age (period VI) pot surface. To solve research problems plane polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning microscopy with X-ray microanalyser (SEM/EDS), Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies were applied. Observation of the black layer under the PLM suggests that we deal with an opaque, isotropic layer, purposely put on leather-hard, burnished surface of a pot. No traces of organic substances that might have modified a pot surface before painting were detected. The black layer coats the pot with a continuous 0.2-0.4 μm thick layer. The black layer must have been applied while warm or hot. It is recognized that the black layer is a true painting layer. Spectroscopic analyses (Raman and FTIR) point that birch tar or a birch-pine tar had been applied. Carbon black should be definitely excluded. The analyzed organic substance is structurally ordered in various degrees, due to varying temperature influence. Some Raman spectra reveal, in second-order region of the spectrum (>2000 cm -1), the graphite presence. Scarce points reveal the presence of inorganic admixtures: clay minerals, feldspars and quartz. The next question is: Is it an organic paint or a carbon-based, "mixed" paint? Inorganic admixtures are only casual. Relatively high concentration of alumina is expected to have appeared due to aluminum mobility in acidic environment and this was provided by organic tar/pitch substances. Phosphorus (usually with calcium) mostly concentrates together with clay minerals. Thus, hypothesis on bone powder or ash addition to tar/pitch should be excluded. Some elements may originate not only from inorganic substances but also from wood ashes.

  8. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  9. Enhanced multifunctional paint for detection of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Moses, Edward Ira; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2017-03-07

    An enhanced multifunctional paint apparatus, systems, and methods for detecting radiation on a surface include providing scintillation particles; providing an enhance neutron absorptive material; providing a binder; combining the scintillation particles, the enhance neutron absorptive material, and the binder creating a multifunctional paint; applying the multifunctional paint to the surface; and monitoring the surface for detecting radiation.

  10. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  11. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  12. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  13. The Painting on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  14. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  15. But when was it painted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstad, E.; Woll, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway, is dedicated to the visual works of the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944). Edvard Munch was a symbolist, expressionist painter and printmaker from Oslo, Norway. He was regarded as the pioneer of the amazing Expressionist movement. His art work from the late 1800's is the most well known, but his later work is gradually attracting more attention and is quite an inspiration of many of today's artists. The Munch Museum catalogue for 2008 contains about 1700 paintings of which virtually very few have a precise date. Even when the artist has written the year on the painting itself, there may be a significant uncertainty about this date, and partly due to unclear writing making it difficult to interpret the numbers. This means that other sources need to be applied to verify an accurate date. The climatologist at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can help dating paintings of Munch. E. g. the painting "Standing Woman with Arms Folded". The painting shows a woman in front of a hill with much snow. The location is almost certainty Grimsrød on Jeløya, a property Munch began renting on March 1, 1913. Jeløya is an island at the southeastcoast of Norway near the town Moss. Jeløya has usually not so much snow because it is near by the sea and windy. The last digit in the date is unclear and has been read as both '3' and '5'. The woman in the portrait, Ingeborg Kaurin, was Munch's model up to the beginning of 1915, so both dates are possible. The year written on the painting has been read as both 1913 and 1915, and since 1974 it has usually been interpreted as 1913 (Stenersensamlingen's catalogue 1974). In the project "But when was it painted?" disclose that it could be another year. One way to reconsider when a painting was painted is to study geophysical characteristics and consider historical observations of snow. The method that is used here is to study daily meteorological snow data from this period from the

  16. Evaluation of roughness and micromorphology of epoxy paint on cobalt-chromium alloy before and after thermal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alessandra Cardoso da Silva; Muzilli, Carlos Alberto; Miranda, Milton Edson; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the epoxy paint used to coat metal substrates in industrial electrostatic painting applications could also be used to mask metal clasps in removable dental prostheses (RDP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the influence of thermal cycling and the in vitro roughness of a surface after application of epoxy paint, as well as to assess the micromorphology of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) based metal structure. Sixty test specimens were fabricated from a CoCr alloy. The specimens were separated into three groups (n = 20) according to surface treatment: Group 1 (Pol) - polished with abrasive stone and rubbers; Group 2 (Pol+Epo) - polished and coated with epoxy paint; Group 3 (Epo) - air-abraded with aluminum oxide particles and coated with epoxy paint. The surface roughness was evaluated before and after 1000 thermal cycles (5°C and 50°C). The surface micromorphology was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences among surface treatments (p < 0.0001), but no difference was found before and after thermal cycling (p = 0.6638). The CoCr-based metal alloy surfaces treated with epoxy paint (Groups 2 and 3) were rougher than the surfaces that were only polished (Group 1). Thermal cycling did not influence surface roughness, or lead to chipping or detachment of the epoxy paint.

  17. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  18. Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Lawman, Samuel; Zheng, Yalin; Williams, Dominic; Zhang, Jinke; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an analytical tool for nondestructively characterizing the individual paint layer thickness of multiple layered automotive paints. A graph-based segmentation method was used for automatic analysis of the thickness distribution for the top layers of solid color paints. The thicknesses measured with OCT were in good agreement with the optical microscope and ultrasonic techniques that are the current standard in the automobile industry. Because of its high axial resolution (5.5 μm), the OCT technique was shown to be able to resolve the thickness of individual paint layers down to 11 μm. With its high lateral resolution (12.4 μm), the OCT system was also able to measure the cross-sectional area of the aluminum flakes in a metallic automotive paint. The range of values measured was 300-1850  μm2. In summary, the proposed OCT is a noncontact, high-resolution technique that has the potential for inclusion as part of the quality assurance process in automobile coating.

  19. Paint or color? Bursa example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Susan; Cetinturk, Nihal

    2002-06-01

    While traditional/vernacular color scheme of a city in historical regions should be protected, changes in life style reflect on cityscapes in all ways, in which the role of new materials, paints, etc. cannot be denied. Lack of architectural and urban design studies in this field added to existing countless opportunities of new technology, with the strong desire to trying those by building owners, users and contractors have caused a chaotic situation in the use of color in cities; Bursa with its historical colorful background is no exception. All these form a trial and error phase, with painted or materials applied on surfaces without a sensitive touch to transform them to color. This must be taken in mind that color with its inherent power can bind past, present and future of the city and create an urban sense of place.

  20. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy and related methods. 2. Original paint layer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Van der Snickt, Geert; Janssens, Koen; De Nolf, Wout; Miliani, Costanza; Dik, Joris; Radepont, Marie; Hendriks, Ella; Geldof, Muriel; Cotte, Marine

    2011-02-15

    The darkening of the original yellow areas painted with the chrome yellow pigment (PbCrO(4), PbCrO(4)·xPbSO(4), or PbCrO(4)·xPbO) is a phenomenon widely observed on several paintings by Vincent van Gogh, such as the famous different versions of Sunflowers. During our previous investigations on artificially aged model samples of lead chromate, we established for the first time that darkening of chrome yellow is caused by reduction of PbCrO(4) to Cr(2)O(3)·2H(2)O (viridian green), likely accompanied by the presence of another Cr(III) compound, such as either Cr(2)(SO(4))(3)·H(2)O or (CH(3)CO(2))(7)Cr(3)(OH)(2) [chromium(III) acetate hydroxide]. In the second part of this work, in order to demonstrate that this reduction phenomenon effectively takes place in real paintings, we study original paint samples from two paintings of V. van Gogh. As with the model samples, in view of the thin superficial alteration layers that are present, high lateral resolution spectroscopic methods that make use of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as microscopic X-ray absorption near edge (μ-XANES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF) were employed. Additionally, μ-Raman and mid-FTIR analyses were carried out to completely characterize the samples. On both paint microsamples, the local presence of reduced Cr was demonstrated by means of μ-XANES point measurements. The presence of Cr(III) was revealed in specific areas, in some cases correlated to the presence of Ba(sulfate) and/or to that of aluminum silicate compounds.

  1. Washi Painting Exchanges Promote Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2014-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA),a washi painting exchange delegation headed by Umeko Iwai,President of Rainbow Society of Japan,a Hiroshima-based non-profit organization,visited Sichuan Province from November 3 to 5,2013.Rice paper was invented in China in ancient times.When the paper-making

  2. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  3. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched

  4. Ernst H. Gombrich on Abstract Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caldarola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ernst H. Gombrich criticized abstract painting with several remarks scattered around his wide oeuvre. I argue that his view of abstract paintings is coherent with the account of pictorial representation he put forward in Art and Illusion, show some limits of such view, and maintain that, although several of Gombrich’s criticisms of abstract painting should be rejected, some of his remarks are insightful and worth of consideration.

  5. Ernst H. Gombrich on Abstract Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Caldarola

    2015-01-01

    Ernst H. Gombrich criticized abstract painting with several remarks scattered around his wide oeuvre. I argue that his view of abstract paintings is coherent with the account of pictorial representation he put forward in Art and Illusion, show some limits of such view, and maintain that, although several of Gombrich’s criticisms of abstract painting should be rejected, some of his remarks are insightful and worth of consideration.

  6. The magnetic imaging of oil paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P Costa [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, H Lins de [CBPF, R. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Portinari, J C [Projeto Portinari, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wolff, C S [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kafensztok, S M [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, H R [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Acosta-Avalos, D [IP and D-UNIVAP, Av. Shihima Hifumi 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Symko, O G [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 84112 UT (United States); Bruno, A C [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-06-01

    We propose a new technique for authentication of oil paintings, using a scanning SQUID technique to measure its magnetic field. The paintings are pre-magnetized in an homogeneous field of 100 G. It was observed that the response depends on the ferromagnetic properties of each paint independent of its colour. This shows that a magnetic image could be used as a magnetic signature for authentication purposes. (rapid communication)

  7. Effects of pre-aging treatments on the microstructures and properties before and after paint bake cycle for a 6016 aluminum alloy%预时效对6016铝合金烤漆前后组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯佳妮; 陈江华; 刘春辉; 廖元飞; 李祥亮

    2012-01-01

    本文利用显微硬度测试、拉伸试验、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和透射电子显微镜观察,研究了预时效对汽车车身板用6016铝合金烤漆前后微观组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明:经预时效处理的铝合金在室温放置1个月后硬度可保持在65 HV以下,延伸率可保持在25%以上,再经短时间烤漆处理后其硬度和屈服强度分别可提高至100 HV和220 MPa以上.与单级预时效处理后的合金相比,多级预时效处理后的铝合金烤漆前的力学性能更为稳定,烤漆后的硬度和强度更高.6016铝合金快速的烤漆强化效应与预时效处理后合金中形成的细小析出相在烤漆过程中快速长大有关.合金经预时效处理后铝基体内会形成非常细密且与基体完全共格的析出相,其长度约为2~3 nm,而经过烤漆处理后析出相沿〈001〉Al显著增长,长度大于10 nm.高分辨透射电镜分析显示烤漆后样品中形成的是具有单斜结构的针状GP区和β"前驱相.%The effects of pre-aging treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties before and after paint bake cycle for a 6016 aluminium alloy were investigated by micro-hardness measurement, tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) , and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) . The experimental results show that the hardness and elongation rate of the alloy treated by pre-aging after 1 month's duration at room temperature could remain below 65HV and above 25% , respectively. Then, after paint bake cycle for a short time, the hardness and yield strength increased to over 100HV and 220MPa, respectively. Compared with samples through one-step pre-aging, the stability of the mechanical properties of samples treated by two-step pre-aging were higher, and the hardness and strength after paint bake were even higher. The quick bake hardening response in 6016 alloy was associated with the marked growth of the fine precipitates formed in the pre

  8. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...... that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond...

  9. Order-Fractal transition in abstract paintings

    OpenAIRE

    De la Calleja, E. M.; Cervantes, F.; De la Calleja, J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the degree of order of twenty-two Jackson Pollock's paintings using \\emph{Hausdorff-Besicovitch fractal dimension}. Through the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks are classify by the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock's paintings are fractal and it increased on his latest works. However our results show that fractal dimension of the paintings are on a range of fractal dimension with values close to two. We identify this behavio...

  10. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resins. 173.173 Section 173.173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  11. Melody of Autumn (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps because of the nature of a woman, I take great interest in painting flowers and plants. But the difference is I prefer instead of the blooming flowers the dry flowers surviving the blossom. The dry cockscomb, sunflower, lotus and the wild flowers whose names I don’t know can always remind me of past stories. In recent years, my dried flawers have been displayed at exhibitions both at home and abroad and won appraisal and the top prize at the 1995 Eighth National Arts Exhibition. Some works have been collected by the China Art Gallery and private collectors from Hang Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Europe.

  12. Monitoring temperature and pressure over surfaces using sensitive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Viramontes, J. Ascención; Moreno Hernández, David; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Morán Loza, José Miguel; García Arreola, Alicia

    2007-03-01

    Two techniques for monitoring temperature and pressure variations over surfaces using sensitive paints are presented. The analysis is done by the acquisition of a set of images of the surface under analysis. The surface is painted by a paint called Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) for pressure measurements and Temperature Sensitive Paints (TSP) for temperature measurements. These kinds of paints are deposited over the surface under analysis. The recent experimental advances in calibration process are presented in this paper.

  13. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  14. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  15. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  16. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  17. Mural paintings deterioration – a multianalytical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, T; J. Mirão; Candeias, A J; Caldeira, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel microanalytical approach in the mural paintings microbial diversity characterisation and identification of the damages promoted by their biological activity. Mortar microfragments, removed from visually biodegraded mural paintings, were analysed by several microscopic/spectroscopy techniques: variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (VP-SEM-EDS), raman microspectrometry and infrared spectrometry in ...

  18. Digital color restoration of old paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2000-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained.

  19. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  20. Painted Beauties-East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Chinese painting, specifi-cally painting with ink or watercolors, has a different perspective from the way Western artists create images:" said my friend Ting Ting. She's a professional editor and she loves classical Chinese art. Ting Ting often invites me to attend gallery openings around Beijing.

  1. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  2. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  3. Structural color painting by rubbing particle powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-09

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  4. Subsurface Raman analysis of thin painted layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Claudia; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Zerbi, Giuseppe; Matousek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Here we present, for the first time, an extension of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy to thin (tens of micrometers thick), highly turbid stratified media such as those encountered in paintings. The method permits the non-destructive interrogation of painted layers in situations where conventional Raman microscopy is not applicable due to high turbidity of the top layer(s). The concept is demonstrated by recovering the pure Raman spectra of paint sub-layers that are completely obscured by paint over-layers. Potential application areas include the analysis of paintings in art preservation and restoration avoiding the cross-sectional analysis used currently with this type of samples. The technique also holds promise for the development as a non-destructive subsurface tool for in situ analysis using portable instruments.

  5. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  6. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  7. Imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry of a paint cross section taken from an early Netherlandish painting by Rogier van der Weyden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Katrien; Boon, Jaap J

    2004-03-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is introduced as an analytical technique for the examination of paint cross sections to obtain simultaneous information about the nature and distribution of pigments and the binding medium from a single sample. A sample taken from the virgin's blue robe in the panel painting The Descent from the Cross (Museo del Prado, Madrid) of the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400-1464) was selected for investigation. Data were compared with reference compounds and reference lead white linseed oil paint and egg tempera paint. The static SIMS technique gave position-sensitive mass spectra that were used to image the elemental distribution of pigments and the molecular signature of components of the oleaginous binding medium. SIMS ion images of sodium and aluminum superimposed with the blue pigment ultramarine and those of copper, lead, and calcium with the position of the mineral pigments of azurite, lead white, and chalk, respectively. Preserved monocarboxylic acids of palmitic and stearic acids present as fatty acids and fatty acid lead soaps pointed to the use of linseed oil as a binding medium. Images from the oleaginous binding medium fatty acids show a correlation with the three main paint layers. The observed palmitic/stearic acid ratios for the two ultramarine layers and azurite layers are 1.3, 1.4, and 1.8, respectively. Fatty acids and fatty acid soaps show highest ion yields near lead white, a mineral pigment that serves as a natural chemical drier and is proposed to act as a template for the initial grafting of the polyunsaturated triglycerides of the linseed oil. Almost no fatty acids were detected in other layers visible by light microscopy. The fatty acid lead soaps point toward a mature ionomeric oil paint system that developed over centuries. SIMS evidence for egg tempera, still used in the 15th century, is not detected in the paint cross section. SIMS images correlate well with SEM/EDX, FT

  8. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  9. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  10. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  11. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers. Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI and damage frequency (DF observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group ( P≤0.05. In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF were significantly greater than that for the control group ( P≤0.05. Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers.

  12. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Theodore I

    2014-05-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust.

  13. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  14. Nanjing Children’s Painting & Calligraphy Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE Nanjing Children’s Painting and Calligraphy Association,founded in 1982,is an organization engaged in the training, composition.exhibition and exchange of children’s painting and calligraphy.The association boasts a group of prestigious painters and calligraphers at home and abroad as its consultants,its membership exceeding 400.The Nanjing Children’s Painting and Calligraphy Association has had a collection of over 6,000 art works attend exhibitions held in more than 30 countries and regions worldwide.

  15. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  16. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead....

  17. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wires, as the color coding may be obliterated by the paint. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to...

  18. Edge-Based Shading as a Depth Cue in Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, M. E.; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J; te Pas, Susan F

    2015-01-01

    We explored how an artist who uses a particular monochrome modern painting style generates the impression of relief in paintings. Three portraits, painted after model, were created especially for the experiment. Photographs of the paintings were presented on a computer screen. To investigate the per

  19. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  20. Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. B.; Mourou, M.; Whitaker, J. F.; Duling, I. N.; Williamson, S. L.; Menu, M.; Mourou, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The feasibility of applying time-domain, terahertz spectroscopic imaging to the evaluation of underdrawings and paint layers embedded within wall paintings is demonstrated. Metallic and dielectric paint patterns and a graphite drawing are resolved through both paint and plaster overlayers using a pulsed-terahertz reflectometer and imaging system. We calculated the bulk refractive indices of four common pigments and used them to confirm color domains in a terahertz-beam spectral image of a painting.

  1. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Laporte, Luc; Gouezin, Philippe; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; Hernanz Gismero, Antonio; Gavira-Vallejo, José M.; Iriarte Cela, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding pan...

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  3. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  4. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  5. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  6. Implicit and explicit features of paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Slobodan; Radonjić, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Implicit features of the paintings are properties that are imposed by the observer (e.g. how pleasant, interesting, tense a painting appears), whereas explicit features refer to properties that can be directly perceived (form, color, depth, etc.). The aim of Experiments 1 and 2 was to investigate the underlying structure of implicit and explicit features of paintings using the factor analysis of elementary judgments. In the preliminary studies, representative sets of paintings and elementary implicit and explicit dimensions (in the form of bipolar scales) were selected. Four implicit factors were extracted: Regularity, Relaxation, Hedonic Tone and Arousal. Four explicit factors were extracted: Form, Color, Space and Complexity. The following significant correlations between implicit and explicit factors were obtained: Regularity-Form, Regularity-Space, Hedonic Tone-Form and Arousal-Complexity. In Experiment 3 the role of implicit and explicit factors in similarity-dissimilarity ratings was specified. Significant correlations between the position of paintings in MDS space and mean judgments of explicit factors Color, Space and Complexity and implicit factor Relaxation were obtained, suggesting that similarity ratings of paintings are primarily based on explicit features. The causal relation of explicit and implicit features is discussed.

  7. Titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid film on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong WANG; Lei WANG; Changsheng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Three titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid films were formed on AA6061 aluminum alloy by immersing in fluorotitanic acid and fluorozirconic acid based solution containing different phosphonic acids for protective coatings of aluminium alloy. The corrosion resistance of three hybrid films as the substitute for chromate film were evaluated and compared. The neutral salt spray test was explored,the immersion test was conducted and electrochemical test was also executed. The hybrid films exhibited well-pleasing corrosion resistance and adhesion to epoxy resin paints. It was found out that the hybrid films could efficiently be a substitute for chromate based primer over aluminium alloy.

  8. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  9. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  10. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Electron Microscope SERDP - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Tg – Glass Transition TGA – Thermal Gravimetric Analysis UV... analysis , visible microscopy and spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy to understand the mechanism of how methylene chloride based paint removers...allowed for analysis of the different components of methylene chloride based paint strippers. Methocel is the trade name of hydroxypropyl

  11. Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings--experiments with real paintings and real illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Masuda, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study based on monitor simulations of artistic paintings, it was found that the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of daylight preferred by a large set of observers to illuminate paintings was around 5100 K. The goal of the present study was to test if this result holds in real viewing conditions, i.e., with real paintings and real light sources. The same 11 paintings were tested in real conditions illuminated by a spectrally tunable light source and with accurate monitor simulations. To ensure uniform illumination across the paintings, only a central part of the paintings was visible to the observers. It was found that the average CCT preferred for real and monitor viewing conditions were very similar, 5500 and 5700 K, respectively. The somewhat larger CCT obtained with monitor viewing in relation to the former study was only observed in some paintings and was attributed to the smaller viewing area. These results confirm that CCT for best appreciation of paintings is higher than normally used in museums, and the viewing conditions, real or simulated, have only a minor effect.

  12. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  13. A ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini: novel insights into the working methods and painting practices in a painted wall-hanging factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verslype, I.; Verhave, J.; Smelt, S.; Keune, K.; Sigmond, H.; van Eikema Hommes, M.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of the ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini instigated an in-depth technical study of the room and its painted canvas wall hangings. Through close observation with the naked eye, ultraviolet light, infrared reflectography and the study of paint samples in combi

  14. Electrochemical Impedance Study of Zinc Yellow Polypropylene-Coated Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of zinc yellow polypropylene-coated aluminum alloy 7B04 during accelerated degradation test is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been found that the zinc yellow polypropylene paint has few flaw and acts as a pure capacitance before accelerated test. After 336-hour exposure to the test, the impedance spectroscopy shows two time constants, and water has reached to the aluminum alloy/paint interface and forms corrosive microcell. For the scratched samples, the reaction of metal corrosion and the hydrolysis of zinc yellow ion can occur simultaneously. The impedance spectroscopy indicates inductance after 1008-hour exposure to the test, but the inductance disappears after 1344-hour exposure and the passivation film has pitting corrosion.

