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Sample records for aluminum oxide nanoparticles

  1. Tailoring oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjula; Sharma, Vimal

    2016-05-01

    In this report, the oxidation temperature and reaction enthalpy of Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles has been controlled by reinforcing with carbon nanotubes. The physical mixing method with ultrasonication was employed to synthesize CNT/Al nanocomposite powders. The micro-morphology of nanoconmposite powders has been analysed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The oxidation behavior of nanocomposite powders analyzed by thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimertry showed improvement in the exothermic enthalpy. Largest exothermic enthalpy of-1251J/g was observed for CNT (4 wt%)/Al nanocomposite.

  2. Magnetic composites based on hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Tiago P. [Langmuir - Laboratorio de Adsorcao e Catalise, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CP 6021, CEP 60455-970 Campus do Pici, Fortaleza (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Igor F. [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Sasaki, Jose M. [Laboratorio de Raios X, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fabris, J.D.; Oliveira, Diana Q.L. de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Valentini, Antoninho, E-mail: valent@ufc.b [Langmuir - Laboratorio de Adsorcao e Catalise, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CP 6021, CEP 60455-970 Campus do Pici, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Materials containing hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides were obtained from a chemical precursor prepared by admixing chitosan and iron and aluminum hydroxides. The oxides were first characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the size distribution of the resulting spheres to be highly homogeneous. The occurrence of nano-composites containing aluminum oxides and iron oxides was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction patterns; except for the sample with no aluminum, the superparamagnetic relaxation due to iron oxide particles were observed from Moessbauer spectra obtained at 298 and 110 K; the onset six line-spectrum collected at 20 K indicates a magnetic ordering related to the blocking relaxation effect for significant portion of small spheres in the sample with a molar ratio Al:Fe of 2:1.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrochemically synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Kaur, Harpreet

    2016-03-01

    In this study, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via an electrochemical method. The effects of reaction parameters such as supporting electrolytes, solvent, current and electrolysis time on the shape and size of the resulting NPs were investigated. The Al2O3 NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Moreover, the Al2O3 NPs were explored for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye under sunlight irradiation via two processes: adsorption followed by photocatalysis; coupled adsorption and photocatalysis. The coupled process exhibited a higher photodegradation efficiency (45%) compared to adsorption followed by photocatalysis (32%). The obtained kinetic data was well fitted using a pseudo-first-order model for MG degradation.

  4. Comparative effects of macro-sized aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis: influence of cell source, temperature, and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinardell, M. P., E-mail: mpvinardellmh@ub.edu; Sordé, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain); Díaz, J. [Universitat de Barcelona CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Baccarin, T.; Mitjans, M. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most abundantly produced nanomaterial and has been used in diverse fields, including the medical, military, and industrial sectors. As there are concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles, it is important to understand how they interact with cells, and specifically with red blood cells. The hemolysis induced by three commercial nano-sized aluminum oxide particles (nanopowder 13 nm, nanopowder <50 nm, and nanowire 2–6 × 200–400 nm) was compared to aluminum oxide and has been studied on erythrocytes from humans, rats, and rabbits, in order to elucidate the mechanism of action and the influence of size and shape on hemolytic behavior. The concentrations inducing 50 % hemolysis (HC{sub 50}) were calculated for each compound studied. The most hemolytic aluminum oxide particles were of nanopowder 13, followed by nanowire and nanopowder 50. The addition of albumin to PBS induced a protective effect on hemolysis in all the nano-forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but not on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The drop in HC{sub 50} correlated to a decrease in nanomaterial size, which was induced by a reduction of aggregation. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are less hemolytic than other oxide nanoparticles and behave differently depending on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The hemolytic behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles differs from that of aluminum oxide.

  5. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gang, Tian; Kinge, Sachin; Reinhoudt, David N.; Blank, Dave H.; Wiel, van der Wilfred G.; Rijnders, Guus; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs ont

  6. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2} with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} presented the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2}, there were the formations of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed.

  7. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Guus Rijnders; Jurriaan Huskens; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Blank, Dave H. A.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Sachin Kinge; Tian Gang; Oktay Yildirim

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al2O3 substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP) or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA) SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as a reference. FePt NPs assem...

  8. Preparation of amorphous aluminum oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles in amphiphilic silicone-based copolymer microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yana; Aserin, Abraham; Wachtel, Ellen; Garti, Nissim

    2002-01-01

    Organo-inorgano nanocomposites with colloidal dimensions have interesting optical, catalytic, and mechanical properties, particularly when such hybrids are reinforced with transition metal oxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size of 1.0-2.4 nm are obtained through hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in the L(2) phase of amphiphilic (PDMS-POE) polydimethylsiloxane-polyoxyethylene Silwet L-7607-octanol/acetylacetone-water mixtures. The particle sizes are related weakly to the microemulsion composition: 0.8-1.2 nm for 20 wt% Silwet L-7607 and 2.0-2.4 nm for 50 wt% Silwet L-7607. Protection of the particles against aggregation is ensured through their confinement in the intraaggregate colloidal domains. Factors affecting the hydrolysis-condensation process of acetylacetone-complexed aluminum isopropoxide in copolymer-poor and copolymer-rich regions of PDMS-POE W/O microemulsions are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Prepared nanoparticulate dispersions possess long-term stability and form clear mixtures in different organic polar and nonpolar solvents.

  9. Determining the Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Aggregation of Amyloid-Beta in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suhag; Matticks, John; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease has been linked partially to genetic factors but the predicted environmental components have yet to be determined. In Alzheimer's, accumulation of amyloid-beta protein in the brain forms plaques resulting in neurodegeneration and loss of mental functions. It has been postulated that aluminum influences the aggregation of amyloid-beta. To test this hypothesis, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, CL2120, was used as a model organism to observe neurodegeneration in nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Behavioral testing, fluorescent staining, and fluorescence microscopy were used to test the effects of aggregation of amyloid-beta in the nervous systems of effected nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to quantify the total concentration of aluminum oxide that the worms were exposed to during the experiment. Exposure of transgenic and wild type worms to a concentration of 4 mg mL-1 aluminum oxide showed a decrease in the sinusoidal motion, as well as an infirmity of transgenic worms when compared to control worms. These results support the hypothesis that aluminum may play a role in neurodegeneration in C. elegans, and may influence and increase the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047 DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  10. Modification of Shape Memory Polymer Foams Using Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M; Thompson, R S; Emery, H; Nathan, A L; Weems, A C; Zhou, F; Monroe, M B B; Maitland, D J

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams were synthesized with three different nanoparticles (tungsten, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide) for embolization of cerebral aneurysms. Ultra-low density SMP foams have previously been utilized for aneurysm occlusion, resulting in a rapid, stable thrombus. However, the small cross section of foam struts can potentially lead to fracture and particulate generation, which would be a serious adverse event for an embolic device. The goal of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of the system by physically incorporating fillers into the SMP matrix. Thermal and mechanical characterization suggested minimal changes in thermal transition of the SMP nanocomposites and improved mechanical strength and toughness for systems with low filler content. Actuation profiles of the three polymer systems were tuned with filler type and content, resulting in faster SMP foam actuation for nanocomposites containing higher filler content. Additionally, thermal stability of the SMP nanocomposites improved with increasing filler concentration, and particulate count remained well below accepted standard limits for all systems. Extraction studies demonstrated little release of silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide from the bulk over 16 days. Tungstun release increased over the 16 day examination period, with a maximum measured concentration of approxiately 2.87 μg/mL. The SMP nanocomposites developed through this research have the potential for use in medical devices due to their tailorable mechanical properties, thermal resisitivity, and actuation profiles.

  11. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  12. Modeling and sensitivity analysis on the transport of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in saturated sand: effects of ionic strength, flow rate, and nanoparticle concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tanzina; Millwater, Harry; Shipley, Heather J

    2014-11-15

    Aluminum oxide nanoparticles have been widely used in various consumer products and there are growing concerns regarding their exposure in the environment. This study deals with the modeling, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of one-dimensional transport of nano-sized (~82 nm) aluminum oxide particles in saturated sand. The transport of aluminum oxide nanoparticles was modeled using a two-kinetic-site model with a blocking function. The modeling was done at different ionic strengths, flow rates, and nanoparticle concentrations. The two sites representing fast and slow attachments along with a blocking term yielded good agreement with the experimental results from the column studies of aluminum oxide nanoparticles. The same model was used to simulate breakthrough curves under different conditions using experimental data and calculated 95% confidence bounds of the generated breakthroughs. The sensitivity analysis results showed that slow attachment was the most sensitive parameter for high influent concentrations (e.g. 150 mg/L Al2O3) and the maximum solid phase retention capacity (related to blocking function) was the most sensitive parameter for low concentrations (e.g. 50 mg/L Al2O3).

  13. Monolayer-directed assembly and magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles on patterned aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gang, Tian; Kinge, Sachin; Reinhoudt, David N; Blank, Dave H; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Rijnders, Guus; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-03-19

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al(2)O(3) substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP) or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA) SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as a reference. FePt NPs assembled on all of these monolayers, but much less on unmodified Al(2)O(3), which shows that ligand exchange at the NPs is the most likely mechanism of attachment. Proper modification of the Al(2)O(3) surface and controlling the immersion time of the modified Al(2)O(3) substrates into the FePt NP solution resulted in FePt NPs assembly with controlled NP density. Alumina substrates were patterned by microcontact printing using aminobutylphosphonic acid as the ink, allowing local NP assembly. Thermal annealing under reducing conditions (96%N(2)/4%H(2)) led to a phase change of the FePt NPs from the disordered FCC phase to the ordered FCT phase. This resulted in ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Such a process can potentially be applied in the fabrication of spintronic devices.

  14. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Rijnders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FePt nanoparticles (NPs were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(onates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al2O3 substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine (PEI as a reference. FePt NPs assembled on all of these monolayers, but much less on unmodified Al2O3, which shows that ligand exchange at the NPs is the most likely mechanism of attachment. Proper modification of the Al2O3 surface and controlling the immersion time of the modified Al2O3 substrates into the FePt NP solution resulted in FePt NPs assembly with controlled NP density. Alumina substrates were patterned by microcontact printing using aminobutylphosphonic acid as the ink, allowing local NP assembly. Thermal annealing under reducing conditions (96%N2/4%H2 led to a phase change of the FePt NPs from the disordered FCC phase to the ordered FCT phase. This resulted in ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Such a process can potentially be applied in the fabrication of spintronic devices.

  15. Mechanistic Study of Adsorption of Acid Orange-7 over Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Khosla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption behavior of acid orange-7 (AO-7 on aluminum oxide nanoparticles (ANP generated by sol-gel method has been investigated to understand the physicochemical process involved and to explore the potential use of nano particles in textile effluent treatment and management. The results revealed that ANP can remove AO-7 dye up to 97.6 mg/g at 303 K. The adsorption process is found to be pH dependent and the optimum pH obtained is 2.0. The equilibrium was established in 1 h. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin Isotherm models were applied on the system. Scanning electron microscopic analysis reveals eye-catching nanoporous morphology of the material. The results of FTIR spectroscopy reveal that the process is electrostatic complexation mechanism driven. XRD studies revealed nanocrystalline structure of ANP. BET surface area measurement suggests high pore volume and surface area of adsorbent. The kinetic measurements suggest pseudo-second-order kinetic processes. The thermodynamic measurements suggest that all processes are endothermic accompanied with negative ΔG° and positive ΔS°, ΔH°.

  16. Volatile organic compound gas sensor based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide with nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Moon, Seung Eon; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Jongdae

    2013-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with nanoparticle size were fabricated to detect volatile organic compound (VOC) existed in building, especially, formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. The sensing materials for screen printing were prepared using roll milling process with binder. The crystallite sizes of prepared materials were about 15 nm through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide gas existing in building. In particular, the sensors showed responses to HCHO gas at sub ppm as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repeativity, selectivity, and response time of sensor. The transients were very sharp, taking less than 2 s for 90% response. The sensor has shown very stable response at 350 degrees C and followed a very good behavior and showed 60% response in 50 ppb HCHO concentration at 350 degrees C operating temperatures.

  17. Evaluation of alpha and gamma aluminum oxide nanoparticle accumulation, toxicity, and depuration in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity, and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to >0.3 µm for spherical NPs and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images showed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, whereas fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 µm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at all conditions.

  18. Oxidation-Induced Surface Roughening of Aluminum Nanoparticles Formed in an Ablation Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Georg Daniel; Girault, Marie; Menneveux, Jérôme; Lavisse, Luc; Jouvard, Jean-Marie; Marco de Lucas, Maria del Carmen; Potin, Valérie; Ouf, François-Xavier; Kerkar, Moussa; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Carvou, Erwann; Carles, Sophie; Rabilloud, Franck; Calvo, Florent; Yu, Jin; Mitchell, James Brian

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles formed within an ablation plume produced by the impact of a nanosecond laser pulse on the surface of an aluminum target have been directly measured using small-angle x-ray scattering. The target was immersed in an oxygen-nitrogen gas mixture at atmospheric pressure with the O2/N2 ratio being precisely controlled. The results for an increasing oxygen content reveal remarkable effects on the morphology of the generated particles, which include a decrease in the particle volume but a marked increase in its surface ruggedness. Molecular dynamics simulations using a reactive potential and performed under similar conditions as the experiment reproduce the experimental trends and show in detail how the shape and surface structure of the nanoparticles evolve with increasing oxygen content. This good agreement between in situ observations in the plume and atomistic simulations emphasizes the key role of chemical reactivity together with thermodynamic conditions on the morphology of the particles thus produced.

  19. Silver nanoparticles deposited on anodic aluminum oxide template using magnetron sputtering for surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-ek, Krongkamol [Nanoscience and Technology Program, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Eiamchai, Pitak; Horprathum, Mati; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limnonthakul, Puenisara [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Chindaudom, Pongpan [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Nuntawong, Noppadon, E-mail: noppadon.nuntawong@nectec.or.t [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2010-09-30

    Low-cost and highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates have been fabricated by a simple anodizing process and a magnetron sputtering deposition. The substrates, which consist of silver nanoparticles embedded on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, are investigated by a scanning electron microscope and a confocal Raman spectroscopy. The SERS activities are demonstrated by Raman scattering from adsorbed solutions of methylene blue and pyridine on the SERS substrate surface. The most optimized SERS substrate contains the silver nanoparticles, with a size distribution of 10-30 nm, deposited on the AAO template. From a calculation, the SERS enhancement factor is as high as 8.5 x 10{sup 7}, which suggests strong potentials for direct applications in the chemical detection and analyses.

  20. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  1. Taguchi Optimization for Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Oxide Nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDRISSI Mohammad; NOROUZBEIGI Reza

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured aluminum oxide powders were prepared by a combustion synthesis method utilizing serine as a new fuel. The product was sonicated to obtain nano powders. A Taguchi L-4 statistical design of combustion syn- thesis was utilized to optimize the production of γ-alumina powder. The product was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, EDX and LLS. Nano crystalline γ-alumina with crystal sizes between 4.26 and 5.47 nm and α-Al2O3 powders with crystal sizes 24.51 and 28.62 nm were obtained by the combustion synthesis. The specific surface area was measured by a BET method to be 75.21 m2/g. The average particle size after sonication of product, observed by LLS, was 79.32 nm.

  2. Formation and properties of stabilized aluminum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, Mohammed J; Bunker, Christopher E; Lu, Fushen; Li, Heting; Wang, Wei; Guliants, Elena A; Quinn, Robert A; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2009-03-01

    The wet-chemical synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles was investigated systematically by using dimethylethylamine alane and 1-methylpyrrolidine alane as precursors and molecules with one or a pair of carboxylic acid groups as surface passivation agents. Dimethylethylamine alane was more reactive, capable of yielding well-defined and dispersed aluminum nanoparticles. 1-Methylpyrrolidine alane was less reactive and more complex in the catalytic decomposition reaction, for which various experimental parameters and conditions were used and evaluated. The results suggested that the passivation agent played dual roles of trapping aluminum particles to keep them nanoscale during the alane decomposition and protecting the aluminum nanoparticles postproduction from surface oxidation and that an appropriate balance between the rate of alane decomposition (depending more sensitively on the reaction temperature) and the timing in the introduction of the passivation agent into the reaction mixture was critical to the desired product mixes and/or morphologies. Some fundamental and technical issues on the alane decomposition and the protection of the resulting aluminum nanoparticles are discussed.

  3. Aluminum Composites With Small Nanoparticles Additions: Corrosion Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Agureev, L.E.; Kostikov, V.I.; Eremeeva, Zh.V.; Barmin, A.A.; Savushkina, S.V.; Ivanov, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Research of corrosion resistance of the aluminum powder composites containing microadditives (0.01 – 0.15% is executed about.) zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Extreme dependence of speed of corrosion of aluminum composites in 10-% solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid from the maintenance of nanoadditives is shown. It has been shown the dynamics of mass loss of aluminum composites with nanoparticles of ZrO2 during corrosion tests in acids solutions. The lowest corrosion...

  4. Plasmonic silicon solar cell comprised of aluminum nanoparticles: Effect of nanoparticles' self-limiting native oxide shell on optical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Piyush K.; Sharma, R. P.; Komarala, Vamsi K.

    2016-10-01

    The aluminum nanoparticles' (Al NPs) morphology is optimized initially, for maximum light confinement into a silicon substrate. With self-limiting native oxide shell on the Al NPs after ageing, the maximum photocurrent enhancement (from 26.89 to 29.21 mA/cm2) from a silicon solar cell is observed as compared to the bare cell, in surface plasmon resonance and off-resonance regions due to improved light forward scattering, with no occurrence of Fano resonances. Related to the electrical properties of the plasmonic device, an increase in fill factor (from 56.11 to 62.58) and a decrease in series resistance (from 1.80 Ω to 1.24 Ω) are also observed after the oxide layer formation on Al NPs. The passive partial dielectric oxide layer at the interface helped in electrical passivation by reducing lateral resistance to current flow along the plane of the interface. A finite-element method is also adapted to calculate spatial and angular radiative dipole field distributions for the experimentally optimized Al NPs' size on a silicon substrate, without and with oxide inclusion in NPs for explaining the plasmonic device performance enhancement. With oxide inclusion, Al NPs' dipole field exhibited a large shift towards a silicon due to the modified dielectric environment as compared to without oxide. Bruggeman effective medium theory (for dielectric response) is also used to explain the results with the modification in peak radiative power, spectral field distribution, and spatial and angular radiative dipole field distributions of Al NPs with oxide inclusion in Al.

  5. Impact of ribs on flow parameters and laminar heat transfer of water–aluminum oxide nanofluid with different nanoparticle volume fractions in a three-dimensional rectangular microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Ali Akbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the impact of ribs on flow parameters and laminar heat transfer of water–aluminum oxide nanofluid with different nanoparticle volume fractions in a three-dimensional rectangular microchannel. To this aim, compulsory convection heat transfer of water–aluminum oxide nanofluid in a rib-roughened microchannel has been numerically studied. The results of this simulation for rib-roughened three-dimensional microchannel have been evaluated in contrast to the smooth (unribbed three-dimensional microchannel with identical geometrical and heat–fluid boundary conditions. Numerical simulation is performed for different nanoparticle volume fractions for Reynolds numbers of 10 and 100. Cold fluid entering the microchannel is heated in order to apply constant flux to external surface of the microchannel walls and then leaves it. Given the results, the fluid has a higher heat transfer with a hot wall in surfaces with ribs rather than in smooth ones. As Reynolds number, number of ribs, and nanoparticle volume fractions increase, more temperature increase happens in fluid in exit intersection of the microchannel. By investigating Nusselt number and friction factor, it is observed that increase in nanoparticle volume fractions causes nanofluid heat transfer properties to have a higher heat transfer and friction factor compared to the base fluid used in cooling due to an increase in viscosity.

  6. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles alter cell cycle progression through CCND1 and EGR1 gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 -NPs) are important ceramic materials that have been used in a variety of commercial and industrial applications. However, the impact of acute and chronic exposure to Al2 O3 -NPs on the environment and on human health has not been well studied. In this investigation, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of Al2 O3 -NPs on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by using a cell viability assay and observing cellular morphological changes, analyzing cell cycle progression, and monitoring the expression of cell cycle response genes (PCNA, EGR1, E2F1, CCND1, CCNC, CCNG1, and CYCD3). The Al2 O3 -NPs reduced hMSC viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, and cytoplasmic vacuolization were observed in Al2 O3 -NP-exposed cells. The nuclear morphological changes indicated that Al2 O3 -NPs alter cell cycle progression and gene expression. The cell cycle distribution revealed that Al2 O3 -NPs cause cell cycle arrest in the sub-G0-G1 phase, and this is associated with a reduction in the cell population in the G2/M and G0/G1 phases. Moreover, Al2 O3 -NPs induced the upregulation of cell cycle response genes, including EGR1, E2F1, and CCND1. Our results suggested that exposure to Al2 O3 -NPs could cause acute cytotoxic effects in hMSCs through cell cycle regulatory genes.

  7. Effects of Al2O3 Nano-Particles on Corrosion Performance of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings Formed on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion resistance improvement of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte containing Al2O3 nano-particles was studied, with particular emphasis on the microstructure, coating growth, and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The microstructure of coatings, their thickness, and phase composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. All characterization data showed that the maximum coating thickness and lowest amount of porosity were obtained in a low concentration of KOH, a high concentration of Na2SiO3, and moderate concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles in the electrolyte. This combination describes the optimum plasma electrolytic oxidation electrolyte, which has the best conductivity and oxidizing state, as well as the highest incorporation of electrolyte components in the coating growth process. On the other hand, incorporation and co-deposition of Al2O3 nano-particles were more pronounced than SiO3 2- ions in some level of molar concentration, which is due to the higher impact of electron discharge force on the adsorption of Al2O3 nano-particles. The electrochemical results showed that the best protective behavior was obtained in the sample having a coat with the lowest porosity and highest thickness.

  8. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M A; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-09-08

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

  9. Passivation and Stabilization of Aluminum Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flannery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In aircraft applications, fuel is used not only as a propellant but also as a coolant and improving both the thermal conductivity and combustion enthalpy of the fuel is beneficial in these applications. These properties can be enhanced by dispersing aluminum nanoparticles into the fuel; however, the nanoparticles require stabilization from agglomeration and passivation from oxidation in order for these benefits to be realized in aircraft applications. To provide this passivation and stabilization, aluminum nanoparticles were encapsulated with a coating by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD method from toluene precursors. The thermal conductivity, combustion and ignition properties, and stability of the nanoparticles dispersed in RP-2 fuel were subsequently evaluated. In addition, the effect of dispersing aluminum nanoparticles in RP-2 fuel on the erosion rate of fuel nozzles was evaluated. The dispersion of PE-CVD coated aluminum nanoparticles at a concentration of 3.0% by volume exhibited a 17.7% and 0.9% increase in thermal conductivity and volumetric enthalpy of combustion, respectively, compared to the baseline RP-2 fuel. Additionally, particle size analysis (PSA of the PE-CVD coated aluminum nanofuel exhibited retention of particle size over a five-month storage period and erosion testing of a 1 mm stainless steel nozzle exhibited a negligible 1% change in discharge coefficient after 100 hours of testing.

  10. Optical Transmittance of Anodically Oxidized Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Shiga, Yasunori; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wada, Kenji; Ono, Sachiko

    1995-06-01

    Optical transmittance and anisotropy of anodic oxide films that were made from pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy (A5052) were studied. The alloy oxide film exhibits an enhanced polarization function, particularly when anodization is carried out at a large current density. It was revealed by chemical analysis that the alloy oxide film contains a larger amount of unoxidized aluminum than the pure-aluminum oxide film. The polarization function can be elucidated by considering unoxidized aluminum particles that are arranged in the columnar structure of the alumina film. Electron microscope observation showed that many holes exist in the alloy oxide film, around which columnar cells are arranged irregularly. Such holes and irregular cell arrangement cause the increase in the amount of unoxidized aluminum, and consequently induces scattering loss.

  11. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...

  12. Effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on the growth, development, and microRNA expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Burklew

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are a class of newly emerging environmental pollutions. To date, few experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect nanoparticles may have on plant growth and development. It is important to study the effects nanoparticles have on plants because they are stationary organisms that cannot move away from environmental stresses like animals can, therefore they must overcome these stresses by molecular routes such as altering gene expression. microRNAs (miRNA are a newly discovered, endogenous class of post-transcriptional gene regulators that function to alter gene expression by either targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting mRNAs translating into proteins. miRNAs have been shown to mediate abiotic stress responses such as drought and salinity in plants by altering gene expression, however no study has been performed on the effect of nanoparticles on the miRNA expression profile; therefore our aim in this study was to classify if certain miRNAs play a role in plant response to Al(2O(3 nanoparticle stress. In this study, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants (an important cash crop as well as a model organism to 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% Al(2O(3 nanoparticles and found that as exposure to the nanoparticles increased, the average root length, the average biomass, and the leaf count of the seedlings significantly decreased. We also found that miR395, miR397, miR398, and miR399 showed an extreme increase in expression during exposure to 1% Al(2O(3 nanoparticles as compared to the other treatments and the control, therefore these miRNAs may play a key role in mediating plant stress responses to nanoparticle stress in the environment. The results of this study show that Al(2O(3 nanoparticles have a negative effect on the growth and development of tobacco seedlings and that miRNAs may play a role in the ability of plants to withstand stress to Al(2O(3 nanoparticles in the environment.

  13. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time

  14. Nanostructures Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmianski, Ilya; Monton, Carlos M.; Pereiro, Juan; Basaran, Ali C.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2013-03-01

    We present two fabrication methods for asymmetric mesoscopic dot arrays over macroscopic areas using anodic aluminum oxide templates. In the first approach, metal is deposited at 45o to the template axis to partially close the pores and produce an elliptical shadow-mask. In the second approach, now underway, nanoimprint lithography on a polymer intermediary layer is followed by reactive ion etching to generate asymmetric pore seeds. Both these techniques are quantified by an analysis of the lateral morphology and lattice of the pores or dots using scanning electron microscopy and a newly developed MATLAB based code (available for free download at http://ischuller.ucsd.edu). The code automatically provides a segmentation of the measured area and the statistics of morphological properties such as area, diameter, and eccentricity, as well as the lattice properties such as number of nearest neighbors, and unbiased angular and radial two point correlation functions. Furthermore, novel user defined statistics can be easily obtained. We will additionally present several applications of these methods to superconducting, ferromagnetic, and organic nanostructures. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0409

  15. Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan CH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hong Pan,1,2,* Wen-Te Liu,3,4,* Mauo-Ying Bien,4,5 I-Chan Lin,6 Ta-Chih Hsiao,7 Chih-Ming Ma,8 Ching-Huang Lai,2 Mei-Chieh Chen,9 Kai-Jen Chuang,10,11 Hsiao-Chi Chuang3,4 On behalf of the Taiwan CardioPulmonary Research (T-CPR Group 1Institute of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Labor, 2School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, 4School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 5Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 7Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, 8Department of Cosmetic Application and Management, St Mary’s Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Sanxing, 9Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, 10Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, 11School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs on the ­respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to Zn

  16. Radiolysis of water with aluminum oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Sarah C.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, nanoparticles with water were irradiated with γ-rays and 5 MeV He ions followed by the determination of the production of molecular hydrogen, H2, and characterization of changes in the particle surface. Surface analysis techniques included: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), nitrogen absorption with the Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET) methodology for surface area determination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Production of H2 by γ-ray radiolysis was determined for samples with adsorbed water and for Al2O3 - water slurries. For Al2O3 samples with adsorbed water, the radiation chemical yield of H2 was measured as 80±20 molecules/100 eV (1 molecule/100 eV=1.04×10-7 mol/J). The yield of H2 was observed to decrease as the amount of water present in the Al2O3 - water slurries increased. Surface studies indicated that the α-phase Al2O3 samples changed phase following irradiation by He ions, and that the oxyhydroxide layer, present on the pristine sample, is removed by γ-ray and He ion irradiation.

  17. Oxide mediated spectral shifting in aluminum resonant optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Patrick M; Moosmann, Carola; Dopf, Katja; Eisler, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    As a key feature among metals showing good plasmonic behavior, aluminum extends the spectrum of achievable plasmon resonances of optical antennas into the deep ultraviolet. Due to degradation, a native oxide layer gives rise to a metal-core/oxide-shell nanoparticle and influences the spectral resonance peak position. In this work, we examine the role of the underlying processes by applying numerical nanoantenna models that are experimentally not feasible. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are carried out for a large variety of elongated single-arm and two-arm gap nanoantennas. In a detailed analysis, which takes into account the varying surface-to-volume ratio, we show that the overall spectral shift toward longer wavelengths is mainly driven by the higher index surrounding material rather than by the decrease of the initial aluminum volume. In addition, we demonstrate experimentally that this shifting can be minimized by an all-inert fabrication and subsequent proof-of-concept encapsulation.