  15. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  16. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  17. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  18. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  19. Paint indusry and environmental problem. Toryo kogyo to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, A. (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-11

    Relating to the paint industry, introduction was made of environmental problem, particularly trend of the hydrocarbonexhaust regulation, and problem against the global warming gas and acid rain. Environmental pollution matter produced by the paint industry and painting industry being mainly hybrocarbon (organic solvent), the worldwide quantity of hydrocabon exhausted in the atmosphere is estimated to be annually 20 million tons, of which 18%, i.e., an annual quantity of 3.5 million tons is exhausted from the field of paint industry. The role to be played by the paint industry is important for the lowering in pollution by the hydrocarbon. Useful paints for the environmental maintenance comprise high solid paint, aqueous paint, slurry paint, powder paint and UV-hardened paint. The automobile coating is being also changed from the metallic coating to the aqueous coating. Low temperature hardening paint is used for the countermeasures against the global warming gas. For those against the acid rain, urethane hardening, hardening by the acid-epoxy group reaction, hardening by the alkoxyl froup reaction and other hardenings are developed to replace the conventional hardening by the melamine resin for heightening in acidproofness of paint film. 5 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints...... of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  1. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  2. The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  3. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  4. Treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by coagulation/electrochemical methods: Proposals for disposal and/or reuse of treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa F; Barbosa, Andreia D; de Paula, Heber M; Romualdo, Lincoln L; Andrade, Leonardo S

    2016-09-15

    This paper describes and discusses an investigation into the treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater (water-based acrylic texture) by coagulation (aluminum sulfate) coupled to electrochemical methods (BDD electrode). Two proposals are put forward, based on the results. The first proposal considers the feasibility of reusing wastewater treated by the methods separately and in combination, while the second examines the possibility of its disposal into water bodies. To this end, parameters such as toxicity, turbidity, color, organic load, dissolved aluminum, alkalinity, hardness and odor are evaluated. In addition, the proposal for water reuse is strengthened by the quality of the water-based paints produced using the wastewater treated by the two methods (combined and separate), which was evaluated based on the typical parameters for the quality control of these products. Under optimized conditions, the use of the chemical coagulation (12 mL/L of Al2(SO4)3 dosage) treatment, alone, proved the feasibility of reusing the treated wastewater in the paint manufacturing process. However, the use of the electrochemical method (i = 10 mA/cm(2) and t = 90 min) was required to render the treated wastewater suitable for discharge into water bodies.

  5. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  6. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  7. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lazzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works.

  8. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-04-19

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works.

  9. Painting the Soul of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chen Kezhi:a prestigious oil painter and a household name in Chinese fine arts circles,is add- ing luster to the cultural prosperity of the country with his artistic efforts.The latest sensation is over his masterpieces of the Three Gorges area.Since 1996,he has devoted himself to the Three Gorges series.These paintings reproduce the original impression of the Three Gorges area that will never be seen again.The paintings deliver the mystic atmosphere of the orient and the majestic scenery of China.Chen recently sat down with Beijing Review reporter Huang Jun to share his views and experience on these masterpieces.

  10. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  11. Pigeons' discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi

    1995-01-01

    Pigeons successfully learned to discriminate color slides of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Following this training, they discriminated novel paintings by Monet and Picasso that had never been presented during the discrimination training. Furthermore, they showed generalization from Monet's to Cezanne's and Renoir's paintings or from Picasso's to Braque's and Matisse's paintings. These results suggest that pigeons' behavior can be controlled by complex visual stimuli in ways that suggest cat...

  12. Influence of Orientation and Radiative Heat Transfer on Aluminum Foams in Buoyancy-Induced Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Billiet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 °C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 °C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink.

  13. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Haack Christensen, Anne;

    it give more flexibility to the painting support? Was it connected to the tile industry? Was it a waste/reuse from the ceramic production? To better understand the role of clay ground as a material and its influence on painting techniques, a number of Danish and Italian 17th century paintings from...

  14. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lighting equipment and paint. The lighting equipment, color or filters, and shade of paint referred to in... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17... (Color No. 17875, FS-595). Aviation surface orange TT-P-59 1 (Color No. 12197, FS-595). Aviation...

  15. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  16. China’s Aluminum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The aluminum industry makes one of the keyindustries in China’s industrial and agriculturalmodernization and features a high degree ofrelevance with all industries.Of all the 124existing industries in China,113 use aluminum,representing an industrial relevance rate of91%.The consumption of aluminum is also ofhigh relevance with China’s GDP.

  17. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  18. Integrate Art! Match Poetry to Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1994-01-01

    It is possible to connect art and language arts using traditional Japanese art. After explaining the Japanese art forms of Haiku poetry and sumi-e painting, the article describes a project in which students write haiku on special paper then illustrate their poems with gung and shey strokes. (SM)

  19. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art o

  20. Piezoelectric paint sensor for ultrasonic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with a distributed acoustic emission sensing method, which is especially suitable for piezoelectric paint. Piezoelectric paint is a composite piezoelectric material that is comprised of tiny piezoelectric particles randomly dispersed within a polymer matrix phase. An overview of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for defect monitoring is given in this paper. The use of piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic signal measurements is next discussed along with a series of ultrasonic tests performed to verify the ultrasonic sensing capability of piezoelectric paint. To examine the mechanism of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for crack initiation detection, the results of a finite element simulation based study is presented in this paper. The finite element model used in the parametric study is calibrated with experimental data. The effect of sensor numbers included in the array has been studied using both simulation and experimental data. Based on the preliminary results of this study, piezoelectric paint sensor appears to hold a potential for use in on-line monitoring of cracks such as those caused by fatigue in metal structures although more work is still needed before successful practical application can be made.

  1. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  2. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K;

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning stu...

  3. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  4. Early Netherlandish Paintings : Rediscovery, Reception and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderbos, Bernhard; Buren, van Anne; Veen, van Henk

    2004-01-01

    The so-called Flemish Primitives, a group of 15th-century painters from the Southern Netherlands, acquired their name in the 19th century. Among them were the world-famous artists such as Rogier van der Weyden, Hans Memling, the brothers Van Eyck, and Hugo van der Goes. Their masterpieces, oil paint

  5. The Beauty of Painting in English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝艳慧

    2016-01-01

    English writing ability is emphasized in English teaching without any doubt. And this article attempts to reexamine the teaching of writing and explain the nature of writing from an aesthetic perspective-its beauty of painting. Hope either teachers or students could make a deep aesthetic understanding of English writing from this article.

  6. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  7. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  8. Personnel Exposure to Airborne Isocyanates and Solvents During Shipboard Painting With 2-Pack Polyurethane Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    contain low volatility isocyanate prepolymers in addition to small quantities of volatile isocyanate monomers [2,3]. The monomers may become airborne as...vapour whilst the non-volatile prepolymers and partially cured oligomers may form aerosols during spray painting and sanding of the painted surface...JL (1992) “ Prepolymers of hexamethylene diisocyanate as a cause of occupational asthma” J. Allergy Clinical Immunol. 91 850-61. 5. Redlich CA, Bello

  9. Aluminum for Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    in plasmon-enhanced light harvesting,14 photocatalysis ,511 surface- enhanced spectroscopies,1216 optics-based sensing,1722 nonlinear optics,2326...optical response of Al nanoparticles has appeared inconsistent relative to calculated spectra, even forwell-characterized geometries. Some studies have...model- ing their optical response. These results pro- vide a method for estimating the metallic purity of aluminum nanoparticles directly from their

  10. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  11. [Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J; Doniec, J

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  12. Protection against Corrosion of Aluminum Alloy in Marine Environment by Lawsonia inermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion performance of aluminum alloy 5083 (AA5083 was investigated in the splash zone area simulated in salt spray cabinet at ambient temperature. Three paint formulations were prepared in accordance with different percentages of henna extract. FTIR method was used to determine the constituent of henna while weight loss and electrochemical method were applied to investigate the inhibition behaviour. The findings show that corrosion rate of aluminum alloy decreased with the increases of henna extract in the coating formulation. The rise of charge transfer resistance (Rct value has contributed to the greater protection of the coated aluminum. The decrease in double layer capacitance value (Cdl is another indicator that a better protective barrier has been formed in the presence of henna in the coating matrix.

  13. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2010-03-01

    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices.

  14. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    GAC granular activated carbon H2O water HP horsepower IWG inches of water gauge IWTC Industrial Wastewater Treatment Complex JGDM Joint...biofiltration system) were procured, installed, and tested over a 1-yr period in cooperation with the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Complex (IWTC) in...were steam reforming, incineration, ultrafiltration , activated carbon, and photochemical oxidation. Because the paint is not suspended in water, its

  15. Stylometry of Painting Techniques - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz keshvari; Abdolah Chalechale

    2016-01-01

    To discover a scientific relationship for art is an interesting and challenging problem. Recognition of artist Identification and stylometry of painting have been important issues at artwork. Image processing techniques can be an effective solution for resolving these problem. To the best of our knowledge, these problems have not been widely investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive survey about both proposed stylometry approaches and artist identification. Finally, It also compares a...

  16. Stylometry of Painting Techniques - A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz keshvari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To discover a scientific relationship for art is an interesting and challenging problem. Recognition of artist Identification and stylometry of painting have been important issues at artwork. Image processing techniques can be an effective solution for resolving these problem. To the best of our knowledge, these problems have not been widely investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive survey about both proposed stylometry approaches and artist identification. Finally, It also compares and summarizes all reviewed methods.

  17. Role of microorganisms in mural paintings decay

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, T; J. Mirão; Gil, M.; Candeias, A.; Caldeira, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The action of microbial communities on mural paintings, particularly in mortars and in pictorial layers, triggered numerous studies to identify the main biodeteriogenic agents and to better understand the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration/biodegradation of these artworks. The biodegradation phenomenon is an important issue for the conservation of cultural heritage that needs urgent answers to their rehabilitation. Microbial activity and their ability to obtain elements by bios...

  18. Blanching of paint and varnish layers in easel paintings: contribution to the understanding of the alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genty-Vincent, Anaïs; Eveno, Myriam; Nowik, Witold; Bastian, Gilles; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Cabillic, Isabelle; Uziel, Jacques; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Menu, Michel

    2015-11-01

    The blanching of easel paintings can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer with a blurring effect. The understanding of the physicochemical and optical phenomena involved in the whitening process remains an important challenge for the painting conservation. A set of ca. 50 microsamples from French, Flemish, and Italian blanched oil paintings, from sixteenth to nineteenth century, have been collected for in deep investigations. In parallel, the reproduction of the alteration was achieved by preparing some paint layers according to historical treatises and altering them in a climatic chamber in a humid environment or directly by immersing in ultrapure water. The observation of raw samples with a field-emission gun scanning electron microscope revealed for the first time that the altered layers have an unexpected highly porous structure with a pore size ranging from ca. 40 nm to 2 μm. The formation mechanism of these pores should mostly be physical as the supplementary analyses (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) do not reveal any noticeable molecular modification. Considering the tiny size of the pores, the alteration can be explained by the Rayleigh or Mie light scattering.

  19. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  20. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  1. Capability to Paint and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie Miller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although quite many qualitative studies on painting in Alzheimer’s disease (AD have been conducted, there is a lack of quantitative studies, examining the ability to paint in people with AD in relation to disease stages, and to what extent instructions are associated with actual performance. The present study aimed at investigating the capability to paint among nonartist AD participants (N = 17 in an instructed painting condition versus a noninstructed painting condition. Differences in time spent and area of canvas used in the two painting conditions were assessed and related to scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Clock Test. Number of colors used and color preferences were also assessed. A within-subjects experimental design was used. Analyses revealed a statistically significant difference between time and area used in the two painting conditions, where both time and area were used more in the noninstructed condition. MMSE scores and scores on the Clock Test correlated significantly with time spent in both conditions. Higher scores predicted longer painting sessions. Mean number of colors used was 5. Color preferences were bright colors in general and green in particular. Possible artistic development was noted. The overall conclusion is that people with AD have a preserved capability to paint, with and without instructions, even those in the later stages of the disease. The results also indicate that an artistic development is possible and that painting can be used as an appreciated and beneficial activity for people with AD.

  2. [Deafness and mentality in Francisco Goya's paintings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Ossowski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The famous painter Francisco Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) suffered during his life one or several diseases, the nature of which has not been determined with certainty. At age of 46, Goya suffered from severe illness that lasted a few months. It caused loss of vision and hearing, tinnitus, dizziness, a right-sides paralysis, weakness and general malaise. Although he recovered from a cerebral stroke which accompanied it, the deafness remained unaltered. The illness divides Goya's artistic life into two great different periods. After in the painter produces his greatest works. The visual experience after the illness was heightened by the exclusion of acoustics stimuli and the artist's talent rose to the highest level. His character became more withdrawn and introspective and his entire vitality was direscted to his painting. Goya's painting became progressively more gloom and satirical during his long convalescence. The artist suffered a stroke at age 73 that again rendered him paralysed on the right side. The precise cause of his illness has long been debated. Ome medical writers have favored the diagnosis of syphilis, some consider the possibility of an exogenous psychosis, and other suggests that the symptoms of the illness are more congruent with heavy metal poisoning, particulary lead. It is interesting to speculate how the Goya's deafness influenced the artist's mentality and the changes of his painting. Interesting is also the problem of the sensory compensation in fact of disturbance of physiological function of one of the senses.

  3. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  4. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Marshall J.

    2005-03-31

    This report documents the non-proprietary research and development conducted on the Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (ACT) project from contract inception on July 01, 2000 to termination on December 31, 2004. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new carbothermic process for producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). The scope of the program ranged from fundamental research through small scale laboratory experiments (65 kW power input) to larger scale test modules at up to 1600 kW power input. The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, vapor recovery and metal alloy decarbonization; development of computer models; and economic analyses of capital and operating costs. Justification for developing a new, carbothermic route to aluminum production is defined by the potential benefits in reduced energy, lower costs and more favorable environmental characteristics than the conventional Hall-Heroult process presently used by the industry. The estimated metrics for these advantages include energy rates at approximately 10 kWh/kg Al (versus over 13 kWh/kg Al for Hall-Heroult), capital costs as low as $1250 per MTY (versus 4,000 per MTY for Hall-Heroult), operating cost reductions of over 10%, and up to 37% reduction in CO2 emissions for fossil-fuel power plants. Realization of these benefits would be critical to sustaining the US aluminum industries position as a global leader in primary aluminum production. One very attractive incentive for ARP is its perceived ability to cost effectively produce metal over a range of smelter sizes, not feasible for Hall-Heroult plants which must be large, 240,000 TPY or more, to be economical. Lower capacity stand alone carbothermic smelters could be utilized to supply molten metal at fabrication facilities similar to the mini-mill concept employed by the steel industry

  5. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed by results, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5...... discusses the self-cleaning properties and degradation mechanisms of photocatalytic organic coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 6 discusses the rheological and mechanical properties of such coatings and chapter 7 discusses the durability and weather stability of photocatalytic self......-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro...

  6. Laser assisted foaming of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathuria, Y.P. [Laser X Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Recently aluminum foams have evoked considerable interest as an alternative material owing to their wide range of applications ranging from microelectronics, through automobiles to aerospace industries. The manufacturing techniques and characterization methods for aluminum foams require further development to achieve effective and economical use of this material. In this communication the authors demonstrate the feasibility of unidirectional and localized expansion of the aluminum foam using the Nd-YAG/CO{sub 2} laser and powder metallurgy. (orig.)

  7. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  8. The extraction and preliminary characterization of paint oil and paint wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yingjie; Wu Maoyu; Zhang Feilong

    2012-01-01

    To study the best technology of extraction of paint wax and paint seed oil, we performed the single factor experiment and analyzed the composition of different varieties of paint oil by infrared analysis. The results show that: the optimum conditions for paint wax, are that, using petroleum ether(30℃ -60℃ ) as extracting agent, extraction temperature 50℃, ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 20, the extraction time 12h, paint seed skin mesh size, greater than 100 ; optimum conditions for paint oil are that, petroleum ether( 30℃ -60℃ ) as extracting agent, extraction temperature 50℃, ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 30, the extraction time 3h, paint seed skin mesh size greater than 100. Extracted paint oil' s IR spectral peak positions are basically the same, which indicates that their chemical compositions are basically the same.%研究漆籽油和漆蜡提取的最佳工艺,进行单因素实验,对不同品种漆油进了红外分析。结果表明:漆蜡的最佳工艺条件是:石油醚(30℃~60℃)作为提取剂,提取温度为50℃,固液比为1∶20,提取时间12h,漆籽皮的目数是大于100目;漆油的最佳工艺条件是:石油醚(30℃~60℃)作为提取剂,提取温度为50℃,固液比为1∶30,提取时间3h,漆籽皮的目数是大于100目。通过萃取所得的漆油在红外图谱上出峰位置基本一致,表明其化学成分基本相同。

  9. Computerized Comparison and Analysis of Vincent van Gogh's Painting Brushstrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James Z.

    2009-03-01

    With advanced digitization techniques, museums have routinely begun to assemble vast digital libraries of images of their collections. These images can be analyzed by computers to assist art historians for a number of tasks. In our work, we focus on three challenges: artist identification, dating of an art work, and finding distinguishing features among artists. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) the analysis of the geometric statistics based on the extracted individual brushstroke, and (2) the modeling of overall brushstroke texture. These approaches aim at assisting art historians in comparing a painting or parts of a painting to a group of paintings based on multiple criteria. Statistical methods have been used to compare groups of paintings. Each painting image is divided into subimages. Individual brushstrokes are segmented automatically. Geometric features, including the curvature, the overall orientation, and the size, are computed for each brushstroke. We also compute the features representing the interactivity of the brushstrokes extracted. The statistics, including average and standard deviation, of those features are used to model certain aspects of the artist's brushstrokes. For capturing the local brushstroke texture, we first apply a wavelet transform to the image. A spatial model, the 2-D hidden Markov model, is used to model the texture features of each subimage. The methods have shown to be able to distinguish van Gogh paintings and non van Gogh paintings to a great extent. The techniques can provide clues for the dating of van Gogh paintings. A comparison of the van Gogh paintings, Monticelli's paintings, and paintings by contemporary artists provides insights on their similarities and differences. The analysis has provided numerical statistics for further studying these and other paintings.

  10. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  11. Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    and: PZ 600 N-Methylpyrrolidone >50 100 mg/L Turco:Trco Hydrotreated Napthenic Distillate 15 5 m/r 3 Monoethanol Amine 30 3 mg/L N-Methylpyrrolidone 45... amines . Organic acids such as formic acid hydrolyze ether linkages in the paint film and destroy crosslinking to allow rapid penetration of the primary...as water, acids, and amines in the paint strippers. g. Surfactants Surfactants assist in the removal of the softened paint and stripper residues. 3

  12. Revealing pentimenti: the hidden history in a painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Amy A.

    2007-02-01

    Art conservators often explore X-ray images of paintings to help find pentimenti, the artist's revisions hidden beneath the painting's visible first surfaces. X-ray interpretation is difficult due to artifacts in the image, superimposed features from all paint layers, and because image intensity depends on both the paint layer thickness and each pigment's opacity. We present a robust user-guided method to suppress clutter, find visually significant differences between X-ray images and color photographs, and visualize them together. These tools allow domain experts as well as museum visitors to explore the artist's creative decisions that led to a masterpiece.

  13. Astronomical Dating of Edvard Munch's Summer Sky Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ava; Olson, Donald

    2010-02-01

    Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, most famous for The Scream, created many spectacular works depicting the skies of Norway. Our Texas State group used astronomical methods to analyze three of these paintings: Starry Night, The Storm, and Sunrise in Asgardstrand. Astronomical dating of these paintings has some importance because the precise days when Munch visited Asgardstrand are unknown. Our research group traveled to Norway in August 2008 to find the locations from which Munch painted these three works. We then used astronomical calculations, topographical analysis, historical photographs, and weather records to determine the precise dates and times for the scenes depicted in these paintings. )

  14. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  15. Trompe l'oeil painting for the scientific illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, G P

    2000-01-01

    Trompe l'oeil is a French term meaning fool-the-eye. When this concept is applied to the art of painting, the painted objects must look as convincingly real as do the actual objects. With the scientific illustrator having a background of rendering concepts which are realistic and accurate, he or she should have no trouble moving into the trompe l'oeil fine art field. The author lists the necessary aspects of why a trompe l'oeil painting is different from a realistic scientific illustration, a still life, or a landscape painting.

  16. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V.M.Y.; Trojanowski, J.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  17. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  18. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  19. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

    La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

  20. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Chiaradia, Massimo; Davis, Jeffrey; O'Connor, Gary

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using (206)Pb/(208)Pb vs (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation.

  1. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks.