  18. In Vitro Toxicity of Aluminum Nanoparticles in Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    absorption of aluminum has been reported after application of underarm deodorant (Becaria, 2002:311). Two adult volunteers were dermally exposed to one...NPs can be classified as a sensitizer agent. Since sensitization has been identified in persons exposed to aluminum in deodorant , vaccines, and...IN VITRO TOXICITY OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLES IN HUMAN KERATINOCYTES THESIS Stephanie McCormack-Brown, Major, USAF, BSC AFIT/GIH/ENV

  19. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  20. 掺铝氧化锌纳米粉体的制备及性能研究%Synthesis and characterization of aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟博; 张刚申; 高珊; 蒋涛

    2011-01-01

    采用溶胶凝胶法制备掺铝氧化锌(AZO)纳米粉体,将其用硅烷偶联剂表面改性,采用溶液共混法制备出聚乙烯醇缩丁醛(PVB)/掺铝氧化锌(AZO)复合膜片.用热重差示扫描量热分析、X线衍射分析、透射电镜、激光粒度分析仪、紫外-可见分光光度仪、紫外-可见-近红外分光光度仪对AZO粉体及其改性后的无水乙醇分散液和PVB/AZO)复合膜片性能进行表征.研究铝掺杂量对AZO粉体结晶程度和PVB/AZO复合膜片的不同波段光线吸收的影响.结果表明:随着铝掺杂含量增加,粉体结晶程度变低.当铝掺杂含量为2%时,PVB/AZO复合膜片紫外光线透过率最高,近红外波段透过率最低.%AZO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method, and treated with silane coupling agent. Their PVB composite films were prepared by solution blending. The properties of AZO powders, modified AZO powders and PVB/AZO films were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM,laser particle analyzer, UV-Vis spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The influence of the aluminum doping concentration on the crystallization of AZO powders and UV-vis-NIR light absorption properties of PVB/AZO films were investigated. The results show that the crystallization properties of AZO powders were becoming worse with the increaseed aluminum doping concentration.The PVB/AZO composite film gives the highest UV transmittance and lowest NIR trans mittance at an aluminum doping ratio of 2 %.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanostructures via Hydrothermal Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alkahlout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable crystalline aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO nanopowders were synthesized using hydrothermal treatment processing. Three different aluminum precursors have been used. The Al-precursors were found to affect the morphology of the obtained nanopowders. AZO nanoparticles based on zinc acetate and aluminum nitrate have been prepared with different Al/Zn molar ratios. XRD investigations revealed that all the obtained powders have single phase zincite structure with purity of about 99%. The effect of aluminum doping ratio in AZO nanoparticles (based on Al-nitrate precursor on structure, phase composition, and particle size has been investigated. The incorporation of Al in ZnO was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy revealing a blue shift due to Burstein-Moss effect.

  2. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  3. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  4. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  5. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum nitride at different oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xinmei [Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chou, K.-C. [Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: kcc126@126.com; Zhong Xiangchong [High Temperature Ceramics Institute, Zhengzhou University, Henan Province 450052 (China); Seetharaman, Seshadri [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-10-06

    In the present work, the oxidation kinetics of AlN powder was investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experiments were carried out both in isothermal as well as non-isothermal modes under two different oxidizing atmospheres. The results showed that the oxidation reaction started at around 1100 K and the rate increased significantly beyond 1273 K forming porous aluminum oxide as the reaction product. The oxidation rate was affected by temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A distinct change in the oxidation mechanism was noticed in the temperature range 1533-1543 K which is attributed to the phase transformation in oxidation product, viz. alumina. Diffusion is the controlling step during the oxidation process. Based on the experimental data, a new model for predicting the oxidation process of AlN powder had been developed, which offered an analytic form expressing the oxidation weight increment as a function of time, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The application of this new model to this system demonstrated that this model could be used to describe the oxidation behavior of AlN powder.

  6. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticle photodetector was fabricated using a simple method. Under a 5 V applied bias, its dark current and photocurrent were 1.98×10-8 and 9.42×10-7 A, respectively. In other words, a photocurrent-to-dark-current contrast ratio of 48 was obtained. Under incident light at a wavelength of 375 nm and a 5 V applied bias, the detector’s measured responsivity was 3.75 A/W. The transient time constants measured during the turn-ON and turn-OFF states were τON=204 s and τOFF=486 s, respectively.

  7. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  8. Comprehensive Investigation of Silver Nanoparticle/Aluminum Electrodes for Copper Indium Sulfide/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arar, Mario; Pein, Andreas; Haas, Wernfried

    2012-01-01

    Electrode materials are primarily chosen based on their work function to suit the energy levels of the absorber materials. In this paper, we focus on the modification of aluminum cathodes with a thin silver interlayer (2 nm) in copper indium sulfide/poly[(2,7-silafluorene)-alt-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2...... nanoparticles in an aluminum oxide matrix between the absorber layer and the aluminum cathode. In combination with complementary optical investigations, the origin of the improvement is ascribed to a facilitated charge extraction....

  9. Fabrication of anodic aluminum oxide with incorporated chromate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Bombalska, Aneta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2012-10-01

    The anodization of aluminum in 0.3 M chromic acid is studied. The influence of operating conditions (like anodizing voltage and electrolyte's temperature) on the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide geometry (including pore diameter, interpore distance, the oxide layer thickness and pores density) is thoroughly investigated. The results revealed typical correlations of the anodic alumina nanopore geometry with operating conditions, such as linear increase of pore diameter and interpore distance with anodizing voltage. The anodic aluminum oxide is characterized by a low pores arrangement, as determined by Fast Fourier transforms analyses of the FE-SEM images, which translates into a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, an optimal experimental condition where chromate ions are being successfully incorporated into the anodic alumina walls, have been determined: the higher oxide growth rate the more chromate ions are being trapped. The trapped chromate ions and a high concentration of oxygen vacancies make the anodic aluminum oxide a promising luminescent material.

  10. Polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors; I. Influence of the aluminum oxide layer

    CERN Document Server

    van Harten, G; Keller, C U

    2009-01-01

    In polarimetry it is important to characterize the polarization properties of the instrument itself to disentangle real astrophysical signals from instrumental effects. This article deals with the accurate measurement and modeling of the polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors, as used in astronomical telescopes. Main goals are the characterization of the aluminum oxide layer thickness at different times after evaporation and its influence on the polarization properties of the mirror. The full polarization properties of an aluminum mirror are measured with Mueller matrix ellipsometry at different incidence angles and wavelengths. The best fit of theoretical Mueller matrices to all measurements simultaneously is obtained by taking into account a model of bulk aluminum with a thin aluminum oxide film on top of it. Full Mueller matrix measurements of a mirror are obtained with an absolute accuracy of ~1% after calibration. The determined layer thicknesses indicate logarithmic growth in the first few hou...

  11. The Effect of Anodic Oxide Films on the Nickel-Aluminum Reaction in Aluminum Braze Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadgell, Colin A.; Wells, Mary A.; Corbin, Stephen F.; Colley, Leo; Cheadle, Brian; Winkler, Sooky

    2017-03-01

    The influence of an anodic oxide surface film on the nickel-aluminum reaction at the surface of aluminum brazing sheet has been investigated. Samples were anodized in a barrier-type solution and subsequently sputtered with nickel. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and metallography were used as the main investigative techniques. The thickness of the anodic film was found to control the reaction between the aluminum substrate and nickel coating. Solid-state formation of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases occurred readily when a relatively thin oxide film (13 to 25 nm) was present, whereas intermetallic formation was suppressed in the presence of thicker oxides ( 60 nm). At an intermediate oxide film thickness of 35 nm, the Al3Ni phase formed shortly after the initiation of melting in the aluminum substrate. Analysis of DSC traces showed that formation of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases changed the melting characteristics of the aluminum substrate, and that the extent of this change can be used as an indirect measure of the amount of nickel incorporated into the intermetallic phases.

  12. Oxidation resistant, thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranow, S.; Klingler, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modified thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium alloy has been developed that exhibits greatly improved resistance to high-temperature oxidation. Additions of aluminum have been made to change nature of protective oxide scale entirely and to essentially inhibit oxidation at temperatures up to 1260 C.

  13. Generation of fast propagating combustion and shock waves with copper oxide/aluminum nanothermite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, S.; Shende, R. V.; Subramanian, S.; Tappmeyer, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Chen, Z.; Gangopadhyay, K.; Redner, P.; Nicholich, S.; Kapoor, D.

    2007-12-01

    Nanothermite composites containing metallic fuel and inorganic oxidizer are gaining importance due to their outstanding combustion characteristics. In this paper, the combustion behaviors of copper oxide/aluminum nanothermites are discussed. CuO nanorods were synthesized using the surfactant-templating method, then mixed or self-assembled with Al nanoparticles. This nanoscale mixing resulted in a large interfacial contact area between fuel and oxidizer. As a result, the reaction of the low density nanothermite composite leads to a fast propagating combustion, generating shock waves with Mach numbers up to 3.

  14. Modeling the ignition of a copper oxide aluminum thermite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibaek; Stewart, D. Scott; Clemenson, Michael; Glumac, Nick; Murzyn, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    An experimental "striker confinement" shock compression experiment was developed in the Glumac-group at the University of Illinois to study ignition and reaction in composite reactive materials. These include thermitic and intermetallic reactive powders. Sample of materials such as a thermite mixture of copper oxide and aluminum powders are initially compressed to about 80 percent full density. Two RP-80 detonators simultaneously push steel bars into the reactive material and the resulting compression causes shock compaction of the material and rapid heating. At that point one observes significant reaction and propagation of fronts. But the fronts are peculiar in that they are comprised of reactive events that can be traced to the reaction of the initially separated reactants of copper oxide and aluminum that react at their mutual interfaces, that nominally make copper liquid and aluminum oxide products. We discuss our model of the ignition of the copper oxide aluminum thermite in the context of the striker experiment and how a Gibbs formulation model [1], that includes multi-components for liquid and solid phases of aluminum, copper oxide, copper and aluminum oxide, can predict the events observed at the particle scale in the experiments.

  15. Hangzhou Jinjiang Group Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Phase I 800,000 t/a Aluminum Oxide Project Started Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On October 19,the Shanxi Province Pinglu County Phase I 800,000t/a Aluminum Oxide Project of Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Co.,Ltd,a subordinate of Hangzhou Jinjiang Group,started operation.This is the fourth Aluminum oxide project constructed and operated by Jinjiang Group.

  16. Methods for both coating a substrate with aluminum oxide and infusing the substrate with elemental aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Weil, Kenneth Scott

    2016-11-01

    Methods of aluminizing the surface of a metal substrate. The methods of the present invention do not require establishment of a vacuum or a reducing atmosphere, as is typically necessary. Accordingly, aluminization can occur in the presence of oxygen, which greatly simplifies and reduces processing costs by allowing deposition of the aluminum coating to be performed, for example, in air. Embodiments of the present invention can be characterized by applying a slurry that includes a binder and powder granules containing aluminum to the metal substrate surface. Then, in a combined step, a portion of the aluminum is diffused into the substrate and a portion of the aluminum is oxidized by heating the slurry to a temperature greater than the melting point of the aluminum in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.

  17. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  18. Electrical transport through single-wall carbon nanotube-anodic aluminum oxide-aluminum heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkola, Jarmo; Rautio, Aatto; Sala, Giovanni; Pino, Flavio; Tóth, Géza; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Mäklin, Jani; Jantunen, Heli; Uusimäki, Antti; Kordás, Krisztián; Gracia, Eduardo; Terrones, Mauricio; Shchukarev, Andrey; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum foils were anodized in sulfuric acid solution to form thick porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films of thickness ~6 µm. Electrodes of carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were inkjet printed on the anodic oxide layer and the electrical characteristics of the as-obtained SWCNT-AAO-Al structures were studied. Nonlinear current-voltage transport and strong temperature dependence of conduction through the structure was measured. The microstructure and chemical composition of the anodic oxide layer was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Schottky emission at the SWCNT-AAO and AAO-Al interfaces allowed by impurity states in the anodic aluminum oxide film together with ionic surface conduction on the pore walls of AAO gives a reasonable explanation for the measured electrical conduction. Calcined AAO is proposed as a dielectric material for SWCNT-field effect transistors.

  19. Research on the methods to determine metallic aluminum content in aluminum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [State Key Lab of Materials Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Material Structure Department, Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan 430010 (China); Song Wulin, E-mail: wulins@126.com [State Key Lab of Materials Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Analytical and Testing Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lv Jie [State Key Lab of Materials Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Xia [Analytical and Testing Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie Changsheng [State Key Lab of Materials Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The high reactivity of aluminum nanoparticles (ANPs) made the determination of their metallic aluminum (Al) content difficult. Volumetric, thermogravimetry and permanganatometric methods were utilized to determine Al content. The reacted solution after volumetric measurement was further studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and select area electron diffraction (SAED), which revealed that there were unreacted Al particles. Peaks indexed to metallic Al were found in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the powders after thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The side reactions between ANPs and water made the result of permanganatometric measurement underestimated as by the former methods. A modified titration method, using anhydrous alcohol as solvent, was performed to reduce the influence of water. The Al content of the ANPs produced by electro-exploded wire using this method was consistent with the quantitative phase analysis by Rietveld refinement.

  20. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  1. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  2. Heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticles of pyrolyzed biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heteroaggregation with indigenous particles is an important process controlling the mobility of engineered nanomaterials in the environment. We studied heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles (n-CeO2), which are widely used commercially, with nanoparticles of pyrogenic carbonaceous material ...

  3. Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  4. Synthesis of high purity metal oxide nanoparticles for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C.; Kim, W.; Friebele, E. J.; Villalobos, G.; Frantz, J.; Shaw, L. B.; Sadowski, B.; Fontana, J.; Dubinskii, M.; Zhang, J.; Sanghera, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present our recent research results in synthesizing various metal oxide nanoparticles for use as laser gain media (solid state as well as fiber lasers) and transparent ceramic windows via two separate techniques, co-precipitation and flame spray pyrolysis. The nanoparticles were pressed into ceramic discs that exhibited optical transmission approaching the theoretical limit and showed very high optical-to-optical lasing slope efficiency. We have also synthesized sesquioxide nanoparticles using a Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) technique that leads to the synthesis of a metastable phase of sesquioxide which allows fabricating excellent optical quality transparent windows with very fine grain sizes. Finally, we present our research in the synthesis of rare earth doped boehmite nanoparticles where the rareearth ion is encased in a cage of aluminum and oxygen to prevent ion-ion proximity and energy transfer. The preforms have been drawn into fibers exhibiting long lifetimes and high laser efficiencies.

  5. Analysis of peel strength of consisting of an aluminum sheet, anodic aluminum oxide and a copper foil laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Won; Lee, Hyo-Soo; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2017-01-01

    Laminate composites consisting of an aluminum sheet, anodic aluminum oxide, and copper foil have been used as heat-spreader materials for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs). These composites are comparable to the conventional structure comprising an aluminum sheet, epoxy adhesives, and copper foil. The peel strength between the copper foil and anodic aluminum oxide should be more than 1.0 kgf/cm in order to be applied in high-power LED products. We investigated the effect of the anodic aluminum oxide morphology and heat-treatment conditions on the peel strength of the composites. We formed an anodic aluminum oxide layer on a 99.999% pure aluminum sheet using electrochemical anodization. A Ti/Cu seed layer was formed using the sputtering direct bonding copper process in order to form a copper circuit layer on the anodic aluminum oxide layer by electroplating. The developed heat spreader, composed of an aluminum layer, anodic aluminum oxide, and a copper circuit layer, showed peel strengths ranging from 1.05 to 3.45 kgf/cm, which is very suitable for high-power LED applications.

  6. Flexible Aluminum Nanobowls for Alternative Preparation of Individual or a Small Number of Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan; CHEN Xin; YUE Yang; ZHANG Rong-jun; DAI Ning

    2009-01-01

    The nanoscale aluminum bowls were derived from the porous alumina and were used as the flexible nanoscale reactors for the preparation of nanoparticles.Both single source precursor and preprepared nanoparticles were induced in the nanobowls by melting the precursor/polymer films spin-coated on aluminum nanobowis for the formation of nanostructural composites in the nanobowls.We have prepared a single nanoparticle or just a small number of metal(e.g.Pt) nanoparticles or semiconductor nanoparticles(e.g.CdSe or CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanostructures) in the nanobowls.

  7. Use of aluminum as an oxidation barrier for titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnam, J.; Shenoy, R. N.; Wiedemann, K. E.; Clark, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    A study is conducted of the use of aluminum coatings as oxidation retardants for Ti alloys, using room temperature normal emittance and spectral emittance as bases for the characterization of oxidation properties with and without the coatings. Thermal exposures were conducted in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus in which specimen weight was continuously monitored. The results obtained indicate that the weight gains are proportional to the square root of the time for uncoated alloys and for 649 C-exposed aluminum-coated alloys. For the 704 C-exposed aluminum-coated alloys, weight gain exhibits a low rate for short and a high rate for long exposure times, implying that the 0.5-micron coating's protection decreases for long exposures at this temperature.

  8. Antitumor Activities of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Vinardell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have received much attention recently due to their use in cancer therapy. Studies have shown that different metal oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. In some cases, such anticancer activity has been demonstrated to hold for the nanoparticle alone or in combination with different therapies, such as photocatalytic therapy or some anticancer drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have this activity alone or when loaded with an anticancer drug, such as doxorubicin. Other nanoparticles that show cytotoxic effects on cancer cells include cobalt oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide. The antitumor mechanism could work through the generation of reactive oxygen species or apoptosis and necrosis, among other possibilities. Here, we review the most significant antitumor results obtained with different metal oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  10. Large pore volume mesoporous aluminum oxide synthesized via nano-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new nano-assembly approach has been proposed for the preparation of macropore volume mesoporous aluminum oxide supports. Secondary nano-assembly and a frame structure mechanism for large pore volume mesoporous supports have been proposed. In a primary nano-assembly supersoluble micelle,aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles were precipitated in situ in surfactants with a volume balance (VB) less than 1,followed by secondary nano-assembly in linear and cylindrical shapes. The secondary nano-assembly of cylindrical aluminum hydroxides was calcined to form nano cylindrical aluminum oxides. For the formation of macropore volume mesoporous supports,we utilized a frame structure mechanism of mesoporous support,in which the exterior surface of the carrier may not be continuous. This macropore volume support has been used for the hydrotreatment of a residual oil catalyst,which possesses the following physical characteristics:pore volume 1.8―2.7 mL·g-1,specific surface area 180―429 m2·g-1,average pore diameter 17―57 nm,average pore diameter more than 10 nm (81%―94%),porosity 87%―93%,and crush strength 7.7―25 N·mm-1.

  11. Upconversion spectroscopy of erbium in amorphous aluminum oxide microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agazzi, L.; Wörhoff, K.; Pollnau, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of energy migration and energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) among neighboring erbium ions on luminescence decay and steady-state population densities in amorphous aluminum oxide microstructures is investigated by means of photoluminescence decay measurements under quasi-CW excitation. .

  12. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  13. Stratospheric aluminum oxide. [possibly from solid-fuel rocket exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Tomandl, D.; Ferry, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    Balloons and U-2 aircraft were used to collect micrometer-sized stratospheric aerosols. It was discovered that for the past 6 years at least, aluminum oxide spheres have been the major stratospheric particulate in the size range from 3 to 8 micrometers. The most probable source of the spheres is the exhaust from solid-fuel rockets.

  14. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  15. Assessment of airborne nanoparticles present in industry of aluminum surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R J; Vieira, M T

    2017-03-01

    Conventional industrial processes are emission sources of unintended nanoparticles which are potentially harmful for the environment and human health. The aim of this study is to assess airborne nanoparticle release from aluminum surface treatment processes in various workplaces. Two direct reading instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer to measure size distribution and a nanoparticle surface area monitoring to measure the surface area of particles deposited in the human lung, were employed to perform area monitoring. The lacquering paint was the process which released the highest concentration of particles from 10-487 nm (7.06 × 10(6) particles/cm(3)). The lacquering baths process emitted particles of the largest average size (76.9 nm) and the largest surface area deposited in the human lung (167.4 µm(2)/cm(3)). Conversely, the anodizing bath process generated particles of the smallest average size (44.3 nm) and the lowest human lung-deposited surface area (1.2 µm(2)/cm(3)). The total number of particles and the surface area can only be fairly correlated for environments in which the surface area presented higher values. The transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aluminum oxide particles of different dimensions near the LB and AB areas and polymeric-based particles near the LP areas. The findings of this study indicated that lacquering and anodizing surface treatments are indeed responsible for the emission of airborne nanoparticles. It also highlights the importance of control strategies as a means of protecting workers' health and environment.

  16. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  17. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  18. Oxidation dynamics of nanophase aluminum clusters : a molecular dynamics study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, S.

    1998-01-27

    Oxidation of an aluminum nanocluster (252,158 atoms) of radius 100{angstrom} placed in gaseous oxygen (530,727 atoms) is investigated by performing molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers. The simulation takes into account the effect of charge transfer between Al and O based on the electronegativity equalization principles. We find that the oxidation starts at the surface of the cluster and the oxide layer grows to a thickness of {approximately}28{angstrom}. Evolutions of local temperature and densities of Al and O are investigated. The surface oxide melts because of the high temperature resulting from the release of energy associated with Al-O bondings. Amorphous surface-oxides are obtained by quenching the cluster. Vibrational density-of-states for the surface oxide is analyzed through comparisons with those for crystalline Al, Al nanocluster, and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  19. Sophorolipids-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baccile, Niki; Noiville, Romain; Stievano, Lorenzo; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Functional iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) have been synthesized in a one and a two-step method using a natural functional glycolipid belonging to the family of sophorolipids (SL). These compounds, whose open acidic form is highly suitable for nanoparticle stabilization, are readily obtained by a fermentation process of the yeast Candida bombicola (polymorph Starmerella bombicola) in large amounts. The final carbohydrate coated iron oxide nanoparticles represent interest...

  20. Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor aluminum oxide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomshield, Fred S.; Kraeutle, Karl J.; Stalnaker, Richard A.

    1994-10-01

    During the launch of STS-54, a 15 psi pressure blip was observed in the ballistic pressure trace of one of the two Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM). One possible scenario for the observed pressure increase deals with aluminum oxide slag formation in the RSRM. The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes which may have occurred in the aluminum oxide formation in shuttle solid propellant due to changes in the ammonium perchlorate. Aluminum oxide formation from three propellants, all having the same formulation, but containing ammonium perchlorate from different manufacturers, will be compared. Three methods have been used to look for possible differences among the propellants. The first method was to examine window bomb movies of the propellants burning at 100, 300 and 600 psia. The motor operating pressure during the pressure blip was around 600 psia. The second method used small samples of propellant which were fired in a combustion bomb which quenched the burning aluminum particles soon after they left the propellant surface. The bomb was fired in both argon and Nitrogen atmospheres at various pressures. Products from this device were examined by optical microscopy. The third method used larger propellant samples fired into a particle collection device which allowed the aluminum to react and combust more completely. This device was pressurized with Nitrogen to motor operating pressures. The collected products were subdivided into size fractions by screening and sedimentation and analyzed optically with an optical microscope. the results from all three methods indicate very small changes in the size distribution of combustion products.

  1. Characteristic Exoemission From Oxide Covered Aluminum Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    with a Bayart— Alpert pressure gauge during the elongation of a thick, dense oxide on clad Al 2024. Considerable signal was observed that correlated...Principal Investigator 2. 3. T. Dickinson: Assoc. Prof. of Physics, Co—Principal Investigator 3. Larry Larson: Graduate Student (Ph.D. Candidate) 4

  2. Effect of Nanoparticles on Modified Screen Printed Inhibition Superoxide Dismutase Electrodes for Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2016-01-01

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme superoxide dismutase has been developed. The oxidation signal of epinephrine substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in its amperometric current. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed with glutaraldehyde on screen-printed carbon electrodes modifiedwith tetrathiofulvalene (TTF) and different types ofnanoparticles. Nanoparticles of gold, platinum, rhodium and palladium were deposited on screen printed carbon electrodes by means of two electrochemical procedures. Nanoparticles were characterized trough scanning electronic microscopy, X-rays fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy. Palladium nanoparticles showed lower atomic force microscopy parameters and higher slope of aluminum calibration curves and were selected to perform sensor validation. The developed biosensor has a detection limit of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM for Al(III), with a reproducibility of 7.9% (n = 5). Recovery of standard reference material spiked to buffer solution was 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (n = 5). Recovery of tap water spiked with the standard reference material was 100.5 with a relative standard deviation of 3.4% (n = 3). The study of interfering ions has also been carried out. PMID:27681735

  3. Effect of Nanoparticles on Modified Screen Printed Inhibition Superoxide Dismutase Electrodes for Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Barquero-Quirós

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III based on the inhibition of the enzyme superoxide dismutase has been developed. The oxidation signal of epinephrine substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III ions leading to a decrease in its amperometric current. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed with glutaraldehyde on screen-printed carbon electrodes modifiedwith tetrathiofulvalene (TTF and different types ofnanoparticles. Nanoparticles of gold, platinum, rhodium and palladium were deposited on screen printed carbon electrodes by means of two electrochemical procedures. Nanoparticles were characterized trough scanning electronic microscopy, X-rays fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy. Palladium nanoparticles showed lower atomic force microscopy parameters and higher slope of aluminum calibration curves and were selected to perform sensor validation. The developed biosensor has a detection limit of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM for Al(III, with a reproducibility of 7.9% (n = 5. Recovery of standard reference material spiked to buffer solution was 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (n = 5. Recovery of tap water spiked with the standard reference material was 100.5 with a relative standard deviation of 3.4% (n = 3. The study of interfering ions has also been carried out.

  4. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  5. Radiation induced defects and thermoluminescence mechanism in aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Awata, T. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, M. [Kagawa Univ., Faculty of Education, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The thermoluminescence of the irradiated aluminum oxides were measured to study the radiation induced defects and their behaviors. Neutron and {gamma}-ray irradiation were performed for a shingle crystal of the high purity aluminum oxide. The thermoluminescence glow curve and its activation energy were measured. The spectroscopy measurement on the thermoluminescence and the absorption are also carried out. The observed 430 and 340 nm peaks are discussed relating to the F{sup +} and F centers, respectively. Activation state of the F center transits to 3P state through 1P state by emitting phonons. Trapped electron on 3P state emits phonon of 2.9 eV (430 nm) during transition to the ground state. The above reaction can be written by the equation. F{sup +} + e {yields} (F){sup *} {yields} F + h{nu}(2.9 eV, 470 nm). (Katsuta, H.)

  6. Development of topologically structured membranes of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, A.; Videkov, V.; Tzaneva, B.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, nanomembranes have become one of the most widely used construction material for ultrasensitive and ultrathin applications in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and other sensor structures due to their remarkable mechanical properties. Among these, the mechanical stability is of particular importance. We present an approach to the analysis of the stability of nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide free membranes subjected to mechanical bending. The membranes tested were with a thickness of 500 nm to 15 urn in various topological shapes; we describe the technological schemes of their preparation. Bends were applied to membranes prepared by using a selective process of etching and anodizing. The results of the preparation of the membranes are discussed, together with the influence of the angle of deflection, and the number of bendings. The results obtained can be used in designing MEMS structures and sensors which use nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide.

  7. Thermally stimulated luminescence studies in combustion synthesized polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Nagabhushana; B N Lakshminarasappa; D Revannasiddaiah; Fouran Singh

    2008-08-01

    Synthesis of materials by combustion technique results in homogeneous and fine crystalline product. Further, the technique became more popular since it not only saved time and energy but also was easy to process. Aluminum oxide phosphor was synthesized by using urea as fuel in combustion reaction. Photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) characteristics of -irradiated aluminum oxide samples were studied. A broad PL emission with a peak at ∼ 465 nm and a pair of strong and sharp emissions with peaks at 679 and 695 nm were observed in -rayed samples. The PL intensity was observed to increase with increase in -ray dose. Two prominent and well resolved TSL glows with peaks at 210°C and 365°C were observed in all -irradiated Al2O3 samples. The TSL intensity was also found to increase with increase in -ray dose. The TSL glow curves indicated second order kinetics.

  8. Catalytic Behaviour of Mesoporous Cobalt-Aluminum Oxides for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bordoloi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous materials are promising catalyst supports due to their uniform pore size distribution, high specific surface area and pore volume, tunable pore sizes, and long-range ordering of the pore packing. The evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA process was applied to synthesize mesoporous mixed oxides, which consist of cobalt ions highly dispersed in an alumina matrix. The characterization of the mesoporous mixed cobalt-aluminum oxides with cobalt loadings in the range from 5 to 15 wt% and calcination temperatures of 673, 973, and 1073 K indicates that Co2+ is homogeneously distributed in the mesoporous alumina matrix. As a function of the Co loading, different phases are present comprising poorly crystalline alumina and mixed cobalt aluminum oxides of the spinel type. The mixed cobalt-aluminum oxides were applied as catalysts in CO oxidation and turned out to be highly active.