  2. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  3. Ballistic Evaluation of 2060 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    experiments in Experimental Facilities (EFs) 108 and 106, as well as John Hogan of ARL/AMB, Hugh Walter of Bowhead Science and Technology, and David Handshoe...new aluminum (Al)-based monocoque armored-vehicle hulls such as those of the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles. Also in 2012 the Aluminum

  4. Mural Paintings in A Liao Tomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    It was a custom in the Liao Dynasty to decorate tombs with murals. The paintings in Zhao Dejun’s tomb, excavated in Beijing, provide a well-known example. During the Five Dynasties period, Zhao Dejun was a warlord in Youzhou, which became the southern capital of Nanjing in the Liao Dynasty (and even later, was renamed Beijing). The Zhaos grew to become a very powerful family in the area, as can be seen from the size of Zhao’s tomb and the value of the funerary objects buried with him. His tomb

  5. Immunodetection of proteins in ancient paint media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartechini, Laura; Vagnini, Manuela; Palmieri, Melissa; Pitzurra, Lucia; Mello, Tommaso; Mazurek, Joy; Chiari, Giacomo

    2010-06-15

    Diagnostic immunology is a powerful tool, widely used in clinical and biochemical laboratories for detecting molecules. In recent years, the technique has been adapted to materials sciences as a result of the extensive advances achieved in immunology. Today, many companies supply custom antibodies as well as new high-performance bioprobes for virtually any use. The idea of using immunodetection in the field of conservation science is not new. This analytical methodology is, in fact, particularly attractive for investigating biopolymers in painting materials; it is highly sensitive and selective with respect to the biological source of the target molecules. Among biopolymers, proteins have been widely used in the past as painting binders, adhesives, and additives in coating layers. An accurate assessment of these materials is necessary to obtain deeper insights into an artist's technique as well as to design proper restoration and conservation methods. In spite of the diagnostic potential offered by immunodetection-based techniques, some analytical drawbacks had, until recently, limited their use in routine applications in conservation science. In this Account, we highlight the most important results achieved in our research on the development of analytical methodologies based on the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM) techniques for the highly sensitive and specific identification of proteins in artistic and archeological materials. ELISA and IFM offer two alternative analytical routes to this final goal: ELISA provides a fast, cost-effective, quantitative analysis of microsamples put in solution, whereas IFM combines the immunodetection of the targeted molecules with the characterization of their spatial distribution. The latter approach is of great value in the stratigraphic investigation of paintings. We discuss the limits and strengths of these methodologies in the context of the complex matrixes usually

  6. Flood Overflows Jinshan Temple (Chinese Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese painting Flood Ouerflows Jinshan Temple draws its subject from a beautiful and well-known legend,The white Snake.In the tale Jinshan was an islet in the Yangtze River of yesteryear.Inorder to aave her husband kept in a temple at the top of the isle.Bai Niangzi.incarnation of the whitesnake.bravely fought Monk Fahat.She borrowed the Yangtze River’s water to overcome Jinshan Templeand force Fahai to release her husband.

  7. Tangka Painting Art of the Tibetan Race (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Tibetan painting art is mainly revealed in mural paintings aswell as tangka. Tangka incarnates not only the special character of Tibetan painting art but also the features of Tibetan traditional crafts and mounting.

  8. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  9. Wettability of Aluminum on Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Sarina; Tang, Kai; Kvithyld, Anne; Tangstad, Merete; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2011-12-01

    The wettability of molten aluminum on solid alumina substrate has been investigated by the sessile drop technique in a 10-8 bar vacuum or under argon atmosphere in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K (1000 °C to 1400 °C). It is shown that the reduction of oxide skin on molten aluminum is slow under normal pressures even with ultralow oxygen potential, but it is enhanced in high vacuum. To describe the wetting behavior of the Al-Al2O3 system at lower temperatures, a semiempirical calculation was employed. The calculated contact angle at 973 K (700 °C) is approximately 97 deg, which indicates that aluminum does not wet alumina at aluminum casting temperatures. Thus, a priming height is required for aluminum to infiltrate a filter. Wetting in the Al-Al2O3 system increases with temperature.

  10. Hualu Aluminum Will Construct Large Coal-Power-Aluminum Aluminum Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter learned from relevant departments of Baiyin City that in order to further push forward industrial upgrading,fulfill expansion and consolidation of the enterprise,Gansu Hualu Aluminum Co.,Ltd(Hualu Aluminum)will implement Out-Of-City-Into-Park project,

  11. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  12. New biocide-free anti-fouling paints are toxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Eklund, Britta

    2004-09-01

    A number of new anti-fouling paints claimed to be more friendly to the environment, have entered the market since prohibition of biocide containing paints have been enforced in many areas. Leakage waters from five new anti-fouling paints were tested for toxic effects to the macro algae Ceramium tenuicorne and Ceramium strictum and to the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. A banned copper and irgarol 1051 containing anti-fouling paint was used as reference. Five of the six paints tested were toxic to all or some of the organisms after two weeks of leakage with EC50 ranging from 0.08 to around 2% leakage water and LC50 ranging from 1.1% to 88%. The toxicity of leakage water from these paints was still high after 16 weeks. We conclude that these paints contain substances toxic to common organisms in the coastal Baltic ecosystem. A silicone based paint did not exhibit toxic effects to the two organisms. We recommend that biological tests should be used to identify the most harmful products before they are released on the market.

  13. UN to lssue Stamps of Chinese Children’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A set of stamps designed by Chinese children who took peace as their theme will be issued by the United Nations on October 25, 1996. This will be the first time the United Nations has used children’s paintings in its stamps. The paintings chosen are prize-winners of the Chinese national stamp-designing

  14. Reconsidering Chinese Painting%中国画再审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁耀

    2001-01-01

    Reconsidering the traditional painting, including its philosophy and techniques, is always done by contemporary artists. The result is not very important. What we can concern is the expression in the painting, which would show the thinking progress, of the artist. Let's appreciate works of Mr. Liang Yao.

  15. 75 FR 39706 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... the antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China (75 FR 21347, April 23, 2010... revoke the order on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34097). In light of these developments, the Commission is... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  16. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings : From Realism to Magritte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; van Houte, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period 19

  17. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or alkalies, employees shall be protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall...

  18. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  19. SPARK MACHINING FOR STEEL SURFACES TO IMPROVE PAINT COATINGS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Levchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spark machining of steel surfaces enhances the subsequent paint coatings adhesion and protective properties. These factors improvement was confirmed at the salt-spray chamber testing and by both adhesion to the surface and depth of corrosion penetration below the paint coating layer measurements.

  20. Replicas in Caravaggio's paintings: the correct use of scientific analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Maurizio; Moioli, Pietro; Seccaroni, Claudio

    1998-05-01

    Painting techniques and materials employed by Caravaggio are analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and radiography of unquestioned genuine works and compared to replicas of his earlier work. This approach is important in the attribution of recently discovered paintings and copies from the XVII century.

  1. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their handli

  2. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  3. Chromosome-specific painting in Cucumis species using bulked oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome-specific painting is a powerful technique in molecular cytogenetic and genome research. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting technique in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that will be applicable in any plant species with a sequenced genome. Oligos specific to a sing...

  4. The social lives of paintings in Sixteenth-Century Venice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Elisabeth Johanna Maria van

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Venetian painting in its golden age, the sixteenth century, from an unconventional, anthropological point of view. Paintings of masters like Titian are demonstrated to have had social lives. Together with human beings they were embedded in social networks in which humans and pain

  5. The painting collection of baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M

    2004-01-01

    The Catholic Baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst (1613-1674) from Utrecht was an enthusiastic collector of paintings. In his translation of Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, Hendrick Bloemaert even lauded Willem Vincent's 'Lofweerdigh cabinet' (commendable cabinet) of paintings. The inventory Wyttenhorst m

  6. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three...

  7. Artists' Perception of the Use of Digital Media in Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Painting is believed to predate recorded history and has been in existence for over 35,000 (Ayres, 1985; Bolton, 2013) years. Over the years, painting has evolved; new styles have been developed and digital media have been explored. Each period of change goes through a period of rejection before it is accepted. In the 1960s, digital media was…

  8. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  9. Population densities of painted buntings in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The eastern population trend of Passerina ciris (Painted Bunting) declined 3.5% annually during the first 30 yrs of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS, 1966–1996). Recently, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed Painted Buntings as a focal species. Surveys for this focal species for the next 10 yrs (BBS, 1997–2007), however, are too low (2 in young pine plantations to 42 per km2 in maritime shrub. Effective detection radii for habitats varied from 64 to 90 m and were slightly higher in developed than in undeveloped habitats. Distance sampling is recommended to determine densities of Painted Buntings; however, large sample sizes (70–100 detections/habitat type) are required to monitor Painted Bunting densities in most habitats in the Atlantic coastal region of the southeastern United States. Special attention should be given to maritime shrub habitats, which may be important to maintaining the Painted Bunting population in the southeastern US.

  10. Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M.

    1999-07-01

    Houses painted with lead-based paints are ubiquitous in the United States because the houses and the paint have not worn out two decades after federal regulations prohibited inclusion of lead in paint. Remodeling older homes thus poses a health threat for infants and small children living in those homes. In a service-learning general chemistry class, students disseminate information about this health threat in an older neighborhood. At some of the homes they collect paint samples that they analyze for lead both qualitatively and quantitatively. This service-learning experience generates enthusiasm for general chemistry through the process of working on a "real" problem. Sample collection familiarizes the students with the concept of "representative" sampling. The sample preparation for atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analysis enhances their laboratory skills. The focus of this paper is on the mechanics of integrating this particular service project into the first-term of the normal general chemistry course.

  11. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  12. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  13. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  14. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  16. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  17. Development of a new anti-rust paint for rusted metal%新型带锈防锈漆的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应鹏展; 王雅晴

    2001-01-01

    A new anti-rust paint for rusted material was developed by addition of zinc phosphate, zinc oxide, aluminum tripolyphosphate, barium chromate and other auxiliaries, which result in phosphating, and chromating of rusted metal surface to obtain continuous, uniform and fine protective film. Addition of 0.05%~0.10% cobalt and manganese dryer can greatly improve drying rate of paint film. The anti-rust paint is stable in long-term storage and its parameters meet the requirement of national standard. Preparation of the title paint is simple and low cost.%研制了一种新型带锈防锈漆。通过加入磷酸锌、氧化锌、三聚磷酸铝、铬酸钡等助剂,使金属带锈表面锈层磷化、钝化,形成连续、均匀、致密的保护层。加入0.05%~0.10%的钴锰催干剂,显著提高了漆膜的干燥速度。该带锈防锈漆制备工艺简单、成本低、长期贮存性能稳定,各项指标均符合国家标准。

  18. Subsurface Aluminum Nitride Formation in Iron-Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, June H.

    Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels containing higher amounts of aluminum than conventional steels are ideal for structural automotive parts due to their mechanical properties. However, the aluminum tends to react with any processing environment at high temperatures and therefore presents significant challenges during manufacturing. One such challenge occurs during secondary cooling, reheating, and hot-rolling and is caused by a reaction with nitrogen-rich atmospheres wherein subsurface aluminum nitride forms in addition to internal and external oxides. The nitrides are detrimental to mechanical properties and cause surface cracks. It is important to understand how these nitrides and oxides form and their consequences for the quality of steel products. This study looks at model iron-aluminum (up to 8 wt.% aluminum) alloys and uses confocal laser scanning microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy to study the effect of various conditions on the growth and development of these precipitates in a subsurface oxygen-depleted region. By using model alloys and controlling the experimental atmosphere, this study is able to understand some of the more fundamental materials science behind aluminum nitride formation in aluminum-rich iron alloys and the relationship between internal nitride and oxide precipitation and external oxide scale morphology and composition. The iron-aluminum alloys were heated in N2 atmospheres containing oxygen impurities. It was found that nitrides formed when bulk aluminum content was below 8 wt.% when oxygen was sufficiently depleted due to the internal oxidation. In the samples containing 1 wt.% aluminum, the depth of the internal oxide and nitride zones were in agreement with a diffusion-based model. Increasing aluminum content to 3 and 5 wt% had the effects of modifying the surface-oxide scale composition and increasing its continuity

  19. Surface analysis of anodized aluminum clamps from NASA-LDEF satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, H. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Young, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface analysis results of selected anodized aluminum clamps containing black (Z306) and white (A276) paints which received nearly six years of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility are reported. Surface analytical techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), showed significant differences in the surface composition of these materials depending upon the position on the LDEF. Differences in the surface composition are attributed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV). Silicon containing compounds were the primary contaminant detected on the materials.

  20. Diuretic plants in the paintings of Pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, L

    1994-01-01

    The plants that appear in the paintings and mosaics of Pompeii are chiefly edible and medicinal, though flowers with purely esthetic appeal are also shown. An important example is one of the floor mosaics from the House of the Faun, in which it is possible to identify lemon, cherry, strawberry, pomegranate, grape and olive, leaves of grape, fig, apple and olive, and flowers of corn cockle. The diuretic properties of some of these plants are mentioned in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder. A silver cup from the House of Menandro, one of the most refined examples of plant decoration in antiquity, shows olive branches and fruits. The presence of plants in such artefacts confirms that people of classical times were conscious that plants were important producers of food, oils, fibers, woods and medicines.

  1. Ikuo Hirayama Painting Exhibition Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 30th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the Ikuo Hirayama Painting Exhibition jointly sponsored by the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA), the China International Culture Association (CICA) and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA), was held in the National Art Museum of China from April 17 to 26. At the invitation of the CJFA, Tomiichi Murayama, former Japanese prime minister, and Ikuo Hirayama, president of the JCFA and famous painter, who led a delegation of over 200 people of various circles, paid a visit to China to attend the opening ceremony of the exhibition and take part in the relevant activities from April 16 to 20.

  2. Judgement of paintings belonging to different tendencies in the 20th century painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Trifunović’ hypothesis that there are three objective lines in the development of modern art was psychologically evaluated. According to Trifunović, in the first line (Cézanne - cubism - neoplasticism - suprematism the geometrization of form prevails, in the second (Van Gogh - expressionism - abstract expressionism the use of color is dominant, whereas the main features of the third line (Gauguin - fauvism are symbolic use of color and reduction of perspective. Fifteen reproductions of paintings that represent the three developmental lines were used as stimuli. The subjects were asked to judge the stimuli on nine bipolar 7-step scales. These scales constitute the three factors of instrument SDF 9: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity (3 scales x 3 factors = 9 scales. Four clusters of paintings were obtained: Abstract-expressionistic (moderate Evaluation, high Arousal and low Regularity, Figural-expressionistic (very low Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity, Constructivistic (moderate Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity and Realistic (high Evaluation, high Arousal and high Regularity. The results partially confirm Trifunović’ hypothesis indicating that, besides the formal features, the content (abstract vs. figural is also significant factor of subjective clustering of paintings.

  3. Paint removal and surface cleaning using ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry; Visaisouk, S.

    1995-04-01

    Research into the possibility of using ice particles as a blast medium was first initiated at Defence Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) in an effort to develop a more environmentally acceptable paint removal method. A paint removal process was also required that could be used in areas where normal grit blasting could not be used due to the possibility of the residual blasting grit contaminating machinery and other equipment. As a result of this research a commercial ice blasting system was developed by RETECH. This system is now being used to remove paint from substrates that cannot be easily blasted by conventional techniques and also to clean soiled or contaminated surfaces. The problems involved in the development of an ice blast system and its components and their functions are described. Due to the complexity of paint removal using ice blasting, parameters such as air pressure, ice particle size and ice particle flow rate were studied and adjusted to suit the nature of the particular coating and substrate of interest. The mechanism of paint removal by ice particles has also been investigated. A theoretical model has been developed to explain the different paint removal mechanisms such as erosion by abrasion and erosion by fracture as they relate to ice blasting. Finally, the use of ice blasting to removal paint from a variety of substrates is presented as well as examples of surface cleaning and surface decontamination.

  4. An environmentally safe and effective paint removal process for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Joseph

    2001-03-01

    To reduce hazardous waste from fleet and depot aircraft paint stripping and to conform to regulations banning toxic chemical paint strippers, the U.S. Naval Air Systems Team (materials division, depots, and head-quarters) teamed with the U.S. Air Force at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center for concept development, characterization, and demonstration of a mature, advanced paint-removal system, the Boeing xenon/flashlamp CO2 (Flashjet®) process. Extensive metallic and composite-materials testing was conducted. This paper describes the development and characterization program leading to authorization of the process for use on fixed-wing navy aircraft.

  5. Multispectral infrared reflectography to differentiate features in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, Claudia; Fontana, Raffaella

    2011-10-01

    Infrared reflectography is a well-known technique based on wideband imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) range used for painting diagnostics in conservation laboratories.. This work is focused on the application of multiband reflectography for analysis of pictorial layers and differentiated detection of painting features. This technique generates a set of narrowband NIR images of the painting. Starting from a dataset that is registered, metrically correct, and calibrated, the capability of collecting both spectral and spatial information has been exploited by processing the image cube with interplane techniques. Examples on artworks by Caravaggio, Veronese, Bronzino, and Schiavone are presented.

  6. Study of multilayers by PIXE technique. Application to paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Ivan; Lagarde, Gérard; Midy, Pierre

    1996-08-01

    In this article we propose the application of a new algorithm to determine the concentration profile of colour pigments in painting. This is performed by PIXE technique at different proton energies. The algorithm is based on the singular value decomposition of the matrix obtained by discretization of the integral equation for the concentration profile. To check this method, many paint multilayers of acrylic colours were prepared. First results obtained from different experiments at the AGLAE accelerator in the Palais du Louvre at Paris are presented: the nature and the thickness of each colour layer were determined with a good agreement. The analysis of easel paintings is in progress.

  7. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavcheva, Z.; Yancheva, D.; Velcheva, E.; Stamboliyska, B.; Petrova, N.; Petkova, V.; Lalev, G.; Todorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials.

  8. Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

  9. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    CERN Document Server

    Allada, K; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-01-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO$_2$ gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  10. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  11. Spotless, Jade-like Personality (traditional Chinese painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of the traditional Chinese paintings done by Xie Lijun vividly expresses a woman’s tolerance and silence. In traditional Chinese paintings black is the main component and the function of the color red is only to provide a striking contrast, so it is only used occasionally. On the contrary, in "Spotless. ,Jade-Like Personality." the color red is the main color in the painting. So different from its usual function, the red set against the quiet internal world passes from the expression of the figure’s eyes. The red color adds more elegance and inlplicit meaning to the work.

  12. Method for simulating paint mixing on computer monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabott, Ferdinand; Lewis, Garth; Piehl, Simon

    2002-06-01

    Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop can generate a mixture of two 'computer' colors by using the Gradient control. However, the resulting colors diverge from the equivalent paint mixtures in both hue and value. This study examines why programs like Photoshop are unable to simulate paint or pigment mixtures, and offers a solution using Photoshops existing tools. The article discusses how a library of colors, simulating paint mixtures, is created from 13 artists' colors. The mixtures can be imported into Photoshop as a color swatch palette of 1248 colors and as 78 continuous or stepped gradient files, all accessed in a new software package, Chromafile.

  13. The female images in the tang dynasty painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽霞

    2014-01-01

    the tang dynasty is the most prosperous dynasties in ancient China. Both in the cultural, economic, political and artistic performance is very outstanding. Historical development of the era makes unprece-dented open people's minds, such open also natural y seep into the woman's behavior, they have a certain personal freedom and individuality liberation, the status of women is rising. This painting in the tang dy-nasty has very good reflected in the female image. At times like these, had appeared Zhang Xuan, zhou-fang painter, their painting art has ex-erts a far-reaching influence on the later tang dynasty figure painting.

  14. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  15. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  16. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  17. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint...

  18. Effects of Tactile Sensations during Finger Painting on Mindfulness, Emotions, and Scope of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja; Kaczmarek, Lukasz D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that creative performance, such as painting, influences affective and cognitive processes. Yet little is known about how tactile sensations experienced during painting determine what individuals feel and how they think while they create. Based on prior research, finger painting (compared to brush painting) was expected to…

  19. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  20. Low-aluminum content iron-aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum program deals with the development of a Fe-Al alloy with aluminum content such as a produce the minimum environmental effect at room temperature. The FAPY is an Fe-16 at. % Al-based alloy developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the highest aluminum-containing alloy with essentially no environmental effect. The chemical composition for FAPY in weight percent is: aluminum = 8.46, chromium = 5.50, zirconium = 0.20, carbon = 0.03, molybdenum = 2.00, yttrium = 0.10 and iron = 83.71. The ignots of the alloy can be hot worked by extrusion, forging, and rolling processes. The hot-worked cast structure can be cold worked with intermediate anneals at 800{degrees}C. Typical room-temperature ductility of the fine-grained wrought structure is 20 to 25% for this alloy. In contrast to the wrought structure, the cast ductility at room temperature is approximately 1% with a transition temperature of approximately 100 to 150{degrees}C, above which ductility values exceed 20%. The alloy has been melted and processed into bar, sheet, and foil. The alloy has also been cast into slabs, step-blocks of varying thicknesses, and shapes. The purpose of this section is to describe the welding response of cast slabs of three different thicknesses of FAPY alloy. Tensile, creep, and Charpy-impact data of the welded plates are also presented.

  1. A Scheduling Method for Painting Line under Pull Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Kyu; Shinbo, Kojiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    This paper concerns with a scheduling method for painting (preceding) line with much longer production lead-time than assembly (subsequent) line. In general, production schedule of the painting line is made independently based on the forecasted job requirement at the assembly line. When the job requirement changes at the assembly line by virtue of the change of customer order, therefore, production balance is destroyed between the both lines. To avoid the tardiness caused by such unbalance, we need to have many inventories for the painting line. Such countermeasure is taken place in many companies actually. Thus, to avoid the tardiness while keeping small inventory, we propose a scheduling method that makes a Pseudo-Pull production possible for the painting line. We have evaluated the proposed method through computer simulations.

  2. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  3. Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed...... for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases originated from the same bolt. The canvas supports in paintings executed by Abildgaard in Rome 1772...... conditions and manufacture circumstances. This applied to the quality of the fabric, i.e. the type of fibre, thread count and tightness of weave, as well as the scale and the formats within which the majority of the paintings fall....

  4. Historical restoration recipes: the cleaning of paintings 1600-1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stols-Witlox, M.; Bridgland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about historical cleaning methods and materials is important since remnants may still be presentwithin the paint structure and should be taken into account when interpreting instrumental analyses and deciding about future conservation treatments. This paper provides analyses of historical

  5. Minimal invasive control of paintings cleaning by LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, A.; Apostol, I.; Pascu, A.; Urzica, I.; Pascu, M. L.; Damian, V.