  9. Giant electrorheological effects of aluminum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhe Tang; Junhui He; Jacques Persello

    2010-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles doped with cations have been synthesized via a modified hydrolysis method.The X-ray diffraction analyses,scanning electron microscopy and other characteristics measurements,were used to study the structure of the nanoparticles.The results showed interesting electrorheological(ER)effect with titania nanoparticles modified by aluminum ions,and different cations on ER effect were determined by ionic potential and resistance of the particle aggregates in the electric field.The doping ratio of aluminum ions was dominated by the appropriate sites of the particle surface and the ER effect strongly depends on the doping ratio.

  10. Rheology of suspensions with aluminum nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Teipel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale aluminum particles are innovative materials increasingly used in energetic formulations. In this contribution, the rheological behavior of suspensions with either paraffin oil or HTPB as the matrix fluid and nano-scale aluminum (ALEX as the dispersed phase is described and discussed. The paraffin oil/aluminum suspensions exhibit non-Newtonian flow behavior over a wide range of concentrations, whereas the HTPB/aluminum suspensions exhibitNewtonian behavior (i.e. the viscosity is independent of shear stress up to a concentration of 50 vol.% aluminum. Both systems have unusual viscoelastic properties in that their elastic moduli are independent of the solids concentration.

  11. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, with have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure range 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2- and peroxide O22- ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2.

  12. Radioluminescence of rare-earth doped aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, M.; Molina, P. [Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Barros, V. S.; Khoury, H. J.; Elihimas, D. R., E-mail: msantiag@exa.unicen.edu.ar [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, Recife, PE 50740-540 (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) is one of the most used radioluminescence (Rl) materials for fiberoptic dosimetry due to its high efficiency and commercial availability. However, this compound presents the drawback of emitting in the spectral region, where the spurious radioluminescence of fibers is also important. In this work, the radioluminescence response of rare-earth doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples has been evaluated. The samples were prepared by mixing stoichiometric amounts of aluminum nitrate, urea and dopants with different amounts of terbium, samarium, cerium and thulium nitrates varying from 0 to 0.15 mo 1%. The influence of the different activators on the Rl spectra has been investigated in order to determine the feasibility of using these compounds for Rl fiberoptic dosimetry. (Author)

  13. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Rajala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS to confirm the presence of gamma-phase aluminum oxide when heated at temperatures above 700 °C. The fiber diameter decreased from 987 ± 19 nm to 382 ± 152 nm after the calcination process due to the polymer material being burned off. The wall thickness of these fibers is estimated to be 100 nm.

  14. Mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Jriuan; Shafi, Kurikka V.P.M.; Ulman, Abraham; Loos, Katja; Yang, Nan-Loh; Cui, Min-Hui; Vogt, Thomas; Estournès, Claude; Locke, Dave C.

    2004-01-01

    Designing nanoparticles for practical applications requires knowledge and control of how their desired properties relate to their composition and structure. Here, we present a detailed systematic study of mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles, showing that ultrasonication provides the high-energy

  15. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets of aluminum oxide that may be ultimately used in a reactor core, for example, as filler or spacers within fuel, burnable poison, or control rods. In order to distinguish between the subject pellets and “burnable poison” pellets, it is established that the subject pellets are not intended to be used as neutron-absorbing material. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

  16. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication.

  17. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji(r)í Hradil; Alexander Pisarev; Michal Babi(c); Daniel Horák

    2007-01-01

    Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation of Fe(Ⅱ) and Fe(Ⅲ) salts with ammonium hydroxide by two methods.Iron oxide was precipitated either in the presence of dextran solution, or the dextran solution was added after precipitation. In the second method,the iron oxide particle size and size distribution could be controlled depending on the concentration of dextran in the solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Optimal conditions for preparation of stable iron oxide colloid particles were determined. The dextran/iron oxide ratio 0-0.16 used in precipitation of iron salts can be recommended for synthesis of nanoparticles suitable for biomedical applications, as the colloid does not contain excess dextran and does not coagulate.

  18. Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, J. O.; Makarov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with a possibility of new types of photosensitizers application - Aluminum Phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in clinical practice for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases in dentistry and traumatology. It was detected that the aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) fluoresces in the nanoparticle form in the presence of pathologic microflora or inflammation process. It will make possible to detect the local accumulation of pathological microflora on the enamel surface and also for diagnostics and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Experimental studies of interaction of NP-AlPc with tooth enamel and with biological joint tissue at arthrosis are presented.

  19. Thermoluminescence study of aluminum oxide doped with therbium and thulium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, V.S.M., E-mail: vdbarros@terra.com.b [Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, DEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Azevedo, W.M. de [Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BR101 s/n, 50670-901, Recife-PE (Brazil); Khoury, H.J.; Andrade, M.E.A. [Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, DEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Filho, P. Linhares [Curso de Ciencia dos Materiais, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BR101 s/n, 50670-901, Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped either with Tb{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+} was prepared by combustion synthesis techniques for thermoluminescent (TL) ionizing radiation dosimetry applications. In this method, the reactants (aluminum nitrate, urea and therbium or thulium nitrate) are ignited in a muffle furnace at temperatures as low as 500 {sup o}C. This synthesis route is an alternative technique to the conventional fabrication methods of materials based on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Czochralsky, Vernuil), where high melting temperatures and reducing atmospheres are required. After combustion, the samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400 {sup o}C for 4 h in order to obtain the pure {alpha}-phase structure and were then irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The annealed samples present a well defined TL glow peak with a maximum at approximately 200 {sup o}C and linear TL response in the dose range 0.5-5 Gy. It was observed that a 0.1 mol% concentration of Tb{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+} and annealing at 1400 {sup o}C optimize the TL sensitivity. The highest sensitivity was found for Tm{sup 3+} doped samples which were approximately 25 times more sensitive than Tb{sup 3+} doped samples. These results strongly suggest that combustion synthesis is a suitable technique to prepare doped aluminum oxide material and that Tm{sup 3+} doped aluminum oxide is a potential material for TL radiation dosimetry.

  20. Formation of anodic aluminum oxide with serrated nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Chuanhai; Lu, Jia G

    2010-08-11

    We report a simple and robust method to self-assemble porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes with serrated nanochannels by anodizing in phosphoric acid solution. Due to high field conduction and anionic incorporation, an increase of anodizing voltage leads to an increase of the impurity levels and also the field strength across barrier layer. On the basis of both experiment and simulation results, the initiation and formation of serrated channels are attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles followed by plastic deformation in the oxide film. Alternating anodization in oxalic and phosphoric acids is applied to construct multilayered membranes with smooth and serrated channels, demonstrating a unique way to design and construct a three-dimensional hierarchical system with controllable morphology and composition.

  1. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  2. High-speed collision of copper nanoparticle with aluminum surface: Molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Victor V.; Mayer, Alexander E.; Krasnikov, Vasiliy S.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the effect of the high-speed collision of copper nanoparticles with aluminum surface by means of molecular dynamic simulations. Studied diameter of nanoparticles is varied within the range 7.2-22 nm and the velocity of impact is equal to 500 or 1000 m/s. Dislocation analysis shows that a large quantity of dislocations is formed within the impact area. Overall length of dislocations is determined, first of all, by the impact velocity and by the size of incident copper nanoparticle, in other words, by the kinetic energy of the nanoparticle. Dislocations occupy the total volume of the impacted aluminum single crystal layer (40.5 nm in thickness) in the form of intertwined structure in the case of large kinetic energy of the incident nanoparticle. Decrease in the initial kinetic energy or increase in the layer thickness lead to restriction of the penetration depth of the dislocation net; formation of separate dislocation loops is observed in this case. Increase in the initial system temperature slightly raises the dislocation density inside the bombarded layer and considerably decreases the dislocation density inside the nanoparticle. The temperature increase also leads to a deeper penetration of the copper atoms inside the aluminum. Additional molecular dynamic simulations show that the deposited particles demonstrate a very good adhesion even in the case of the considered relatively large nanoparticles. Medium energy of the nanoparticles corresponding to velocity of about 500 m/s and elevated temperature of the system about 700-900 K are optimal parameters for production of high-quality layers of copper on the aluminum surface. These conditions provide both a good adhesion and a less degree of the plastic deformation. At the same time, higher impact velocities can be used for combined treatment consisting of both the plastic deformation and the coating.

  3. Inhomogeneous depletion of oxygen ions in metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhodets, Vladimir B.; Jarvis, Emily A. A.; Kurennykh, Tatiana E.; Beketov, Igor V.; Obukhov, Sviatoslav I.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Medvedev, Anatoly I.; Davletshin, Andrey E.; Whyte, Travis H.

    2016-02-01

    Zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have multiple uses, including catalysis, fuel cells, dental applications, and thermal coatings. We employ nuclear reaction analysis to determine elemental composition of YSZ nanoparticles synthesized by laser evaporation including 18O studies to distinguish between oxide and adsorbed oxygen content as a function of surface area. We see dramatic deviation from stoichiometry that can be traced to loss of oxygen from the oxide near the surface of these nanopowders. Density functional calculations are coupled with these experimental studies to explore the electronic structure of nonstoichiometric surfaces achieved through depletion of oxygen. Our results show oxygen-depleted surfaces present under oxygen potentials where stoichiometric, oxygen-terminated surfaces would be favored thermodynamically for crystalline systems. Oxygen depletion at nanopowder surfaces can create effective two-dimensional surface metallic states while maintaining stoichiometry in the underlying nanoparticle core. This insight into nanopowder surfaces applies to dissimilar oxides of aluminum and zirconium indicating synthesis conditions may be more influential than the inherent oxide properties and displaying need for distinct models for nanopowders of these important engineering materials where surface chemistry dominates performance.

  4. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Mendoza, Daniel; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Corrosion evaluation of zirconium doped oxide coatings on aluminum formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajat, Jelena; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Vasilić, Rastko; Stojadinović, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O) and Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O doped with Zr was analyzed in order to obtain oxide coatings with improved corrosion resistance. The influence of current density in PEO process and anodization time was investigated, as well as the influence of Zr, with the aim to find out how they affect the chemical content, morphology, surface roughness, and corrosion stability of oxide coatings. It was shown that the presence of Zr increases the corrosion stability of oxide coatings for all investigated PEO times. Evolution of EIS spectra during the exposure to 3% NaCl, as a strong corrosive agent, indicated the highest corrosion stability for PEO coating formed on aluminum at 70 mA/cm(2) for 2 min in a zirconium containing electrolyte.

  6. Electrochemical fabrication of CdS/Co nanowire arrays in porous aluminum oxide templates

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, C H

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for preparing semiconductor/metal nanowire arrays is described, based on a template method which entails electrochemical deposition into nanometer-wide parallel pores of anodic aluminum oxide films on aluminum. Aligned CdS/Co heterostructured nanowires have been prepared by ac electrodeposition in the anodic aluminum oxide templates. By varying the preparation conditions, a variety of CdS/Co nanowire arrays were fabricated, whose dimensional properties could be adjusted.

  7. Evolution of oxide nanoparticles during dynamic plastic deformation of ODS steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, Nairong;

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure as well as the deformation behavior of oxide nanoparticles has been analyzed in the ferritic ODS steel PM2000 after compression by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains. A dislocation cell structure forms after deformation to a strain of 1.0. DPD to a strain of 2.......1 results in nanoscale lamellae with an average lamellar spacing of approximately 70 nm. During DPD oxide nanoparticles, identified as yttrium aluminum perovskite YAlO3, are found to deform differently depending on their size. Whereas particles with a size of less than 15 nm change their shape and aspect...

  8. Aluminum Oxide Formation On Fecral Catalyst Support By Electro-Chemical Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang H.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FeCrAl is comprised essentially of Fe, Cr, Al and generally considered as metallic substrates for catalyst support because of its advantage in the high-temperature corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength, and ductility. Oxidation film and its adhesion on FeCrAl surface with aluminum are important for catalyst life. Therefore various appropriate surface treatments such as thermal oxidation, Sol, PVD, CVD has studied. In this research, PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation process was applied to form the aluminum oxide on FeCrAl surface, and the formed oxide particle according to process conditions such as electric energy and oxidation time were investigated. Microstructure and aluminum oxide particle on FeCrAl surface after PEO process was observed by FE-SEM and EDS with element mapping analysis. The study presents possibility of aluminum oxide formation by electro-chemical coating process without any pretreatment of FeCrAl.

  9. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of aluminum reinforced with carbon-coated silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx; Reyes-Gasga, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Caudillo, R. [Texas Materials Institute and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1063 (United States); Garcia-Gutierrez, D.I. [Texas Materials Institute and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1063 (United States); Marquez-Lucero, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Mendoza-Ruiz, D.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Jose Yacaman, M. [Texas Materials Institute and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1063 (United States)

    2007-07-12

    Composites of pure aluminum with carbon-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag-C NP) of 10 nm in size were prepared by the mechanical milling process. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Ag-C NP are homogeneously dispersed into the Al matrix, silver nanoparticles do not coalesce, grow or dissolve in the aluminum matrix due the carbon shell. The values of yield strength ({sigma} {sub y}), maximum strength ({sigma} {sub max}) and micro-hardness Vickers (HVN) of the composites were evaluated and reported as a function of Ag-C NP content. It has been found that the introduction of this type of particles in aluminum strengthen it, increasing all the previous parameters.

  10. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis by Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin DIGHORE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared by electrochemical reduction method which is environmental benign. Tetra ethyl ammonium bromide (TEAB, tetra propyl ammonium bromide (TPAB, tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB were used as stabilizing agent in an organic medium viz. tetra hydro furan (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density. The reduction process takes place under atmospheric condition over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles were prepared using simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode was a commercially available copper metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet acted as a cathode. The stabilizers were used to control the size of a nanoparticles. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDS and TEM analysis techniques.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7501

  11. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits.

  12. Effects of coating spherical iron oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the effect of several coatings applied in biomedical applications to iron oxide nanoparticles on the size, structure and composition of the particles. The four structural techniques employed – TEM, DLS, VSM, SAXS and EXAFS – show no significant effects of the coatings on the spherical shape of the bare nanoparticles, the average sizes or the local order around the Fe atoms. The NPs coated with hydroxylmethylene bisphosphonate or catechol have a lower pro...

  13. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...... efficiency of Au-based catalysts. Finally, our theoretical simulations allow us to discuss the selectivity of supported Au nanoparticles....

  14. Functionalised silicon oxide nanoparticles for fingermark detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sébastien; Bécue, Andy; Champod, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the use of nanotechnology for fingermark detection has been attracting a lot of attention. A substantial number of nanoparticle types has thus been studied and applied with varying success. However, despite all efforts, few publications present clear supporting evidence of their superiority over standard and commonly used techniques. This paper focuses on a rarely studied type of nanoparticles that regroups all desired properties for effective fingermark detection: silicon oxide. These nanoparticles offer optical and surface properties that can be tuned to provide optimal detection. This study explores their potential as a new method for fingermark detection. Detection conditions, outer functionalisations and optical properties were optimised and a first evaluation of the technique is presented. Dye-doped silicon oxide nanoparticles were assessed against a one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate. Both techniques were compared on natural fingermarks from three donors collected on four different non-porous substrates. On average, the two techniques performed similarly but silicon oxide detected marks with a better homogeneity and was less affected by donor inter-variability. The technique remains to be further optimised and yet silicon oxide nanoparticles already show great promises for effective fingermark detection.

  15. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  16. Fabrication of YBCO nanowires with anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadras, Sedigheh, E-mail: dadras@alzahra.ac.ir; Aawani, Elaheh

    2015-10-15

    We have fabricated YBCO nanowires by using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and sol–gel method, to investigate the fundamental properties of the one-dimensional nanostructure YBCO high-temperature superconductor and enhance its applications. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern results have shown forming of Y-123 nanowires in the template. As an outcome, the YBCO nanowires, prepared by dipping AAO template into YBCO sol method, have average diameter of about 38 nm and length of 1 μm; this is an optimum nanowire sample with larger diameter and length. The resistance–temperature measurement indicates that the onset critical temperature of these samples occurs at 91 K, and the resistance of the optimum sample at onset transition is 10 times lower than the other sample.

  17. Fabrication of Nanostructured PLGA Scaffolds Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Hsueh, Cheng-Chih; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2008-01-01

    PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) is one of the most used biodegradable and biocompatible materials. Nanostructured PLGA even has great application potentials in tissue engineering. In this research, a fabrication technique for nanostructured PLGA membrane was investigated and developed. In this novel fabrication approach, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film was use as the template ; the PLGA solution was then cast on it ; the vacuum air-extraction process was applied to transfer the nano porous pattern from the AAO membrane to the PLGA membrane and form nanostures on it. The cell culture experiments of the bovine endothelial cells demonstrated that the nanostructured PLGA membrane can double the cell growing rate. Compared to the conventional chemical-etching process, the physical fabrication method proposed in this research not only is simpler but also does not alter the characteristics of the PLGA. The nanostructure of the PLGA membrane can be well controlled by the AAO temperate.

  18. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  19. Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Atsushi; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2010-02-16

    Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis for probe liquids were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of bis((tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,-tetrahydrooctyl)-dimethylsiloxy)methylsilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)Si(CH(3))(2)O)(2)SiCH(3)H, (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH). Oxidized aluminum surfaces were prepared by photooxidation/cleaning of sputter-coated aluminum on silicon wafers (Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3)))) using oxygen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that this facile CVD method produces a monolayer with a thickness of 1.1 nm on the Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface without a discernible change in surface morphology. After monolayer deposition, the hydrophilic Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface became both hydrophobic and oleophobic and exhibited essentially no contact angle hysteresis for water and n-hexadecane (advancing/receding contact angles (theta(A)/theta(R)) = 110 degrees/109 degrees and 52 degrees/50 degrees, respectively). Droplets move very easily on this surface and roll off of slightly tilted surfaces, independently of the contact angle (which is a practical definition of ultralyophobic). A conventional fluoroalkylsilane monolayer was also prepared from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(7)CH(2)CH(2)Si(OCH(3))(3), R(F)Si(OMe)(3)) for comparison. The theta(A)/theta(R) values for water and n-hexadecane are 121 degrees/106 degrees and 76 degrees/71 degrees, respectively. The larger hysteresis values indicate the "pinning" of probe liquids, even though advancing contact angles are larger than those of the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers. The (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers have excellent hydrolytic stability in water. We propose that the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers are flexible and liquidlike and that drops in contact with these surfaces experience very low energy barriers between metastable states, leading to the

  20. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  1. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  2. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Sifeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China); Jia Jingfu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Guo Xiaokui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Zhao Yaping [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Liu Boyu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong, E-mail: zhangxianlong20101@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 {mu}g/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 25.9 % in 500 {mu}g/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 {mu}g/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 {mu}g/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  3. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravin Jugdaohsingh

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7 we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP. Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2 g(-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  4. Microstructural Effects on the Reactivity of Nano-Aluminum/Iodine (V) Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brian; Langhals, Jarred; Emery, Sam; Martinez, Lucas; Welle, Eric; Lindsay, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recent efforts investigating the self-ignition mechanism of nanoaluminum blended with iodine (V) oxide in the form of powders with and without additives suggests that ignition begins below the decomposition point of either reactant and takes place at the alumina shell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle. As observed in previous studies of powder composites, microstructural features such as particle morphology are expected to strongly influence properties that govern the combustion behavior of this energetic material (EM). In this study, highly reactive composites containing amorphous and/or crystalline iodine oxide and nano-sized Al was blended with an additive and deposited as films. Physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-speed imaging, time of arrival data via photodiodes and planar doppler velocimetry were employed to characterize these EMs with emphasis on correlating the reaction rate (burn rate) with inherent microstructural features (porosity, thickness, TMD, etc). This work was a continuation of efforts to probe the self-ignition mechanism of Al-iodine (V) oxide composites.

  5. Super magnetic nanoparticles NiFe2O4, coated with aluminum-nickel oxide sol-gel lattices to safe, sensitive and selective purification of his-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmadi-Zare, Seyede Zohreh; Allafchian, Alireza; Aboutalebi, Fatemeh; Shojaei, Pendar; Khazaie, Yahya; Dormiani, Kianoush; Lachinani, Liana; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Super magnetic nanoparticle NiFe2O4 with high magnetization, physical and chemical stability was introduced as a core particle which exhibits high thermal stability (>97%) during the harsh coating process. Instead of multi-stage process for coating, the magnetic nanoparticles was mineralized via one step coating by a cheap, safe, stable and recyclable alumina sol-gel lattice (from bohemite source) saturated by nickel ions. The TEM, SEM, VSM and XRD imaging and BET analysis confirmed the structural potential of NiFe2O4@NiAl2O4 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for selective and sensitive purification of His-tagged protein, in one step. The functionality and validity of the nickel magnetic nanoparticles were attested by purification of three different bioactive His-tagged recombinant fusion proteins including hIGF-1, GM-CSF and bFGF. The bonding capacity of the nickel magnetics nanoparticles was studied by Bradford assay and was equal to 250 ± 84 μg Protein/mg MNP base on protein size. Since the metal ion leakage is the most toxicity source for purification by nickel magnetic nanoparticles, therefor the nickel leakage in purified final protein was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and biological activity of final purified protein was confirmed in comparison with reference. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel magnetic nanoparticles and trace metal ions were investigated by MTS assay analysis. The results confirmed that the synthesized nickel magnetic nanoparticles did not show metal ion toxicity and not affected on protein folding.

  6. Friction stir spot welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with SiC nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Laali [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with 1.6 mm thickness was investigated. The effects of the silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles on the metallurgical and mechanical properties were discussed. The effects of particles on tension shear and wear tests were also investigated. The process was conducted at a constant rotational speed of 1000 rpm. Results showed that adding SiC nanoparticles to the weld during FSSW had a major effect on the mechanical properties. In fact, the addition of nanoparticles as barriers prevented grain growth in the Stir zone (SZ). The data obtained in the tensile-shear and wear tests showed that tensile-shear load and wear resistance increased with the addition of SiC nanoparticles, which was attributed to the fine grain size produced in the SZ.

  7. Analysis of photoluminescence decay kinetics of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles interacting with immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Bystrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the study of the photoluminescence kinetics of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles in colloidal solutions at different pH and in the interaction with immune cells (macrophages. For measurements we used a registration system based on Hamamatsu streak camera (C10627-13 Hamamatsu Photonics with picosecond temporal resolution (15 ps, conjugated with the fiberoptic spectrometer and picosecond laser pumping. The changes in fluorescence decay kinetics as additional lifetime components of fluorescence were found during the experiment. The number of components and duration of lifetimes changed while interacting with cells and depends on pH. At pH 2 the presence of two fluorescence lifetimes was recorded: the first one was 5 ns, which corresponded to the molecular form in solution, and 1.5 ns, which corresponded to bound state of phthalocyanine molecules. Due to the absence of other possible objects for bounding in the solution except of the nanoparticles we can suggest with a high degree of accuracy that the bounding occurs with the very these nanoparticles. Analysis of the fluorescence lifetimes of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles in macrophages indicated the presence of two components: 9 ns and 4.5 ns. A model of surface molecules transitions from parallel to perpendicular position, regarding to the plane of the crystal nanoparticle was proposed.

  8. RF Magnetron Sputtering Aluminum Oxide Film for Surface Passivation on Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters on the surface passivation, surface damage, optical properties, and composition of the films have been investigated. It is found that proper sputtering power and uniform magnetic field reduced the surface damage from the high-energy ion bombardment to the silicon wafers during the process and consequently decreased the interface trap density, resulting in the good surface passivation; relatively high refractive index of aluminum oxide film is benefic to improve the surface passivation. The negative-charged aluminum oxide film was then successfully prepared. The surface passivation performance was further improved after postannealing by formation of an SiOx interfacial layer. It is demonstrated that the reactive sputtering is an effective technique of fabricating aluminum oxide surface passivation film for low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells.

  9. In-process oxidation protection in fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okelly, K. P.; Featherston, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Aluminum is cleaned of its oxide coating and is sealed immediately with polymeric material which makes it suitable for fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding. Time involved between cleaning and brazing is no longer critical factor.

  10. Field Emission From Ordered Nano-array Structures Based on Porous Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ This thesis reports my research work of fabricating nanostructures by using nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates and their field emission properties in the past few years. Some important results obtained are as follows: 1. We first proposed a new concept of fabricating field emitters with ordered nanostructures based on porous aluminum oxide templates such as AAO/Al, metal/AAO, PANI/AAO, CNTs/AAO, Si/AAO and did a lot of research in this field.

  11. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Evertsson, J.; Bertram, F.; Weissenrieder, J.; Goethelid, Mats; Pan, J; Mikkelsen, A.; Nilsson, J.-O.; Lundgren, E.; Zhang, F.; Rullik, L.; Merte, L. R.; Shipilin, Mikhail; Soldemo, M.; S Ahmadi; Vinogradov, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liq...

  12. Nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kim, Woo Young; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-09-01

    A nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the performance of the sensor and the porosity of the AAO membrane is characterized with a theoretical model. The proposed Pirani sensor is composed of a metallic resistor on a suspended nanoporous membrane, which simultaneously serves as the sensing area and the supporting structure. The AAO membrane has numerous vertically-tufted nanopores, resulting in a lower measurable pressure limit due to both the increased effective sensing area and the decreased effective thermal loss through the supporting structure. Additionally, the suspended AAO membrane structure, with its outer periphery anchored to the substrate, known as a closed-type design, is demonstrated using nanopores of AAO as an etch hole without a bulk micromachining process used on the substrate. In a CMOS-compatible process, a 200 μm × 200 μm nanoporous Pirani sensor with porosity of 25% was capable of measuring the pressure from 0.1 mTorr to 760 Torr. With adjustment of the porosity of the AAO, the measurable range could be extended toward lower pressures of more than one decade compared to a non-porous membrane with an identical footprint.

  13. Fabrication of Orderly Copper Particle Arrays on a Multi-Electrolyte-Step Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ko Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-electrolyte-step (MES anodic aluminum oxide (AAO method was used to achieve nanochannel arrays with good circularity and periodic structure. The nano-channel array fabrication process included immersion in a phosphoric acid solution with a 120–150 bias voltage. Bowl-shaped structures were then formed by removing the walls of the nano-channel arrays. The nano-channel arrays were grown from the bottom of the bowl structure in an oxalic solution using a 50 V bias voltage. A comparison of this new MES process with the one-step and five-step AAO process showed a 50% improvement in the circularity over the one-step process. The standard deviation of the average period in the MES array was 25 nm which is less than that of one-step process. This MES method also took 1/4 of the growing time of the five-step process. The orderliness of the nano-channel arrays for the five-step and MES process was similar. Finally, Cu nanoparticle arrays with a 200 nm period were grown using an electroplating process inside the MES nano-channel arrays on fluorine doped tin oxide glass. Stronger surface plasmon resonance absorption from 550 nm to 750 nm was achieved with the MES process than was possible with the one-step process.

  14. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  15. Fractal dimension analysis of aluminum oxide particle for sandblasting dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Y; Munoz, C A; Winkler, M M; Hashem, A; Itoh, M

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum oxide particles are commonly used as a sandblasting media, particularly in dentistry, for multiple purposes including divesting the casting investment materials and increasing effective surface area for enhancing the mechanical retention strengths of succeedingly applied fired porcelain or luting cements. Usually fine aluminum oxide particles are recycled within the sandblasting machine. Ceramics such as aluminum oxides are brittle, therefore, some portions of recycling aluminum oxide particles might be brittle fractured. If fractured sandblasting particles are involved in the recycling media, it might result in irregularity metallic materials surface as well as the recycling sandblasting media itself be contaminated. Hence, it is necessary from both clinical and practical reasons to monitor the particle conditions in terms of size/shape and effectiveness of sandblasting, so that sandblasting dental prostheses can be fabricated in optimum and acceptable conditions. In the present study, the effect of recycling aluminum oxide particles on the surface texture of metallic materials was evaluated by Fractal Dimension Analysis (FDA). Every week the alumina powder was sampled and analyzed for weight fraction and contaminants. Surface texture of sandblasted standard samples was also characterized by FDA. Results indicate very little change in particle size, while the fractal dimension increased. Fractal dimension analysis showed that the aluminum oxide particle as a sandblasting media should be replaced after 30 or 40 min of total accumulated operation time.

  16. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  17. Combined in situ PM-IRRAS/QCM studies of water adsorption on plasma modified aluminum oxide/aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Ignacio; Maxisch, Michael; Kunze, Christian; Grundmeier, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Water adsorption on plasma modified oxyhydroxide covered aluminum surfaces was analyzed by means of a set-up combining in situ photoelastic modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in a low-temperature plasma cell. The chemical structure of the surface before and after the plasma treatment was moreover characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The surface chemistry of oxide covered aluminum was modified by oxidative and reductive low-temperature plasma pre-treatments. The Ar-plasma treatment reduced the surface hydroxyl density and effectively removed adsorbed organic contaminations. Surface modification by means of a water plasma treatment led to an increased surface hydroxyl density as well as an increase of the thickness of the native oxide film. The adsorption of water at atmospheric pressures on plasma modified aluminum surfaces led to a superimposition of reversible water layer adsorption and a simultaneous increase of the oxyhydroxide film thickness as a result of a chemisorption process. The amount of physisorbed water increased with the surface hydroxyl density whereas the chemisorption process was most significant for the surface after Ar-plasma treatment and almost negligible for the already water plasma treated surface.

  18. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  19. Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotipalli R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD aluminum oxide (Al2O3 has recently demonstrated an excellent surface passivation for both n- and p-type c-Si solar cells thanks to the presence of high negative fixed charges (Qf ~ 1012−1013 cm-2 in combination with a low density of interface states (Dit. This paper investigates the passivation quality of thin (15 nm Al2O3 films deposited by two different techniques: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD and Thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD. Other dielectric materials taken into account for comparison include: thermally-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2 (20 nm, SiO2 (20 nm deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD and hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H (20 nm also deposited by PECVD. With the above-mentioned dielectric layers, Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS capacitors were fabricated for Qf and Dit extraction through Capacitance-Voltage-Conductance (C-V-G measurements. In addition, lifetime measurements were carried out to evaluate the effective surface recombination velocity (SRV. The influence of extracted C-V-G parameters (Qf,Dit on the injection dependent lifetime measurements τ(Δn, and the dominant passivation mechanism involved have been discussed. Furthermore we have also studied the influence of the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness between the Al2O3 and silicon surface on the field-effect passivation mechanism. It is shown that the field effect passivation in accumulation mode is more predominant when compared to surface defect passivation.

  20. Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotipalli, R.; Delamare, R.; Poncelet, O.; Tang, X.; Francis, L. A.; Flandre, D.

    2013-09-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) has recently demonstrated an excellent surface passivation for both n- and p-type c-Si solar cells thanks to the presence of high negative fixed charges (Qf ~ 1012-1013 cm-2) in combination with a low density of interface states (Dit). This paper investigates the passivation quality of thin (15 nm) Al2O3 films deposited by two different techniques: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) and Thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD). Other dielectric materials taken into account for comparison include: thermally-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) (20 nm), SiO2 (20 nm) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) (20 nm) also deposited by PECVD. With the above-mentioned dielectric layers, Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors were fabricated for Qf and Dit extraction through Capacitance-Voltage-Conductance (C-V-G) measurements. In addition, lifetime measurements were carried out to evaluate the effective surface recombination velocity (SRV). The influence of extracted C-V-G parameters (Qf,Dit) on the injection dependent lifetime measurements τ(Δn), and the dominant passivation mechanism involved have been discussed. Furthermore we have also studied the influence of the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness between the Al2O3 and silicon surface on the field-effect passivation mechanism. It is shown that the field effect passivation in accumulation mode is more predominant when compared to surface defect passivation.

  1. Peculiarities of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained in acoustoplasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulychev, N. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Nikiforov, V. N.; Shevchenko, S. N.; Yakunin, V. G.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Bychenko, A. B.; Sredin, V. G.

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles of tungsten, copper, iron, and zinc oxides were synthesized in acoustoplasma discharge. Their size distribution was studied by electron microscopy and laser correlation spectroscopy. Ultrasound was found to narrow significantly the size distribution width of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Water suspensions of zinc oxide nanoparticles showed photoluminescence in red and near infrared spectral ranges, which makes them a promising material for luminescent diagnostics of biological systems.

  2. Ultrasmall lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Most books discuss general and broad topics regarding molecular imagings. However, Ultrasmall Lanthanide Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy, will mainly focus on lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapeutics. Multi-modal imaging capabilities will discussed, along with up-converting FI by using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis will cover polyol synthesis of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Surface coatings with biocompatible and hydrophilic ligands will be discussed and TEM images and dynamic light scattering (DLS) patterns will be

  3. A perspective of microplasma oxidation (MPO) and vapor deposition coatings in surface engineering of aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AWAD Samir Hamid; QIAN Han-cheng

    2004-01-01

    Over the past years, great achievements have been made in the development of coating technologies for surface improvement of aluminum alloys. Despite these achievements, the role in the market strongly depends on the ability of surface coating technology under technical and economic considerations to meet the increased demands for heavy tribological applications of aluminum alloys. Microplasma oxidation (MPO) technology has recently been studied as a novel and effective means to provide thick and hard ceramic coating with improved properties such as excellent load-bearing and wear resistance properties on aluminum alloys. The present work covers the evaluation of the performances of current single and duplex coatings combining MPO, physical vapor deposition (PVD), and plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) coatings on aluminum alloys. It suggests that the MPO coating is a promising candidate for design engineers to apply aluminum alloys to heavy load-bearing applications. The prospective future for the research on MPO coatings is introduced as well.

  4. Washing effect on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Karina Mireles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research on nanoparticles has occurred in the biomedical area, particularly in the area of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs; one such area of research is in their use as magnetically directed prodrugs. It has been reported that nanoscale materials exhibit properties different from those of materials in bulk or on a macro scale [1]. Further, an understanding of the batch-to-batch reproducibility and uniformity of the SPION surface is essential to ensure safe biological applications, as noted in the accompanying article [2], because the surface is the first layer that affects the biological response of the human body. Here, we consider a comparison of the surface chemistries of a batch of SPIONs, before and after the supposedly gentle process of dialysis in water.

  5. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  6. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss [Department of Physics, NPR College of Engineering and Technology, Natham, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahendran, Manickam [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh, E-mail: duraiphysics2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, AMET University (India)

    2016-03-15

    Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  7. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide encapsulated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong Ju; Song, Ki-Bong

    2013-11-01

    We present a simple approach for the fabrication of graphene oxide-encapsulated gold nanoparticles using graphene oxide sheet-wrapping via electrostatic self-assembly. By mixing bovine serum albumin molecule-functionalized gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide dispersion, positively charged bovine serum albumin/gold nanoparticles easily assembled with negatively charged graphene oxide sheets through electrostatic interaction. Transmittance electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to confirm the encapsulation of graphene oxide on gold nanoparticles. Interestingly, graphene oxide sheets wrapping mainly occurs along the main body of single or a few gold nanoparticles. Additionally, by measuring the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy spectrum, we found that the surface plasmon resonances band of the graphene oxide-encapsulated gold nanoparticles was found to become red-shifted compared to that of pristine gold nanoparticles, whereas similar to that of bovine serum albumin-coated gold nanoparticles. These results indicating that most of graphene oxide-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have good monodispersity and spherical shape. These resulting materials may potentially serve as a platform for plasmon resonance electron transfer spectroscopy or a probe for low level biosensing.

  8. Anomalous hexagonal superstructure of aluminum oxide layer grown on NiAl(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Pawel; Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Minagawa, Yuto; Yajima, Nami; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    A modified method for the fabrication of a highly crystallized layer of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface is reported. The fabrication method involves the multistep selective oxidation of aluminum atoms on a NiAl(110) surface resulting from successive oxygen deposition and annealing. The surface morphology and local electronic structure of the novel aluminum oxide layer were investigated by high-resolution imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy. In contrast to the standard fabrication method of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface, the proposed method produces an atomically flat surface exhibiting a hexagonal superstructure. The superstructure exhibits a slightly distorted hexagonal array of close-packed bright protrusions with a periodicity of 4.5 ± 0.2 nm. Atomically resolved STM imaging of the aluminum oxide layer reveals a hexagonal arrangement of dark contrast spots with a periodicity of 0.27 ± 0.02 nm. On the basis of the atomic structure of the fabricated layer, the formation of α-Al2O3(0001) on the NiAl(110) surface is suggested.

  9. Weak ferromagnetism and exchange biasing in cobalt oxide nanoparticle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomou, A; Gournis, D; Panagiotopoulos, [No Value; Huang, Y; Hadjipanayis, GC; Kooi, BJ; Panagiotopoulos, I.

    2006-01-01

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticle systems have been prepared by wet chemical processing involving the encapsulation of the nanoparticles by an organic ligand shell (oleic acid and oleylamine). CoO nanoparticles were easily prepared by this method, while the synthesis of the CoPt/CoO nanocomposites was achie

  10. The study of laser induced fluorescence of tooth hard tissues with aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrakhova, D. S.; Kuznetsova, J. O.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2016-08-01

    This work is about the possibility of fluorescence diagnosis application with the use of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in order to detect enamel microdamage. For the investigation, five human teeth samples of various age groups were removed for various reasons. The autofluorescence spectrums of these samples hard tissues and fluorescence spectrums of nAlPc mixed with enamel powder were obtained during the experiment. The research shows that sample pathogenic microflora causes nAlPc fluorescence. This fact will allow detecting enamel microdamage in future studies.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng, E-mail: donggn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-30

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm{sup 2} for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  13. Excellent thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of polyimide composites filled with silica coated self-passivated aluminum fibers and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongcun; Bai, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ke; Kang, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2013-06-01

    A polymer based composite was prepared by using modified aluminum fibers and aluminum nanoparticles as fillers in polyimide matrix that resulted in the high thermal conductivity and low relative permittivity. It was found that silica coated aluminum fibers with the multilayer coating structures can significantly reduce the relative permittivity (about 19.6 at 1 MHz) of the composite while keeping lower dielectric loss (0.024 at 1 MHz). The thermal conductivity of composites was significantly increased to 15.2 W/m K. This work shows a useful way to choose proper modifier fillers to improve the composite properties for electronic packaging composite materials.

  14. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asoh, Hidetaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)], E-mail: asoh@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  15. Characterization of Nano-scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Sasha Norien

    Land application of biosolids has become common practice in the United States as an alternative to industrial fertilizers. Although nutrient rich, biosolids have been found to contain high concentrations of unregulated and/or unrecognized emerging contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products) while containing a significant fraction of inorganic nano-scale colloidal materials such as oxides of iron, titanium, and aluminum. Given their reactivity and small size, there are many questions concerning the potential migration of these nano-sized colloidal materials through the soil column and into our surface and groundwater bodies. Transport of emerging pollutants of concern through the soil column, at minimum, is impacted by colloidal properties (e.g., chemical composition, shape, aggregation kinetics), solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter), and water flow velocity. The purpose of this current research was to characterize the long-term transport behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al 2O3) through a natural porous media with changes in pH, aqueous-phase concentration, pore-water velocity and electrolyte valence. Additionally, deposition rates during the initial stages of deposition were compared to several models developed based on colloid filtration theory and DLVO stability theory. Benchtop column laboratory experiments showed that, under environmentally relevant groundwater conditions, Al2O3 nanoparticles are mobile through saturated porous media. Mobility increased under conditions in which the nanoparticles and porous media were of like charge (pH 9). Changes in linear pore water velocity, under these same high pH conditions, showed similar transport behavior with little mass retained in the system. Deposition is believed to be kinetically controlled at pH 9, as evidenced by the slightly earlier breakthrough as flow rate increased and was further supported by observed concentration effects on the arrival wave

  16. Field Emission From Ordered Nano-array Structures Based on Porous Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ChengWei

    2001-01-01

    This thesis reports my research work of fabricating nanostructures by using nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates and their field emission properties in the past few years. Some important results obtained are as follows:  1. We first proposed a new concept of fabricating field emitters with ordered nanostructures based on porous aluminum oxide templates such as AAO/Al, metal/AAO, PANI/AAO, CNTs/AAO, Si/AAO and did a lot of research in this field.  ……

  17. Porous Spherical Cellulose Composites Coated by Aluminum (Ⅲ) Oxide and Silicone: Preparation,Characterization and Adsorption Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Porous spherical cellulose composite (PSCA) coated by aluminum (Ⅲ) oxide was prepared andmodified by organosilicone. SEM images of the surface morphology of the bead cellulose shows that it hasspherical shape and abundant porous structure on its surface. The mapping images of aluminum and silicon ofthe composite (PSCAS) present aluminum( Ⅲ ) oxide and silicone are uniformly dispersed on the surface. Theadsorption behavior of PSCAS toward metal ions was determined.

  18. Mismatched wear couple zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, M; Nassutt, R; Janssen, R; Willmann, G; Honl, M

    2001-12-01

    A patient complained about a squeaking noise in his total hip arthroplasty. Clinical evaluation revealed good function, and there were no signs of loosening on the radiograph. Physiotherapy did not alter this phenomenon, and ultimately a revision was performed 42 months after the first surgery. The analysis of the retrievals revealed that a zirconium oxide ceramic head had been paired with a monolithic alumina ceramic cup. The cup showed large deviations from an ideal sphere but minor wear signs. The head exhibited heavy local damage in the articulation zone. This damage might have been caused by the observed unsatisfactory fit between cup and ball, resulting in high stress concentrations and increased wear of the zirconium head. The characteristics of the zirconium and aluminum ceramics pairing might have worsened the process. The combination of implants used in this retrieved wear couple was never approved. To prevent such problems, components of different manufacturers should never be mixed and matched unless explicitly stated.

  19. Microstructure and Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Aluminum Containing 1 wt.% SiC Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Kayode Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low hardness and strength of aluminum, which limits its use in many industrial applications, could be increased through the addition of nanoparticles. However, the appropriate processing method and parameters should be carefully selected in order to achieve the desired improvement in properties. In this work, aluminum was reinforced with low weight fraction (1 wt.% of SiC nanoparticles and consolidated through spark plasma sintering. The effect of processing parameters on the densification, microstructure, and properties of the processed material was investigated. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS facility was used to characterize the microstructure and analyze the reinforcement’s distribution in sintered samples. Phases present were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD. A densimeter and a digital microhardness tester were used to measure the density and hardness, respectively. Compressive tests were performed using universal testing machine. A fully dense Al-1 wt.% SiC sample was obtained. Analysis of density and hardness values showed that the influence of applied pressure was more pronounced than heating rate while the influence of sintering temperature was more significant than sintering time. Within the range of parameters used, the highest values of the characterized properties were obtained at a sintering temperature of 600 °C, sintering time of 10 min, pressure of 50 MPa, and heating rate of 200 °C/min.

  20. Cerium oxide as conversion coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA GULICOVSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 coatings were formed on the aluminum after Al surface preparation, by dripping the ceria sol, previously prepared by forced hydrolysis of Ce(NO34. The anticorrosive properties of ceria coatings were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS during the exposure to 0.03 % NaCl. The morphology of the coatings was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. EIS data indicated considerably larger corrosion resistance of CeO2-coated aluminum than for bare Al. The corrosion processes on Al below CeO2 coating are subjected to more pronounced diffusion limitations in comparison to the processes below passive aluminum oxide film, as the consequence of the formation of highly compact protective coating. The results show that the deposition of ceria coatings is an effective way to improve corrosion resistance for aluminum.

  1. Thermal oxidation of the surface of binary aluminum alloys with rare-earth metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashev, L. A.; Popov, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Shevchenko, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of the surface of Al alloys with 1-2.5 at % rare-earth metals (REMs) at 400-500°C in air was studied by ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The addition (1-2.5 at % REM) of all rare-earth metals to aluminum was shown to increase the thickness of the oxide layer. The addition of surfactant and chemically active REMs (Yb, Sm, La, and Ce) increased the rate of oxidation of solid aluminum most effectively. The oxidation can be accelerated by the polymorphic transformations of the individual REM oxides in the film. The surface activity of Sm with respect to solid Al was confirmed by XRS.

  2. Characterization and Tribological Properties of Hard Anodized and Micro Arc Oxidized 5754 Quality Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ovundur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to compare the tribological performances of a 5754 quality aluminum alloy after hard anodic oxidation and micro arc oxidation processes. The structural analyses of the coatings were performed using XRD and SEM techniques. The hardness of the coatings was determined using a Vickers micro-indentation tester. Tribological performances of the hard anodized and micro arc oxidized samples were compared on a reciprocating wear tester under dry sliding conditions. The dry sliding wear tests showed that the wear resistance of the oxide coating generated by micro arc oxidation is remarkably higher than that of the hard anodized alloy.

  3. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinone, Adam J.; Moon, Ji Won; Love, Lonnie J.; Yeary, Lucas W.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise: metal-reducing microbes, a culture medium suitable for sustaining said metal-reducing microbes, an effective concentration of one or more surfactants, a reducible metal oxide component containing one or more reducible metal species, and one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said metal-reducing microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said metal-reducing microbes; and (ii) isolating said metal oxide nanoparticles, which contain a reduced form of said reducible metal oxide component. The invention is also directed to metal oxide nanoparticle compositions produced by the inventive method.

  4. Addressing the Limit of Detectability of Residual Oxide Discontinuities in Friction Stir Butt Welds of Aluminum using Phased Array Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This activity seeks to estimate a theoretical upper bound of detectability for a layer of oxide embedded in a friction stir weld in aluminum. The oxide is theoretically modeled as an ideal planar layer of aluminum oxide, oriented normal to an interrogating ultrasound beam. Experimentally-measured grain scattering level is used to represent the practical noise floor. Echoes from naturally-occurring oxides will necessarily fall below this theoretical limit, and must be above the measurement noise to be potentially detectable.

  5. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed wit...

  6. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  7. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian, E-mail: shivashangari@gmail.com [Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (India); Ravikumar, Vilwanathan, E-mail: ravikumarbdu@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  8. Phytosynthesis of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles from Achillea wilhelmsii Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Karimi Andeani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study here deals with the plant synthesis of cadmium oxide nanoparticles using flowers extract of Achillea wilhelmsii as the reducing agent. The photosynthesis is carried out at room temperature in the laboratory ambience. The aqueous cadmium ions when exposed to flower extract were reduced and resulted in their nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Stable cadmium oxide nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 with the plant flower extracts as reducing agent.

  9. Precipitation method and characterization of cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabaharan, D. Durai Manoharadoss; Sadaiyandi, K.; Mahendran, M.; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was used to determine the structure of Co3O4 nanoparticles. The presence of Co3O4 nanoparticles was confirmed by the FTIR spectrum. The fact about the surface morphology of Co3O4 nanoparticles was revealed by scanning electron microscopic analysis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the particle size of the Co3O4 nanoparticles. The absorption spectrum made it possible to analyze the optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles. This work contributes to the study of dielectric properties such as the dielectric loss and the dielectric constant of Co3O4 nanoparticles, at varied frequencies and temperatures. The magnetic properties of the Co3O4 nanoparticles were also investigated.

  10. Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Using Ultrashort Precursor Injection Pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method is developed and applied for the deposition of high-quality aluminum oxide (AlOx) films. The PECVD method combines a continuous plasma with ultrashort precursor injection pulses. We demonstrate that the modulation of the precurs

  11. In-situ measurement of the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; White, D.P.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho irradiation experiment has been completed which measured the in-situ electrical resistivity of 12 different grades of aluminum oxide during HFIR neutron irradiation at 450{degrees}C. No evidence for bulk RIED was observed following irradiation to a maximum dose of 3 dpa with an applied dc electric field of 200 V/mm.

  12. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets composed of mixtures of aluminum oxide and boron carbide that may be ultimately used in a reactor core, for example, in neutron absorber rods. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  13. Spectroscopy of photonic band gaps in mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Voinov, Yu. P.; Shchavlev, V. V.; Bi, Dongxue; Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide have been synthesized by electrochemical etching method. Reflection spectra of the obtained mesoporous samples in a wide spectral range that covers several band gaps are presented. Microscopic parameters of photonic crystals are calculated and corresponding reflection spectra for the first six band gaps are presented.

  14. Versatile (Bio)Functionalization of Bromo-Terminated Phosphonate-Modified Porous Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrassi, A.; Roeven, E.; Thijssen, S.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Vos, de W.M.; Wennekes, T.; Zuilhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a nanoporous material used for various (bio)technological applications, and tailoring its surface properties via covalent modification is a way to expand and refine its application. Specific and complex chemical modification of the PAO surface requires a stepwise appro

  15. Self-ordering behavior of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) in malonic acid anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W; Nielsch, K; Goesele, U [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2007-11-28

    The self-ordering behavior of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been investigated for anodization of aluminum in malonic acid (H{sub 4}C{sub 3}O{sub 4}) solution. In the present study it is found that a porous oxide layer formed on the surface of aluminum can effectively suppress catastrophic local events (such as breakdown of the oxide film and plastic deformation of the aluminum substrate), and enables stable fast anodic oxidation under a high electric field of 110-140 V and {approx}100 mA cm{sup -2}. Studies on the self-ordering behavior of AAO indicated that the cell homogeneity of AAO increases dramatically as the anodization voltage gets higher than 120 V. Highly ordered AAO with a hexagonal arrangement of the nanopores could be obtained in a voltage range 125-140 V. The current density (i.e., the electric field strength (E) at the bottom of a pore) is an important parameter governing the self-ordering of the nanopores as well as the interpore distance (D{sub int}) for a given anodization potential (U) during malonic acid anodization.

  16. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    diborane, hydrogen, and a white solid. Whatley et al.8 studied the products of diborane oxidation. Roth and co-workers9 found HOBO to be the main...product during the oxidation of diborane. Roth and Bauer10 proposed that the formation of HOBO severely inhibits the oxidation of boranes by breaking...Whatley and R. N . Pease, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 76, 1997 (1954). 9 W. Roth and W. H. Bauer, J. Phys. Chem, 60, 639 (1956). 10 W. Roth , and W. H. Bauer

  17. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  18. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jií; Hradil

    2007-01-01

    [1]Anger,S.,Caldwell,K.,Mehnert,W.,& Muller,R.(1999).Coating of nanoparticles:Analysis of adsorption using sedimentation field-flow fractionation(SdFFF).Proceedings of International Symposium of Controlled Release of Bioactivated Materials,26,599-600.[2]Bonnemain,B.(1998).Superparamagnetic agents in magnetic resonance imaging:Physicochemical characteristics and clinical applications-A review.Journal of Drug Targeting,6(3),167-174.[3]Bootz,A.,Vogel,V.,Schubert,D.,& Kreuter,J.(2004).Comparison of scanning electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation for the sizing of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics,57(2),369-375.[4]Browarzik,D.(1997).Continuous kinetics of dextran degradation.Journal of Macromolecular Science Pure and Applied Chemistry,34(3),397-404.[5]Cabasso,I.,& Yuan,Y.(1996).Nanoparticles in polymer and polymer dendrimers.In J.Fendler & I.Dekany (Eds.),NATO ASI Series.Part 18Nanoparticles in Solids and Solutions (pp.131-153).[6]Chastellain,M.,Petri,A.,& Hofmann,H.(2004).Particle size investigation of a multistep synthesis of PVA coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles.Journal of Colloid Interface Science,278(2),353-360.[7]Chmela,E.,Tijssen,R.,Blom,M.T.,Gardeniers,H.J.G.E.,& van den Berg,A.(2002).A chip system for size separation of macromolecules and particles by hydrodynamic chromatography.Analytical Chemistry,74(14),3470-3475.[8]Confer,D.R.,& Logan,B.E.(1997).Molecular weight distribution of hydrolysis product during the biodegradation of model macromolecules in suspended and biofilm cultures.Ⅱ:Dextran and dextrin.Water Research,31(9),2137-2145.[9]Griffiths,C.H.,O'Horo,M.P.,& Smith,T.W.(1979).The structure,magnetic characterization and oxidation of colloidal iron dispersions.Journal of Applied Physics,50(11),7108-7115.[10]Gupta,A.K.,& Gupta,M.(2005).Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.Biomaterials,26

  19. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Sabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide for CO oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanchikova Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Au was loaded (1 wt% on a commercial MgO support by three different methods: double impregnation, liquid-phase reductive deposition and ultrasonication. Samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -96°C, temperature-programmed reduction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Upon loading with Au, MgO changed into Mg(OH2 (the hydroxide was most likely formed by reaction with water, in which the gold precursor was dissolved. The size range for gold nanoparticles was 2-12 nm for the DIM method and 3-15 nm for LPRD and US. The average size of gold particles was 5.4 nm for DIM and larger than 6.5 for the other methods. CO oxidation was used as a test reaction to compare the catalytic activity. The best results were obtained with the DIM method, followed by LPRD and US. This can be explained in terms of the nanoparticle size, well known to determine the catalytic activity of gold catalysts.

  1. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  2. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process.

  3. Oxidative addition of the C-I bond on aluminum nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Turbasu; Das, Susanta; Pal, Sourav

    2015-07-01

    Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly sensitive to the geometrical shapes and electronic structures of the clusters rather than their size, imposing the fact that comprehensive studies on aluminum clusters can be beneficial for nanoscience and nanotechnology. To understand the possible reaction mechanism in detail, the reaction pathway is investigated with the ab initio Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulation and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. In short, our theoretical study highlights the thermodynamic and kinetic details of C-I bond dissociation on aluminum clusters for future endeavors in cluster chemistry.Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly

  4. Harmonic nanoparticles: noncentrosymmetric metal oxides for nonlinear optics

    OpenAIRE

    Rogov, Andrii; Mugnier, Yannick; Bonacina, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nonlinear optics and nanotechnology is an extremely rich scientific domain yet widely unexplored. We present here a review of recent optical investigations on noncentrosymmetric oxide nanoparticles with a large ${{\\chi }^{(2)}}$ response, often referred to as harmonic nanoparticles (HNPs). HNPs feature a series of properties which distinguish them from other photonics nanoprobes (quantum dots, up-conversion nanoparticles, noble metal particles). HNPs emission is inherently ...

  5. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor c...

  6. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent.

  7. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, M.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  8. Omnidirectional excitation of sidewall gap-plasmons in a hybrid gold-nanoparticle/aluminum-nanopore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Kik, Pieter G.

    2016-06-01

    The gap-plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle inside a nanopore in an aluminum film is investigated in polarization dependent single particle microscopy and spectroscopy. Scattering and transmission measurements reveal that gap-plasmons of this structure can be excited and observed under normal incidence excitation and collection, in contrast to the more common particle-on-a-mirror structure. Correlation of numerical simulations with optical spectroscopy suggests that a local electric field enhancement factor in excess of 50 is achieved under normal incidence excitation, with a hot-spot located near the top surface of the structure. It is shown that the strong field enhancement from this sidewall gap-plasmon mode can be efficiently excited over a broad angular range. The presented plasmonic structure lends itself to implementation in low-cost, chemically stable, easily addressable biochemical sensor arrays providing large optical field enhancement factors.

  9. The oxidation of aluminum at high temperature studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation in air of high-purity Al foil was studied as a function of temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC). The rate and/or extent of oxidation was found to be a non-linear function of the temperature. Between 650 and 750 ÀC very little oxidation took place; at 850 ÀC oxidation occurred after an induction period, while at 950 ÀC oxidation occurred without an induction period. At oxidation temperatures between 1050 and 1150 ÀC rapid passivation of the surface of the aluminum foil occurred, while at 1250 ÀC and above, an initial rapid mass increase was observed, followed by a more gradual increase in mass. The initial rapid increase was accompanied by a significant exotherm. Cross-sections of oxidized specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the observed alumina skin thicknesses correlated qualitatively with the observed mass increases.

  10. Trends in the Catalytic CO Oxidation Activity of Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Falsig, Hanne; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk

    2008-01-01

    Going for gold: Density functional calculations show how gold nanoparticles are more active catalysts for CO oxidation than other metal nanoparticles. The high catalytic activity of nanosized gold clusters at low temperature is found to be related to the ability of low-coordinate metal atoms to a...

  11. Combined flame and electrodeposition synthesis of energetic coaxial tungsten-oxide/aluminum nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Kear, Bernard H; Tse, Stephen D

    2013-09-11

    A nanostructured thermite composite comprising an array of tungsten-oxide (WO2.9) nanowires (diameters of 20-50 nm and lengths of >10 μm) coated with single-crystal aluminum (thickness of ~16 nm) has been fabricated. The method involves combined flame synthesis of tungsten-oxide nanowires and ionic-liquid electrodeposition of aluminum. The geometry not only presents an avenue to tailor heat-release characteristics due to anisotropic arrangement of fuel and oxidizer but also eliminates or minimizes the presence of an interfacial Al2O3 passivation layer. Upon ignition, the energetic nanocomposite exhibits strong exothermicity, thereby being useful for fundamental study of aluminothermic reactions as well as enhancing combustion characteristics.

  12. Effects of aluminum and extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on oxidative stress and memory in brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanxin; Zhang, Yanwen; Jia, Shujie; Liu, Junkang; Liu, Yanxia; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aluminum and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) on oxidative stress and memory of SPF Kunming mice. Sixty male SPF Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: control group, ELF-MF group (2 mT, 4 h/day), load aluminum group (200 mg aluminum/kg, 0.1 ml/10 g), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (2 mT, 4 h/day, 200 mg aluminum/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, the mice of three experiment groups (ELF-MF group, load aluminum group, and ELF-MF + aluminum group) exhibited firstly the learning memory impairment, appearing that the escaping latency to the platform was prolonged and percentage in the platform quadrant was reduced in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Secondly are the pathologic abnormalities including neuronal cell loss and overexpression of phosphorylated tau protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. On the other hand, the markers of oxidative stress were determined in mice brain and serum. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and increase in the levels of malondialdehyde in the ELF-MF group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), load aluminum group (P < 0.01), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (P < 0.01). However, the treatment with ELF-MF + aluminum induced no more damage than ELF-MF and aluminum did, respectively. In conclusion, both aluminum and ELF-MF could impact on learning memory and pro-oxidative function in Kunming mice. However, there was no evidence of any association between ELF-MF exposure with aluminum loading.