    2016-03-01

    In cultural heritage restoration and conservation, it has been proved that LIBS is an appropriate technique for pigments identification, analysis of multilayered paintings, and quantitative analysis of ancient materials. Generally, experiments involving the use of laser for paint cleaning and LIBS in order to identify the composition of the removed material are made. Here, we report LIBS studies on mastic and dammar varnishes removal using visible (532 nm) and UV (266 nm) laser pulses (5 ns) with fluences in the range 0.6-4.4 J/cm2. The studied varnish layers were on-purpose painted on glass supports or were part of several mock-up samples having dammar or mastic as final layer - gold foil, yellow ochre or cobalt blue egg tempera as painting layer - chalk or acrylic ground as link to an wooden support. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the layers and to analyze their composition.

  6. Investigation of multilayer painting by means of molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadikova, I. F.; Grigorieva, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    The study of paintings' layer structure under microscope was implemented in the early XX century; since that time method of cross-section preparation as well as composition of embedded materials changed and capabilities of optical microscopy broadened. Nevertheless, until recently cross-sections were prepared only for analysis of paintings' layer-specific structure, morphological and technological features, tracks of restoration treatments. Examination of chemical composition required additional sampling as well as division of these samples layer by layer in order to determine pigments and binding media; these procedures didn't always lead to proper results. Micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopy allow carrying out investigation of painting cross-sections without any additional preliminary sampling; this is shown on example of investigation of a number of paintings.

  7. Manganese and Iron Catalysts in Alkyd Paints and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Hage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many paint, ink and coating formulations contain alkyd-based resins which cure via autoxidation mechanisms. Whilst cobalt-soaps have been used for many decades, there is a continuing and accelerating desire by paint companies to develop alternatives for the cobalt soaps, due to likely classification as carcinogens under the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals legislation. Alternative driers, for example manganese and iron soaps, have been applied for this purpose. However, relatively poor curing capabilities make it necessary to increase the level of metal salts to such a level that often coloring of the paint formulation occurs. More recent developments include the application of manganese and iron complexes with a variety of organic ligands. This review will discuss the chemistry of alkyd resin curing, the applications and reactions of cobalt-soaps as curing agents, and, subsequently, the paint drying aspects and mechanisms of (model alkyd curing using manganese and iron catalysts.

  8. Diseases of Old Age in Two Paintings by Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two paintings of older men by Rembrandt (1609–1669 are examined to demonstrate that historical attitudes toward diseases of old age and the ageing person’s response to illness can be investigated in paintings. The works selected are of different genres and date from different stages of Rembrandt’s own life, one from his youth and one from his old age. Both paintings show figures who have joint pathologies typically associated with the ageing process, the first involving the subject’s foot and the second involving the subject’s hand. Despite the sometimes painful nature of these conditions, the subjects are shown accommodating their illnesses while maintaining both their intellectual and social engagement and their emotional composure. Although the seventeenth century offered older people very little effective medical treatment in comparison with what is presently available, these paintings nevertheless present a view of illness as a subsidiary rather than a dominant feature of old age.

  9. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150 grades C. (Author)

  10. Method of making superhydrophobic/superoleophilic paints, epoxies, and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2016-05-10

    Superhydrophobic paints and epoxies comprising superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. superoleophilic particles.

  11. Warburg and Poliakoff, Movement and Style (a contribution to the contemporary study of images and paintings)

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira Vale

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of painting on its sources or “influences” serves to achieve its integration in a group of reference from which painting, any true painting that aims at the present, can and should take part. This work aims at an updating of the analysis these influences from the means that serve as references to the pictorial analysis and creation, the images (reproductions) and the paintings themselves, by crossing two major references of Art History and Modern Painting (Aby Warburg and Serge...

  12. A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Thakar; Chetan P. Vora

    2014-01-01

    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper ...

  13. Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pye

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

  14. APPLICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERBORNE ROAD MARKING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Babić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal road markings are one of the essential safety features of modern roadways. All of the utilised systems consist of a pigmented coating containing partially embedded retroreflective elements such as glass beads. In addition to durability and functionality of the road marking, ease of application and effect on human health and environment are primary considerations for their selection. Road marking systems can be divided into plural component materials that cure due to chemical reaction occurring at the site of application, thermoplastics that require heat for application, and paints, drying upon evaporation of the dissolving medium. The focus of this paper is on road marking paints with a special emphasis on contemporary waterborne materials. Over 100 years old solventborne technology furnishes paints that afford consistent application properties under a variety of conditions such as lower temperatures and high humidity. Their environmental and human health impact is significant and durability quite poor. Modern waterborne paints are based on acrylic resins and incorporate developed in the 1990s quick-set chemical mechanism for drying. Under favourable weather conditions, they dry faster as compared to solventborne. However, their known weakness is risk of washout in case of rain and sluggish development of washout resistance at marginal application conditions like high humidity and low temperature. Impact of waterborne paints on human health and environment is very significantly minimised as compared to other materials. Their durability is significantly higher as compared to solvent-based paints. Analysis of characteristics of waterborne road marking paints and preliminary results from their trial application in Croatia are presented herein. Based on the presented comparison with solventborne materials, after results from test application become available, intelligent decisions regarding future use of waterborne road marking paints in

  15. Critical realism art——On Russia Tour group Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜月英

    2012-01-01

      The Tour group Painting inherited and developed some precious qualities of the early 19th century critical realism. The Tour group Painting artists were deeply influenced by the Russian realistic literature. They cared about reality, the history of the nation, focusing on the expression of personal feelings. They agreed that the art has the responsibility to educate people, to improve their consciousness .In their opinion, artists are also social activists. So they tirelessly fought towards critical realism and national art.

  16. Bo Painting with Human, Dragon and Phoenix Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    During the period between the Warring States and Qin (221-207 B.C.), Han (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) dynasties in China, silk was called bo, so paintings on silk were called bohua and words on silk boshu. The bohua with a human, dragon and phoenix pattern excavated in 1949 in Changsha, Hunan Province, dates back to the Warring States. It is the earliest painting

  17. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  18. Self-Cleaning Mineral Paint for Application in Architectural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipto Pal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mineral silicate paint has been developed for architectural heritage. To enhance durability, any type of organic additive has been avoided. Potassium silicate was the binder agent intended to give strong adherence and durability to stone and concretes. Incorporation of mainly anatase titanium dioxide was intended to act both as a white, bright pigment and as a photocatalyst. Reflectivity analyses on the paint in the visible-to-near infrared wavelength region show high solar heat reflection. The self-cleaning activity of the mineral paint was evaluated by the degradation of organic dyes under solar light irradiation. Anatase titania was effective in decomposing organic and airborne pollutants with the solar radiation. The optical properties and self-cleaning activity were compared with the organic binder-based paints and commercial paints. Developed paints possess high stability: since they contain only inorganic components that do not fade with exposure to solar radiation, photocatalytic self-cleaning capability further enhances such stability.

  19. MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF PAINTING, THEATRE AND EVERYDAY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Suvorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the works of Yu.M. Lotman, the author examines the process of interaction between painting and theater, and their mutual influence on the routine. The emphasis is on identifying the peculiarities of the interaction of theatre and painting in the period from the late XVIII – early XIX century. Theatre using expressive means of painting, created new forms of performing arts. The scenery becomes actors, not serving as a background for the actors. Acting technique was also being changed, the dynamics of the movements was changed into the static of dynamic postures. The identification of the scene and the picture led to the emergence of a new genre of "living paintings". Not only the art of painting influenced a theatre, creating new forms, but the theatre influenced painting too, creating a portrait typifying a model in accordance with the traditional theatrical characters. Gradually the boundary between art and commonplace had been crumbling, the theatre entered the life. It turned out that the theatricality of everyday life became the logical result of the considered process. Real life started to be considered as a performance that opened not only new possibilities in the prescribed range of permitted conduct, but also went beyond and was the legislator of individual behaviors, filled everyday reality with events, and thus, made a person free from the control of custom.

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-7 - Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ingested by children or when lead-containing paint is burned off. (2) Banned hazardous products. The... established by 16 CFR part 1303 (no cautionary labeling is required): (A) Mirrors which are part of...

  1. The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joanna; Singer, Brian W; Perry, Justin J; Bacon, Anne

    2011-05-01

    A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him.

  2. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  3. Degradation of Emerald green in oil paint and its contribution to the rapid change in colour of the Descente des vaches (1834-1835) painted by Theodore Rousseau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, K.; Boon, J.J.; Boitelle, R.; Shimadzu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Descente des vaches (1836) by Theodore Rousseau in the Mesdag Collection in The Hague is barely readable and its paint layers are in poor condition. The surface of the painting is strongly deformed and cracked, the whole painting has darkened and especially the greens have lost all or most of their

  4. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  5. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely... additive, expressed as niacin, shall appear on the label of the food additive container or on that of...

  6. Environmental Control over the Primary Aluminum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To strengthen environmental control over theprimary aluminum industry,the State Environ-mental Protection Administration of China hasrecently issued a notice addressing the follow-ing points:Strengthening environmental control over theexisting primary aluminum companies

  7. OPTIMIZING AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Hajeeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the amount of scrap generated in an aluminum extrusion process. An optimizing model is constructed in order to select the best cutting patterns of aluminum logs and billets of various sizes and shapes. The model applied to real data obtained from an existing extrusion factory in Kuwait. Results from using the suggested model provided substantial reductions in the amount of scrap generated. Using sound mathematical approaches contribute significantly in reducing waste and savings when compared to the existing non scientific techniques.

  8. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  9. Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum in Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hui; ZHU; Li-yang; LIN; Ru-shan; TAN; Hong-bin; HE; Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is one of cladding materials for nuclear fuel,it is important to investigate the electrolytic dissolution of aluminum in nitric acid.The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,polarization curve and cyclic voltammetry cure of anodic aluminum electrode in nitric acid under various conditions were collected(Fig.1).It turns out,under steady state,the thickness of the passivated film of aluminum

  10. 76 FR 23490 - Aluminum tris (O

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al..., fosthiazate, propetamphos, and tebufenozide; the fungicide aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate); the herbicides.... Also, EPA is revoking the tolerances for aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate) on pineapple fodder...

  11. Guangxi Aluminum Giant Made Investment in Changfeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>A aluminum processing and supporting project (450,000 tons) of Hefei Guangyin Aluminum Company kicked off in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County recently. It is a project jointly invested by Guangxi Investment Group and Guangxi Baise Guangyin Aluminum in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County.

  12. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  13. Aesthetic emotions across arts: A comparison between painting and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971 interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  14. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

  15. Schematic Rock Painting: the panel, social space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez García, Julián

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The panel, which is used to support the symbols of a certain social formation, is turned into a space for the representation of this formation. It is used to incorporate or arrange or mess up the elements that circulate in a certain system. Thus, the social action is reflected in a product that is characterised by a symbolic nature. However, it is obvious that this social representation does not have an exclusive nature when dealing with the schematic rock painting. In the following pages we are going to try to analyse the relationship between the organization and configuration of this space, the panel, and the social dynamics, getting information from the different stages of its course, in series of sequences which are arranged by the coordinates of what we have called 'Social Spacial and Time'.

    El panel, utilizado para soportar los símbolos de una determinada formación social, es obvio que se convierte en un espacio de representación de la misma. Se aprovecha para incorporar, ordenar o desordenar los elementos que circulan en un determinado sistema. La acción social queda así reflejada en un producto de carácter simbólico. Aunque, evidentemente, esta representación social no tiene carácter exclusivo en la pintura rupestre esquemática, en las siguientes páginas intentaremos analizar cómo la organización y la configuración de este espacio, panel, tiene que ver con la propia dinámica social, informándonos sobre los diversos estadios de su recorrido, en una secuencia que se ordena bajo las coordenadas de lo que hemos denominado "espacio-tiempo social".

  16. Therapeutic paint of cidofovir/sucralfate gel combination topically administered by spraying for treatment of orf virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Gaia; Gallina, Laura; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Rossi, Alessandra; McInnes, Colin J; Massimo, Gina; Colombo, Paolo; Scagliarini, Alessandra

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized in vitro with respect to compatibility between drug and carrier, spray particle size, spray deposition, drying kinetics, and drug content and release. An interaction between the two active substances was found. The interaction between sucralfate and cidofovir was counteracted by introducing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (16% w/w) in the preparation. The spray formulation containing cidofovir/sucralfate gel painted the skin and dried quickly to a scab, remaining firmly adhered to the lesions. The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0.5% or 1% cidofovir + sucralfate 15% + NaH(2)PO(4) 16% w/w) and with sucralfate gel suspension alone as control. The treatment with formulations containing cidofovir and phosphate salt for four consecutive days resulted in a rapid resolution of the lesions, with scabs containing significantly lower amounts of viable virus when compared with untreated lesions and lesions treated with sucralfate suspension alone.

  17. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  18. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  19. Technical study of Germolles’ wall paintings: the inputof imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Degrigny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Château de Germolles is one of the rare palace in France dating from the 14th century. The noble floor is decorated with wall paintings that are a unique example of courtly love spirit that infused the princely courts of the time. After being concealed sometime in the 19th century, the paintings were rediscovered and uncovered in the middle of the 20th century and partly restored at the end of the 1990s. No scientific documentation accompanied these interventions and important questions, such as the level of authenticity of the mural decorations and the original painting technique(s used in the medieval times remained unanswered. The combined scientific and financial supports of COSCH Cost Action and DRAC-Burgundy enabled to study Germolles’ wall paintings using some of the most innovative imaging and analytical techniques and to address some of the questions raised. The study provided significant information on the material used in the medieval times and on the conservation condition of the paintings. The data collected is vast and varied and exposed the owners of the property to the challenges of data management.

  20. In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2010-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb(2)SnO(4)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO(3).Cu(OH)(2)) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)) and azurite (2CuCO(3)xCu(OH)(2)). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO(3)) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO(4)x2H(2)O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

  1. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  2. Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Lynn [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Spencer, Dirk [Plant and Soil Science Department, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762-1447 (United States); Muntele, Claudiu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)]. E-mail: claudiu@cim.aamu.edu; Muntele, Iulia [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

  3. Galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718 and graphite-epoxy composite material: Corrosion occurrence and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Higgins, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718, and graphite-epoxy composite material (G/E) in 3.5% NaCl were studied. Measurements of corrosion potentials, galvanic currents and corrosion rates of the bare metals using weight-loss methods served to establish the need for corrosion protection in cases where D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum are galvanically coupled to G/E in salt water while Inconel 718 was shown to be compatible with G/E. Six tests were made to study corrosion protective methods for eliminating galvanic corrosion in the cases of D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum coupled to G/E. These results indicate that, when the G/E is completely coated with paint or a paint/polyurethane resin combination, satisfactory protection of the D6AC steel is achieved with either a coat of zinc-rich primer or a primer/topcoat combination. Likewise, satisfactory corrosion protection of the aluminum is achieved by coating it with an epoxy coating system.

  4. Modern Changes of Colors in Chinese Painting%浅谈中国画的现代色彩观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉萍

    2003-01-01

    Affected by the view of literati painting, colors in Chinese painting were often neglected and belittled in visual aesthetics.Learning color application from Western arts and exploiting pigments are two major approaches to strengthening visual effects in traditional painting...

  5. Non-Chromate Aluminum Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    painted steel test stands using porcelain insulator stand-offs. The rack angle of the coupons is 30 degrees from horizontal. An “X” incision was...Components with TCP – NADEP CP, October 2000 5.1 – LCAC-26 Oily Waste Tank with TCP Test Patch 5.2 – Beachside Exposure Racks , Little Creek, VA 5.3...Hull Components – AA7039 5.22 – Headlight Guards 5.23 – Stowage Box Doors 5.24 – Floor Plate, Bilge Pump 5.25 – Driver’s Steering Yoke 5.26

  6. Art Painting Diagnostic Before Restoration with Terahertz and Millimeter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Jean-Paul; Roux, M.; Wang, K.; Ma, X.; Fauquet, F.; Balacey, H.; Recur, B.; Darracq, F.; Mounaix, P.

    2017-01-01

    Art painting diagnostic is commonly performed using electromagnetic waves at wavelengths from terahertz to X-ray. These former techniques are essential in conservation and art history research, but they could be also very useful for restoring artwork. While most studies use time domain imaging technique, in this study, a painting has been investigated using both time domain imaging (TDI) and frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system in the millimeter frequency range. By applying these systems to a painting of the eighteenth century, we detect and analyze the structure of some defects. This study underlines the differences between FMCW and TDI. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each technique on a real artwork.

  7. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research.

  8. Art Painting Diagnostic Before Restoration with Terahertz and Millimeter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Jean-Paul; Roux, M.; Wang, K.; Ma, X.; Fauquet, F.; Balacey, H.; Recur, B.; Darracq, F.; Mounaix, P.

    2017-04-01

    Art painting diagnostic is commonly performed using electromagnetic waves at wavelengths from terahertz to X-ray. These former techniques are essential in conservation and art history research, but they could be also very useful for restoring artwork. While most studies use time domain imaging technique, in this study, a painting has been investigated using both time domain imaging (TDI) and frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system in the millimeter frequency range. By applying these systems to a painting of the eighteenth century, we detect and analyze the structure of some defects. This study underlines the differences between FMCW and TDI. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each technique on a real artwork.

  9. The bacterial aetiology of rosy discoloration of ancient wall paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperi, Francesco; Caneva, Giulia; Cancellieri, Laura; Ricci, Maria A; Sodo, Armida; Visca, Paolo

    2007-11-01

    The inventory of microorganisms responsible for biological deterioration of ancient paintings has become an integral part of restoration activities. Here, the microbial agent of rosy discoloration on medieval frescoes in the Crypt of the Original Sin (Matera, Italy) was investigated by a combination of microscopic, molecular and spectroscopic approaches. The bacterial community from three rosy-discoloured painting sites was characterized by 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. The eubacterial population was prevalently composed of Actinobacteria, among which Rubrobacter radiotolerans-related bacteria accounted for 63-87% of the 16S rRNA gene pool per sampled site. Archaea, with prevalence of Haloarchaea-related species, were detected in one of the three sites where they accounted for paintings.

  10. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  11. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  12. Virtual hairy brush for digital painting and calligraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Songhua; Lau Francis C. M.; XU Congfu; PAN Yunhe

    2005-01-01

    The design of user friendly and expressive virtual brush systems for interactive digital painting and calligraphy has attracted a lot of attention and effort in both computer graphics and human-computer interaction circles for a long time. Providing a digital environment for paper-less artwork creation is not only challenging in terms of algorithmic design, but also promising for its potential market values. This paper proposes a novel algorithmic framework for interactive digital painting and calligraphy based a novel virtual hairy brush model. The algorithms in the kernel of our simulation framework are built upon solid modeling techniques. Implementing the algorithms, we have developed a virtual hairy brush prototype system with which end users can interactively produce high-quality digital paintings and calligraphic artwork. (The latest progress of our virtual brush project is reported at the website "http://www.cs.hku.hk/~songhua/e-brush/".)

  13. Image-Based Synthesis of Chinese Landscape Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU JinHui(于金辉); LUO GuoMing(罗国明); PENG QunSheng(彭群生)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new framework for synthesizing Chinese landscape painting using an image-based approach. The framework involves two stages: a preprocessing phase, in which a few brush stroke texture primitivities (BSTP) are collected from samples of hand-made Chinese paintings, and the control picture is constructed to provide color IDs of mountains, and the on-line phases, in which the fog image is synthesized and mountains are "drawn" by mapping multiple layers of BSTP guided by the control picture. When more complex shading is needed, the shading picture is constructed and used during the BSTP mapping phase. Finally, the synthesized Chinese landscape paintings of a variety of styles are given and they look more close to the handmade work than those produced with previous modeling methods.

  14. Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Zetina, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

  15. Rheological behavior of acrylic paint blends based on polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex da Silva Sirqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract The rheological properties of acrylic paints and polyaniline (PAni blends, with different contents of PAni doped by dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid (DBSA and, dispersed by mechanical stirrer and ultrasonic, were investigated by controlled shear rate testing ramps. The results showed that the commercial acrylic paint had tended to deliver the required stability on the blends, in order to avoid sedimentation process. All samples exhibited non-Newtonian flow behavior (shear thinning, increasing PAni content the flow behavior index (n decreased (0.41 to 0.11 and power law model were used to fitted the experimental curves. The results showed that the addition of PAni-DBSA affects the viscoelastic behavior of the mixtures due to the interactions between the components in the mixture. The best properties were obtained for samples 90/10 wt % dispersed by ultrasonic, indicating the feasibility of the usage as a conducting paint.

  16. Multilayer Clad Plate of Stainless Steel/Aluminum/Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jiawei; PANG Yuhua; LI Ting

    2011-01-01

    The 3, 5, 20 layer clad plate from austenitic stainless steel, pure aluminum and aluminum alloy sheets were fabricated in different ways. The stretch and interface properties were measured. The result shows that 20 layer clad plate is better than the others. Well-bonded clad plate was successfully obtained in the following procedure: Basic clad sheet from 18 layer A11060/A13003sheets was firstly obtained with an initial rolling reduction of 44% at 450 ℃, followed by annealing at 300 ℃, and then with reduction of 50% at 550 ℃ from STS304 on each side. The best 20 layer clad plate was of 129 MPa bonding strength and 225 MPa stretch strength.

  17. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA

    2011-01-01

    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  18. The “Nationalization” of Oil Painting and Cartoons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; Tan Mingxiang; Sun Hong

    2013-01-01

    1 .Breakout of Oil Painting After crushing the "gang of four"in October 1976, Deng Xiaoping returned to political power , and all China advocated “emancipating the mind , and seeking truth from facts”.Following this , peo-ple began to break through extreme leftist thought , and re -think the gains and losses which came from nationalization . It was only then that oil painting could experience a spring of letting “all flowers bloom together and all schools of thought contend together” .For instance,“Conquering the President’ s Mansion” painted by Chen Yifei and Wei Jingshan in 1977 used the former Soviet U-nion ’ s realism and French Romanticism; Gao Xiaohua , a representative of scar fine art School , painted “Why” and “Catch the Train” in 1978, which both presented the former Soviet Union ’ s realism style;“Father” painted by Luo Zhongli in 1980 shows the American surrealism style; “The Spring Wind Has Woken Up” painted by He Duolin in 1982 illustrates American realism style;“ Tibet Series ” by Chen Dangqing in 1982 re-flects Courbet ’ s realistic style; “Qu Qiubai in Prison” painted by Xin Shanyi in 1984 incorpo-rates a French Classical Style; “Field” made by Wang Yuqi in 1984 is a work painted with Rem-brandt ’ s realistic style; “Girls from the North”painted by Yang Feiyun in 1987 has a French clas-sical realism style .Of course , there were also art-ists who formed a “national form” from painting murals. These included Yuan Yunsheng , Xiao Huixiang, Li Huaji, Liu Bingjiang , even the“Nationalistic” painter , Wu Guanzhong . During this period, the creation of oil paint-ings had very specific, individual features.All works came from the painters ’ individual feelings and desires, and this broke away from having to choose a single “national style”.These works are the result of human -oriented rules which respec-ted artistic rules, and originated from the artists’ life experiences.In the

  19. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob; Lühr, Armin; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Jäkel, Oliver; Mortensen, Lise Saksø; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  20. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Tracie Lee

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum

  1. [The simultaneous contrast of the colors in Van Gogh paints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, P

    2002-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh, Dutchman painter, is a forerunner but also a spokesman of the expressionism. His life was short and sad, marked by a psychic instability. In his paintings the color is subordinated of some subjective motivations. Van Gogh uses complementary colors to get a maximum intensity of the overlapped tones. The chromatic increase serves to obtain some strong emotions. In his landscapes the special distances are suggested through tonal distances. The increase of the pure tones through complementary contrast, the cancel of the imitation colors through sensation-colors, the explosive chromatic are characteristic of her painting. In his singular creation, Vincent Van Gogh created his suffering ego.

  2. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  3. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  4. The motif of the sea – marine painting

    OpenAIRE

    Pregelj, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    In my diploma paper I was researching sea and coast images as a specific theme of a landscape painting called marina. History of this particular theme is connected to life by the sea, shipping, still life and others similar links which have started in the 18th century. Later on the theme became integrated into a living space as a bourgeois accessory, as a romantically designed painting and later it became a part of a modernism in sense of exploring the light. The theme was preserved in variou...

  5. Three-dimensional visual illusion of graphic painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静

    2012-01-01

    Visual illusion is the visual design of a special category.It is a set of technology and art in one of a unique form of artistic expression.Visual illusion can give people a taste of the spirit, with strong cultural con- tent and artistic appeal.So by this way of painting, it has a clever and unique perspective. Aspect If the plane can be realistic paintings to life, then the three-dimensional, two-dimensional space can be called even more powerful by aspects.

  6. Method for warning of radiological and chemical substances using detection paints on a vehicle surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA

    2012-03-13

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  7. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  8. Application of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to automobile paint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Han, S; Yoon, J H; Kim, Y M; Shon, S K; Park, S W

    2001-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) provides a method of elemental analysis that can distinguish among automotive paint samples of the same or nearly the same color. TOF-SIMS survey spectra were employed to determine the relative abundances of elements in the surface layers of the paint chips. The depth profile of paint samples permitted the analysis of small paint chips, the reproducible results for specific elements, and the identification of each car paint. Seventy-three samples of blue, red, white, and silver automobile paints from the major manufacturers in Korea were investigated using high resolution TOF-SIMS technique. It was found that paints of the same color produced by different manufacturers could be distinguished by this technique. TOF-SIMS is a reliable, nondestructive, and small area analyzing method for characterization of the elemental composition of automotive paint chips.

  9. EXPOSURE AND EMISSION EVALUATIONS OF METHYL ETHYL KETOXIME (MEKO) IN ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small environmental chamber tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of a toxic chemical compound -- methylethylketoxime (MEKO) -- from three different alkyd paints. It was found that MEKO emissions occurred almost immediately after each alkyd paint was applied to a pin...

  10. 78 FR 79058 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Chinese Paintings from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Chinese Paintings from Japanese..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Chinese Paintings...

  11. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2010-08-24

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  12. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  13. Comparison of x-ray absorption and emission techniques for the investigation of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Cabal, Ana; Schalm, Olivier; Eyskens, Peter; Willems, Peter; Harth, Astrid; Van Espen, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Transmission radiography is an excellent and easy to use method to visualize the internal structure and spatial distribution of heavy Z pigments in the paint layer of 15th to 17th-century panel paintings. It is used to examine the creation process of the artist (e.g. changes in composition, underlying paintings, etc.), to identify older restorations and to solve authentication problems. However, some historical paintings have white lead-based preparatory layers. As a result, the pictorial lay...

  14. Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-04-01

    Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles.

  15. Diffusion-bonded beryllium aluminum optical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapes, Thomas F.

    2003-12-01

    Beryllium aluminum material can present significant advantages for optical support structures. A likely advantage of beryllium aluminum compared to aluminum or titanium for such structures is its higher specific stiffness. However, beryllium aluminum material is significantly more expensive than most competing materials. The cost problem with beryllium aluminum is exacerbated if fabrication methods that result in near net shape parts are not used. Near net shape methods result in the least amount of material "thrown away" in the fabrication process. Casting is a primary example of near net shape manufacturing that is appropriate for some optical support structures. Casting aluminum, and other materials as well, is common. Casting of beryllium aluminum is very difficult, however, and has not had significant success. Diffusion bonding - a different approach for achieving near net shape beryllium aluminum optical support structures, was pursued and accomplished. Diffusion bonding is a term used to describe the joining of solid metal pieces under high temperature and pressure, but without melting. Three different optical support structures were designed and built of beryllium aluminum using diffusion bonding. Relatively small solid beryllium aluminum pieces were arranged together and then joined under hot isostatic pressure conditions. The resulting relatively large pressure bonded part was then machined to achieve the final product. Significant cost savings as compared to machining the part from a solid block were realized. Difficulties achieving diffusion bonds in complex joints were experienced and addressed.

  16. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; 王雷

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  17. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和

    2004-01-01

    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  18. Electrospray painted article containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A painted polymer part containing a conductive polymer composition containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the painted polymer part has been electrospray painted.

  19. Topographical scanning and reproduction of near-planar surfaces of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhuizen, W.S.; Zaman, T.; Verhofstad, W.; Jonker, P.P.; Dik, J.; Geraedts, J.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Paintings are near-planar objects with material characteristics that vary widely. The fact that paint has a material presence is often overlooked, mostly because we often encounter these artworks in the form of two-dimensional reproductions. Capturing paintings in the third dimension is not only imp

  20. Simultaneous capture of the color and topography of paintings using fringe encoded stereo vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, T.; Jonker, P.P.; Lenseigne, B.A.J.; Dik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Paintings are versatile near-planar objects with material characteristics that vary widely. The fact that paint has a material presence is often overlooked, mostly due to the fact that we encounter many of these artworks through two dimensional reproductions. The capture of paintings i

  1. Mnemonic Artwork-Learning Strategies: Helping Students Remember More than "Who Painted What?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Todd M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    In 2 experiments, 168 undergraduates tested a newly devised mnemonic strategy to help recall various paintings' themes and contents. The effectiveness of cuing the artist's name with a prominent feature of the painting was demonstrated. A mnemonic variation that incorporated a verbally described mnemonic interaction into the painting was most…

  2. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT - PART 1. CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS AND SOURCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken ...

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact...... dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place....

  4. Study on Performance Improvement of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm Using Parallel Pattern Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performanc e of oil paint image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model . Oil Paint image processing, being very performance hungry, current research tries to find improvement using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially.

  5. Library Signage: Applications for the Apple Macintosh and MacPaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Jill A.; FitzGerald, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Describes specific applications of the Macintosh computer at Carnegie-Mellon University Libraries, where MacPaint was used as a flexible, easy to use, and powerful tool to produce informational, instructional, and promotional signage. Profiles of system hardware and software, an evaluation of the computer program MacPaint, and MacPaint signage…

  6. Materials Design for Joinable, High Performance Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glamm, Ryan James

    An aluminum alloy compatible with friction stir welding is designed for automotive and aerospace structural applications. Current weldable automotive aluminum alloys do not possess the necessary strength to meet safety standards and therefore are not able to replace steel in the automotive body. Significant weight savings could be achieved if steel components are replaced with aluminum. Current aerospace alloys are not weldable, requiring machining of large pieces that are then riveted together. If an aerospace alloy could be friction stir welded, smaller pieces could be welded, reducing material waste. Using a systems approach for materials design, property goals are set from performance objectives. From previous research and computational predictions, a structure is designed for a prototype alloy containing dynamic precipitates to readily dissolve and re-precipitate and high stability precipitates to resist dissolution and coarsening in the weld region. It is found that a Ag modified Al-3.9Mg-0.04Cu (at. %) alloy enhanced the rate and magnitude of hardening during ageing, both beneficial effects for dynamic precipitation. In the same alloy, ageing at 350°C results in hardening from Al 3(Sc,Zr) precipitates. Efforts to effectively precipitate both populations simultaneously are unsuccessful. The Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitation hardened prototype is friction stir processed and no weak zones are found in the weld hardness profile. An aerospace alloy design is proposed, utilizing the dual precipitate structure shown in the prototype. The automotive alloy is designed using a basic strength model with parameters determined from the initial prototype alloy analysis. After ageing to different conditions, the alloy is put through a simulated heat affected zone thermal cycle with a computer controlled induction heater. The aged samples lose hardness from the weld cycle but recover hardness from a post weld heat treatment. Atom probe tomography and transmission electron

  7. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  8. Aesthetic experience and the emotional content of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Marković

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relationship between aesthetic experience and other emotional qualities judged in paintings. Aesthetic experience was defined as an exceptional state of mind in which a person is focused on a particular object, transcending its everyday uses and meanings and losing the awareness of surroundings and even of himself/herself. In this state a person has an exceptional emotional experience, that is a feeling of unity with the object. Our basic idea is that aesthetic experience is not reducible to pleasure or a positive hedonic tone, but a person can equally be fascinated with both pleasant and unpleasant objects. In preliminary studies we specified the stimulus set of figural and semi-figural paintings, and a set of descriptors of emotions, feelings and aesthetic experience. Participants judged the paintings on descriptors (seven-point scales. Factor analysis revealed two large factors: the bipolar factor Affective Tone (descriptors on the positive pole: lovely, charming, cheerful, etc; descriptors on the negative pole: scary, disgusting, hateful etc. and Aesthetic Experience (descriptors: exceptional, profound, unique, etc.. Additional analyses have shown no significant correlation between the two factors. These findings confirmed our idea that aesthetic experience is independent of pleasure or affective attraction, and that it can be induced by both pleasant and unpleasant paintings.

  9. Paint and Click: Unified Interactions for Image Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summa, B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Gooch, A. A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Scorzelli, G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Pascucci, V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.

    2015-06-22

    Image boundaries are a fundamental component of many interactive digital photography techniques, enabling applications such as segmentation, panoramas, and seamless image composition. Interactions for image boundaries often rely on two complementary but separate approaches: editing via painting or clicking constraints. In this work, we provide a novel, unified approach for interactive editing of pairwise image boundaries that combines the ease of painting with the direct control of constraints. Rather than a sequential coupling, this new formulation allows full use of both interactions simultaneously, giving users unprecedented flexibility for fast boundary editing. To enable this new approach, we provide technical advancements. In particular, we detail a reformulation of image boundaries as a problem of finding cycles, expanding and correcting limitations of the previous work. Our new formulation provides boundary solutions for painted regions with performance on par with state-of-the-art specialized, paint-only techniques. In addition, we provide instantaneous exploration of the boundary solution space with user constraints. Finally, we provide examples of common graphics applications impacted by our new approach.

  10. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMallon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  11. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  12. Egyptian Symbols and Figures. Hieroglyphs [and] Scroll Paintings. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson introduces students to the writing, art, and religious beliefs of ancient Egypt through hieroglyphs, one of the oldest writing systems in the world, and through tomb paintings. Hieroglyphs consist of pictures of familiar objects that represent sounds and were used in ancient Egypt from about 3100 BC to 400 CE. In the first part of the…

  13. Authentic Classical Haiku and Painting Studies on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    Describes the author's Web site, which is devoted to the Japanese poet-painter Yosa Buson (1716-1784) and contains articles on Buson, bibliographic resources, and a pictorial catalog of haiku and paintings. This paper covers project purpose and background, subject area and materials, contexts of the development, structure of the Web site,…

  14. Modeling and Experiments of Spray System for Cable Painting Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-liang; Lü Tian-sheng; LI Bei-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Many cable-stayed bridges have been built in the world in the past decades,and cable-stayed structures have been adopted in many large constructions.The cable painting robot is safe and economically efficient for stay cable maintenance.In order to satisfy the need for spraying cables in hiigh attitude,an automatic cable spray system for cable painting robots is presented in this paper.Using the βdistribution,paint thickness distribution on a cylinder surface is modeled.The spray gun's number,angle and movement are analyzed to get coat evenness.Then a robotic spray system engineering prototype has been developed,which includes a cable electric running climbing base,a spray cover,four airless spray guns and a pressurized paint container.Experiments indicate that four airless spray guns can guarantee good coat quality for general stay cables.The field tests have been successfully conducted on Nanpu Bridge,Shanghai.

  15. New Generation Of Paper For Calligraphy And Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Among the calligraphic and painting collections, the new generation of paper which was developed by Yu Chunrong is the best and has enjoyed flavour of the collectors. The paper traced in gold has become an artistic work with inscriptions of famous calligraphers and painters.It is worth collecting.

  16. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  17. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  18. Digital Tools: Enhancing Painting Skills among Malaysian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Azimah A.; Putih, Abu Talib; Hussin, Zaharah

    2016-01-01

    Digital tools refer to software applications in the production of artworks particularly in painting. Digital art work is materialized by using computers, software and a combination of computer peripherals such as tablet support. With the aid of electronic equipment, digital artists manipulate pixels or coloring with light to compose the work and…

  19. Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla; Tveit, David J.

    There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air....

  20. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  1. High-performance shape-engineerable thermoelectric painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hoon; Jo, Seungki; Kwon, Beomjin; Kim, Fredrick; Ban, Hyeong Woo; Lee, Ji Eun; Gu, Da Hwi; Lee, Se Hwa; Hwang, Younghun; Kim, Jin-Sang; Hyun, Dow-Bin; Lee, Sukbin; Choi, Kyoung Jin; Jo, Wook; Son, Jae Sung

    2016-11-01

    Output power of thermoelectric generators depends on device engineering minimizing heat loss as well as inherent material properties. However, the device engineering has been largely neglected due to the limited flat or angular shape of devices. Considering that the surface of most heat sources where these planar devices are attached is curved, a considerable amount of heat loss is inevitable. To address this issue, here, we present the shape-engineerable thermoelectric painting, geometrically compatible to surfaces of any shape. We prepared Bi2Te3-based inorganic paints using the molecular Sb2Te3 chalcogenidometalate as a sintering aid for thermoelectric particles, with ZT values of 0.67 for n-type and 1.21 for p-type painted materials that compete the bulk values. Devices directly brush-painted onto curved surfaces produced the high output power of 4.0 mW cm-2. This approach paves the way to designing materials and devices that can be easily transferred to other applications.

  2. Programming balanced optical beam splitters in white paint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.R.; Huisman, T.J.; Goorden, S.A.; Mosk, A.P.; Pinkse, P.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Wavefront shaping allows for ultimate control of light propagation in multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We shine two separate wavefront-shaped beams on a layer of dry white paint to create two enhanced output spots of equal intensity. We experimentally confirm by

  3. Occupational exposure during application and removal of antifouling paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, I.; Jagt, K.E.V.D.; Christopher, Y.; Lurvink, M.; Schinkel, J.; Tielemans, E.; Hemmen, J.J.V.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure data on biocides are relatively rare in published literature, especially for secondary exposure. This is also the case for antifouling exposure. Therefore, a field study was carried out measuring exposure to antifouling paints. Both primary exposure (rolling and spraying) and secondary expo

  4. Democracy in Conservation – Wall Painting Conservation and Church Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2007-01-01

    Wall painting conservation in Denmark has been functioning within a democratically organised church infrastructure for more than 100 years, which permits an overview of community involvement in conservation over a longer period. The case stories presented here show widely varying attitudes held...

  5. Laser decontamination and decomposition of PCB-containing paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthofer, A.; Kögler, P.; Friedrich, C.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of concrete surfaces contaminated with paint containing polychlorinated biphenyls is an elaborate and complex task that must be performed within the scope of nuclear power plant dismantling as well as conventional pollutant cleanup in buildings. The state of the art is mechanical decontamination, which generates dust as well as secondary waste and is both dangerous and physically demanding. Moreover, the ablated PCB-containing paint has to be treated in a separate process step. Laser technology offers a multitude of possibilities for contactless surface treatment with no restoring forces and a high potential for automation. An advanced experimental setup was developed for performing standard laser decontamination investigations on PCB-painted concrete surfaces. As tested with epoxy paints, a high-power diode laser with a laser power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode was implemented and resulted in decontamination of the concrete surfaces as well as significant PCB decomposition. The experimental results showed PCB removal of 96.8% from the concrete surface and PCB decomposition of 88.8% in the laser decontamination process. Significant PCDD/F formation was thereby avoided. A surface ablation rate of approx. 7.2 m2/h was realized.

  6. A Curious Reality: Exploring the Paintings of Philip C. Curtis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Pamela; Walkup, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the paintings of 20th-century American artist Philip C. Curtis defy clear classification. Curtis's artworks often show dreamlike and fantastical qualities and are therefore frequently pigeonholed as Surrealistic. While this classification is not completely erroneous, it fails to acknowledge some subtle differences between Curtis's artwork…

  7. Birds of a Feather... and Clay, Wire, Tissue and Paint!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Lois

    2011-01-01

    What began as a review lesson in clay construction quickly became a fun learning experience filled with inspiring conversations and creatively painted birds. This lesson was successful from beginning to end, with a final reward when the artwork was displayed. The author describes the process of working on this project and shares how the students…

  8. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STEEL AND ALUMINUM STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Peko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined steel and aluminum variants of modern exhibition structures in which the main design requirements include low weight (increased span/depth ratio, transportation, and construction and durability (resistance to corrosion. This included a design situation in which the structural application of aluminum alloys provided an extremely convenient and practical solution. Viability of an aluminum structure depends on several factors and requires a detailed analysis. The overall conclusion of the study indicated that aluminum can be used as a structural material and as a viable alternative to steel for Croatian snow and wind load values and evidently in cases in which positive properties of aluminum are required for structural design. Furthermore, a structural fire analysis was conducted for an aluminum variant structure by using a zone model for realistic fire analysis. The results suggested that passive fire protection for the main structural members was not required in the event of areal fire with duration of 60 min.

  10. [Link between aluminum neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum is an old element that has been known for a long time, but some of its properties are only now being discovered. Although environmentally abundant, aluminum is not essential for life; in fact, because of its specific chemical properties, aluminum inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and exerts various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans. Aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between exposure to aluminum and neurodegenerative diseases, including dialysis encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism dementia in the Kii Peninsula and Guam, as well as Alzheimer' s disease: however, this claim remains to be verified. In this chapter, we review the detailed characteristics of aluminum neurotoxicity and the link between Alzheimer' s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, based on recent findings on metal-metal interactions and the functions of metalloproteins in synapses.

  11. Optical Transmittance of Anodically Oxidized Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Shiga, Yasunori; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wada, Kenji; Ono, Sachiko

    1995-06-01

    Optical transmittance and anisotropy of anodic oxide films that were made from pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy (A5052) were studied. The alloy oxide film exhibits an enhanced polarization function, particularly when anodization is carried out at a large current density. It was revealed by chemical analysis that the alloy oxide film contains a larger amount of unoxidized aluminum than the pure-aluminum oxide film. The polarization function can be elucidated by considering unoxidized aluminum particles that are arranged in the columnar structure of the alumina film. Electron microscope observation showed that many holes exist in the alloy oxide film, around which columnar cells are arranged irregularly. Such holes and irregular cell arrangement cause the increase in the amount of unoxidized aluminum, and consequently induces scattering loss.

  12. Structure of Liquid Aluminum and Hydrogen Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; DAI Yongbing; WANG Jun; SHU Da; SUN Baode

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen content in aluminum melts at different temperature was detected. The structure in aluminum melts was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The first peak position of pair correlation function, atomic coordination number and viscosity of aluminum melts were calculated and they changed abnormally in the same temperature range. The mechanism of hydrogen absorption has been discussed. From molecular dynamics calculations, the interdependence between melt structural properties and hydrogen absorption were obtained.

  13. Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belval-Haltier, E. [Inst. de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I{sub 2} which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with {sup 131}I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I{sub 2} adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  14. Lorenzo Lotto's painting materials: an integrated diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Maria Letizia; Poldi, Gianluca; Barcelli, Sara; Baraldi, Pietro; Berzioli, Michela; Casoli, Antonella; Marras, Susanna; Pojana, Giulio; Villa, Giovanni C. F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive diagnostic investigation carried out on five paintings (three wood panels and two paintings on canvas) by Lorenzo Lotto, one of the most significant artists of the Italian Renaissance in the first half of 16th century. The paintings considered belong to 1508-1522 period, corresponding to the most significant years of Lotto's evolution. A wide array of non-invasive (reflectance spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence) and micro-invasive analytical techniques (optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, micro-FTIR spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry) were applied in order to provide a large set of significant data, limiting as much as possible the sampling. This study has proved that Lotto's painting palette was typical of Venetian practice of that period, but some significant peculiarities emerged: the use of two kinds of red lakes, the addition of calcium carbonate and colourless powdered glass, the latter frequently found in pictorial and ground layers. Moreover, the integrated investigation showed that Lotto's technique was sometimes characterized by the use of coloured priming and multi-layer sequences with complex mixtures. Chromatographic analyses allowed to identify in all specimens: azelaic, palmitic and stearic acids, generally referring to the presence of drying oils. The extension of additional non-invasive examination to about 50 paintings by the same author, spanning from 1505 to around 1556, helped to verify the evolution in the use of some pigments, such as the yellow ones, where Pb-Sb yellow was used alongside Pb-Sn yellow.