  13. Rare Earth Doped Optical Fibre From Oxide Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minati Chatterjee; Aharon Gedanken; Renata Reisfeld; Ranjan Sen; Mrinmay Pal; Milan Naskar; Mukul Paul; Shyamal Bhadra; Kamal Dasgupta; Dibyendu Ganguli; Tarun Bandyopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped optical fibres were fabricated by using RE oxides coated silica nanoparticles. The fibre properties are comparable to those prepared by conventional techniques. The process offers better control over RE incorporation and homogeneity in the preform.

  14. Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles in Hybrid Nanocomposite Coatings as Nanoreservoirs of Corrosion Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhady Tavandashti, Nahid; Sanjabi, Sohrab

    Nanostructured hybrid silica/epoxy films containing boehmite nanoparticles were investigated in the present work as pretreatments for AA2024 alloy. To produce the nanocomposite sol-gel films, boehmite nanoparticles prepared from hydrolysis/condensation of aluminum isopropoxide (AlI) were doped into another hybrid organosiloxane sol. The produced oxide nanoparticles have the capability to act as nanoreservoirs of corrosion inhibitors, releasing them controllably to protect the metallic substrate from corrosion. For this purpose the corrosion inhibitor, cerium nitrate, was introduced into the sol-gel system via loading the nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection properties of the films were investigated by Potentiodynamic Scanning (PDS) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the presence of boehmite nanoparticles highly improved the corrosion protection performance of the silica/epoxy coatings. Moreover, they can act as nanoreservoirs of corrosion inhibitors and provide prolonged release of cerium ions, offering a self-healing property to the film.

  15. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Gutmanas, Elazar Y.

    2016-08-01

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  16. Effect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Water Glass Structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bobrowski; Kmita, A.; Starowicz, M.; B. Stypuła; B. Hutera

    2012-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the effect of an addition of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles of magnesium oxide onthe structure of water glass, which is a binder for moulding and core sands. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide MgOin propanol and ethanol were introduced in the same mass content (5wt.%) and structural changes were determined by measurement of theFT-IR absorption spectra.

  17. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evertsson, J., E-mail: jonas.evertsson@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bertram, F. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rullik, L.; Merte, L.R.; Shipilin, M. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Soldemo, M.; Ahmadi, S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Vinogradov, N.; Carlà, F. [ESRF, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weissenrieder, J.; Göthelid, M. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Mikkelsen, A. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden); Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We have determined the native oxide film thickness on several Al samples. • The results obtained from XRR and XPS show excellent agreement. • The results obtained from EIS show consistently thinner oxide films. • The oxides on the alloys are thicker than the oxides on the single crystals. - Abstract: We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  18. Aluminum cladding oxidation of prefilmed in-pile fueled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, W. R.; Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Lillo, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of fueled irradiation experiments were recently completed within the Advanced Test Reactor Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Gas Test Loop (GTL) campaigns. The conduct of the AFIP experiments supports ongoing efforts within the global threat reduction initiative (GTRI) to qualify a new ultra-high loading density low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel. This study details the characterization of oxide growth on the fueled AFIP experiments and cross-correlates the empirically measured oxide thickness values to existing oxide growth correlations and convective heat transfer correlations that have traditionally been utilized for such an application. This study adds new and valuable empirical data to the scientific community with respect to oxide growth measurements of highly irradiated experiments, of which there is presently very limited data. Additionally, the predicted oxide thickness values are reconstructed to produce an oxide thickness distribution across the length of each fueled experiment (a new application and presentation of information that has not previously been obtainable in open literature); the predicted distributions are compared against experimental data and in general agree well with the exception of select outliers.

  19. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bull,1 Seyed Yazdan Madani,1 Roosey Sheth,1 Amelia Seifalian,1 Mark Green,2 Alexander M Seifalian1,31UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, 2Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, UK; 3Royal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.Keywords: stem cells, nanoparticle, magnetic

  20. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Aluminum Oxides Observed by Fast Pulse CV Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide materials with large dielectric constants (so-called high-k dielectrics have attracted much attention due to their potential use as gate dielectrics in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs. A novel characterization (pulse capacitance-voltage method was proposed in detail. The pulse capacitance-voltage technique was employed to characterize oxide traps of high-k dielectrics based on the Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS capacitor structure. The variation of flat-band voltages of the MOS structure was observed and discussed accordingly. Some interesting trapping/detrapping results related to the lanthanide aluminum oxide traps were identified for possible application in Flash memory technology. After understanding the trapping/detrapping mechanism of the high-k oxides, a solid foundation was prepared for further exploration into charge-trapping non-volatile memory in the future.

  1. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Larrude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate diluted in acetone. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that dispersed particles were formed on the MWCNTs walls. The average size increased with the increasing concentration of cobalt nitrate in acetone in the precursor mixture. TEM images indicated that nanoparticles were strongly attached to the tube walls. The Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the MWCNT structure was slightly damaged after the nanoparticle growth.

  2. Enhanced photothermal effect of plasmonic nanoparticles coated with reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Kwon; Barhoumi, Aoune; Wylie, Ryan G; Reznor, Gally; Langer, Robert S; Kohane, Daniel S

    2013-09-11

    We report plasmonic gold nanoshells and nanorods coated with reduced graphene oxide that produce an enhanced photothermal effect when stimulated by near-infrared (NIR) light. Electrostatic interactions between nanosized graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles followed by in situ chemical reduction generated reduced graphene oxide-coated nanoparticles; the coating was demonstrated using Raman and HR-TEM. Reduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles showed enhanced photothermal effect compared to noncoated or nonreduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles. Reduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles killed cells more rapidly than did noncoated or nonreduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles.

  3. Ultrafast laser induced periodic sub-wavelength aluminum surface structures and nanoparticles in air and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Dar, Mudasir H.; Rao, D. Narayana, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ac.in, E-mail: dnr-laserlab@yahoo.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Deepak, K. L. N. [Department of Physics and Center for Research in Photonics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa K1N6N5, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-21

    In this communication, we demonstrate the generation of laser-induced periodic sub-wavelength surface structures (LIPSS) or ripples on a bulk aluminum (Al) and Al nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Al surface at normal incidence in air and by immersing in ethanol (C₂H₅OH) and water (H₂O) using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ~110 fs pulse duration and ~800 nm wavelength. Field emission scanning electron microscope is utilized for imaging surface morphology of laser written structures and it reveals that the spatial periodicity as well as the surface morphology of the LIPSS depends on the surrounding dielectric medium and also on the various laser irradiation parameters. The observed LIPSS have been classified as low spatial frequency LIPSS which are perpendicularly oriented to the laser polarization with a periodicity from 460 to 620 nm and high spatial frequency LIPSS which spectacles a periodicity less than 100 nm with the orientation parallel to the polarization of the incident laser beam. Fabricated colloidal solutions, which contain the Al NPs, were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results reveal the formation of internal cavities in Al NPs both in ethanol and water. Formation mechanism of LIPSS and cavities inside the nanoparticles are discussed in detail.

  4. Ultrafast laser induced periodic sub-wavelength aluminum surface structures and nanoparticles in air and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Dar, Mudasir H.; Deepak, K. L. N.; Rao, D. Narayana

    2014-09-01

    In this communication, we demonstrate the generation of laser-induced periodic sub-wavelength surface structures (LIPSS) or ripples on a bulk aluminum (Al) and Al nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Al surface at normal incidence in air and by immersing in ethanol (C2H5OH) and water (H2O) using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ˜110 fs pulse duration and ˜800 nm wavelength. Field emission scanning electron microscope is utilized for imaging surface morphology of laser written structures and it reveals that the spatial periodicity as well as the surface morphology of the LIPSS depends on the surrounding dielectric medium and also on the various laser irradiation parameters. The observed LIPSS have been classified as low spatial frequency LIPSS which are perpendicularly oriented to the laser polarization with a periodicity from 460 to 620 nm and high spatial frequency LIPSS which spectacles a periodicity less than 100 nm with the orientation parallel to the polarization of the incident laser beam. Fabricated colloidal solutions, which contain the Al NPs, were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results reveal the formation of internal cavities in Al NPs both in ethanol and water. Formation mechanism of LIPSS and cavities inside the nanoparticles are discussed in detail.

  5. Experimental Viscosity Measurements for Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊明; 李泽梁; 王补宣

    2002-01-01

    The viscosity of water with copper oxide nanoparticle suspensions was measured using capillary viscometers. The mass fractions of copper oxide nanoparticles in the experiment, w, varied between 0.02 and 0.10, and the temperature range was 30℃ to 80℃. The experimental results show that the temperature was the major factor affecting the viscosity of the nanoparticle suspensions, while the effect of the mass fraction on the viscosity was not so obvious as that of the temperature for the mass fractions chosen in the experiment. The effect of the capillary tube size on the viscosity was also found to be relatively important at higher mass fractions.

  6. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  7. Nanofiber of ultra-structured aluminum and zirconium oxide hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2006-02-01

    An internally ultrastructured Al- and Zr-oxide hybrid was developed into a nanofiber. As a precursor for the generation of nanofiber, a hybridized sol was prepared using the Pechini-type sol-gel process, whereby the Al- and Zr-metallic ions were to be efficiently distributed and stabilized within the polymeric network. The hybridized sol was subsequently electrospun and heat treated to a nanofiber with diameters of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The internal structure of the nanofiber was organized at the molecular level, with the Al- and Zr-oxide regions being interspaced at distances of less than ten nanometers. This ultrastructured Al- and Zr-oxide hybrid nanofiber is considered to be potentially applicable in numerous fields.

  8. Simultaneous chromizing and aluminizing using chromium oxide and aluminum: (II) on austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, N.H.; Kim, M.T.; Shin, J.H.; Kim, C.Y. [Korea Electr. Power Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea). Machinery and Mater. Group

    2000-02-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.123, p.227-30, 2000. The codeposition of Cr and Al on 304 stainless steel has been investigated, using the conversion reaction of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to halide. An increase in ratio of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Al in the pack composition tends to form a chromide coating, which is very poor in high temperature oxidation resistance. A codeposited coating layer, which shows high oxidation resistance, is mainly characterized by three zones: an outer layer of iron aluminide, a nickel-rich iron aluminide, and an interdiffusion zone consisting of alpha ferrite and nickel aluminide precipitates. Oxidation resistance increased as the thickness of the outer iron aluminide layer increased. This means that the aluminum in the outer layer, rather than that in nickel aluminide precipitates or alpha ferrite, acts as a strong aluminum source forming a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at the coating surface. Using a pack mixture containing 10 wt.% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt.% Al, a coating, which shows excellent oxidation resistance at 1100 C, was obtained after codeposition of aluminum and chromium on 304 stainless steel at 1050 C for about 6-8 h. (orig.)

  9. Bimodal spatial distribution of pores in anodically oxidized aluminum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J. F.; Sands, T.

    2000-12-01

    Though porous anodic aluminum oxide has been the subject of considerable research since the 1950s, little attention has been devoted to the characterization of the self-organization of the pore structures, and fewer of these studies have focused on anodization of thin films. The degree to which these structures self-organize, however, could play a vital role in future applications of porous anodic aluminum oxide. In this study a model is developed to describe pore ordering in thin anodized aluminum films. The model is based on a radial distribution function approach to describe the interpore spacings. Idealized one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) radial distribution functions are combined by linear superposition to approximate experimental radial distribution functions. Using these radial distribution functions, an order parameter is developed and an improved definition of pore spacing is constructed. This method confirms that the oxide initially forms with a highly frustrated porous structure and reorganizes toward greater 2D order as the oxide grows into the film.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanagesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the response of human breast cancer cells' exposure to nanoparticle, iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple low temperature combustion method using Fe(NO33·9H2O as raw material. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the resultant powders are pure α-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed the spherical shape of the primary particles, and the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is in the range of 19 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrated that the sample exposed ferromagnetic behaviors with a relatively low coercivity. The cytotoxicity of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was also evaluated on human breast cancer cells to address the current deficient knowledge of cellular response to nanoparticle exposure.

  11. Promising iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Vo, Toi Van; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2012-12-01

    For the past few decades biomedical engineering has imprinted its significant impact on the map of science through its wide applications on many other fields. An important example obviously proving this fact is the versatile application of magnetic nanoparticles in theranostics. Due to preferable properties such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity compared to other metal derivations, iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles was chosen to be addressed in this review. Aim of this review is to give the readers a whole working window of these magnetic nanoparticles in the current context of science. Thus, preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the so-far techniques, methods of characterizing the nanoparticles as well as their most recent biomedical applications will be stated.

  12. Interaction effects in magnetic oxide nanoparticle systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raksha Sharma; C Pratima; Subhalakshmi Lamba; S Annapoorni

    2005-10-01

    The interaction effects in magnetic nanoparticle system were studied through a Monte Carlo simulation. The results of simulations were compared with two different magnetic systems, namely, iron oxide polymer nanocomposites prepared by polymerization over core and nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite thin films prepared by sol–gel process. The size of the particles in the nanocomposites were estimated to be ∼ 15 nm with very little agglomeration. The low values of the coercivity obtained from the hysteresis measurements performed confirm that the system is superparamagnetic. SEM studies showed the cobalt ferrite films to have a nanocrystalline character, with particle sizes in the nanometer range. Hysteresis measurements performed on the thin films coated on silicon do not give evidence of the superparamagnetic transition up to room temperature and the coercivity is found to increase with decreasing film thickness. Comparison with simulations indicate that the nanocomposites behave like a strongly interacting array where exchange interactions lead to high blocking temperatures, whereas the films are representative of a semi-infinite array of magnetic clusters with weak interactions and thickness-dependent magnetic properties.

  13. Effects of Iron and Aluminum Oxides and Kaolinite on Adsorpion and Activities on Invertase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQIAOYUN; JIANGMINGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influences of synthetic bayerite,non-crystalline aluminum oxide(N-AlOH) ,geoethite,non-crystalline iron oxide (N-FeOH) and kaolinite on the adsorption,activity,kinetics and thermal stability of invertase.Adsorption of invertase on iron,aluminum oxides fitted Langmuir equation,The amount of invertase held on the minerals followed the sequence kaolinite>goethite>N-AlOH>bayerite>N-FeOH.No correlation was found between enzyme adsorption and the specific surface area of minerals exmined.The differences in the surface structure of minerals and the arrangement of enzymatic molecules on mineral surfaces led to the different capacities of minerals for enzyme adsorption. The adsorption of invertase on bayerite,N-AlOH,goethite ,H-FeOH and kaolinite was differently affected by pH.The order for the activity of invertase adsorbed on minerals was N-FeOH>N-AlOH>bayerite> goethite> kalinite.The inhibition effect of minerals on enzyme activity was kaolinite> crystalline oxides> non -crystalline oxides.The pH optimum of iron oxide-and aluminum oxide-invertase complexes was sililar to that of free enzyme(pH4.0),whereas the pH optimum of kaolinite-invertase complex was one pH unit highr than that of free enzyme.The affinity to substrate and the maximum reaction velocity as well as the thermal stability of combined inverthase were lower than those of the free enzyme.

  14. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  15. Fabrication of polymeric nano-batteries array using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ling; Sun, Zhenkun; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2009-02-01

    Rechargeable nano-batteries were fabricated in the array pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, combining template method and electrochemical method. The battery consisted of electropolymerized PPy electrode, porous TiO2 separator, and chemically polymerized PAn electrode was fabricated in the array pores of two-step anodizing aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, based on three-step assembling method. It performs typical electrochemical battery behavior with good charge-discharge ability, and presents a capacity of 25 nAs. AFM results show the hexagonal array of nano-batteries' top side. The nano-battery may be a promising device for the development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS).

  16. The responses of immune cells to iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaolin; Sherwood, Jennifer A; Lackey, Kimberly H; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    Immune cells play an important role in recognizing and removing foreign objects, such as nanoparticles. Among various parameters, surface coatings of nanoparticles are the first contact with biological system, which critically affect nanoparticle interactions. Here, surface coating effects on nanoparticle cellular uptake, toxicity and ability to trigger immune response were evaluated on a human monocyte cell line using iron oxide nanoparticles. The cells were treated with nanoparticles of three types of coatings (negatively charged polyacrylic acid, positively charged polyethylenimine and neutral polyethylene glycol). The cells were treated at various nanoparticle concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 50 μg ml(-1) or 2, 4, 8, 12, 20 μg cm(-2)) with 6 h incubation or treated at a nanoparticle concentration of 50 μg ml(-1) (20 μg cm(-2)) at different incubation times (6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability over 80% was observed for all nanoparticle treatment experiments, regardless of surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. The much lower cell viability for cells treated with free ligands (e.g. ~10% for polyethylenimine) suggested that the surface coatings were tightly attached to the nanoparticle surfaces. The immune responses of cells to nanoparticles were evaluated by quantifying the expression of toll-like receptor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and toll-like receptor 2 were not significant in any case of the surface coatings, nanoparticle concentrations and incubation times. These results provide useful information to select nanoparticle surface coatings for biological and biomedical applications.

  17. In vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-03-01

    The toxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles is due to their solubility. ZnO nanoparticles dissolve in the extracellular region, which in turn increases the intracellular [Zn2+] level. The mechanism for increased intracellular [Zn2+] level and ZnO nanoparticles dissolution in the medium is still unclear. Cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, increased intracellular [Ca2+] level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and interleukin-8 productions occur in the BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and A549 alveolar adenocarcinoma cells following the exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. Confluent C2C12 cells are more resistant to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the sparse monolayer. Loss of 3T3-L1 cell viability, membrane leakage, and morphological changes occurs due to exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticle induces cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in RKO colon carcinoma cells. The occurrence of apoptosis, increased ROS level, reduced mitochondrial activity and formation of tubular intracellular structures are reported following exposure of ZnO nanoparticles in skin cells. Macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are affected by ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, genotoxicity is also induced. The present review summarizes the literature on in vitro toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (10-100 nm) on various cell lines.

  18. In vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan, E-mail: frenzram1980@gmail.com [Konkuk University, Department of Bioresources and Food Sciences (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The toxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles is due to their solubility. ZnO nanoparticles dissolve in the extracellular region, which in turn increases the intracellular [Zn{sup 2+}] level. The mechanism for increased intracellular [Zn{sup 2+}] level and ZnO nanoparticles dissolution in the medium is still unclear. Cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, increased intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}] level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and interleukin-8 productions occur in the BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and A549 alveolar adenocarcinoma cells following the exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. Confluent C2C12 cells are more resistant to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the sparse monolayer. Loss of 3T3-L1 cell viability, membrane leakage, and morphological changes occurs due to exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticle induces cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in RKO colon carcinoma cells. The occurrence of apoptosis, increased ROS level, reduced mitochondrial activity and formation of tubular intracellular structures are reported following exposure of ZnO nanoparticles in skin cells. Macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are affected by ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, genotoxicity is also induced. The present review summarizes the literature on in vitro toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (10–100 nm) on various cell lines.

  19. Structure and properties of ceramic coatings formed on aluminum alloys by microarc oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wan-hui; BAO Ai-lian; LIU Rong-xiang; WU Wan-liang

    2006-01-01

    The thick and hard ceramic coatings were deposited on 2024 Al alloy by microarc oxidation in the electrolytic solution.Microstructure, phase composition and wear resistance of the oxide coatings were investigated by SEM, XRD and friction and wear tester. The microhardness and thickness of the oxide coatings were measured. The results show that the ceramic coating is mainly composed of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. During oxidation, the temperature in the microarc discharge channel is very high to make the local coating molten. From the surface to interior of the coating, microhardness increases gradually. The microhardness of the ceramic coating is HV1 800, and the microarc oxidation coatings greatly improve the antiwear properties of aluminum alloys.

  20. Surface oxidation of cobalt nanoparticles studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Charles, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    The surface oxide formed on cobalt nanoparticles has been studied by Mossbauer emission spectroscopy. Exposure of the cobalt particles to oxygen at room temperature was found to result in the formation of a relatively well-ordered surface oxide with Mossbauer parameters similar to those of CoO....

  1. Investigation of the aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles colloidal solutions pH-dependent photoluminescence kinetics in pico- and nanosecond time range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrov, F. G.; Makarov, V. I.; Loschenov, V. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the fluorescence intensity decay of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles colloidal solutions at different pH was investigated. Hamamatsu Streak-Camera (C10627 - 13 Hamamatsu Photonics) with picosecond temporal resolution (15 ps) was used to carry out the measurements. For excitation we used Hamamatsu Picosecond Light Pulser PLP - 10 with 637 nm wavelength and 65 ps pulse duration. The changes in fluorescence decay kinetics were found during the experiment. The number of fluorescence lifetime components and duration of lifetimes depends on pH. At pH 2 the presence of two fluorescence lifetimes was recorded: the first one was 5 ns, which corresponded to the molecular form in solution, and 1.5 ns, which corresponded to bound state of phthalocyanine molecules. This work is a preparatory step towards a model which describes the interaction of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles with environment in biological tissue.

  2. Oxidation behavior of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - Magnesium oxide and nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - zirconate type of cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1976-01-01

    The 1100 and 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance of dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgO, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - CaZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - SrZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgZro3 cermets and a 70 percent dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y developmental material was determined. The cermets contained 60 and 50 volume percent of Ni-Cr-Al-Y which formed a matrix with the oxide particles imbedded in it. The cermets containing MgO were superior to cermets based on zirconates and to the porous Ni-Cr-Al-Y material.

  3. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  4. Preparation and analysis of anodic aluminum oxide films with continuously tunable interpore distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiufang; Zhang, Jinqiong; Meng, Xiaojuan; Deng, Chenhua; Zhang, Lifang; Ding, Guqiao; Zeng, Hao; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides are often used as templates for preparation of nanostructures such as nanodot, nanowire and nanotube arrays. The interpore distance of anodic aluminum oxide is the most important parameter in controlling the periodicity of these nanostructures. Herein we demonstrate a simple and yet powerful method to fabricate ordered anodic aluminum oxides with continuously tunable interpore distances. By using mixed solution of citric and oxalic acids with different molar ratio, the range of anodizing voltages within which self-ordered films can be formed were extended to between 40 and 300 V, resulting in the interpore distances change from 100 to 750 nm. Our work realized very broad range of interpore distances in a continuously tunable fashion and the experiment processes are easily controllable and reproducible. The dependence of the interpore distances on acid ratios in mixed solutions was discussed through analysis of anodizing current and it was found that the effective dissociation constant of the mixed acids is of great importance. The interpore distances achieved are comparable to wavelengths ranging from UV to near IR, and may have potential applications in optical meta-materials for photovoltaics and optical sensing.

  5. Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively.

  6. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.

  7. Chemical and biological oxidative effects of carbon black nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2006-11-01

    Several studies show that ultrafine particles have a larger surface area than coarse particles, thus causing a greater inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated chemical and biological oxidative effects of nanoparticles in vitro. Carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with mean aerodynamic diameters of 14, 56, and 95nm were examined. The innate oxidative capacity of the CB nanoparticles was measured by consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) in cell-free system. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line (SV40T2) and alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to CB nanoparticles was measured by ELISA. DTT consumption of 14nm CB was higher than that of other CB nanoparticles having the same particle weight. However, DTT consumption was directly proportional to the particle surface area. HO-1 protein in SV40T2 cells was significantly increased by the 14nm and 56nm CB, however, 95nm CB did not affect. HO-1 protein in AM was significantly increased by the 14, 56, and 95nm CB. The increase in HO-1 expression was diminished by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment of each CB nanoparticles before exposure although the difference between the effects of NAC-treated and untreated 14nm CB did not achieve significant. In conclusion, CB nanoparticles have innate oxidative capacity that may be dependent on the surface area. CB nanoparticles can induce oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells and AM that is more prominent with smaller particles. The oxidative stress may, at least partially, be mediated by surface function of particles.

  8. Reaction behavior between the oxide film of LY12 aluminum alloy and the flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛松柏; 董健; 吕晓春; 顾文华

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the brazing mechanism of LY12 aluminum alloy at middle range temperature was presented. The CsF-AlF3 non-corrosive flux was utilized to remove the complex oxide film on the surface of LY12 aluminum alloy. The results revealed that the oxide film was removed by the improved CsF-AlF3 flux accompanied with the occurrence of reaction as well as dissolution and the compounds CsF played an important role to remove the oxide film. Actually, the high activity of flux, say, the ability to remove the oxide film, was due to the presence of the compounds, such as NH4F,NH4AlF4 and composite molten salt. The production of HF was the key issue to accelerate the reaction and enhance to eliminate the oxide film by dissolution. It was found that the rare earth element La at small percentage was not enriched at the interface. Moreover, the rare earth fluoride enhanced the dissolution behavior.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Antimicrobial Efficiency of Ionic Silver, Silver Monoxide, and Metallic Silver Incorporated onto an Aluminum Oxide Nanopowder Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Jastrzębska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficiency of ionic silver (Ag+, silver monoxide (Ag2O, and metallic silver (Ag incorporated onto an aluminum oxide nanopowder carrier (Al2O3. The deposition of Ag+ ions, Ag2O nanoparticles, and Ag nanoparticles on an different phases of aluminum oxide nanopowder carrier was realized using consecutive stages of dry sol-gel method. The Al2O3-Ag+, Al2O3-Ag2O, and Al2O3-Ag nanopowders were widely characterized qualitatively and quantitatively by SEM, physical nitrogen sorption and XRD analyses. Results indicate that the Al2O3 nanopowders added with Ag+, Ag2O, and Ag, apart from phase composition, were not differing considerably from one another in terms of their morphology and physical properties. However, nanopowders of Al2O3-Ag were more agglomerated than Al2O3-Ag2O and Al2O3-Ag+ nanopowders. The antibacterial activity of the nanopowders was examined by the spread plate method using bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Sarcina lutea, and Bacillus subtilis. The best antibacterial properties against Sarcina lutea strain were achieved in the amorphous-Al2O3-Ag+ and Al2O3-Ag2O nanopowders, whereas the worst antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli was shown by the Al2O3-Ag+ and Al2O3-Ag nanopowders. The observed increase of the antibacterial activity as the silver content was not however significant for Al2O3-Ag nanopowders. The results obtained in the present experiments show that the Al2O3-Ag+, Al2O3-Ag2O, and Al2O3-Ag nanopowders, possessing good bactericidal properties, can be produced by using consecutive stages of dry sol-gel method, and Al2O3 nanopowder added with Ag2O is considered as the best raw material in the production of antiseptic materials.

  10. Elaboration of aluminum oxide-based graphite containing castables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningsheng

    The aim of this work was set to develop effective and practicable new methods to incorporate natural flake graphite (FG) into the Al2O 3 based castables for iron and steel making applications. Three approaches, viz. micro-pelletized graphite (PG), crushed briquette of Al2O3-graphite (BAG) and TiO2 coated graphite (CFG), have been developed to insert flake graphite into Al2O 3 rich Al2O3-SiC based and Al2O 3-MgO based castables. These approaches were put into effect as countermeasures against the problems caused by FG in order: (1) to agglomerate the FG powders so as to decrease the specific surface area; (2) to diminish the density difference by using crushed carbon bonded compact of oxide-FG mixture; (3) to modify the surface of the flake graphite by forming hydrophilic coating; (4) to control the dispersion state of the graphite in the castable to maintain enough bonding strength; and (5) to use appropriate antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of FG. The whole work was divided into two stages. In stage one, Al2O 3-SiC-C castables were dealt with to compare 4 modes of inserting graphite, i.e., by PG, BAG, CFG and FG. Overall properties were measured, all in correlation with graphite amount and incorporating mode. In stage two, efforts were made to reduce water demand in the Al2O3-MgO castables system. For this purpose, the matrix portion of the castable mixes was extracted and a coaxial double cylinder viscometer was adopted to investigate rheological characteristics of the matrix slurries vs. 4 kinds of deflocculants, through which the best deflocculant and its appropriate amount were found. Efforts were then made to add up to 30% MgO into the castables, using a limited amount of powders (UMI.)

  11. Green Synthesis of Calcium Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Anantharaman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles is gaining considerable interest due to the use of environmentally friendly reactants and room temperature synthesis. This is the most preferred method of preparation as it makes use of pollution free chemicals and encourages the use of non-toxic solvents such as water and plants extracts. The present study is proposed with an objective to synthesize CaO nanoparticles by the eco-friendly green synthesis using environmentally benign papaya leaf extract and Green Tea extract. The obtained CaO nanoparticles have been characterized by UV- Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies. The antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of the calcium oxide nanoparticles were also analysed.