  15. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  16. Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yasuda, Takashi; Sawanaka, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-11-01

    We propose a paintmeter for noncontact and remote monitoring of the thickness and drying progress of a paint film based on the time-of-flight measurement of the echo signal of a terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulse. The proposed method is effectively applied to two-dimensional mapping of the painting thickness distribution for single-layer and multilayer paint films. Furthermore, adequate parameters for the drying progress are extracted from the THz pulse-echo signal and effectively applied to monitor the wet-to-dry transformation. The THz paintmeter can be a powerful tool for quality control of the paint film on the in-process monitoring of car body painting.

  17. Warburg and Poliakoff, Movement and Style (a contribution to the contemporary study of images and paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira Vale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of painting on its sources or “influences” serves to achieve its integration in a group of reference from which painting, any true painting that aims at the present, can and should take part. This work aims at an updating of the analysis these influences from the means that serve as references to the pictorial analysis and creation, the images (reproductions and the paintings themselves, by crossing two major references of Art History and Modern Painting (Aby Warburg and Serge Poliakoff.

  18. A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Thakar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects.

  19. Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellés, M; Sánchez, D J; Gómez, M; Corbella, J; Domingo, J L

    1998-06-01

    In recent years, a possible relation between the aluminum and silicon levels in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been established. It has been suggested that silicon may have a protective effect in limiting oral aluminum absorption. The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of supplementing silicon in the diet to prevent tissue aluminum retention in rats exposed to oral aluminum. Three groups of adult male rats were given by gavage 450 mg/kg/day of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate 5 days a week for 5 weeks. Concurrently, animals received silicon in the drinking water at 0 (positive control), 59, and 118 mg Si/L. A fourth group (-Al, - Si) was designated as a negative control group. At the end of the period of aluminum and silicon administration, urines were collected for 4 consecutive days, and the urinary aluminum levels were determined. The aluminum concentrations in the brain (various regions), liver, bone, spleen, and kidney were also measured. For all tissues, aluminum levels were significantly lower in the groups exposed to 59 and 118 mg Si/L than in the positive control group; significant reductions in the urinary aluminum levels of the same groups were also found. The current results corroborate that silicon effectively prevents gastrointestinal aluminum absorption, which may be of concern in protecting against the neurotoxic effects of aluminum.

  20. The Aluminum Deep Processing Project of North United Aluminum Landed in Qijiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On April 10,North United Aluminum Company respectively signed investment cooperation agreements with Qijiang Industrial Park and Qineng Electricity&Aluminum Co.,Ltd,signifying the landing of North United Aluminum’s aluminum deep processing project in Qijiang.

  1. Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, K.; Dik, J. [TU Delft, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Leeuw, M. [Atelier for Restoration and Research of Paintings, The Hague (Netherlands); Whitson, A. den [L3 Communications, Woburn, MA (United States); Tortora, J. [JK Consulting, Sudbury, MA (United States); Coan, P.; Nemoz, C.; Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2006-05-15

    X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

  3. Study on the transverse painting during the injection process for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Qiu, Jing; Xu, Shou-Yan; Huang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    For the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), a combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). In this paper, firstly, the injection processes with different painting ranges and different painting methods were studied. With the codes ORBIT and MATLAB, the particle distribution and painting image were obtained. Then, the reasonable painting range which is suitable for the aperture size and magnet gap can be selected. Since the real field uniformity of BH3 and BV3 is not completely in conformity with the design requirement, the painting method and painting range also need to be selected to reduce the effects of bad field uniformity.

  4. 浅谈中国画的设色%A Brief Discussion on the Color Design in Chinese Paint-ing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静雯

    2014-01-01

    中国画的色彩有其自身的独特性,一幅好的绘画作品,色彩的表现是尤为重要的,设色可以说是一幅绘画作品的主题,内容表现也是很重要的。一幅作品的好坏,成功与否,大部分都是色彩所决定的。尤其是一张以色彩来突出主题的画,例如:中国画中的工笔重彩的人物画、工笔花鸟以及一些青山绿水画更是突出色彩的重要性。在画面上也是起到了举足轻重的作用。[1]%The color of Chinese painting possess its own inde-pendence. For a good painting, color performance is particular-ly important, and the painting design can be said to be the theme of the painting, and the content expression is also very important. What determines whether a painting is successful or not is mostly the color, especially a painting with its color to highlight the theme, such as claborate-style figure painting in the Chinese painting, claborate-style painting of flowers and birds and some paintings of mountains and rivers, in which the importance of colors is highlighted. In addition, it also plays an important role in the frame of a painting.

  5. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  6. Sanmenxia strives to create aluminum industrial base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Contradiction between rich alumina resource and relatively weak electrolytic aluminum production capacity is the "bottleneck" inhibiting development of aluminum industry in San-menxia. During the period of "11th Five-Year Development", Sanmenxia will relay on its

  7. Wilson's disease; increased aluminum in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, M; Yoshimasu, F; Yase, Y; Uebayashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Interaction of trace metal metabolism was studied in a patient with Wilson's dease. Atomic absorption analysis showed markedly increased urinary excretion of copper and aluminum and an increased aluminum content was found in the biopsied liver by neutron activation analysis. These findings suggest a complicated pathogenetic mechanism involving other metals besides copper in the Wilson's disease.

  8. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawong, Achariya; Magee, Rogan; Peebles, Ken; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    During the past decade, there has been substantial interest in recovering energy from many unwanted byproducts from industries and municipalities. Co-combustion of these products with coal seems to be the most cost-effective approach. The combustion process typically results in emissions of pollutants, especially fine particles and trace elements. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic [As], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], manganese [Mn], molybdenum [Mo], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter [dp] > 0.5 microm), a submicrometer-mode ash (dp combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion.

  9. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... (FeAl3), which start to become operative when the degree of deformation is raised from 15 to 30 pct. The temperature of nucleation and of recrystallization decreases when the degree of deformation is increased and the initial grain size is decreased. The recrystallized grain size follows the same...... trend and it is observed that the refinement of the recrystallized grain size caused by an increasing degree of deformation and decreasing initial grain size is enhanced by the FeAl3 particles (when the degree of deformation is raised from 15 to 30 pct). Finally, the structural and kinetic observations...

  10. Aluminum honeycomb impact limiter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaksh, M.C.; Thompson, T.C. (Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)); Nickell, R.E. (Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Poway, CA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Design requirements for a cask transporting radioactive materials must include the condition of the 30-foot free fall of the cask onto an unyielding surface. To reduce the deceleration loads to a tolerable level for all the components of the cask, a component (impact limiter) is designed to absorb the kinetic energy. The material, shape, and method of attachment of the impact limiter to the cask body comprises the design of the impact limiter. The impact limiter material of interest is honeycomb aluminum, and the particular design examined was for the NAC Legal Weight Truck cask (NAC-LWT) for spent fuel from light water reactors. The NAC-LWT has a design weight of 52,000 pounds, and it has a nominal length of 200 inches. The report describes the numerical calculations embodied in the FADE program to determine the accelerations and crush strain resulting from an arbitrary height and angle of orientation. Since the program serves as a design tool, static tests are performed to assess the effect of the shell containing the honeycomb aluminum. The static tests and their results are contained in the study. The static tests are used to demonstrate for licensing purposes the level of accelerations imposed on the cask during a 30-foot drop. 3 refs., 41 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  12. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  13. Gelling nature of aluminum soaps in oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Rackaitis, Mindaugas

    2009-03-15

    Aluminum soaps are notable for their ability to form soap-hydrocarbon gels of high viscosity. For more than half a century, it has been believed that the gelling mechanism is due to a formation of polymeric chains of aluminum molecules with the aluminum atoms linking along the axis and with the fatty acid chain extended sideways. Here we report results from an investigation using high-resolution electron microscopy and rheology measurements that clearly resolve the ambiguity. Our results reveal that the gelling mechanism stems from the formation of spherical nano-sized micelles from aluminum soap molecules, and those colloidal micelle particles then aggregate into networks of highly fractal and jammed structures. The earlier proposed polymer chain-like structure is definitely incorrect. The discovery of aluminum soap particles could expand application of these materials to new technologies.

  14. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  15. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  16. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  17. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  18. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  19. Investigation of multilayer painting by means of molecular spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadikova I.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of paintings’ layer structure under microscope was implemented in the early XX century; since that time method of cross-section preparation as well as composition of embedded materials changed and capabilities of optical microscopy broadened. Nevertheless, until recently cross-sections were prepared only for analysis of paintings’ layer-specific structure, morphological and technological features, tracks of restoration treatments. Examination of chemical composition required additional sampling as well as division of these samples layer by layer in order to determine pigments and binding media; these procedures didn’t always lead to proper results. Micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopy allow carrying out investigation of painting cross-sections without any additional preliminary sampling; this is shown on example of investigation of a number of paintings.

  20. Bleaching of red lake paints in encaustic mummy portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Spaabaek, Lin; Romani, Aldo; Manuali, Valentina; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    The present paper reports on the study of the development of whitish opacity in pink paints in encaustic mummy portraits. Non-invasive measurements carried out on two encaustic portraits belonging to the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, by reflectance FTIR and UV-vis fluorescence have shown that the areas prone to the bleaching phenomenon had been painted with melted beeswax and an anthraquinone vegetal lake mixed with calcium sulphate hemihydrate and dihydrate. The hypothesis that the bleaching disease was neither related to a degradation of the dyes nor to an alteration of the wax but rather to a dehydration-hydration reaction of the CaSO4-H2O system, has been corroborated by the analyses of two microsamples from the bleached areas and ascertained by accelerated ageing experiments on encaustic models.

  1. Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Tymińska-Widmer, Ludmiła; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kwiatkowska, Ewa A

    2010-06-15

    Identification of the order, thickness, composition, and possibly the origin of the paint layers forming the structure of a painting, that is, its stratigraphy, is important in confirming its attribution and history as well as planning conservation treatments. The most common method of examination is analysis of a sample collected from the art object, both visually with a microscope and instrumentally through a variety of sophisticated, modern analytical tools. Because of its invasiveness, however, sampling is less than ideally compatible with conservation ethics; it is severely restricted with respect to the amount of material extirpated from the artwork. Sampling is also rather limited in that it provides only very local information. There is, therefore, a great need for a noninvasive method with sufficient in-depth resolution for resolving the stratigraphy of works of art. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, noncontact method of optical sectioning of partially transparent objects, with micrometer-level axial resolution. The method utilizes near-infrared light of low intensity (a few milliwatts) to obtain cross-sectional images of various objects; it has been mostly used in medical diagnostics. Through the serial collection of many such images, volume information may be extracted. The application of OCT to the examination of art objects has been in development since 2003. In this Account, we present a short introduction to the technique, briefly discuss the apparatus we use, and provide a paradigm for reading OCT tomograms. Unlike the majority of papers published previously, this Account focuses on one, very specific, use of OCT. We then consider two examples of successful, practical application of the technique. At the request of a conservation studio, the characteristics of inscriptions on two oil paintings, originating from the 18th and 19th centuries, were analyzed. In the first case, it was possible to resolve some questions concerning the

  2. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-01

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  3. Characterization of aluminum surfaces: Sorption and etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Jeannette Clera

    Aluminum, due to its low density and low cost, is a key material for future lightweight applications. However, like other structural materials, aluminum is subject to various forms of corrosion damage that annually costs the United States approximately 5% of its GNP [1]. The main goal is to investigate the effects of various solution anions on aluminum surfaces, and specifically probe pit initiation and inhibition. Using surface analysis techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, results have been correlated with those obtained from electrochemical methods and a radiolabeling technique developed in the Wieckowski laboratory. Analysis of data has indicated that important variables include type of anion, solution pH, and applied electrode potential. While aggressive anions such as chloride are usually studied to elucidate corrosion processes to work ultimately toward inhibition, its corrosive properties can be successfully utilized in the drive for higher energy and smaller-scale storage devices. Fundamental information gained regarding anion interaction with the aluminum surface can be applied to tailor etch processes. Standard electrochemical techniques and SEM are respectively used to etch and analyze the aluminum substrate. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are comprised of aluminum anode foil covered by an anodically grown aluminum oxide dielectric film, electrolytic paper impregnated with electrolyte, and aluminum cathode foil. Two main processes are involved in the fabrication of aluminum electrolytic capacitors, namely etching and anodic oxide formation. Etching of the anode foil results in a higher surface area (up to 20 times area enlargement compared to unetched foil) that translates into a higher capacitance gain, permitting more compact and lighter capacitor manufacture. Anodic oxide formation on the anode, creates the required dielectric to withstand high voltage operation. A

  4. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  5. On the First Case of Pre-action Injunction Granted in Beijing: Red Lion Paint Co., Ltd. v. Red Lion Jing Paint Trading Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The case in brief The Beijing Red Lion Paint Co., Ltd. (the RL for short) is a business that manufactures and markets paint, and the proprietor of several registered trademarks of the "RED LION" words, device and the combination thereof. The registered "RED LION" trademark has been, on several occasions, rewarded by the relevant departments the title of Famous Trademark in Beijing.

  6. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dorland

    Full Text Available Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites. There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  7. Colloids in Paints Colloids and Interface Science, Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Tadros, Tharwat F

    2011-01-01

    The first modern approach to relate fundamental research to the applied science of colloids, this series bridges academic research and practical applications, thus providing the information vital to both. Written by the very best scientists in their respective disciplines, this volume describes the role of colloids in paints, highlighting the importance of fundamental research in industrial applications.For surface, polymer and physicochemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers.

  8. A Robotic Solution for the Restoration of Fresco Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ceccarelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a service robot solution is presented for the analysis, surveying and restoration of fresco paintings. The proposed design approach integrates robot design and restoration operation. It aims to merge them into a feasible solution that can be both practical and feasible for restorers. The simulation results are reported to show a successful design solution, which has been conceived with the constraints of a low-cost user-oriented design and the consideration of cultural heritage.

  9. A Robotic Solution for the Restoration of Fresco Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ceccarelli; Francisco Blanco-Moreno; Giuseppe Carbone; Pilar Roig; Michela Cigola; Jose Luis Regidor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a service robot solution is presented for the analysis, surveying and restoration of fresco paintings. The proposed design approach integrates robot design and restoration operation. It aims to merge them into a feasible solution that can be both practical and feasible for restorers. The simulation results are reported to show a successful design solution, which has been conceived with the constraints of a low-cost user-oriented design and the consideration of cultural heritage.

  10. Energy conservation and pollution control in the paint finishing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.

    1974-07-01

    An incinerating system is described which operates at well above the 90% reduction requirements for hydrocarbon emissions and incorporates heat recuperation for high thermal efficiency. Polluted oven gases are exhausted to an incinerator where their temperature is raised to the critical reaction point at which the complex hydrocarbon materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. These very hot gases are passed through a heat exchanger unit and then to atmosphere. Incoming air is warmed and supplied to another oven for painting.

  11. Reclamation of Wood Materials Coated with Lead-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    determine the final fate of each material. Asphalt shingles are recyclable, but if they are contaminated with asbestos they must be handled as... abrasion where dust levels are greater than defined in this Rule, (2) damaged or deteriorated paint on an impact surface, (3) any chewable LBP where...specific areas and employees will wear high visibility apparel (e.g. safety vests or shirts) and avoid working in areas that will subject them to being

  12. Through the Flat Canvas: The Motor Meaning of Realistic Paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano Zipoli Caiani

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that common objects in the environment can evoke possibilities of action, but what about their bi-dimensional representation? Do pictures or paintings that represent action-related objects evoke the same possibilities of actions of the objects that they represent? In contemporary cognitive science, there are two contrasting views on this issue. On the one hand, the ecological-dispositional approach to perception supports the idea that viewing depicted objects as endowed with ...

  13. Direct 3D Painting with a Metaball-Based Paintbrush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Huagen; JIN Xiaogang; BAO Hujun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a direct 3D painting algorithm for polygonal models in 3D object-space with a metaball-based paintbrush in virtual environment.The user is allowed to directly manipulate the parameters used to shade the surface of the 3D shape by applying the pigment to its surface with direct 3D manipulation through a 3D flying mouse.

  14. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a `noli me tangere' painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a `noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  15. Technical analysis of four archaeological andean painted textiles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the materials and manufacturing techniques used to create four archaeological Andean painted textiles in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. The textiles are attributed to Peru but have minimal provenience. Building on previous work by other scholars on similar archaeological textiles, the materials and manufacturing techniques are identified and characterized by observation, documentation, and scientific analysis. S...

  16. Thermodynamics of Paint Related Systems with Engineering Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2001-01-01

    Paints are complex materials composed of polymers (binders) dissolved in one or more solvents, pigments, and other additives. The thermodynamics of such systems is essential, for example, for selecting improved solvents and understanding a number of phenomena related especially! to adhesion...... that, despite the uncertainties involved, several models yield reasonably accurate activity coefficients, even at infinite dilution. Thus, engineering models may be useful for solvent selection via semiempirical rules of thumb, which are based on thermodynamic considerations....

  17. CFD Modeling & Verification in an Aircraft Paint Hangar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Collaboration •Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (BUMED), IH Division –Assists CNO with health and safety of Navy aircraft artisans –Quarterly monitoring...levels • Handling paint particulates and vapors 10 E2S2. Verification Pitfalls • Artisans change process in the weeks between baseline and...verification – Added a fabric blanket in front of filter to save filter bank blocking exhaust airflow during sanding • Learn how to go w/o sleep

  18. When Van Gogh meets Mandelbrot: Multifractal Classification of Painting's Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Abry, Patrice; Wendt, Herwig; Jaffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In a recent past, there has been a growing interest for examining the po- tential of Image Processing tools to assist Art Investigation. Simultaneously, several research works showed the interest of using multifractal analysis for the description of homogeneous textures in images. In this context, the goal of the present contribution is to study the benefits of using the wavelet leader based multifractal formalism to characterize paintings. To that end, after a brief r...

  19. Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A T

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of selected studbook records of the American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene. More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo. Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in other breeds.

  20. Art expertise reduces influence of visual salience on fixation in viewing abstract-paintings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Koide

    Full Text Available When viewing a painting, artists perceive more information from the painting on the basis of their experience and knowledge than art novices do. This difference can be reflected in eye scan paths during viewing of paintings. Distributions of scan paths of artists are different from those of novices even when the paintings contain no figurative object (i.e. abstract paintings. There are two possible explanations for this difference of scan paths. One is that artists have high sensitivity to high-level features such as textures and composition of colors and therefore their fixations are more driven by such features compared with novices. The other is that fixations of artists are more attracted by salient features than those of novices and the fixations are driven by low-level features. To test these, we measured eye fixations of artists and novices during the free viewing of various abstract paintings and compared the distribution of their fixations for each painting with a topological attentional map that quantifies the conspicuity of low-level features in the painting (i.e. saliency map. We found that the fixation distribution of artists was more distinguishable from the saliency map than that of novices. This difference indicates that fixations of artists are less driven by low-level features than those of novices. Our result suggests that artists may extract visual information from paintings based on high-level features. This ability of artists may be associated with artists' deep aesthetic appreciation of paintings.

  1. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them.

  2. The Visual Poetry of Chinese Bamboo: Some Notes on Traditional Chinese Xieyi Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maningning C. Miclat

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese painting (Huo Hua which dates back to the Han Dynasty (25 A.D.-135 A.D. has two traditions: the Xieyi and the Gong Pi. Xieyi means "writing the meaning down" and its practitioners are literati artists who execute expressionistic and gestural strokes. Gong Pi painting is known for its application of colors and fine strokes. It is a naturalistic rendition of the subject that imitates the superficial likeness of the world. While Xieyi painting aims to capture the Qi or the vital spirit in the practice of painting and calligraphy,1 the naturalistic rendition of Gong Pi painting exhibits the dexterity of the artist. However, capturing the Qi is a more sophisticated preoccupation as far as the Chinese scholars of the classical times are concerned.Xieyi painting is associated with literati paintings or the Wen Ren Hua practiced by scholars. It includes mainly landscapes, flora and fauna, human figures, and the Si Jun Zi Hua2 or the Four Noblemen Painting. In the Si Jun Zi Hua painting of the Bamboo, the different brushstrokes of Chinese calligraphy are applied.3 Unlike Gong Pi painting, which takes many days or weeks to finish,4 the Xieyi painting is finished in one sitting. A Xieyi painting is composed by the artist on the spot. The blank paper signifies Yin and the brush strokes signify Yang. To balance a composition is to achieve harmony and wholeness. A good composition is achieved when the spirit or the essence of the subject is captured with the masterful brush strokes and a good sense of balance in the composition.In this paper, I will examine the history of Chinese literati painting, its materials, its tradition and milieu, the symbolism of its themes, and its practice in post-Cultural Revolution China.

  3. An investigation of the neural substrates of mind wandering induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate whether the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task. In Experiment 1 we examined the subjective experience of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings vs. realistic oil landscape paintings in a behavioral study. Our results confirmed that, as predicted, traditional Chinese landscape paintings induce greater levels of relaxation and mind wandering and lower levels of object-oriented absorption and recognition, compared to realistic oil landscape paintings. In Experiment 2 we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the behavioural and neural effects of viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings on a task requiring cognitive control (i.e., the flanker task—administered immediately following exposure to paintings. Contrary to our prediction, the behavioural data demonstrated that compared to realistic oil landscape paintings, exposure to traditional Chinese landscape paintings had no effect on performance on the flanker task. However, the neural data demonstrated an interaction effect such that there was greater activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC and the superior frontal gyrus (SFG on incongruent compared with congruent flanker trials when participants switched from viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings to the flanker task than when they switched from realistic oil landscape paintings. These results suggest that switching from traditional Chinese landscape paintings placed greater demands on the brain’s attention and working memory networks during the flanker task than did switching from realistic oil landscape paintings.

  4. Development of 6-DOF painting robot control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junbiao; Liu, Jianqun; Gao, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    With the development of society, the spraying technology of manufacturing industry in China has changed from the manual operation to the 6-DOF (Degree Of Freedom)robot automatic spraying. Spraying painting robot can not only complete the work which does harm to human being, but also improve the production efficiency and save labor costs. Control system is the most critical part of the 6-DOF robots, however, there is still a lack of relevant technology research in China. It is very necessary to study a kind of control system of 6-DOF spraying painting robots which is easy to operation, and has high efficiency and stable performance. With Googol controller platform, this paper develops programs based on Windows CE embedded systems to control the robot to finish the painting work. Software development is the core of the robot control system, including the direct teaching module, playback module, motion control module, setting module, man-machine interface, alarm module, log module, etc. All the development work of the entire software system has been completed, and it has been verified that the entire software works steady and efficient.

  5. Using Hypermedia in Teaching Art & Design: Baroque Dutch Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas A. Alkholy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the whole world adapts ICT -information and communication technologies- in learning and teaching visual arts for the benefit of both the student and the society, the Middle East is motionless. ME teachers need training, institutional support and motivation to apply ICT in classrooms. Preparing a traditional lecture, including visual projected examples by data show takes less time. Doing comparisons and contrast, going through formal analysis or juggling between visual examples is complex within classrooms' technological limitations of having one projector. There is an urgent need to alter traditional methods of teaching art and design and integrate pictorial approaches. This paper discusses design/art pedagogy via a suggested model lesson, which utilizes hypermedia to resemble internet interface. The lesson teaches Dutch Baroque interior design through a selection of Vermeer's paintings. Vermeer accurately painted interior elements in his paintings. The development of technology stimulates students’ imagination and develops their understanding of more influencing graphical forms. Any other art and design themes and styles can be taught by using the same interface.

  6. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  7. Organogel formulations for the cleaning of easel paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Piero; Bonelli, Nicole; Chelazzi, David; Chevalier, Aurelia; Dei, Luigi; Domingues, Joana; Fratini, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico; Martin, Morgane

    2015-11-01

    Gels are particularly useful for the cleaning of works of art, as they allow the controlled delivery of cleaning fluids on solvent-sensitive substrates such as easel paintings. Owing to the presence of covalent cross-links between the polymer chains, chemical gels exhibit mechanical properties that allow their easy handling and their residue-free removal from artistic surfaces after the cleaning intervention. Organogels based on the cross-linking of methyl methacrylate (MMA) can be prepared as loaded with solvents for the controlled removal of unwanted layers from the surface of canvas paintings. Here, we propose MMA-based organogels obtained by solubilizing MMA in pure organic solvents (e.g., ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and ketones) and using a dimethacrylate cross-linker. The uptake/release behavior of the gels has been investigated, and their mesoporosity has been characterized through small-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the gels have been used for the removal of historical varnishes from canvas painting samples, checking the absence of gel residues with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

  8. Painting cracks: A way to investigate the pictorial matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, Frédérique; Pauchard, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    An old painting generally exhibits a wide variety of crack patterns. From a strictly aesthetic point of view, cracks are undesirable; nevertheless, they can be seen as the fingerprints of the painting and provide valuable knowledge about the art piece. Precisely, the morphology of crack patterns can be related to the mechanical properties of the pictorial matter or they can reveal information about the methods used by the artist or the conditions of conservation. In the present paper, we show how drying dispersions of colloidal particles in a volatile solvent on a non-porous substrate provides a good candidate to study crack formation in a solid layer. We recover the crack patterns observed in paintings, and we investigate the role of the substrate, e.g., the sub-layer, and of the thickness of the layer in the crack spacing. We show how to deduce mechanical properties of a sub-layer, provided the thickness and the elastic modulus of the layer are known. These experiments aim to propose a potentially non-invasive method to deduce quantitative information about mechanical properties of a pictorial matter which could be of great interest for cultural heritage.

  9. Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafał; Zięba-Palus, Janina

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ΔE < 3). The values of ΔE between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one - a logarithmic function.

  10. Emotional Dimensions of Music and Painting and their Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Bueno, J J; DeJuan-Ayala, O; Montoya, Pedro; Birbaumer, N

    2015-07-20

    Usually it is accepted that human manifestations such as music or painting share a common artistic trait. However, very little is known about the genetic, behavioral, developmental and neurobiological basis of such a musical-pictorial "universal". In an attempt to approach commonalities and differences between the psychology of music and pictorial art in Experiment 1 we investigated the emotional dimensions valence and arousal in a large sample (N =156, M age = 21,44 years, SD = 3,89 years, range = 16-35 years) using a representative selection of musical and pictorial artistic stimuli. We found a stronger variability of valence and arousal with paintings and stronger effects of music on valence. In Experiment 2 (N =202, M age = 21,35 years, SD = 3,57 years, range = 16-35 years) we present first quantitative data on the interaction between the two artistic categories of stimuli on a behavioral level, again observing effects of pictorial art and music on valence and arousal. Furthermore in Experiment 2 we replicated a more pronounced effect of music on the valence of pictures, particularly on positive valence the results of the ANOVA showed an increase in group A2: F(1, 120) = 6.23, p music, group A1: F(1, 127) = 19.69, p music over painting.

  11. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  12. The Reading of a Painting%读画

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁实秋

    2012-01-01

    本刊2000年第3期曾刊登朱纯深先生所翻译并导读的《读画》·文,本篇汉英对照与前篇稍有改动,作为附录附于正文之后,以飨读者。%Yuan Mei has this to say in his Suiyuan Notes on Poetry: "Artists believe in the reading of a painting, yet I can find nothing to be read in a painting -- What one reads is the poetry it bears." The old gentleman was making a good point here. Reading means reciting, or chanting aloud the words to appreciate the meaning, so one must have the words, the text, before one can do the reading. As such, how can you read a painting? The so-called reading of a painting, therefore, should be reading the poetry it carries.

  13. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  14. Structural analysis of paintings based on brush strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablatnig, Robert; Kammerer, Paul; Zolda, Ernestine

    1998-05-01

    The origin of works of art can often not be attributed to a certain artist. Likewise it is difficult to say whether paintings or drawings are originals or forgeries. In various fields of art new technical methods are used to examine the age, the state of preservation and the origin of the materials used. For the examination of paintings, radiological methods like X-ray and infra-red diagnosis, digital radiography, computer-tomography, etc. and color analyzes are employed to authenticate art. But all these methods do not relate certain characteristics in art work to a specific artist -- the artist's personal style. In order to study this personal style of a painter, experts in art history and image processing try to examine the 'structural signature' based on brush strokes within paintings, in particular in portrait miniatures. A computer-aided classification and recognition system for portrait miniatures is developed, which enables a semi- automatic classification and forgery detection based on content, color, and brush strokes. A hierarchically structured classification scheme is introduced which separates the classification into three different levels of information: color, shape of region, and structure of brush strokes.

  15. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    impermanence and behaviour following light exposure [1, 2]. Several papers have been published investigating this phenomenon [2, 3] on laboratory paint models. By means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and digital microscopy......, the current in situ campaign aimed at mapping and understanding the degradation of Prussian blue and lead white admixtures using non-invasive portable techniques. The presence of Prussian blue was detected, with the MOLAB analytical means, in all the exposed, faded areas, although the colour had turned pale...... of the blue pigment also highlighting some differences. The non-invasive analysis is complemented by the results collected on some micro-samples previously taken during restoration [4]. To rationalize the data and understand the degradation phenomenon occurring in the Danish Golden Age paintings, specifically...

  16. Development of Alcoa aluminum foam products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.D.; Crowley, M.D.; Wang, W.; Wilhelmy, D.M.; Hunter, D.E. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new lightweight aluminum foam product was described. The foam was made through the controlled decomposition of carbonate powders within molten aluminum and was able to resist both coalescence and drainage. The fine-celled aluminum foam derived its physical and mechanical properties from the properties of the aluminum alloy matrix from which they were produced. The rheology of the molten aluminum was modified to provide a superior mesostructure. Stabilization was achieved by creating a solid-gas-liquid suspension initiated by the addition of carbonates into an aluminum alloy melt. A cascade of chemical reactions then occurred within the melt to create a foamable suspension. Carbon monoxide (CO) was generated to initiate an additional sequence of chemical reactions which resulted in the formation of solid particles within the liquid metal. CO reacted with liquid Al to form graphite. The graphite then reacted with Al to form aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}). The microstructural, mesostructural, and mechanical character of the foams produced under different processing conditions were examined. Details of experimental test procedures were also described. It was concluded that the specific crush energy absorption was as high as 20 kJ/kg. The foam exhibited a bending stiffness that was approximately 20 to 30 times higher than balsa and polymer foams. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, M.; Waugh, D. G.; Colston, B. J.; Lawrence, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer - a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  18. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  19. Moisture dynamics in wall paintings monitored by single-sided NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligschläger, D; Waldow, S; Haber, A; Zia, W; Blümich, B

    2015-01-01

    The durability of historic wall paintings is highly dependent on environmental influences such as moisture ingress, salt crystallization and temperature changes. A fundamental understanding of dynamic transport processes in wall paintings is necessary to apply suitable conservation and restoration methods to preserve such objects with high cultural value. Non-invasive, mobile-NMR techniques with single-sided sensors, such as the NMR-MOUSE(®), enable to monitor the moisture content, transport and apparent diffusion constants in wall paintings. We investigated this technique by experiment and modeling to correlate salt crystallization, moisture transport and local diffusion in wall-painting samples. Moreover, the influence of different painting techniques (fresco and secco) and conservation/consolidation methods on moisture transport and diffusion is discussed. The results are compared with results from field measurements on real fresco paintings in Casa del Salone Nero and the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum, Italy.

  20. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Weinell, Claus Erik; Pedersen, M. S.;

    2002-01-01

    A Fundamental mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint was used to conduct a parameter study. The aims were to show how a mathematical model can reduce the amount of experimental work needed to estimate the behaviour of self-polishing antifouling paints at different conditions......, and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na......Cl, pigment particle size. pigment volume concentration of the paint, the rate of pigment dissolution, and the pore size distribution of the leached layer. The modelling approach can be applied to any type of self-polishing antifouling paint provided that kinetic, solubility and diffusivity data are available...

  1. Characterization of pigments and ligands in a wall painting fragment from Liternum archaeological park (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Gaetano; Gelzo, Monica; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo; Lomoriello, Filomena Schiano; D'Apolito, Oceania; Dello Russo, Antonio; Gargiulo, Patrizia; Piccioli, Ciro; Arcari, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Spectroscopic and MS techniques were used to characterize the pigments and the composition of polar and nonpolar binders of a stray wall painting fragment from Liternum (Italy) archaeological excavation. X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analysis of the decorations indicated mainly the presence of calcite, quartz, hematite, cinnabar, and cuprorivaite. Infrared spectroscopy, GC coupled to flame-ionization detector, and MS analysis of the polar and nonpolar components extracted from paint layers from three different color regions revealed the presence of free amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids. Interestingly, LC-MS shotgun analysis of the red painting region showed the presence of αS1-casein of buffalo origin. Compared to our previous results from Pompeii's wall paintings, even though the Liternum painting mixture contained also binders of animal origin, the data strongly suggest that in both cases a tempera painting technique was utilized.

  2. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  3. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  4. Changes in porosity of foamed aluminum during solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to control the porosity of foamed aluminum, the changes in the porosity of foamed aluminum melt in the processes of foaming and solidification, the distribution of the porosity of foamed aluminum, and the relationship between them were studied. The results indicated that the porosity of foamed aluminum coincides well with the foaming time.

  5. Nanoparticles for cultural heritage conservation: calcium and barium hydroxide nanoparticles for wall painting consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Ambrosi, Moira; Toccafondi, Nicola; Baglioni, Piero

    2010-08-16

    Nanotechnology provides new concepts and materials for the consolidation and protection of wall paintings. In particular, humble calcium and barium hydroxide nanoparticles offer a versatile and highly efficient tool to combat the main degradation processes altering wall paintings. Clear example of the efficacy and potentiality of nanotechnology is represented by the conservation in situ of Maya wall paintings in the archaeological area in Calakmul (Mexico).

  6. Topographical scanning and reproduction of near-planar surfaces of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Paintings are near-planar objects with material characteristics that vary widely. The fact that paint has a material presence is often overlooked, mostly because we often encounter these artworks in the form of two-dimensional reproductions. Capturing paintings in the third dimension is not only important for study, restoration and conservation, but it also inspires 3D printing methods1, particularly through the high demands it makes on reproducing color, gloss and texture. “A hybrid solution...

  7. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students.Methods: Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise.Results: Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped fa...

  8. Frames as visual links between paintings and the museum environment: An analysis of statistical image properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eRedies

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Frames provide a visual link between artworks and their surround. We asked how image properties change as an observer zooms out from viewing a painting alone, to viewing the painting with its frame and, finally, the framed painting in its museum environment (museum scene. To address this question, we determined three higher-order image properties that are based on histograms of oriented luminance gradients. First, complexity was measured as the sum of the strengths of all gradients in the image. Second, we determined the self-similarity of histograms of the orientated gradients at different levels of spatial analysis. Third, we analyzed how much gradient strength varied across orientations (anisotropy. Results were obtained for three art museums that exhibited paintings from three major periods of Western art. In all three museums, the mean complexity of the frames was higher than that of the paintings or the museum scenes. Frames thus provide a barrier of complexity between the paintings and their exterior. By contrast, self-similarity and anisotropy values of images of framed paintings were intermediate between the images of the paintings and the museum scenes, i.e., the frames provided a transition between the paintings and their surround. We also observed differences between the three museums that may reflect modified frame usage in different art periods. For example, frames in the museum for 20th century art tended to be smaller and less complex than in the two other two museums that exhibit paintings from earlier art periods (13th-18th century and 19th century, respectively. Finally, we found that the three properties did not depend on the type of reproduction of the paintings (photographs in museums, scans from books or images from the Google Art Project. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the relation between frames and paintings by measuring physically defined, higher-order image properties.

  9. Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Rampal, Krishna G; Thuppil, Venkatesh; Roda, Sandy M; Succop, Paul; Menrath, William; Chen, Chin K; Adebamowo, Eugenious O; Agbede, Oluwole A; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Zakaria, Yehia; El-Safty, Amal; Shinde, Rana M; Yu, Jiefei

    2009-10-01

    In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.

  10. Analysis of the Distributions of Color Characteristics in Art Painting Images

    OpenAIRE

    IVANOVA, Krassimira; Stanchev, Peter; Dimitrov, Boyan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study some of the characteristics of the art painting image color semantics. We analyze the color features of differ- ent artists and art movements. The analysis includes exploration of hue, saturation and luminance. We also use quartile’s analysis to obtain the dis- tribution of the dispersion of defined groups of paintings and measure the degree of purity for these groups. A special software system “Art Paint- ing Image Color Semantics” (APICSS) for image ...

  11. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  12. Fundamento e desenho do teste randomizado PAINT Fundamento y diseño del test randomizado PAINT Rationale and design for the PAINT randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Lemos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Descrevemos as bases teóricas e o formato do "Estudo PAINT - Intervenção percutânea com stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em polímero biodegradável comparados com stents sem recobrimento no tratamento de lesões coronárias de novo". OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas novas formulações de stents com eluição de paclitaxel ou sirolimus em comparação com um stent de estrutura metálica idêntica, porém sem recobrimento polimérico ou eluição de droga. MÉTODOS: O PAINT é um estudo randomizado, multicêntrico, de 3 braços, conduzido em centros terciários brasileiros, que incluiu 275 pacientes alocados para tratamento com os stents InfinniumR (paclitaxel, the SupralimusR (sirolimus ou Milennium MatrixR (sem recobrimento na proporção 2:2:1 ratio. Os pacientes apresentavam lesões coronarianas de novo em vasos nativos com um diâmetro entre 2,5 e 3,5 mm, passíveis de tratamento com um único stent com comprimento de 29 mm ou menos. O objetivo primário era comparar a perda tardia aos nove meses de ambos stents com paclitaxel- ou sirolimus versus a perda luminal dos stents convencionais de controle. Objetivos secundários importantes incluíam a comparação angiográfica entre os dois tipos de stents farmacológicos, bem como a análise da ocorrência de eventos clínicos adversos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O estudo PAINT apresenta um formato peculiar e único que permitiu a avaliação da segurança e eficácia de duas novas formulações de stents farmacológicos, com carreador polimérico biodegradável, e liberação de paclitaxel ou sirolimus, os quais foram comparados contra um stent metálico convencional (objetivo primário. Uma vez que os stents farmacológicos diferiram entre sí somente pela droga, mas eram idênticos nas suas outras características, os estudo também permitiu a comparação do efeito anti-restenótico entre sirolimus e paclitaxel (objetivo secundário.FUNDAMENTO: Describimos las bases te

  13. The influence of paint dispersion parameters on the spectral selectivity of black-pigmented coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunde, M.K.; Orel, Z.C. [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hutchins, M.G. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2003-10-31

    The optical properties of variously prepared black-pigmented solar absorbing paints were calculated in terms of their effective absorption and scattering abilities. The phenomenological two-parameter Kubelka-Munk effective medium theory was applied. Paints with the same composition were prepared for different degrees of pigment dispersion and characterized by the average size of pigment agglomerates present in the pigment/vehicle system. Prepared paints were applied to aluminium foil in two ways, by coil coating and by spraying. The size of coarse pigment particles and the paint application technique influence the spectral selectivity and thus determine the final performance of spectrally selective surfaces. (author)

  14. [Damage to ancient mural paintings and petroglyphs caused by Pseudonocardia sp. - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoxuan; Ge, Qinya; Pan, Jiao

    2015-07-01

    The historical relics exposed to the natural environment during the long-term were vulnerable to microbial invasion. According to some new studies, microorganism of Pseudonocardia may is one of the main groups on the surface of mural paintings and petroglyphs, causing damage to the paints. Based on recent research progress, we reviewed the phenomenon according to the relationship between the ancient paintings and the growth conditions of Pseudonocardia, which could provide a new theory basis for the protection of cultural relics especially mural paintings and petroglyphs.

  15. Characterisation of paint samples by infrared and Raman spectroscopy for criminalistic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, Janina; Michalska, Aleksandra; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    Infrared microspectrometry and Raman microscopy were applied in characterisation of paint coatings, i.e. in identification of pigments and in differentiation between paint samples of similar colour and shade. The use of different excitation lasers enabled us to reduce the fluorescence of the sample and identify the main pigments present in the sample. It was shown that Raman mapping has great potential for the forensic study of paint samples. It is useful because paints are usually chemically complex and heterogeneous mixtures and spectroscopic images allow an assessment of the chemical heterogeneity of a specimen in terms of the spatial distribution of the molecular constituents.

  16. Application of Parallel Algorithm Approach for Performance Optimization of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially. I have also observed in various blogs and forums, the questions for faster oil paint have been asked repeatedly.

  17. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: loeschau@ut.tu-berlin.de; Kraetke, Renate [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Sekretariat CR1, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: r.kraetke@bfr.bund.de

    2005-11-15

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed.

  18. Fast Responding Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Large-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work focuses on implementing fast-response pressure-sensitive paint for measurements of unsteady pressure in rotorcraft applications. Significant...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart A of... - Prohibition of Lead-Based Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., hospitals, group practice facilities, community facilities, and business or industrial facilities. B... rehabilitated for human habitation with financial assistance provided by this agency. Paints used on...

  20. Prior states: evolution of composition and color in two Barnett Newman paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Bradford A.; Rogge, Corina E.

    2015-11-01

    The color field paintings of Barnett Newman, one of the great American abstract expressionist painters, are seminal works of the modern era. They feature large flat fields of vibrant colors intended to allow the viewer to connect with the paintings in immediate, visceral ways. Despite the apparent simplicity of his compositions, Newman considered himself an intuitive painter and allowed his compositions to evolve during the painting process. Two paintings in the Menil Collection, Untitled 2 (1950) and Unfinished Painting [Blue and Brown 1970— #2] (1970) display visual evidence of former states, but attempts to elucidate earlier compositions by X-radiography were inconclusive due to the lack of contrast in paint densities. We applied limited sampling and used a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a `scanning' manner to determine the color and composition of the previous states of these paintings to help us better understand their evolution. Newman altered his initial cadmium red and alizarin composition in Untitled 2 (1950) by overpainting the alizarin region with a wider band of Mars black paint. He then modulated the surface of the black by partially covering it with a carbonaceous black with a different gloss. For Unfinished Painting [Blue and Brown 1970— #2] (1970), Newman not only changed the cadmium red to an umber but simplified the composition, removing multiple zips and refining it to its current monumental state. This evidence of Newman's decision-making processes permits a tantalizing glimpse of the artist consistently looking both ahead and backward, experimenting and revisiting.

  1. Looking at Two Paintings at Once: Luminance Edges Can Gate Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Anstis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two paintings, O1 and O2, were split into their luminance (grayscale components L1, L2 and their color components C1, C2. The two color components, C1, C2, were transparently superimposed. Adding the grayscale of the first painting (= C1 + C2 + L1 looked like the original O1, while adding the grayscale of the second painting (= C1 + C2 + L2 looked like the original O2. Conclusion: the luminance contours selected or gated the congruent color contours and ignored non-congruent colors from the other painting.