  12. Application of diffusion barriers to the refractory fibers of tungsten, columbium, carbon and aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Veltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A radio frequency powered ion-plating system was used to plate protective layers of refractory oxides and carbide onto high strength fiber substrates. Subsequent overplating of these combinations with nickel and titanium was made to determine the effectiveness of such barrier layers in preventing diffusion of the overcoat metal into the fibers with consequent loss of fiber strength. Four substrates, five coatings, and two metal matrix materials were employed for a total of forty material combinations. The substrates were tungsten, niobium, NASA-Hough carbon, and Tyco sapphire. The diffusion-barrier coatings were aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide with 14% cobalt addition, and zirconium carbide. The metal matrix materials were IN 600 nickel and Ti 6/4 titanium. Adhesion of the coatings to all substrates was good except for the NASA-Hough carbon, where flaking off of the oxide coatings in particular was observed.

  13. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-07-18

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  14. Synthesis of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanoparticles without Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized with two kinds of precipitants through a precipitation method. As-prepared nanoparticles in the size around 10 nm with regular spherical-like shape were achieved by adjusting pH values. NaOH and NH3·H2O were used as two precipitants for comparison. The average size of nanoparticles with NH3·H2O precipitant got smaller and represented better dispersibility, while nanoparticles with NaOH precipitant represented better magnetic property. This work provided a simple method without using any organic solvents, organic metal salts, or surfactants which could easily obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with tunable morphology.

  15. Biosynthesis of Yttrium oxide nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Kannan; M Sundrarajan

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and transmission electron microscope for structural confirmation. The studies clearly indicate that the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticle is a crystalline material with a particle size from 23 to 66 nm. Further analysis was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, to provide the evidence for the presence of Y–O–Y and O–Y–O stretchings in the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses gave the thermal stability of Y2O3 nanoparticles. The results of the antibacterial studies conducted by using the synthesized Y2O3 revealed an increasing rate of antibacterial behaviour with pathogens.

  16. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Minchin, Rodney F [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren, E-mail: r.minchin@uq.edu.a [Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2009-11-11

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO{sub 2}, the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO{sub 2} and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  17. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on viability of human spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Barkhordari; Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam; Ali Jebali; Mohammad Ali Khalili; Alireza Talebi; Marzieh Noorani

    2013-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of different nanoparticles has raised great concerns about their occupational and biological safety. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on viability of spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy persons, and were analyzed using WHO guidelines. Each semen sample was separately incubated with different concentrations of ZnO NPs (10, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL...

  18. Auger electron spectroscopy study of initial stages of oxidation in a copper - 19.6-atomic-percent-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine the initial stages of oxidation of a polycrystalline copper - 19.6 a/o-aluminum alloy. The growth of the 55-eV aluminum oxide peak and the decay of the 59-, 62-, and 937-eV copper peaks were examined as functions of temperature, exposure, and pressure. Pressures ranged from 1x10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0005 torr of O2. Temperatures ranged from room temperature to 700 C. A completely aluminum oxide surface layer was obtained in all cases. Complete disappearance of the underlying 937-eV copper peak was obtained by heating at 700 C in O2 at 0.0005 torr for 1 hr. Temperature studies indicated that thermally activated diffusion was important to the oxidation studies. The initial stages of oxidation followed a logarithmic growth curve.

  19. The influence of titanium and iron oxides on the coloring and friability of the blue fired aluminum oxide as an abrasive material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Passos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of abrasive grains is crucial to increase the lifespan of roughing, polishing and cutting tools. The purpose of the work herein was to evaluate the variables of the blue fired aluminum oxide heat treatment process. This heat treatment process improves the physical properties of the brown fused aluminum oxide and results in a blue coloring, which uniquely identifies it within the abrasives industry. The work herein includes information beginning with the electro-fusion process of bauxite (the manufacturing of the brown fused aluminum oxide to the Blue Fired process. It also compares the fracture resistance index between these materials. This index is the inverse of the friability. Besides the content of titanium and iron oxides, process variables such as time, temperature and atmospheric conditions are important to monitor in order to reach standard requirements. Experimental evidence measuring these parameters is presented in the article herein. The blue coloring of this aluminum oxide is explained by the optical phenomena of electron transition, and not by the formation of aluminum titanate, as some technical literature has stated. Furthermore, it was proved that the coloring of blue fired material should not be used exclusively as an indicator of the optimal abrasive characteristics of this class of aluminum oxide.

  20. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite‐1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2–3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98...

  1. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50% conversion of ethanol with 98...

  2. Enhanced formic acid oxidation on Cu-Pd nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin; Zou, Shouzhong

    Developing catalysts with high activity and high resistance to surface poisoning remains a challenge in direct formic acid fuel cell research. In this work, copper-palladium nanoparticles were formed through a galvanic replacement process. After electrochemically selective dissolution of surface Cu, Pd-enriched Cu-Pd nanoparticles were formed. These particles exhibit much higher formic acid oxidation activities than that on pure Pd nanoparticles, and they are much more resistant to the surface poisoning. Possible mechanisms of catalytic activity enhancement are briefly discussed.

  3. Solution voltammetry of 4 nm magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph J P; Westgard, John A; Cooper, Laura M; Murray, Royce W

    2014-07-30

    The voltammetry of solution-dispersed magnetite iron oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles is described. Their currents are controlled by nanoparticle transport rates, as shown with potential step chronoamperometry and rotated disk voltammetry. In pH 2 citrate buffer with added NaClO4 electrolyte, solution cyclic voltammetry of these nanoparticles (average diameter 4.4 ± 0.9 nm, each containing ca. 30 Fe sites) displays an electrochemically irreversible oxidation with E(PEAK) at ca. +0.52 V and an irreversible reduction with E(PEAK) at ca. +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. These processes are presumed to correspond to the formal potentials for one-electron oxidation of Fe(II) and reduction of Fe(III) at their different sites in the magnetite nanoparticle structure. The heterogeneous electrode reaction rates of the nanoparticles are very slow, in the 10(-5) cm/s range. The nanoparticles are additionally characterized by a variety of tools, e.g., TEM, UV/vis, and XPS spectroscopies.

  4. Synthesis and structure analysis of aluminum doped zinc oxide powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders with a nominal composition of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The contents of the Al element in the samples were measured by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique. The structures of the Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) compounds calcined at 1000 and 1200℃ have been deter- mined using the Rietveld full-profile analysis method. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction data indi- cated that the addition of Al initially has a considerably positive effect on the decreasing of the lattice parameters a and c of Zn1-xAlxO, but the effect becomes very slight and even negative with the further increase of the Al content. The solid solubility limit of Al in ZnO (mole fraction y) is 2.2l%, resulting in Zn0.978Al0.22O. It seems that when the Al content is excessive, Al prefers to form a ZnAl2O4 compound with ZnO, but not to incorporate into the ZnO lattice to occupy the Zn2+ cites. Two phases, [ZnO] (or Al-doped ZnO) and [ZnAl2O4], are obviously segregated in Zn1-xAlxO while the value of x is larger than 0.024. The UV-Vis absorption spectra show that the Al-doped ZnO exhibits a red-shift in the absorption edge without reduced transmission compared with pure ZnO, which also confirms that Al ions enter the ZnO lattice and form a Zn1-xAlxO solid solution.

  5. Synthesis and structure analysis of aluminum doped zinc oxide powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE DengPan; XUE Tao; ZHANG Yu; LI XiangJun

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders with a nominal composition of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The contents of the Al element in the samples were measured by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique. The structures of the Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) compounds calcined at 1000 and 1200℃ have been deter-mined using the Rietveld full-profile analysis method. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction data indi-cated that the addition of Al initially has a considerably positive effect on the decreasing of the lattice parameters a and c of Zn1-xAlxO, but the effect becomes very slight and even negative with the further increase of the Al content. The solid solubility limit of Al in ZnO (mole fraction y) is 2.21%, resulting in Zn0.978Al0.22O. It seems that when the Al content is excessive, Al prefers to form a ZnAl2O4 compound with ZnO, but not to incorporate into the ZnO lattice to occupy the Zn2+ cites. Two phases, [ZnO] (or Al-doped ZnO) and [ZnAl2O4], are obviously segregated in Zn1-xAlxO while the value of x is larger than 0.024. The UV-Vis absorption spectra show that the Al-doped ZnO exhibits a red-shift in the absorption edge without reduced transmission compared with pure ZnO, which also confirms that Al ions enter the ZnO lattice and form a Zn1-xAlxO solid solution.

  6. Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of the foam increases, the sound absorption coefficient also increases. The PEO coating surface is rough and porous, which is beneficial for improvement in sound absorption. After PEO treatment, the maximum sound absorption of the foam is improved to some extent.

  7. Surface reaction mechanisms during ozone and oxygen plasma assisted atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vikrant R; Vandalon, Vincent; Agarwal, Sumit

    2010-09-07

    We have elucidated the reaction mechanism and the role of the reactive intermediates in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide from trimethyl aluminum in conjunction with O(3) and an O(2) plasma. In situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data show that both -OH groups and carbonates are formed on the surface during the oxidation cycle. These carbonates, once formed on the surface, are stable to prolonged O(3) exposure in the same cycle. However, in the case of plasma-assisted ALD, the carbonates decompose upon prolonged O(2) plasma exposure via a series reaction kinetics of the type, A (CH(3)) --> B (carbonates) --> C (Al(2)O(3)). The ratio of -OH groups to carbonates on the surface strongly depends on the oxidizing agent, and also the duration of the oxidation cycle in plasma-assisted ALD. However, in both O(3) and O(2) plasma cycles, carbonates are a small fraction of the total number of reactive sites compared to the hydroxyl groups.

  8. Physical and chemical characterization of cerium(IV) oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriá, Gemma; Córdova, Walvin R; Céspedes, Oscar; Sánchez-García, Laura; Ferrer, Pilar; Gianolio, Diego; Castillo, Juan R

    2016-09-01

    Chemical composition, size and structure of the nanoparticle are required to describe nanoceria. Nanoparticles of similar size and Ce(III) content might exhibit different chemical behaviour due to their differences in structure. A simple and direct procedure based on affordable techniques for all the laboratories is presented in this paper. The combination of Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy and particle impact coulometry (PIC) allows the characterization of nanoceria of small size from 4 to 65 nm at a concentration from micromolar to nanomolar, a concentration range suitable for the analysis of lab-prepared or commercial nanoparticle suspensions, but too high for most analytical purposes aimed at nanoparticle monitoring. While the PIC limits of size detection are too high to observe small nanoparticles unless catalytic amplification is used, the method provides a simple means to study aggregation of nanoparticles in the media they are needed to be dispersed for each application. Raman spectroscopy provided information about structure of the nanoparticle, and UV-vis about their chemical behaviour against some common reducing and oxidizing agents. Graphical Abstract To characterize nanoceria it is necessary to provide information about the shape, size and structure of the nanoparticles as well as the chemical composition.

  9. Surface modification of promising cerium oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) or nanoceria have emerged as a potential nanomedicine for the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. CNPs have a natural tendency to aggregate or agglomerate in their bare state, which leads to sedimentation in a biological environment. Since the natural biological environment is essentially aqueous, nanoparticle surface modification using suitable biocompatible hydrophilic chemical moieties is highly desirable to create effective aqueous dispersions. In this report, (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl)triethoxysilane was used as a functional, biocompatible organosilane to modify the surface of CNPs to produce promising nanoparticles which open substantial therapeutic avenues. The surface modified nanoparticles were produced in situ via an ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using complimentary characterization techniques. The interaction between the functional moiety and the nanoparticle was studied using powerful cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The surface-modified nanoparticles were extremely small and demonstrated a significant improvement in aqueous dispersibility. Moreover, the existence of a strong ionic coordination between the functional moiety and the surface of the nanoparticle was realised, indicating that the surface modified nanoceria are stable and that the nanoparticles should demonstrate an enhanced circulation time in a biological environment. The surface modification approach should be promising for the production of CNPs for nanomedicine applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: promising tools in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2013-08-09

    Iron-oxide nanoparticles of small dimensions that have superparamagnetic properties show immense potential to revolutionize the future of cancer theranostics, the combinatorial diagnosis and therapeutic approach towards cancer. Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have unique magnetic properties, due to which they show excellent tumor-targeting efficiency, and this paves the way for effective personalized cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the ability of SPIONs to perform multiple roles in the field of cancer biology, such as in diagnosis, monitoring, targeting and therapy. Also, other topics are discussed, including the synthesis of SPIONs, the challenges and recent advances.

  11. Suppressing iron oxide nanoparticle toxicity by vascular targeted antioxidant polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, David B; Wattamwar, Paritosh P; Wydra, Robert; Hilt, J Zach; Anderson, Kimberly W; Eitel, Richard E; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    The biomedical use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has been of continued interest in the literature and clinic. Their ability to be used as contrast agents for imaging and/or responsive agents for remote actuation makes them exciting materials for a wide range of clinical applications. Recently, however, concern has arisen regarding the potential health effects of these particles. Iron oxide toxicity has been demonstrated in in vivo and in vitro models, with oxidative stress being implicated as playing a key role in this pathology. One of the key cell types implicated in this injury is the vascular endothelial cells. Here, we report on the development of a targeted polymeric antioxidant, poly(trolox ester), nanoparticle that can suppress oxidative damage. As the polymer undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis, active trolox is locally released, providing a long term protection against pro-oxidant agents. In this work, poly(trolox) nanoparticles are targeted to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecules (PECAM-1), which are able to bind to and internalize in endothelial cells and provide localized protection against the cytotoxicity caused by iron oxide nanoparticles. These results indicate the potential of using poly(trolox ester) as a means of mitigating iron oxide toxicity, potentially expanding the clinical use and relevance of these exciting systems.

  12. Removal of hydrogen chloride from gaseous streams using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Park, Kye-Sung; Grause, Guido; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2008-10-01

    Magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide) obtained by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) effectively removed HCl from gaseous streams. HCl removal was greater in the presence of added water vapor at all temperatures examined and increased with decreasing temperature in both the presence and absence of added water vapor. Wet and dry removal of gaseous HCl were attributed to the production of MgCl2 . 6H2O and MgCl2 . 4H2O, respectively. For the wet scrubbing process, the reconstruction reaction of Mg-Al LDH from Mg-Al oxide was the primary mechanism for increased HCl removal.

  13. Selection of crucible oxides in molten titanium and titanium aluminum alloys by thermo-chemistry calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and its alloys interstitially dissolve a large amount of impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen, which degrade the mechanical and physical properties of alloys. On the other hand crucible oxides based on CaO, ZrO2 Y2O3, etc., and their spinels (combination of two or more oxides can be used for melting titanium and its alloys. However, the thermodynamic behavior of calcium, zirconium, yttrium on the one side, and oxygen on the other side, in molten Ti and Ti-Al alloys have not been made clear and because of that, it is very interesting for research. Owing of literature data, as well as these crucibles are cheaper than standard crucibles for melting titanium and titanium alloys, in this paper will be presented the results of selection of thermo-chemistry analysis with the aim to determine the crucible oxide stability in contact with molten titanium and titanium-aluminum alloys.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on porous anodic aluminum oxide using ionic liquid as a dispersing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, F.; Sohrabi, B.; Rahmanifar, M. S.; Jalali, A.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) have been arranged in nanochannels of anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to make a vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) based electrode. Well ordered AAO templates were prepared by a two-step anodizing process by applying a constant voltage of 45 V in oxalic acid solution. The stabilized CNTs in a water-soluble room temperature ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide), were deposited in the pores of AAO templates which were conductive by deposition of Ni nanoparticles in the bottom of pores. In order to obtain ideal results, different EPD parameters, such as concentration of MWCNTs and ionic liquid on stability of MWCNT suspensions, deposition time and voltage which are applied in EPD process and also optimal conditions for anodizing of template were investigated. The capacitive performance of prepared electrodes was analyzed by measuring the specific capacitance from cyclic voltammograms and the charge-discharge curves. A maximum value of 50 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 20 mV s-1was achieved for the specific capacitance.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Sandip; Thite, Trupti; Laware, S. L.; Rode, C. V.; Koppikar, Soumya J.; Ghanekar, Ruchika-Kaul; Kale, S. N.

    2008-11-01

    Amylase inhibitors, also known as starch blockers, contain substances that prevent dietary starches from being absorbed by the body via inhibiting breakdown of complex sugars to simpler ones. In this sense, these materials are projected as having potential applications in diabetes control. In this context, we report on zinc oxide nanoparticles as possible alpha-amylase inhibitors. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using soft-chemistry approach and 1-thioglycerol was used as a surfactant to yield polycrystalline nanoparticles of size ˜18 nm, stabilized in wurtzite structure. Conjugation study and structural characterization have been done using x-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity studies on human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and skin carcinoma (A-431) cell lines as well as mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 20 μg/ml, ZnO nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. We report for the first time the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein an optimum dose of 20 μg/ml was sufficient to exhibit 49% glucose inhibition at neutral pH and 35 °C temperature. This inhibitory activity was similar to that obtained with acarbose (a standard alpha-amylase inhibitor), thereby projecting ZnO nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors.

  16. Hydrotalcite-derived cobalt-aluminum mixed oxide catalysts for toluene combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Anna; Mazur, Michal; Natkański, Piotr; Dudek, Barbara; Kozak, Marek; Wach, Anna; Kuśtrowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) containing cobalt and aluminum (intended Co/Al molar ratio = 3.0) were coprecipitated at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Their crystallinity, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, increased with the precipitation temperature. Furthermore, HTlcs with various cobalt contents were prepared at 70 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that HTlcs were transformed into stable oxides at 550 °C. The decrease in the crystallite size of the formed spinels with the increase in the precipitation temperature was observed. Low temperature sorption of nitrogen revealed meso-macroporous nature of the oxides with extended interparticle porosity. Aluminum segregated on the samples surface, which contained various amounts of lattice and adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen as detected by X-ray electron spectroscopy. The high ratio of lattice to adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen found for the sample with Co/Al = 3:1 caused that it turned out to be the most efficient catalyst in the total oxidation of toluene (50% conversion at 257 °C).

  17. The fabrication and thermal properties of bismuth-aluminum oxide nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tsai, Ping-Hsin; Chiou, Chung-Han; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Bismuth (Bi) nanowires, well controlled in length and diameter, were prepared by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted molding injection process with a high cooling rate. A high performance atomic layer deposition (ALD)-capped bismuth-aluminum oxide (Bi-Al2O3) nanothermometer is demonstrated that was fabricated via a facile, low-cost and low-temperature method, including AAO templated-assisted molding injection and low-temperature ALD-capped processes. The thermal behaviors of Bi nanowires and Bi-Al2O3 nanocables were studied by in situ heating transmission electron microscopy. Linear thermal expansion of liquid Bi within native bismuth oxide nanotubes and ALD-capped Bi-Al2O3 nanocables were evaluated from 275 °C to 700 °C and 300 °C to 1000 °C, respectively. The results showed that the ALD-capped Bi-Al2O3 nanocable possesses the highest working temperature, 1000 °C, and the broadest operation window, 300 °C-1000 °C, of a thermal-expanding type nanothermometer. Our innovative approach provides another way of fabricating core-shell nanocables and to further achieve sensing local temperature under an extreme high vacuum environment.

  18. Hydrotalcite-derived cobalt–aluminum mixed oxide catalysts for toluene combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Białas, Anna, E-mail: anbialas@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Kraków 30-060 (Poland); Mazur, Michal; Natkański, Piotr; Dudek, Barbara [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Kraków 30-060 (Poland); Kozak, Marek [Division of Petroleum Processing, Oil and Gas Institute, Łukasiewicza 1, Kraków 31-429 (Poland); Wach, Anna; Kuśtrowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Kraków 30-060 (Poland)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Crystallinity of CoAl3 HT-like compounds increases with coprecipitation temperature. • After calcination CoAl3HTlcs with larger crystallites form low crystalline spinels. • The surface of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} or Co{sub 2}AlO{sub 4}spinels is enriched in aluminum. • CoAl3 spinel is the most efficient catalyst in toluene combustion with T50 = 257 °C. • Catalytic activity results from the high lattice/adsorbed, electrophilic oxygen ratio. - Abstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) containing cobalt and aluminum (intended Co/Al molar ratio = 3.0) were coprecipitated at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Their crystallinity, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, increased with the precipitation temperature. Furthermore, HTlcs with various cobalt contents were prepared at 70 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that HTlcs were transformed into stable oxides at 550 °C. The decrease in the crystallite size of the formed spinels with the increase in the precipitation temperature was observed. Low temperature sorption of nitrogen revealed meso-macroporous nature of the oxides with extended interparticle porosity. Aluminum segregated on the samples surface, which contained various amounts of lattice and adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen as detected by X-ray electron spectroscopy. The high ratio of lattice to adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen found for the sample with Co/Al = 3:1 caused that it turned out to be the most efficient catalyst in the total oxidation of toluene (50% conversion at 257 °C).

  19. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, Sara [Environmental Research Institute of University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Doyle, Hugh [Tyndall National Institute, Cork (Ireland); Blasco, Julian [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Marine Science Institute of Andalusia, Cadiz (Spain); Redmond, Gareth [Tyndall National Institute, Cork (Ireland); Sheehan, David, E-mail: d.sheehan@ucc.ie [Environmental Research Institute of University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 {+-} 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  20. Antibacterial activity of polymer coated cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Shah

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles have found numerous applications in the biomedical industry due to their strong antioxidant properties. In the current study, we report the influence of nine different physical and chemical parameters: pH, aeration and, concentrations of MgSO(4, CaCl(2, KCl, natural organic matter, fructose, nanoparticles and Escherichia coli, on the antibacterial activity of dextran coated cerium oxide nanoparticles. A least-squares quadratic regression model was developed to understand the collective influence of the tested parameters on the anti-bacterial activity and subsequently a computer-based, interactive visualization tool was developed. The visualization allows us to elucidate the effect of each of the parameters in combination with other parameters, on the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the toxicity of CeO(2 NPs depend on the physical and chemical environment; and in a majority of the possible combinations of the nine parameters, non-lethal to the bacteria. In fact, the cerium oxide nanoparticles can decrease the anti-bacterial activity exerted by magnesium and potassium salts.

  1. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  2. Preparation of metal oxide nanoparticles in ionic liquid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Cabo, Borja; Rodil, Eva; Soto, Ana; Arce, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.arce@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    In the present study, a facile, rapid, and environmentally friendly method was used for the preparation of metal oxide nanoparticles in an ionic liquid medium. This technique involves mixing and heating the corresponding powder material (cadmium oxide, anatase, and hematite) and the selected ionic liquid (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, [P{sub 6,6,6,14}]Cl), without any other precursors or solvents. The confirmation of the existence of nanoparticles in the ionic liquid was carried out using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and its concentration was determined by X-ray fluorescence. In order to analyze the shape and size distribution, transmission electron microscopy and a ZetaSizer (DLS technique) were used; finding out that the size of the hematite nanoparticles was 10-55 nm. Nevertheless, for the cadmium oxide and the anatase nanoparticles, the size was between 2 and 15 nm. The composition of the prepared nanoparticles was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The structure of solids did not suffer any modification in their transformation to the nanoscale, as concluded from the X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

  3. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  4. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly). The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration ...

  5. A simple dip coat patterning of aluminum oxide to constitute a bistable memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bindu; Rabinal, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    Charge transport studies on a bipolar resistive random access memory device based on aluminum oxide were successfully undertaken. The device was designed in a simple metal-insulator-metal format, which was characterized in detail for structural, morphological and electrical measurements. A low cost technique has been adopted for the formation of the memristive element, exhibiting three orders of magnitude change between its two states of conductivity. The obtained memristive behavior is explained based on evidence obtained from charge transport characteristics. Formation/rupture of the conducting filament by external electric field is found to be the main mechanism behind resistive switching.

  6. Selective-Area Growth of Transferable InN Nanocolumns by Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanotemplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Guozhen; Xu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-02-01

    InN nanocolumn arrays were grown on c-plane sapphire with and without anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplates. The crystalline quality of InN nanocolumns was significantly improved by selective-area growth (SAG) using AAO templates, as verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. Then, InN nanocolumns were transferred onto p-type silicon substrates after etching off the AAO templates. Current-voltage characteristic of the transferred n-InN/p-Si heterojunctions shows on/off ratio as high as 4.65 × 103 at 2 V. This work offers a potential way to grow transferable devices with improving performances.

  7. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Abolghasem; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Ghasemzadeh, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing.

  8. Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    electrolytes : 0.5 M K2SO4, 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl), and 1 M calcium chloride (CaCl2). The qualitative CV behavior of the three electrolytes can be seen...Carbon Nanotube/ Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Matthew Ervin, Vinay Raju, Mary Hendrickson, and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6289 December 2012 Carbon Nanotube/ Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide

  9. Study on phosphating treatment of aluminum alloy: role of yttrium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shenglin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc phosphate coatings formed on 6061-Al alloy, after dipping in phosphating solutions containing different amounts of Y2O3(yttrium oxide), were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical measurements. Significant variations in the morphology and corrosion resistance afforded by zinc phosphate coating were especially observed as Y2O3 in phosphating solution varied from 0 to 40 mg/L. The addition of Y2O3 changed the initial potential of the interface between aluminum alloy substrate and phosphating solution and increased the number of nucleation sites. The phosphate coating thereby was less porous structure and covered the surface of aluminum alloy completely within short phosphating time. Phosphate coating was mainly composed of Zn3(PO4)2-4H2O (hopeite) and AIPO4(aluminum phosphate). Y2O3, as an additive of phosphatization, accelerated precipitation and refined the gain size of phosphate coating. The corrosion resistance of zinc phosphate coating in 3% NaCl solution was improved as shown by po-larization measurement. In the present research, the optimal amount of Y2O3 was 10-20 mg/L, and the optimal phosphating time was 600 s.

  10. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  11. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by oxidative polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkuviene, Aida [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kaseta, Vytautas [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Voronovic, Jaroslav [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanauskaite, Giedre; Biziuleviciene, Gene [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanaviciene, Almira [NanoTechnas–Center of Nanotechnology and Material Science at Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanavicius, Arunas, E-mail: Arunas.Ramanavicius@chf.vu.lt [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Laboratory of BioNanoTechnology, Department of Materials Science and Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, State Scientific Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by environmentally friendly polymerization at high concentrations are cytotoxic. ► Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, mouse hepatoma and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell lines were treated by Ppy nanoparticles. ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles at high concentrations inhibit cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Polypyrrole (Ppy) is known as biocompatible material, which is used in some diverse biomedical applications and seeming to be a very promising for advanced biotechnological applications. In order to increase our understanding about biocompatibility of Ppy, in this study pure Ppy nanoparticles (Ppy-NPs) of fixed size and morphology were prepared by one-step oxidative polymerization and their cyto-compatibility was evaluated. The impact of different concentration of Ppy nanoparticles on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), mouse hepatoma cell line (MH-22A), and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line was investigated. Cell morphology, viability/proliferation after the treatment by Ppy nanoparticles was evaluated. Obtained results showed that Ppy nanoparticles at low concentrations are biocompatible, while at high concentrations they became cytotoxic for Jurkat, MEF and MH-22A cells, and it was found that cytotoxic effect is dose-dependent.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles supported onto natural clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrenovic, Jasna; Milenkovic, Jelena; Daneu, Nina; Kepcija, Renata Matonickin; Rajic, Nevenka

    2012-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Cu(2)O, ZnO and NiO nanoparticles supported onto natural clinoptilolite was investigated in the secondary effluent under dark conditions. After 24h of contact the Cu(2)O and ZnO nanoparticles reduced the numbers of viable bacterial cells of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture for four to six orders of magnitude and showed consistent 100% of antibacterial activity against native E. coli after 1h of contact during 48 exposures. The antibacterial activity of NiO nanoparticles was less efficient. The Cu(2)O and NiO nanoparticles showed 100% of antiprotozoan activity against Paramecium caudatum and Euplotes affinis after 1h of contact, while ZnO nanoparticles were less efficient. The morphology and crystallinity of the nanoparticles were not affected by microorganisms. The metal oxide nanoparticles could find a novel application in the disinfection of secondary effluent and removal of pathogenic microorganisms in the tertiary stage of wastewater treatment.