  2. Optical measurements of paintings and the creation of an artwork database for authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhee; Song, Hyerin; Cho, Soon-Woo; Kim, Chang Eun; Kim, Chang-Seok; Kim, Kyujung

    2017-01-01

    Paintings have high cultural and commercial value, so that needs to be preserved. Many techniques have been attempted to analyze properties of paintings, including X-ray analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods, and enable conservation of paintings from forgeries. In this paper, we suggest a simple and accurate optical analysis system to protect them from counterfeit which is comprised of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and line laser-based topographic analysis. The system is designed to fully cover the whole area of paintings regardless of its size for the accurate analysis. For additional assessments, a line laser-based high resolved OCT was utilized. Some forgeries were created by the experts from the three different styles of genuine paintings for the experiments. After measuring surface properties of paintings, we could observe the results from the genuine works and the forgeries have the distinctive characteristics. The forgeries could be distinguished maximally 76.5% with obtained RGB spectra by FORS and 100% by topographic analysis. Through the several executions, the reliability of the system was confirmed. We could verify that the measurement system is worthwhile for the conservation of the valuable paintings. To store the surface information of the paintings in micron scale, we created a numerical database. Consequently, we secured the databases of three different famous Korean paintings for accurate authenticity. PMID:28151981

  3. South West Aluminum: Next year The Capacity of Auto-use Aluminum Sheet will Reach 5000 Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Following supplying supporting aluminum products for"Shenzhou"spacecraft,"Long March"rocket,Boeing and Airbus,South West Aluminum again tapped new economic growth points,i.e.automobile-use aluminum products.According to what the reporter has learned from South West Aluminum Group recently,this group has finished early stage

  4. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2013-10-15

    The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al(3+) soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%).

  5. Preliminary Study on Aluminum Content of Foods and Aluminum Intake of Residents in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUGe-Sheng; JINRng-Pei; 等

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum contents of 64 kinds of foods in Tianjin were detrmined.The results showed that the aluminum levels in diffeent kinds of foods varied greatly,and most foodstuffs from natural sources(including contamination from food processing)contained less than 10mg/kg,Aluminum contents were higher in foodstuffs of plant origin,especiallydry beans containing large amounts of aluminum naturally.Lower concentration of aluminum seemed to be present in foodstuffs of animal origin.It was estimated that the potential daily intake of aluminum per person from natural dietary sources in Tianjin was about 3.79 mg.This estimated figure of dietary aluminum intake was very close to the measured data from 24 daily diets of college students.which was 4.86±1.72mg.Considering all the potential sources of natural aluminum in foods.water and the individual habitual food,it would apear that most residents in Tianjin would consume 3-10mg aluminum daily from natural dietary sources.

  6. Southwest Aluminum Increase Two Production Lines and May Become the Largest Aluminum Fabricator In the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Recently,Wu Bing,Director of Chongqing Economic Committee,announced at the"Industrial Economy Meeting"that the city will"facilitate the technical upgrade and capacity expansion of the existing production lines at Southwest Aluminum with great efforts on the construction of one additional hot continuous rolling line and one cold continuous rolling line so as to have a comprehensive production ca- pacity of 1.2 million tons on aluminum processing profiles for the achievement of building Southwest Aluminum into the world largest aluminum processing enterprise".

  7. Over-heated Investment in Aluminum Hub Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Aluminum hub is one of typical products with the comparative advantages.China’s aluminum hub industry is very competitive.In recent years,the value of export for the aluminum hub soared,increasing from USD130 millions in 1999 up to nearly USD1 billion in 2004.The main exporter are Wanfeng Auto Holding Group,Shanghai Fervent Alloy Wheel MFG Co.,Ltd.,Nanhai Zhongnan Aluminum Co., Ltd.,Taian Huatai Aluminum Hub Co.,Ltd.

  8. Aluminum-CNF Lightweight Radiator Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal relates to a new materials concept for an aluminum-carbon nanofiber composite, high thermal conductivity ultra lightweight material that will form the...

  9. Profit of Aluminum Industry Dropped Sharply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On August 2nd,the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology published the performance of nonferrous metal industry in the first half of 2011.Relevant data showed that due to cost increase,aluminum smelting enter

  10. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  11. Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Chen, Wei Ting; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Wu, Pin Chieh; Wang, Chih-Ming; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-05-13

    We report a phase-modulated multicolor meta-hologram (MCMH) that is polarization-dependent and capable of producing images in three primary colors. The MCMH structure is made of aluminum nanorods that are arranged in a two-dimensional array of pixels with surface plasmon resonances in red, green, and blue. The aluminum nanorod array is patterned on a 30 nm thick SiO2 spacer layer sputtered on top of a 130 nm thick aluminum mirror. With proper design of the structure, we obtain resonances of narrow bandwidths to allow for implementation of the multicolor scheme. Taking into account of the wavelength dependence of the diffraction angle, we can project images to specific locations with predetermined size and order. With tuning of aluminum nanorod size, we demonstrate that the image color can be continuously varied across the visible spectrum.

  12. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  13. Shock wave compression behavior of aluminum foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程和法; 黄笑梅; 薛国宪; 韩福生

    2003-01-01

    The shock wave compression behavior of the open cell aluminum foam with relative density of 0. 396 was studied through planar impact experiments. Using polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) piezoelectric gauge technique, the stress histories and propagation velocities of shock wave in the aluminum foam were measured and analyzed. The results show that the amplitude of shock wave attenuates rapidly with increasing the propagation distance in the aluminum foam, and an exponential equation of the normalized peak stress vs propagation distance of shock wave is established, the attenuation factor in the equation is 0. 286. Furthermore, the Hugoniot relation, νs = 516.85+ 1.27νp,for the aluminum foam is determined by empirical fit to the experimental Hugoniot data.

  14. China Aluminum Processing Industry Development Report 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry maintained a high growth rate,with the aluminum output reaching 23,456,000tons,up 20.6% y-o-y.Overshadowed by complicated situation both at home and abroad,China’seconomy slowed down and declined by2.2% y-o-y.In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry showed a downward tendency,that is,it grew at a high speed before the3rd quarter,but suffered from a shortage of orders in the remaining time of the year and the growth rate fell increasingly.Between January and August,China’s aluminum output rose by 26% y-o-y;

  15. Pattern Recognition-Assisted Infrared Library Searching of the Paint Data Query Database to Enhance Lead Information from Automotive Paint Trace Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Allen, Matthew D; Weakley, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Multilayered automotive paint fragments, which are one of the most complex materials encountered in the forensic science laboratory, provide crucial links in criminal investigations and prosecutions. To determine the origin of these paint fragments, forensic automotive paint examiners have turned to the paint data query (PDQ) database, which allows the forensic examiner to compare the layer sequence and color, texture, and composition of the sample to paint systems of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). However, modern automotive paints have a thin color coat and this layer on a microscopic fragment is often too thin to obtain accurate chemical and topcoat color information. A search engine has been developed for the infrared (IR) spectral libraries of the PDQ database in an effort to improve discrimination capability and permit quantification of discrimination power for OEM automotive paint comparisons. The similarity of IR spectra of the corresponding layers of various records for original finishes in the PDQ database often results in poor discrimination using commercial library search algorithms. A pattern recognition approach employing pre-filters and a cross-correlation library search algorithm that performs both a forward and backward search has been used to significantly improve the discrimination of IR spectra in the PDQ database and thus improve the accuracy of the search. This improvement permits inter-comparison of OEM automotive paint layer systems using the IR spectra alone. Such information can serve to quantify the discrimination power of the original automotive paint encountered in casework and further efforts to succinctly communicate trace evidence to the courts.

  16. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  17. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  18. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  19. Transfer and transport of aluminum in filtration unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum salt coagulants were used prevalently in various water works. In this article, the effects of filtration on residual aluminum concentration and species distribution were researched by determining the concentration of different Aluminum species before and after single layer filter, double layer filter, and membrane filtration units. In the research, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to separate colloidal and soluble aluminum, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) was used to separate organic and inorganic aluminum, and inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the aluminum concentration. The results showed that the rapid filtration process had the ability of removing residual aluminum from coagulant effluent water, and that double layer filtration was more effective in residual aluminum removal than single layer filtration, while Nano filtration was more effective than micro filtration. It was found that when the residual aluminum concentration was below 1mg/L in sediment effluent, the residual aluminum concentration in treated water was above 0.2 mg/L. The direct rapid filtration process mainly removed the suspended aluminum. The removal of soluble and colloidal aluminum was always less than 10% and the natural small particles that adsorbed the amount of soluble or small particles aluminum on their surface were difficult to be removed in this process. Micro filtration and nano filtration were good technologies for removing aluminum; the residual aluminum concentration in the effluent was less than 0.05 mg/L.

  20. The possible use of EPR spectroscopy for paint pigment identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Bacci, M.; Lotti, F.; Casini, A.; Picollo, M. [Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence, Italy (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Visible and near-infra-red reflectance spectroscopy are now routinely used for the identification of paint pigments in Renaissance painting, thus playing a part in authentication and restoration. Since most of the pigments are minerals, and many minerals either contain traces of paramagnetic ions, or have paramagnetic ions in their main components (e.g., chromic oxide, haematite), it seemed logical to determine whether EPR could distinguish between different pigments. 14 pigments of different colours were tested in a Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer, at a frequency of {approx} 9.1 GHz. Measurements were made at room ({approx} 20 deg C) and liquid N{sub 2} temperatures, in the standard special quartz sample tubes. The active volume is 0. 15 ml, but at most, a volume of sample (powder) one tenth of this was used. The spectra (to be shown) clearly demonstrate that EPR can distinguish between different pigments. The power was 1 milliwatt, the modulation amplitude 4 gauss, the total field sweep 10,000 gauss, centred 5000 gauss and the amplification between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4}, as indicated on the charts. The signal to noise ratio is excellent, and sensitivity could be increased (if necessary) by a factor of {approx} 10{sup 3}, thus allowing much smaller samples to be tested. Because the signals are so strong it should be possible to scan at least small painted canvases by the following non-destructive technique, using existing equipment. All that is required is a modified resonant cavity; it must have a high Q, and a slot where the magnetic field is maximum, and the electric field zero. The canvas can thus be placed flush with the waveguide, to interact with the microwave magnetic field emanating from the slot

  1. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Long-term performance of different aluminum alloy designs as sacrificial anodes for rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rincón, O.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of various cathodic-protection designs using Aluminum alloys to protect prestressed piles. The results obtained with different system designs (bracelete type-Al/Zn/In alloy, thermosprayed aluminum (3-year evaluation and conventional Al/Zn/In anocies in an epoxy-painted steel bracelet (12-year evaluation, indicated that all of these systems may be used as sacrificial anodes for pile protection. However, the thermosprayed aluminum type can not be used in prestressed concrete piles because the very negative potentials ( < -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4 they supply to the reinforcement could lead to hydrogen embrittlement.

    Este trabajo presenta la realización de varios diseños de protección catódica utilizando aleaciones de aluminio para la protección de pilotes pretensados. Los resultados obtenidos con diferentes diseños (aleación de Al/Zn/In, tipo brazalete y aluminio termorociado (3 años de evaluación y ánodos convencionales de Al/Zn/In colocados en un brazalete de acero pintado con epoxy (12 años de evaluación, indicaron que todos estos sistemas pueden ser utilizados como ánodos de sacrificio para la protección de los pilotes. Sin embargo, el sistema con aluminio termorociado no puede ser utilizado en pilotes de acero pretensado debido al potencial muy negativo alcanzado por la armadura (<-1100 mV vs Cu/CuSO4, lo cual podría inducir a daños por hidrógeno.

  3. Analysis of Roman wall paintings found in Verona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Rudello, Danilo; Murgia, Emanuela

    2007-09-01

    The present paper deals with the analysis of roman wall paintings fragments recovered from twelve buildings of Verona, Italy. The analytical techniques used were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, Xray powder diffraction (XRD) Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. The wall preparation generally consisted of three layer: the pictorial layer, an intonachino layer of hydrated lime and a plaster one made of slaked lime and sand. The pigments found in the studied domus are different reflecting the taste and culture of Xa Regio of Italy but also the economical possibilities of the dominus and the building period.

  4. Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zori Roberto T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Results The human autosomal and X chromosome paints delimited a total of 44 homologous segments in the manatee genome. The synteny of nine of the 22 human autosomal chromosomes (4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 20 and the X chromosome were found intact in the manatee. The syntenies of other human chromosomes were disrupted in the manatee genome into two to five segments. The hybridization pattern revealed that 20 (15 unique associations of human chromosome segments are found in the manatee genome: 1/15, 1/19, 2/3 (twice, 3/7 (twice, 3/13, 3/21, 5/21, 7/16, 8/22, 10/12 (twice, 11/20, 12/22 (three times, 14/15, 16/19 and 18/19. Conclusion There are five derived chromosome traits that strongly link elephants with manatees in Tethytheria and give implicit support to Paenungulata: the associations 2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the loss of the ancestral eutherian 4/8 association. It would be useful to test these conclusions with chromosome painting in hyraxes. The manatee chromosome painting data confirm that the associations 1/19 and 5/21 phylogenetically link afrotherian species and show that Afrotheria is a natural clade. The association 10/12/22 is also ubiquitous in Afrotheria (clade I, present in Laurasiatheria (clade IV, only partially present in Xenarthra (10/12, clade II and absent in Euarchontoglires (clade III. If Afrotheria is basal to eutherians, this association could be part of the ancestral eutherian karyotype. If afrotherians are not at the root of the eutherian tree, then the 10

  5. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

    El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La

  6. Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Veiga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

  7. Real-Time Processing of Pressure-Sensitive Paint Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    condition, i.e., at zero pitch, yaw, and roll. Typically, it is adequate to express xm and Rm as ,)1,1,1(,),0,( −+−== DRx mmmm zx (21) where xm and...State (S0) “2” Ex ci ta tio n Ex ci ta tio n Figure 59. Schematic of Proposed Sequential Decay Process Now assume that the rates γ12 and γ2 are...Signal Ratio on Pressure and Temperature If the paint response can be characterized by a single time constant, τ, the ratio Rij may be written

  8. The black paintings and the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, L M

    1995-08-01

    Francisco Goya, the Spanish painter, suffered from a disease of uncertain etiology which affected his vision, hearing, and balance. The nature of his illness probably was a curious syndrome known today as Vogt-Koyanagi=Harada or uveomeningoencephalytic syndrome. This is an autoimmune disorder which involves the visual and cochlear pigment derived from the neural crest. The common finding in all cases described in the literature is bilateral uveitis. It is interesting to speculate how the period of Goya's artistic output known as the "Black Paintings" might have been created during the time he had the disease.

  9. The influence of modern Chinese architectural landscape landscape painting aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永伟

    2016-01-01

    the modern architecture to the spread of Chinese localization were style of architecture, this article is based on the research on localization urban landscape to explore traditional Chinese landscape painting aesthetics and the cognitive way of Chinese garden aesthetics art, through the Chinese traditional aesthetics to explore the modern people and the nature harmonious living environment, the traditional aesthetic concept of “landscape” for the development of Chinese modern city landscape, qian xuesen proposed the concept of “landscape city” and the development, purpose is to find the environment concept of Chinese national culture characteristics.

  10. Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villanueva, L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life of the material. They likewise served as a basis for ensuring the proper evacuation of water vapour in walls, and use of the capacity of the porous network in plaster products to regulate moisture content or serve as a water vapour barrier to avoid condensation.Briefly, the research showed that pigments, water-based paints and silicon-based water repellents scantly raised vapour resistance. Plastic paints, enamels and lacquers, however, respectively induced five-, ten- and twenty-fold increases in vapour resistivity, on average.Se estudia el fenómeno de la resistividad al vapor de los de yeso y el efecto impermeabilizante que producen los recubrimientos de pintura sobre diversos tipos de yeso y escayola. Para ello, se ensayan probetas desnudas y recubiertas con distintos tipos de pintura, así como coloreados en masa. Se obtienen valores experimentales de la difusividad o permeabilidad al vapor o su inverso la resistividad al vapor de agua.Los datos obtenidos son muy útiles para valorar el fenómeno del intercambio de humedad entre el yeso y el ambiente, tanto durante el proceso de su secado inicial, como en el transcurso de su vida. Así como para disponer soluciones adecuadas para la evacuación del vapor de agua a través de los cerramientos, para utilizar la capacidad de regulación de la humedad, que proporciona el entramado poroso de los productos de yeso, o para impedir el paso del vapor de agua y evitar condensaciones.Como resumen de la investigación, se

  11. TRANSVERSE PHASE SPACE PAINTING FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING INJECTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    The result of investigation and comparison of a series of transverse phase space painting schemes for the injection of SNS accumulator ring [1] is reported. In this computer simulation study, the focus is on the creation of closed orbit bumps that give desired distributions at the target. Space charge effects such as tune shift, emittance growth and beam losses are considered. The results of pseudo end-to-end simulations from the injection to the target through the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) system [2] are presented and discussed.

  12. Organic Finishing Technologies B-52 Paint Life Cycle Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Material Usage How Project Responds to Goal • Supports C+6 reduction mandated by OSD • Increase Paint Facility availability • Facilitates USAF...2007 MIL-PRF-23377 MIL-PRF-85285 60-001 27 Mar 2006 MIL-PRF-23377 Deft Extended Life Topcoat ( ELT ) 99-GY-001 60-008 24 May 2010 Akzo Nobel 10P20...Akzo 10P20-13 Akzo ECM-6118 (APC) 61-034 UNK UNK UNK 60-055 15 Apr 2010 Deft 02Y-40A Deft ELT 99-GY-13 (APC) 60-018 16 Oct 2008 Akzo 10P20-13 Akzo ECM

  13. Fantasy, Somnambulism and Games in Liu Ye's Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINXIAOPING

    2003-01-01

    LIU Ye's paintings are a surrealistic blend of fantasy and reality. His canvases are a conglomeration of images of happy childhood and of catastrophic events unrelated to daily life. They combine to express a dread of reality. Liu beckons his viewers to join in the games of this visionary world,playing whatever roles they see fit. A girl and boy dressed in sailor suits look bemused, and two youths that magnetize the viewer's attention are in an obscure relationship. Spears, pistols, telescopes, pictures and books are all life's toys to Liu, the kind of life envisioned by postmodern artists and espoused by French philosopher Derrida.

  14. Nanostructures Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmianski, Ilya; Monton, Carlos M.; Pereiro, Juan; Basaran, Ali C.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2013-03-01

    We present two fabrication methods for asymmetric mesoscopic dot arrays over macroscopic areas using anodic aluminum oxide templates. In the first approach, metal is deposited at 45o to the template axis to partially close the pores and produce an elliptical shadow-mask. In the second approach, now underway, nanoimprint lithography on a polymer intermediary layer is followed by reactive ion etching to generate asymmetric pore seeds. Both these techniques are quantified by an analysis of the lateral morphology and lattice of the pores or dots using scanning electron microscopy and a newly developed MATLAB based code (available for free download at http://ischuller.ucsd.edu). The code automatically provides a segmentation of the measured area and the statistics of morphological properties such as area, diameter, and eccentricity, as well as the lattice properties such as number of nearest neighbors, and unbiased angular and radial two point correlation functions. Furthermore, novel user defined statistics can be easily obtained. We will additionally present several applications of these methods to superconducting, ferromagnetic, and organic nanostructures. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0409

  15. Piezoelectric-paint-based two-dimensional phased sensor arrays for structural health monitoring of thin panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B.; Purekar, A. S.; Zhang, Y.; Pines, D. J.

    2010-07-01

    A damage detection method based on an innovative 2D phased sensor array made of piezoelectric paint is proposed for in situ damage detection of a thin isotropic panel using guided Lamb waves. A design analysis of candidate 2D arrays based on spiral, cruciform and circular element layouts is performed. In this study, a 2D phased sensor array with a spiral configuration is fabricated using a piezoelectric composite (piezopaint) patch and used for detecting damages in an aluminum panel. Steered array responses are generated from the raw sensor signals using a directional filtering algorithm based on phased array signal processing. The fundamental flexural (or transverse), A0 mode, of the guided Lamb waves is used though the sensing and analysis technique is not limited to the mode used in this work. To enhance the proposed analysis technique, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and a Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) are applied. A new damage detection algorithm including threshold setting and damage index (DI) calculation is developed and implemented for detecting damages in the form of holes and a simulated crack. The characteristic damage indices consistently increase as damage size grows.

  16. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  17. Deposition of aluminum-magnesium alloys from electrolytes containing organo-aluminum complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, H.; Mehler, K.; Bongard, H.; Tesche, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Reinhold, B. [Audi AG Technische Entwicklung, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Organo-aluminum compounds have been used for many years as electrolytes in the coating industry. In this communication the development of a galvanic process for generating aluminum-magnesium coatings from organometallic electrolyte systems is reported as well as results on physical properties like adhesion, ductility and corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  18. About the choice of tension for canvas paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iaccarino Idelson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the value of tension for a canvas painting is crucial for its future life, but tradition has handed us methods based on intuition that do not allow us comparing the results of different choices. Since the 1950es it is possible to measure the force used for stretching a painting, but this is very rarely done. This paper describes the evolution of the approach to the problem and points out the results of recent research and changes in attitude.Le choix de la valeur de tension pour une peinture sur toile est crucial pour sa future conservation, mais la tradition nous a transmis des méthodes fondées sur l’intuition qui ne nous permettent pas de comparer les effets des différents choix. Depuis les années 1950 il est possible de mesurer la force de tension choisie pour une peinture, mais ce la est fait très rarement. Cet article décrit l’évolution de l’approche à ce problème et souligne les résultats de récents recherches et changements d’attitude.      

  19. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  20. On the beauty of nature, paintings and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Çoraklı

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of things that are classified by humans in terms of their level of beauty. The word ‘beautiful’ is used to define some of the natural entities living and nonliving, unnatural objects or ideas produced by humans, and the works of art, which are unique products of human hand and brain. Beauty, as a concept awakening a common feeling of pleasure, may mean something deeper than we are aware of. This meaning is perhaps hidden in its deeper aspects, which we have to give effort to analyze. Hence, within context of this paper, common and specific properties of the beauty of nature, paintings and music will be discussed. In addition, the stages of the perception of the beauty of all kinds will be called into question, and an account about the process of the judgment of beauty will be suggested. The specific types of beauty analyzed through the paper are limited with the beauty of nature, paintings and absolute music (music without words, following an opening remark about the beauty in general.