  13. Iron and aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the environment: from nano-scale to the field processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina

    The objective of this doctoral research was to increase scientific understanding of the behavior of Fe and Al hydroxide nanoparticles in soils. These particles are of great environmental importance due to their ability to retain and transport nutrients and contaminants. Three studies were undertaken at different scales, which are documented in three manuscripts included in this dissertation. The first study examined the rate constants for goethite (alpha-FeOOH) crystallization from nano-particulate Fe hydroxide suspensions in the absence (0% Al) and presence (2% Al) of aluminum. One of the merits of this study was the application of a multivariate curve resolution analysis (MCR) of infrared spectra to environmentally important mixed Fe-Al hydroxide colloids in order to quantify goethite content in poorly-crystalline mixtures. Obtained rate constants were found to be equal to (7.64+/-0.67)x10-7 s-1 for 0% Al and (4.5+/-0.21) x10-7 s-1 for 2% Al hydroxides. Dissolution-precipitation mechanism was dominant in the process of goethite transformation to ferrihydrite. Further growth of goethite crystals took place either by aggregation mechanism to form polycrystalline agglomerates or alternatively by Oswald ripening to form large single crystals. The presence of aqueous Al species "poisoned" goethite's surface by disrupting the formation of hydrogen bonds thus increasing the number of non-stoichiometric hydroxyls. The second study addressed changes of mineral composition in mixed Fe-Al hydroxide nanoparticles as a function of Al-substitution and reaction time. It was found that low Al concentrations (2-8 mol. %) lead to formation of moderately crystalline Al-goethite upon ageing, while at medium Al concentrations (10-20%) colloidal suspensions remained stable for the duration of the whole experiment (54 days), goethite formation was completely retarded, and less crystalline intermediate structure were formed. At 25% Al substitution, gibbsite Al(OH)3 microcrystalline

  14. Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Jarno; Ihalainen, Mika; Koponen, Tarmo; Torvela, Tiina; Tenho, Mikko; Salonen, Jarno; Sippula, Olli; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  16. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  17. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, P.Y.; Boies, A.M.; Calder, S.A.; Girshick, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by injecting ferrocene vapor and oxygen into an argon/helium DC thermal plasma. Size distributions of particles in the reactor exhaust were measured online using an aerosol extraction probe interfaced to a scanning mobility particle sizer,

  18. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  19. Effect of environment on iodine oxidation state and reactivity with aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan K; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L

    2016-04-28

    Iodine oxide is a highly reactive solid oxidizer and with its abundant generation of iodine gas during reaction, this oxidizer also shows great potential as a biocidal agent. A problem with using I2O5 in an energetic mixture is its highly variable reactive behavior. This study isolates the variable reactivity associated with I2O5 as a function of its chemical reaction in various environments. Specifically, aluminum fuel and iodine oxide powder are combined using a carrier fluid to aid intermixing. The carrier fluid is shown to significantly affect the oxidation state of iodine oxide, thereby affecting the reactivity of the mixture. Four carrier fluids were investigated ranging in polarity and water miscibility in increasing order from hexane X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results are compared with thermal equilibrium simulations. Flame speeds increased with polarity of the fluid used to intermix the powder and ranged from 180 to 1202 m s(-1). The I2O5 processed in the polar fluids formed hydrated states of iodine oxide: HIO3 and HI3O8; and, the nonpolar and dry-mixed samples formed: I2O4 and I4O9. During combustion, the hydrated iodine oxides rapidly dehydrated from HIO3 to HI3O8 and from HI3O8 to I2O5. Both steps release 25% of their mass as vapor during combustion. Increased gas generation enhances convective energy transport and accounts for the increase in reactivity seen in the mixtures processed in polar fluids. These results explain the chemical mechanisms underlying the variable reactivity of I2O5 that are a function of the oxide's highly reactive nature with its surrounding environment. These results will significantly impact the selection of carrier fluid in the synthesis approach for iodine containing reactive mixtures.

  20. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  1. Light extraction enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes using aluminum zinc oxide embedded anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Ming; Lin, Bo-Ting; Zeng, Yin-Xing; Lin, Wei-Ming; Wu, Wen-Tuan

    2014-12-15

    Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) has been embedded onto indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance the light extraction from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The embedded AZO provides deflection and scattering interfaces on the newly generated AZO/organics and AZO/ITO interfaces rather than the conventional ITO/organic interface. The current efficiency of AZO embedded OLEDs was enhanced by up to 64%, attributed to the improved light extraction by additionally created reflection and scattering of emitted light on the AZO/ITO interfaces which was roughed in AZO embedding process. The current efficiency was found to increase with the increasing AZO embedded area ratio, but limited by the accompanying increases in haze and electrical resistance of the AZO embedded ITO film.

  2. Effects of rare earth oxide additives on the thermal behaviors of aluminum nitride ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yijun; WANG Ling; LI Chuncheng; JIANG Xiaolong; QIU Tai

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Y_2O_3 and Er_2O_3 on the sintering behaviors, thermal properties and microstructure of AIN ceramics were investigated. The ex-perimental results show that the sintering temperature can be decreased; the relative density and thermal behavior can be improved by adding rare earth oxide in AIN ceramics. For AIN ceramics with 3 wt.% Er_2O_3 additive, the relative density is 98.8%, and the thermal conductivity reaches 106 W·m~(-1)·K~(-1). The microstructure research found that no obvious aluminum erbium oxide was found in AIN ceramics doped with 3 wt.% Er_2O_3, which favored the improvement of the thermal conductivity of AIN ceramics.

  3. Characterization of monolayer formation on aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Crissy L; Lappi, Simon; Fischer, Daniel; Sambasivan, Sharadha; Genzer, Jan; Franzen, Stefan

    2008-01-15

    The optical and electronic properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on a glass substrate are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Optical studies with coupling in the Kretschmann configuration reveal an angle-dependent plasma frequency in the mid-IR for p-polarized radiation, suggestive of the detection of a Drude plasma frequency. These studies are complemented by oxygen depletion density functional theory studies for the calculation of the charge carrier concentration and plasma frequency for bulk AZO. In addition, we report on the optical and physical properties of thin film adlayers of n-hexadecanethiol (HDT) and n-octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AZO surfaces using reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Our characterization of the SAM deposition onto the AZO thin film reveals a range of possible applications for this conducting metal oxide.

  4. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  5. Flexible aluminum-doped zinc-oxide thin-film transistor fabricated on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dedong; Chen, Zhuofa; Zhao, Nannan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Fuqing; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    We have studied processing and characteristics of flexible Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide thin-film transistors (AZO TFTs) fabricated on plastic substrates using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. To improve the performance of flexible AZO TFT, we studied effects of device structures on characteristics of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors. The electrical properties of top-gate type and bottom-gate type AZO TFTs were investigated, respectively. The top-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.4 V, a Ion/Ioff current ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 28.2 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.19 V/decade. And the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.7 V, a Ion/Ioff ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 209 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.16 V/decade, and the off current of less than 10-11A at room temperature. Both TFTs show low threshold voltage, high Ion/Ioff ratio and high field effect mobility. By comparison, the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows better characteristics. The flexible AZO-TFT is a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics due to flexible, transparency, high mobility, and low-temperature processing.

  6. A molecular beacon biosensor based on the nanostructured aluminum oxide surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiangchen; He, Yuan; Yin, Haocheng; Que, Long

    2015-10-15

    A new class of molecular beacon biosensors based on the nanostructured aluminum oxide or anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface is reported. In this type of sensor, the AAO surface is used to enhance the fluorescent signals of the fluorophore-labeled hairpin DNA. When a target DNA with a complementary sequence to that of the hairpin DNA is applied on the sensor, the fluorophores are forced to move away from the AAO surface due to the hybridization between the hairpin DNA and the target DNA, resulting in the significant decrease of the fluorescent signals. The observed signal reduction is sufficient to achieve a demonstrated detection limit of 10nM, which could be further improved by optimizing the AAO surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the bioassay used in the experiments has excellent specificity and selectivity, indicating the great promise of this type of sensor for diagnostic applications. Since the arrayed AAO micropatterns can be fabricated on a single chip in a cost-effective manner, the arrayed sensors could provide an ideal technical platform for studying fundamental biological process and monitoring disease biomarkers.

  7. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  8. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Stefanou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe and aluminum (Al oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly. The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration resistance. The findings showed that the increase of iron and aluminum oxides and oxy-hydroxides content resulted in an increase of soil penetration resistance and the relationships between them were significant. Crystalline iron forms found to have a more profound effect on penetration resistance as compared to amorphous iron forms. Finally, positive and significant relationships were also found between penetration resistance and clay content. However, it is not entirely clear which of the two soil components plays the most important role in penetration resistance changes in soils.

  9. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  10. CHEMISTRY OF SO2 AND DESOX PROCESSES ON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    On bulk stoichiometric oxides, SO{sub 2} mainly reacts with the O centers to form SO{sub 3} or SO{sub 4} species that decompose at elevated temperatures. Adsorption on the metal cations occurs below 300 K and does not lead to cleavage of the S-O bonds. In bulk oxides, the occupied cation bands are too stable for effective bonding interactions with the LUMO of SO{sub 2}. The effects of quantum confinement on the electronic properties of oxide nanoparticles and the structural defects that usually accompany these systems in general favor the bonding and dissociation of SO{sub 2}. Thus, nanoparticles of MgO, CaO, SrO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} are all more efficient for sequestering SO{sub 2} than the corresponding bulk oxides. Structural imperfections in pure or metal-doped ceria nanoparticles accelerate the reduction of SO{sub 2} by CO by facilitating the formation and migration of O vacancies in the oxide surface.

  11. Nitric oxide alleviates aluminum-induced oxidative damage through regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in roots of wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengliang Sun; Lijuan Liu; Yan Yu; Wenjing Liu; Lingli Lu; Chongwei Jin; Xianyong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The possible association with nitric oxide (NO) and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in regulating aluminum (Al) tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using two genotypes with different Al resistance. Exposure to Al inhibited root elongation, and triggered lipid peroxidation and oxidation of AsA to dehydroascorbate and GSH to glutathione disulfide in wheat roots. Exogenous NO significantly increased endogenous NO levels, and subsequently al eviated Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and oxidation of AsA and GSH to maintain the redox molecules in the reduced form in both wheat genotypes. Under Al stress, significantly increased activities and gene transcriptional levels of ascorbate peroxi-dase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase, were observed in the root tips of the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864. Nitric oxide application enhanced the activity and gene transcriptional level of these enzymes in both wheat geno-types. g-Glutamylcysteine synthetase was not significantly affected by Al or NO, but NO treatments increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase to a greater extent than the Al-treated wheat seedlings. Proline was significantly decreased by Al, while it was not affected by NO. These results clearly suggest that NO protects wheat root against Al-induced oxidative stress, possibly through its regulation of the AsA-GSH cycle.

  12. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  13. Mercury removal in wastewater by iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, E.; Campillo, G. E.; Morales, G.; Hincapié, C.; Osorio, J.; Arnache, O.; Uribe, J. I.; Jaramillo, F.

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is one of the persistent pollutants in wastewater; it is becoming a severe environmental and public health problem, this is why nowadays its removal is an obligation. Iron oxide nanoparticles are receiving much attention due to their properties, such as: great biocompatibility, ease of separation, high relation of surface-area to volume, surface modifiability, reusability, excellent magnetic properties and relative low cost. In this experiment, Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents, and Aloe Vera as stabilizing agent; then these nanoparticles were characterized by three different measurements: first, using a Zetasizer Nano ZS for their size estimation, secondly UV-visible spectroscopy which showed the existence of resonance of plasmon at λmax∼360 nm, and lastly by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine nanoparticles form. The results of this characterization showed that the obtained Iron oxides nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution (∼100nm). Mercury removal of 70% approximately was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  14. New roots to formation of nanostructures on glass surface through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Inoue, Song-Zhu Chu, Kenji Wada, Di Li and Hajime Haneda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New processes for the preparation of nanostructure on glass surfaces have been developed through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum. Aluminum thin film sputtered on a tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin film on a glass surface was converted into alumina by anodic oxidation. The anodic alumina gave nanometer size pore array standing vertically on the glass surface. Kinds of acids used in the anodic oxidation changed the pore size drastically. The employment of phosphoric acid solution gave several tens nanometer size pores. Oxalic acid cases produced a few tens nanometer size pores and sulfuric acid solution provided a few nanometer size pores. The number of pores in a unit area could be changed with varying the applied voltage in the anodization and the pore sizes could be increased by phosphoric acid etching. The specimen consisting of a glass substrate with the alumina nanostructures on the surface could transmit UV and visible light. An etched specimen was dipped in a TiO2 sol solution, resulting in the impregnation of TiO2 sol into the pores of alumina layer. The TiO2 sol was heated at ~400 °C for 2 h, converting into anatase phase TiO2. The specimens possessing TiO2 film on the pore wall were transparent to the light in UV–Visible region. The electro deposition technique was applied to the introduction of Ni metal into pores, giving Ni nanorod array on the glass surface. The removal of the barrier layer alumina at the bottom of the pores was necessary to attain smooth electro deposition of Ni. The photo catalytic function of the specimens possessing TiO2 nanotube array was investigated in the decomposition of acetaldehyde gas under the irradiation of UV light, showing that the rate of the decomposition was quite large.

  15. Photoluminescence blue shift of indium phosphide nanowire networks with aluminum oxide coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryauf, David M.; Zhang, Junce; Norris, Kate J.; Diaz Leon, Juan J.; Oye, Michael M.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Wei, Min [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); School of Micro-Electronics and Solid-Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2014-07-15

    This paper describes our finding that optical properties of semiconductor nanowires were modified by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide. Indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates with gold catalyst resulting in three-dimensional nanowire networks, and optical properties were obtained from the collective nanowire networks. The networks were coated with an aluminum oxide thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. We studied the dependence of the peak wavelength of photoluminescence spectra on the thickness of the oxide coatings. A continuous blue shift in photoluminescence spectra was observed when the thickness of the oxide coating was increased. The observed blue shift is attributed to the Burstein-Moss effect due to increased carrier concentration in the nanowire cores caused by repulsion from intrinsic negative fixed charges located at the inner oxide surface. Samples were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selective area diffractometry to better understand the physical mechanisms for the blue shift. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles protect cells against oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B.; Zholobak, Nadezhda M. [Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv D0368 (Ukraine); Baranchikov, Alexander E. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ryabova, Anastasia V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Vladimir K., E-mail: van@igic.ras.ru [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    A novel facile method of non-doped and fluorescent terbium-doped cerium fluoride stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. Intense green luminescence of CeF{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles can be used to visualize these nanoparticles' accumulation in cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles are shown for the first time to protect both organic molecules and living cells from the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide. Both non-doped and terbium-doped CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles are shown to provide noteworthy protection to cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus. - Highlights: • Facile method of CeF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}:Tb stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. • Naked CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles are shown to be non-toxic and to protect cells from the action of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • CeF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles are shown to protect living cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus.

  17. The formation and structure of the oxide and hydroxide chemisorbed phases at the aluminum surface, and relevance to hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michael; Kelly, Robert; Neurock, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Aluminum alloys used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) induced by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) (Gangloff and Ives 1990). Crack growth experiments have demonstrated a linear relation between the relative humidity of the environment and crack growth rates, indicating the importance of water (Speidel and Hyatt 1972). While the presence of water has been demonstrated to be necessary for EAC of aluminum, crack growth rates have been linked to the diffusivity of hydrogen in aluminum (Gangloff 2003) and hydrogen densities at the crack tip as high as Al2H have been observed (Young and Scully 1998). While the mechanism by which hydrogen embrittles aluminum is yet not well understood, without the entry of hydrogen into the aluminum matrix, embrittlement would not occur. While at the crack tip high hydrogen concentrations exist, the solubility of hydrogen in aluminum is normal near 1 ppm (Wolverton 2004). In this work combined first principles and kinetic Monte Carlo methods will be used to examine the oxide and hydroxide structure resulting from exposure of aluminum to H2O or O2 and relevance to hydrogen entry as well as EAC is discussed.

  18. Characterization of glucose oxidation by gold nanoparticles using nanoceria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nathan J; Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2014-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can oxidize glucose, producing hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid, which are the same products as those generated by glucose oxidase (GOx). In this regard, AuNPs are a nanozyme. Herein, a new colorimetric method is developed to understand the surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles for this oxidation reaction. The color of nanoceria is changed to yellow by the hydrogen peroxide generated during glucose oxidation. Using this assay, we find that adsorption of small molecules such as citrate does not deactivate AuNPs, while adsorption of polymers including serum proteins and high molecular weight polyethylene glycol inhibits glucose oxidation. In addition to glucose, AuNPs can also oxidize galactose. Therefore, this reaction is unlikely to be directly useful for glucose detection for biomedical applications. On the other hand, AuNPs might serve as a general oxidase for a broad range of substrates. The glucose oxidation reaction is slower at lower pH. Since the reaction generates an acid product, glucose oxidation becomes slower as the reaction proceeds. The effects of temperature, AuNP size, and reaction kinetics have been systematically studied. This work provides new insights regarding the surface chemistry of AuNPs as a nanozyme.

  19. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Affect Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiyu; Chen, Siyu; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Hou, Chunjiang; Gao, Xiao; Wang, Li; Wang, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic increase in the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications greatly increased the likelihood of the release of NPs into the environment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most commonly used NPs, and it has been shown that ZnO NPs were harmful to several different plants. We report here the effects of ZnO NPs exposure on biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We found that 200 and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treatments reduced Arabidopsis growth by ∼20...

  20. Effect of anodic aluminum oxide template imprinting on TiO2 blocking layer of flexible dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Lee, Sang-Ju; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Hwang, Dae-Kue

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) structure that employs an Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template imprinted TiO2 blocking layer, in which the AAO template creates TiO2 nano-particle aggregated islands on the TiO2 blocking layer. The TiO2 blocking layer prevents charge recombination between the metal foil and the liquid electrolyte. TiO2 nano-particle aggregated islands improve the scattering of incident light during back illumination and provide the wider surface area, yielding enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE). All the flexible DSSC structure with TiO2 nano-particle aggregated islands on the TiO2 blocking layer exhibited higher photocurrent than did conventional DSSC because light that passed through the photoanode was scattered, thereby giving it improved PCE that was as much as 23% higher than that of a conventional DSSC. This proposed method is an effective manufacturing process for flexible DSSC.

  1. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamcakova-Dodd Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines, blood (total and differential cell counts, lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics. Results Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p p  Conclusions Sub-chronic inhalation exposures to aluminum-oxide based nanowhiskers induced increased lung macrophages, but no inflammatory or toxic responses were observed.

  2. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2 coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara;

    2015-01-01

    measurements showed a maximum UV-light absorption by titanium dioxide occurring slightly prior to the energy of the maximum photocurrent. The photocurrent of titanium dioxide decreases with increasing thickness of the aluminum oxide interface layer. Aluminum oxide acts as an insulator; disfavoring the electron...

  3. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    measurements showed a maximum UV-light absorption by titanium dioxide occurring slightly prior to the energy of the maximum photocurrent. The photocurrent of titanium dioxide decreases with increasing thickness of the aluminum oxide interface layer. Aluminum oxide acts as an insulator; disfavoring the electron...

  4. Development and characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles for the delivery of anticancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harshita; Kumar, Krishan; Choudhary, Chetan; Mishra, Pawan K; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare chemotherapeutic agent-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of drug, for better therapeutic activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have inherent anticancer properties, hence it was envisaged that by loading the anticancer drug into zinc oxide nanoparticles, enhanced anticancer activity might be observed. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Starch was used as the stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles prepared were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. Further, cell line studies were performed to evaluate cellular uptake and cytotoxicity profile using MCF-7 cells. A hemolysis study was performed to check the acute toxicity of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were found to be 476.4 ± 2.51 nm in size, with low PDI (0.312 ± 0.02) and high entrapment efficiency (> 85%). The nanoparticles were stable, and did not form aggregates on storage in the dispersed form. A cytotoxicity study demonstrated that drug-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited higher anticancer activity as compared to either blank zinc oxide nanoparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) alone, or their mixture. A hemolytic test revealed that the prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles caused negligible hemolysis. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with DOX resulted in better uptake of the chemotherapeutic agent, and at the same time, showed low toxicity towards normal cells.

  5. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Facile and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using oxidized pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Deopura, B.L. [Bioengineering Lab, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Alam, M.S. [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Gupta, Bhuvanesh, E-mail: bgupta@textile.iitd.ernet.in [Bioengineering Lab, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-05-01

    In the current work, an alternative route for facile synthesis of nanosilver is reported. Oxidized pectin has been used as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent, resulting in the formation of oxidized pectin-nanosilver (OP-NS) core sheath nanohydrogels. The effect of reaction parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles is investigated. The structural and morphological features have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. The crystal size of the synthesized nanosilver was calculated to be 28.76 nm. While the average size of the core sheath structure varied from 289 nm to 540 nm, the size of the silver nanoparticle entities at the core varied from 100 nm to 180 nm, with variation in reaction time. From the morphological examination, it could be seen that flower like nanostructures are formed with nanosilver in the core surrounded by a polymeric halo. - Highlights: • In-situ reduction of silver nitrate to nanosilver was carried out using oxidized pectin. • Oxidized pectin-nanosilver nanohydrogels were synthesized. • Nanoparticles with flower like morphology and face centered cubic crystal structure were fabricated.

  7. Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

  8. Role of aluminum doping on phase transformations in nanoporous titania anodic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayata, Fatma [Istanbul Bilgi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34060, Eyup, Istanbul (Turkey); Ürgen, Mustafa, E-mail: urgen@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    The role of aluminium doping on anatase to rutile phase transformation of nanoporous titanium oxide films were investigated. For this purpose pure and aluminum doped metal films were deposited on alumina substrates by cathodic arc physical deposition. The nanoporous anodic oxides were prepared by porous anodizing of pure and aluminum doped titanium metallic films in an ethylene glycol + NH{sub 4}F based electrolyte. Nanoporous amorphous structures with 60–80 nm diameter and 2–4 μm length were formed on the surfaces of alumina substrates. The amorphous undoped and Al-doped TiO{sub 2} anodic oxides were heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 280–720 °C for the investigation of their crystallization behavior. The combined effects of nanoporous structure and Al doping on crystallization behavior of titania were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman analysis. The results indicated that both Al ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} structure and the nanoporous structure retarded the rutile formation. It was also revealed that presence or absence of metallic film underneath the nanopores has a major contribution to anatase-rutile transformation. - Highlights: • Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopores were grown on alumina substrates using anodization method. • The crystallization behavior of nanoporous Al-doped TiO{sub 2} were investigated. • Al doping into nanoporous TiO{sub 2} retarded the anatase-rutile transformation. • Nanostructuring has significant role in controlling rutile formation temperature. • The absence of the metallic film under the nanopores delayed the rutile formation.

  9. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  10. Harmonic nanoparticles: noncentrosymmetric metal oxides for nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, Andrii; Mugnier, Yannick; Bonacina, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The combination of nonlinear optics and nanotechnology is an extremely rich scientific domain yet widely unexplored. We present here a review of recent optical investigations on noncentrosymmetric oxide nanoparticles with a large {{χ }(2)} response, often referred to as harmonic nanoparticles (HNPs). HNPs feature a series of properties which distinguish them from other photonics nanoprobes (quantum dots, up-conversion nanoparticles, noble metal particles). HNPs emission is inherently nonlinear and based on the efficient generation of harmonics as opposed to fluorescence or surface plasmon scattering. In addition, the fully coherent signal emitted by HNPs together with their polarization sensitive response and absence of resonant interaction make them appealing for several applications ranging from multi-photon (infrared) microscopy and holography, to cell tracking and sensing.

  11. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  12. Mesoscopic phenomena in oxide nanoparticles systems: processes of growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinova, Tetyana, E-mail: matscidep@aim.com; Danilenko, Igor; Glazunova, Valentina; Volkova, Galina; Gorban, Oksana [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering of the NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2011-09-15

    The process of nanoparticles growth has been investigated and discussed in terms of mesoscopic approach on example of ZrO{sub 2}-3 mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. Growth process of nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation has three stages: cooperative-oriented crystallization of ordered areas in xerogel polymer matrix and disintegration of crystallized areas (350-400 Degree-Sign C); oriented attachment of particles into single crystal caused by electrostatic interaction (400-600 Degree-Sign C); attachment of particles to single and poly-crystals by oxygen diffusion through vacancies in surface layers of joining crystals (600-1,000 Degree-Sign C). Proposed conception on mesoscopic processes of nanoparticles formation make the understanding and theoretical description of significant amount of experimental data possible and open the way for purposeful governing by oxide powder system on the stages of obtaining, compaction, and sintering.

  13. Functionalization of textiles with silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Chwastowski, Jarosław; Kucharski, Arkadiusz; Banach, Marcin

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a method for functionalization of textile materials using fabric dyes modified with silver or zinc oxide nanoparticles. Embedding of these nanoparticles into the structure of other materials makes that the final product is characterized by antimicrobial properties. Indigo and commercially available dye were involved in studies. It is worth to note that silver nanoparticles were obtained in-situ in the reaction of preparing indigo dye and in the process of preparing commercial dye baths. Such a method allows reducing technological steps. The modified dyes were used for dyeing of cotton fibers. The antimicrobial properties of final textile materials were studied. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used in microbiological test. The results confirmed biocidal activity of prepared materials.

  14. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H A

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin over time was determined using a diffusion cell. Skin distribution of the nanoparticles and albumin over time was determined by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles acted as enhancers for skin permeation of albumin. Cumulative permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles after 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h, were 0±0, 11.7±3.3, 21.1±3.5, 40.2±3.6 and 40.2±3.6 mg, respectively and in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles were 0±0, 20.9±7.4, 33.8±5.5, 33.8±3.7 and 33.8±3.7 mg, respectively. After 0.5 h, little amount of albumin was permeated in presence of every kind of the nanoparticles. After 0.5 or 1 h, the permeated albumin in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was more than that in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles and after 1.5 h the permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was more than that in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Images of skin distribution of the two nanoparticles over time, were somewhat different and distribution of albumin correlated with the distribution of the nanoparticles alone. The profiles of albumin permeation (in presence of each of the nanoparticles) versus time was delayed and linear for both nanoparticles while the slope for calcium phosphate nanoparticles was higher than zinc oxide nanoparticles. The enhancer effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles was stronger while the enhancer effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was

  15. Numerical modeling of the dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles during ultrasonic processing of aluminum-based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojie Zhang

    2014-10-01

    The modeling parametric study includes the effects of the fluid flow, the ultrasonic probe location, nanoparticle size distribution, and initial location where the nanoparticles are released into the molten alloy. It was determined that the nanoparticles can be distributed quickly and uniformly into the molten 6061 alloy.

  16. The role of stress in self-ordered porous anodic oxide formation and corrosion of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraz, Omer Ozgur

    The phenomenon of plastic flow induced by electrochemical reactions near room temperature is significant in porous anodic oxide (PAO) films, charging of lithium batteries and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). As this phenomenon is poorly understood, fundamental insight into flow from our work may provide useful information for these problems. In-situ monitoring of the stress state allows direct correlation between stress and the current or potential, thus providing fundamental insight into technologically important deformation and failure mechanisms induced by electrochemical reactions. A phase-shifting curvature interferometry was designed to investigate the stress generation mechanisms on different systems. Resolution of our curvature interferometry was found to be ten times more powerful than that obtained by state-of-art multiple deflectometry technique and the curvature interferometry helps to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature. During this work, formation of surface patterns during both aqueous corrosion of aluminum and formation of PAO films were investigated. Interestingly, for both cases, stress induced plastic flow controls the formation of surface patterns. Pore formation mechanisms during anodizing of the porous aluminum oxide films was investigated . PAO films are formed by the electrochemical oxidation of metals such as aluminum and titanium in a solution where oxide is moderately soluble. They have been used extensively to design numerous devices for optical, catalytic, and biological and energy related applications, due to their vertically aligned-geometry, high-specific surface area and tunable geometry by adjusting process variables. These structures have developed empirically, in the absence of understanding the process mechanism. Previous experimental studies of anodizing-induced stress have extensively focused on the measurement of average stress, however the measurement of stress evolution during anodizing does not provide

  17. Oxidation of bioethanol using zeolite-encapsulated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielby, Jerrik; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng; Kasama, Takeshi; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Kegnaes, Søren

    2014-11-10

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high activity and selectivity for the catalytic gas-phase oxidation of ethanol are demonstrated. The zeolites are modified by a recrystallization process, which creates intraparticle voids and mesopores that facilitate the formation of small and disperse nanoparticles upon simple impregnation. The individual zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98 % selectivity toward acetaldehyde at 200 °C, which (under the given reaction conditions) corresponds to 606 mol acetaldehyde/mol Au hour(-1) .

  18. Photo- and electroluminescence properties of lanthanide tungstate-doped porous anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staninski, Krzysztof; Piskuła, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    A new cathode material for the potential use in light-emitting devices, based on porous anodic alumina (PAA), aluminum and ITO layers has been synthesized. Porous alumina samples with ordered pore arrays were prepared electrochemically from high purity Al sheet in H2SO4 and H3PO4. To be able to apply the matrix obtained in the electroluminescence cell, the thickness of the barrier layer of aluminum oxide was decreased by slow reduction of the anodization voltage to zero. The luminescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties of the Al2O3 matrix admixtured with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions as well as europium and terbium tungstates, were determined. The particles of inorganic luminophore were synthesized on the walls of the matrix cylindrical nanopores in the two-step process of immersion in solutions of TbCl3 or EuCl3 and Na2WO4. The effect of the nanopores diameter and the thickness of the porous Al2O3 layer on the intensity and relative yield of electroluminescence was analyzed, the best results were obtained for 80-90 μm PAA layers with 140 nm nanopores.

  19. Aluminum work function: Effect of oxidation, mechanical scraping and ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, P.; Lemogne, T.; Montes, H.

    1985-01-01

    Surface studies have been performed on aluminum polycrystalline surfaces which have been mechanically scraped. Such studies were initiated in order to understand surface effects occurring in tribological processes which involve rubbing surfaces and the effects of adsorption of oxygen. To characterize the surfaces, the following three different experimental approaches have been used: (1) X.P.S. (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), in order to check the cleanliness of the surfaces and follow the adsorption and oxidation kinetics; (2) Analysis of the work function changes by following the energy spectra of secondary electrons emitted under low energy electron bombardment; and (3) Analysis of photoemission intensities under U.V. excitation. The reference state being chosen to be the surface cleaned by ion bombardment and exposures to oxygen atmospheres have been shown to lower the work function of clean polycrystalline aluminum by 1.2 eV. The oxygen pressure is found to affect only the kinetics of these experiments. Mechanical scraping has been shown to induce a decrease ( 0.3 eV) in the work function, which could sharply modify the kinetics of adsorption on the surface.

  20. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  1. High-Quality, Ultraconformal Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoplasmonic and Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Conor T; Smalley, Joseph S T; Post, Kirk W; Basov, Dimitri N; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Wang, Deli; Liu, Zhaowei; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2016-02-17

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a tunable low-loss plasmonic material capable of supporting dopant concentrations high enough to operate at telecommunication wavelengths. Due to its ultrahigh conformality and compatibility with semiconductor processing, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for many plasmonic applications. However, despite many attempts, high-quality AZO with a plasma frequency below 1550 nm has not yet been realized by ALD. Here a simple procedure is devised to tune the optical constants of AZO and enable plasmonic activity at 1550 nm with low loss. The highly conformal nature of ALD is also exploited to coat silicon nanopillars to create localized surface plasmon resonances that are tunable by adjusting the aluminum concentration, thermal conditions, and the use of a ZnO buffer layer. The high-quality AZO is then used to make a layered AZO/ZnO structure that displays negative refraction in the telecommunication wavelength region due to hyperbolic dispersion. Finally, a novel synthetic scheme is demonstrated to create AZO embedded nanowires in ZnO, which also exhibits hyperbolic dispersion.

  2. Alkaline earth oxide nanoparticles as destructive absorbents for environmental toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscovici, J.; Latreche, K. [Univ. Paris XII, Groupe de Physique des Milieux Denses, Creteil (France); Michalowicz, A. [Univ. Paris Sud, LURE, Orsay (France); Decker, S.; Lagadic, I.; Klabunde, K. [Kansas State Univ., Chemistry Dept., Manhattan, Kansas (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Sr and Ca oxide nanoparticles are very reactive materials used to mitigate atmospheric pollution and to sequester polluting molecules. We have studied the structure of SrO nanoparticles, using Sr K-edge and Fe K-edge XAFS, that were prepared with various reactivities, with or without a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating, and before and after reaction with CCl{sub 4} or SO2. For CCl4, the polluting fraction of the reagent is totally absorbed in the bulk particle. For SO{sub 2}, the results show a total reaction for the Aerogel Preparation (AP) compound. For the coated particles before reaction, the iron oxide has a very disordered structure, and it is mixed with small metallic iron clusters for Conventional Preparation (CP) compounds. (au) 4 refs.

  3. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  4. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles elaborated by microemulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Ozlem Altintas [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Durucan, Caner, E-mail: cdurucan@metu.edu.t [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-09-17

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures obtained in reverse microemulsion. {yields} Morphological variations for microemulsion products with surfactant amount. {yields} Formation mechanism for ZnO nanosructres in a reverse emulsion system. {yields} Optical properties of the ZnO nanoparticles. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a reverse microemulsion system formed from sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT, or AOT):glycerol:n-heptane. The zinc precursor was zinc acetate dihydrate. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles was achieved by calcination of premature zinc glycerolate microemulsion product in air at 300, 400 and 500 {sup o}C. The crystal structure and the morphology of the ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal analysis was employed to reveal structural and chemical changes during calcination. Both surfactant concentrations - AOT - in the initial microemulsion formulation and the calcination temperature influenced the morphology and size of the ZnO nanoparticles. Low surfactant concentrations (5:5:90, AOT:glycerol:n-heptane, wt.%) resulted in formation of spherical ZnO nanoparticles. The average particle size increased from 15 {+-} 1 to 24 {+-} 1 nm with calcination temperature, but spherical morphology remained unchanged after all calcination treatments. The microemulsion system containing higher surfactant amount (30:5:65, AOT:glycerol:n-heptane, wt.%) resulted in rod-like ZnO nanostructures after calcination at 300 and 400 {sup o}C, with a diameter of 22 {+-} 3 and 28 {+-} 1 nm; and with a length of 66 {+-} 3 and 72 {+-} 1 nm, respectively. Further increase in the calcination temperature to 500 {sup o}C initiated rod-to-sphere shape transformation for the ZnO nanoparticles produced using this particular microemulsion formulation. For all ZnO microemulsion products, the

  5. Highly Ordered Zinc Oxide Nanotubules Synthesized within the Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhen

    2001-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor, which has a broad range of applications, e.g., in pigment, rubber additives, gas sensors, varistors and transducers1. It has recently been demonstrated that nanophase zinc oxide can be used in photocells of the Gatzel type2, which results in improved current generation efficiency. The properties of high aspect ratios and small sizes of zinc oxide nanotubules or nanowires are expected to improve the luminescence efficiency of the electro-optical devices and the sensitivity of the chemical sensors3.  ……

  6. Highly Ordered Zinc Oxide Nanotubules Synthesized within the Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; LI HuLin

    2001-01-01

    @@ Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor, which has a broad range of applications, e.g., in pigment, rubber additives, gas sensors, varistors and transducers1. It has recently been demonstrated that nanophase zinc oxide can be used in photocells of the Gatzel type2, which results in improved current generation efficiency. The properties of high aspect ratios and small sizes of zinc oxide nanotubules or nanowires are expected to improve the luminescence efficiency of the electro-optical devices and the sensitivity of the chemical sensors3.

  7. Size- and shape-dependent plasmonic properties of aluminum nanoparticles for nanosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Jyoti; Soni, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of aluminum nanospheres, nanorods, and nanodisks was studied using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. From the simulation results, optimal dimensions of nanospheres, nanodisks, and nanorods for refractive index sensitivity (RIS), line shape broadening (FWHM), and figure-of-merit (FOM) are calculated for aluminum-based plasmonic nanosensors. Our calculated results show that aluminum is an efficient plasmonic material for refractive index sensing from deep-UV to near infrared wavelengths. The RIS of aluminum nanospheres of optimal size is greater than gold and silver nanospheres. Further, RIS or FOM can be optimized in different spectral region by varying shape and dimensions. The optimization reveals higher FOM for nanospheres in the deep-UV region and for nanorods and nanodisks in the broad visible-NIR region.

  8. Solution phase synthesis of aluminum-doped silicon nanoparticles via room-temperature, solvent based chemical reduction of silicon tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Andrew James

    We present a method of wet chemical synthesis of aluminum-doped silicon nanoparticles (Al-doped Si NPs), encompassing the solution-phase co-reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) by sodium naphthalide (Na[NAP]) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME). The development of this method was inspired by the work of Baldwin et al. at the University of California, Davis, and was adapted for our research through some noteworthy procedural modifications. Centrifugation and solvent-based extraction techniques were used throughout various stages of the synthesis procedure to achieve efficient and well-controlled separation of the Si NP product from the reaction media. In addition, the development of a non-aqueous, formamide-based wash solution facilitated simultaneous removal of the NaCl byproduct and Si NP surface passivation via attachment of 1-octanol to the particle surface. As synthesized, the Si NPs were typically 3-15 nm in diameter, and were mainly amorphous, as opposed to crystalline, as concluded from SAED and XRD diffraction pattern analysis. Aluminum doping at various concentrations was accomplished via the inclusion of aluminum chloride (AlCl3); which was in small quantities dissolved into the synthesis solution to be reduced alongside the SiCl4 precursor. The introduction of Al into the chemically-reduced Si NP precipitate was not found to adversely affect the formation of the Si NPs, but was found to influence aspects such as particle stability and dispersibility throughout various stages of the procedure. Analytical techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, and ICP-optical emission spectroscopy were used to comprehensively characterize the product NPs. These methods confirm both the presence of Al and surface-bound 1-octanol in the newly formed Si NPs.

  9. Acicular iron nanoparticles protected against sintering with aluminium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, M. P.; Serna, C. J.; Pozas, R.; Ocaña Jurado, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    [EN] Acicular iron nanoparticles have been obtained by thermal reduction with hydrogen of a goethite precursor protected against sintering with Al cations, either by doping during the synthesis or by a further coating and the relation between microstructure and magnetic properties of the final Fe particles has been studied in order to evaluate the efficiency of both protecting methods. Uniform goethite and Al-doped goethite precursors were prepared by oxidation with air of FeSO4 solu...

  10. Influence of the atmospheric species water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the degradation of aluminum doped zinc oxide layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Dasgupta, S.; Vroon, Z.; Kniknie, B.; Barreau, N.; Berkum, J. van; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) layers were exposed to the atmospheric gases carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N 2) and air as well as liquid H2O purged with these gases, in order to investigate the chemical degradation behavior of these layers. The samples were analyzed by electrical,

  11. Nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, A. B.; Kitice, N. A.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Lancheros, C. A. C.; Yamauchi, L. M.; Pinge-Filho, P.; Yamada-Ogatta, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and the disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Several papers report that the killing of the parasite is dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO). The endogenous free radical NO is an important cellular signalling molecule that plays a key role in the defense against pathogens, including T. cruzi. As T. cruzi is able to compromise host macrophages decreasing endogenous NO production, the administration of exogenous NO donors represents an interesting strategy to combat Chagas disease. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against T. cruzi. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles composed of chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of free thiols (SH) groups of MSA were performed by the addition of equimolar amount of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles. These polymeric nanoparticles act as spontaneous NO donors, with free NO release. The results show the formation of nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 270 to 500 nm, average of polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency in the range of 99%. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The microbicidal activity of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles was evaluated by incubating NO-releasing nanoparticles (200 - 600 μg/mL) with replicative and non-infective epimastigote, and non-replicative and infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In addition, a significant decrease in the percentage of macrophage-infected (with amastigotes) and

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of the molecular responses of mouse macrophages to titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles unravels some toxic mechanisms for copper oxide nanoparticles in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Chevallet, Mireille; Diemer, Hélène; Gerdil, Adèle; Proamer, Fabienne; Strub, Jean-Marc; Habert, Aurélie; Herlin, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Carrière, Marie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles are more and more widely used because of their catalytic properties, of their light absorbing properties (titanium dioxide) or of their biocidal properties (copper oxide), increasing the risk of adverse health effects. In this frame, the responses of mouse macrophages were studied. Both proteomic and targeted analyses were performed to investigate several parameters, such as phagocytic capacity, cytokine release, copper release, and response at sub toxic doses. Besides titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles, copper ions were used as controls. We also showed that the overall copper release in the cell does not explain per se the toxicity observed with copper oxide nanoparticles. In addition, both copper ion and copper oxide nanoparticles, but not titanium oxide, induced DNA strands breaks in macrophages. As to functional responses, the phagocytic capacity was not hampered by any of the treatments at non-toxic doses, while copper ion decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and nitric oxide productions. The proteomic analyses highlighted very few changes induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles, but an induction of heme oxygenase, an increase of glutathione synthesis and a decrease of tetrahydrobiopterin in response to copper oxide nanoparticles. Subsequent targeted analyses demonstrated that the increase in glutathione biosynthesis and the induction of heme oxygenase (e.g. by lovastatin/monacolin K) are critical for macrophages to survive a copper challenge, and that the intermediates of the catecholamine pathway induce a strong cross toxicity with copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of the molecular responses of mouse macrophages to titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles unravels some toxic mechanisms for copper oxide nanoparticles in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Triboulet

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles are more and more widely used because of their catalytic properties, of their light absorbing properties (titanium dioxide or of their biocidal properties (copper oxide, increasing the risk of adverse health effects. In this frame, the responses of mouse macrophages were studied. Both proteomic and targeted analyses were performed to investigate several parameters, such as phagocytic capacity, cytokine release, copper release, and response at sub toxic doses. Besides titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles, copper ions were used as controls. We also showed that the overall copper release in the cell does not explain per se the toxicity observed with copper oxide nanoparticles. In addition, both copper ion and copper oxide nanoparticles, but not titanium oxide, induced DNA strands breaks in macrophages. As to functional responses, the phagocytic capacity was not hampered by any of the treatments at non-toxic doses, while copper ion decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and nitric oxide productions. The proteomic analyses highlighted very few changes induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles, but an induction of heme oxygenase, an increase of glutathione synthesis and a decrease of tetrahydrobiopterin in response to copper oxide nanoparticles. Subsequent targeted analyses demonstrated that the increase in glutathione biosynthesis and the induction of heme oxygenase (e.g. by lovastatin/monacolin K are critical for macrophages to survive a copper challenge, and that the intermediates of the catecholamine pathway induce a strong cross toxicity with copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions.

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Molecular Responses of Mouse Macrophages to Titanium Dioxide and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Unravels Some Toxic Mechanisms for Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Chevallet, Mireille; Diemer, Hélène; Gerdil, Adèle; Proamer, Fabienne; Strub, Jean-Marc; Habert, Aurélie; Herlin, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Carrière, Marie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles are more and more widely used because of their catalytic properties, of their light absorbing properties (titanium dioxide) or of their biocidal properties (copper oxide), increasing the risk of adverse health effects. In this frame, the responses of mouse macrophages were studied. Both proteomic and targeted analyses were performed to investigate several parameters, such as phagocytic capacity, cytokine release, copper release, and response at sub toxic doses. Besides titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles, copper ions were used as controls. We also showed that the overall copper release in the cell does not explain per se the toxicity observed with copper oxide nanoparticles. In addition, both copper ion and copper oxide nanoparticles, but not titanium oxide, induced DNA strands breaks in macrophages. As to functional responses, the phagocytic capacity was not hampered by any of the treatments at non-toxic doses, while copper ion decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and nitric oxide productions. The proteomic analyses highlighted very few changes induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles, but an induction of heme oxygenase, an increase of glutathione synthesis and a decrease of tetrahydrobiopterin in response to copper oxide nanoparticles. Subsequent targeted analyses demonstrated that the increase in glutathione biosynthesis and the induction of heme oxygenase (e.g. by lovastatin/monacolin K) are critical for macrophages to survive a copper challenge, and that the intermediates of the catecholamine pathway induce a strong cross toxicity with copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions. PMID:25902355

  15. Structural, morphological and optical properties of chromium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babukutty, Blessy; Parakkal, Fasalurahman; Nair, Swapna S., E-mail: swapna.s.nair@gmail.com [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod 671314 (India); Bhalero, G. M. [UGC-DAE, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, TamilNadu (India); Aravind, P. B. [Cochin University of Science and Technology(CUSAT), Cochin (India)

    2015-06-24

    Chromium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by reduction route from chloride precursors with surfactant, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Structural and morphological characterization are analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Transmission Electron micrographs show that the average grain size lies in the range 5nm to 10nm. Optical characterization has been done by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Distinct optical absorptions of Cr{sup 3+} ions show hinting towards the presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Presence of oxygen is also confirmed from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) studies.

  16. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Din, Muhammad; Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summa...

  17. Electrochemical Sensor for Oxidation of NO Based on Au-Pt Nanoparticles Self-assembly Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE,Jia; YU,Zhihui; XIA,Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles film used as an efficient electrochemical sensor was prepared by self-assembled Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate using thioglycolic acid as a linker. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the Au-Pt nanoparticles self-assembly film was dense and uniform. Electrochemical experiments revealed that Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles film/GC electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of nitric oxide.

  18. Incorporation of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in PEMFC electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolz, Andre [Renewable Energies Group, Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); CRP Henri Tudor, Department of Advanced Materials and Structures, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Zils, Susanne; Ruch, David; Michel, Marc [CRP Henri Tudor, Department of Advanced Materials and Structures, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Kotov, Nicholas [University of Michigan, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Roth, Christina [Renewable Energies Group, Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Applied Materials (IAM)-Energy Storage Systems (ESS), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Carbon materials suffer from corrosion at the cathode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In the presence of water, carbon support materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide even at low potentials. Hence, nowadays it is very fashionable to look for alternative support materials, like oxides or conductive polymers. To gain the maximum performance for a new material one should also consider an appropriate electrode structure. This study shows the results for the incorporation of nanosized alternative support materials into advanced electrode architectures. Commercially available indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (<50 nm) are used as support for Pt nanoparticles in combination with Nafion-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the cathode side of a PEMFC. The MWCNTs promote a high electronic conductivity and help to form a porous network, which could accommodate the Pt/ITO nanoparticles. The microscopic investigations show a homogeneous electrode structure composed of Pt/ITO and MWCNT/Nafion multilayer. Single cell measurements show a maximum power density of 73 mW cm{sup -2} and a Pt utilization of 1468 mW mg{sub Pt}{sup -1} for the cathode. The performance data and the Pt utilization are comparable to a standard Pt/carbon black electrode possessing the same Pt loading in the electrode. Beside this, it is shown for the first time that ITO serves as support material under real fuel cell conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  20. Nanocarbon synthesis by high-temperature oxidation of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Li, Ying; Nakano, Aiichiro; Rajak, Pankaj; Sheng, Chunyang; Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya

    2016-04-01

    High-temperature oxidation of silicon-carbide nanoparticles (nSiC) underlies a wide range of technologies from high-power electronic switches for efficient electrical grid and thermal protection of space vehicles to self-healing ceramic nanocomposites. Here, multimillion-atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by ab initio quantum molecular dynamics simulations predict unexpected condensation of large graphene flakes during high-temperature oxidation of nSiC. Initial oxidation produces a molten silica shell that acts as an autocatalytic ‘nanoreactor’ by actively transporting oxygen reactants while protecting the nanocarbon product from harsh oxidizing environment. Percolation transition produces porous nanocarbon with fractal geometry, which consists of mostly sp2 carbons with pentagonal and heptagonal defects. This work suggests a simple synthetic pathway to high surface-area, low-density nanocarbon with numerous energy, biomedical and mechanical-metamaterial applications, including the reinforcement of self-healing composites.

  1. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Surface Functionalization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Quanguo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs are a kind of novel functional materials, which have been widely used in the biotechnology and catalysis. This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in preparation, structure, and magnetic properties of naked and surface functionalized iron oxide NPs and their corresponding application briefly. In order to implement the practical application, the particles must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of iron oxide NPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The problems and major challenges, along with the directions for the synthesis and surface functionalization of iron oxide NPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and prospective in these research areas are also discussed.

  2. Characterization and bacterial toxicity of lanthanum oxide bulk and nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brabu Balusamy; Yamuna Gowri Kandhasamy; Anitha Senthamizhan; Gopalakrishnan Chandrasekaran; Murugan Siva Subramanian; Kumaravel Tirukalikundram S

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the bacterial toxicity of lanthanum oxide micron and nano sized particles using shake flask method against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria.Particle size,morphology and chemical composition were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Resuits indicated that lanthanum oxide nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.It was speculated that lanthanum oxide produced this effect by interacting with the gram-positive bacterial cell wall.Furthermore,lanthanum oxide bulk particles were found to enhance the pyocyanin pigment production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  4. Synthesis and properties of iridescent Zn-containing anodic aluminum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiaoxuan; Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com; Liu, Lihu; Hou, Xue; Liu, Huiyuan

    2015-07-01

    A simple method of fabricating Zn-containing anodic aluminum oxide films for multifunctional anticounterfeit technology is reported. The resulting membranes were characterized with UV–vis illumination studies, natural light illumination color experiments, and electron microscopy analysis. Deposition of Zn in the nanopore region can enhance the color saturation of the thin alumina film with different colors dramatically. Both the anodization time and etching time have great influence on the structural color. The mechanisms for the emergence of this phenomenon are discussed and theoretical analysis further demonstrates the experimental results. - Highlights: • Iridescent PAA@Zn nanocomposite films were successfully fabricated. • A simple organics-assisted method is applied to making a series of fancy and multicolor patterns. • The color varies with the angle of incidence of the light used to view the film as is expected with Bragg–Snell formula. • Such colored films could be used in multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  5. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Used as Membrane Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifu; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Meiting; Ma, Qinglang; Chen, Junze; Chen, Bo; Sindoro, Melinda; Yang, Jian; Han, Shikui; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-09

    The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into membrane-shaped architectures is of great importance for practical applications. The currently synthesized MOF-based membranes show many disadvantages, such as poor compatibility, low dispersity, and instability, which severely limit their utility. Herein, we present a general, facile, and robust approach for the synthesis of MOF-based composite membranes through the in situ growth of MOF plates in the channels of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. After being used as catalysis reactors, they exhibit high catalytic performance and stability in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The high catalytic performance might be attributed to the intrinsic structure of MOF-based composite membranes, which can remove the products from the reaction zone quickly, and prevent the aggregation and loss of catalysts during reaction and recycling process.

  6. Effect of magnesium in aluminum alloys on characteristics of microarc oxidation coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yao-hui; LI Song; YU Si-rong; ZHU Xian-yong; XU Bai-ming

    2006-01-01

    Microarc oxidation(MAO) coatings were prepared on the surface of aluminum alloys with different contents of magnesium. The morphologies and surface roughness of the coatings were characterized by Confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM). Phase and chemical composition of the MAO coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The experimental results show that the coatings formed on different substrates have two-layer morphologies and are mainly composed of Al2O3 and Al-Si-O phases. In addition, the content of Al2O3 increases with increasing the content of magnesium. XPS results prove that magnesium from substrate indeed participates in the MAO process and is incorporated into the coating in the form of MgO. The coating formed on Al-3Mg substrate has the smallest mass loss and the lowest friction coefficient of 0.17-0.19.

  7. Europium-doped aluminum oxide phosphors as indicators for frontal polymerization dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Arturo; Gewin, Mariah; Pojman, John A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we present an inexpensive and practical method that allows the monitoring and visualization of front polymerization, propagation, and dynamics. Commercially available europium-doped aluminum oxide powders were combined with video imaging to visualize free-radical propagating polymer fronts. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this method, frontal copolymerization reactions of propoxylated glycerin triacrylate (EB53), pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), and pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETEA) with 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (Luperox 231®) as an initiator were studied and compared to the results obtained by IR imaging. Systems exhibiting higher filler loading, higher EB53 content, and less acrylated monomers showed a marked decrease in front velocity, while those with more acrylated monomers and higher crosslinking density showed a marked increase in front velocity. Finally, in order to show the potential of the imaging technique, we studied fronts propagating in planar and spherical geometries.

  8. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Nagabhushana; B N Lakshminarasappa; Fouran Singh

    2009-10-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum oxide is synthesized by combustion technique and XRD studies of the sample revealed the -phase. The synthesized sample is irradiated with 120 MeV swift Au9+ ions for the fluence in the range from 1 × 1011 to 1 × 1013 ions cm-2. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission with peak at ∼447 nm and two sharp emissions with peak at ∼ 679 and ∼ 695 nm are observed in pristine when sample was excited with 326 nm. However, in the irradiated samples the PL intensity at ∼ 447, 679 and 695 nm decreases with increase in ion fluence. The -Al2O3 gives rise to seven Raman modes with Raman intensity with peaks at ∼ 253, 396, 417, 546, 630, 842, 867 cm-1 observed in pristine. The intensity of these modes decreases with increase in ion fluence. However, the Raman modes observed at lower fluences are found to disappear at higher fluence.

  9. Characterization of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane with Variation of Crystallizing Temperature for pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap; Jo, Ye-Won; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated electrolyte-dielectric-metal (EDM) device incorporating a high-k Al2O3 sensing membrane from a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using a two step anodizing process for pH sensors. In order to change the properties of the AAO template, the crystallizing temperature was varied from 400 degrees C to 700 degrees C over 2 hours. The structural properties were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The pH sensitivity increased with an increase in the crystallizing temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. However at 700 degrees C, deformation occurred. The porous AAO sensor with a crystallizing temperature of 600 degrees C displayed the good sensitivity and long-term stability and the values were 55.7 mV/pH and 0.16 mV/h, respectively.

  10. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  11. Enhanced Elastic Modulus of Regenerated Silk Fibroin by Geometric Confinement in Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiankang; Li, Liang

    2017-02-01

    Geometric confinement is a promising method for the reconstruction of silk fibroin to form diversified structures with excellent mechanical properties. To accomplish geometric confinement, a water vapor assistant embossing process is used with porous anodic aluminum oxide templates, yielding silk fibroin nanopillars with diameters ranging from 40 nm to 130 nm. The elastic modulus of the regenerated silk fibroin nanopillars is investigated with atomic force microscopy nanoindentation analysis. Compared to films with the same treatment conditions, geometric confinement provided a twofold increase in elastic modulus in embossed silk fibroin nanopillars, indicating that β-sheet crystal ordering occurred during the water vapor assistant embossing process. These results demonstrate the feasibility and mechanical property enhancement of the embossing method to fabricate silk nanostructures, and will be useful in designing miniaturized devices.

  12. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous films of anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.; Filatov, V. V.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous anodic aluminum oxide films have been studied by measuring transmittance and specular reflectance spectra in the visible and UV spectral regions. Angular dependences of the spectral positions of optical stop bands are obtained. It is shown that the reflectance within the first stop band varies from point to point on the sample surface, reaching a level of 98-99% at some points. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves in the model of infinite periodic structure is calculated for the samples under study. The possibility of using models with an infinite or finite number of layers to calculate reflectance spectra near the first optical stop band is discussed.

  13. Europium-doped aluminum oxide phosphors as indicators for frontal polymerization dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Arturo; Gewin, Mariah; Pojman, John A., E-mail: japojman@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-1804 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we present an inexpensive and practical method that allows the monitoring and visualization of front polymerization, propagation, and dynamics. Commercially available europium-doped aluminum oxide powders were combined with video imaging to visualize free-radical propagating polymer fronts. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this method, frontal copolymerization reactions of propoxylated glycerin triacrylate (EB53), pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), and pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETEA) with 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (Luperox 231®) as an initiator were studied and compared to the results obtained by IR imaging. Systems exhibiting higher filler loading, higher EB53 content, and less acrylated monomers showed a marked decrease in front velocity, while those with more acrylated monomers and higher crosslinking density showed a marked increase in front velocity. Finally, in order to show the potential of the imaging technique, we studied fronts propagating in planar and spherical geometries.

  14. Microstructures and Composition of Ceramic Coatings on Aluminum Produced by Micro-Arc Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-jiu; WANG Yu-lin; GU Wei-chao; XING Guang-zhong

    2004-01-01

    Microstructures and phase composition of the ceramic coatings formed on pure aluminum by heteropolar pulsed current ceramic synthesizing system for different periods were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Results show that the amount of the discharge channels in the ceramic coating sminish while the aperture largen in the micro-arc oxidation process, and the surface of the ceramic coatingmelted and solidified in the process.XRD studies of ceramic coatings deposited for different time show that these coatings consist mainly of α-Al2 O3, γ-Al2 O3 , θ-Al2 O3 and a little amorphous phase, and phase composition of compact and porous ceramic coatings don' t have much difference but have a little change of the content of α-Al2 O3 and amorphous phase.

  15. Contribution of Iron and Aluminum Oxides to Electrokinetic Characteristics of Variable Charge Soils in Relation to Surface Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG; ZHANGXIAO-NIAN

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of iron and aluminum oxides to electrokinetic characteristics of variable charge soils was studied through determination of electrophoretic mobilities of the red soils treated with either removal of iron oxides or coating of aluminum oxides,and of those deferrated under natural conditions.After removal of the iron oxides,zeta potentials of the latosol and the red earth decreased obviously with a shift of IEP to a lower pH,from 6.4 to 5.3 and 4.1 to 2.4 for the former and the latter,respectively,and the electrokinetic change for the latosol was greater than for the red earth.Zeta potentials of the kaolinite sample increased markedly after coated with iron oxides.The striking effect of iron oxides on electrokinetix properties of the soils was also demonstrated by the electrokinetic differences between the samples from the red and white zones of a plinthitic horizon formed naturally,and between the samples from the gley and bottom horizons of a paddy soil derived from a red earth.The coatings of aluminum oxides on the latosol and the yellow earth made their zeta potentials rise pronouncedly and their IEFs move toward higher pHs,from 6.2 to 6.8 and 4.3 to 5.3 for the former and the latter,respectively.The samples with different particle sizes also exhibited some electrokinetic variation.The experiment showed that the effects of iron and aluminum oxides were closely related to the pH and type of the soils.

  16. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2016-10-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  17. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2017-02-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  18. Surface adsorption of organoarsenic roxarsone and arsanilic acid on iron and aluminum oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ru; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2012-08-15

    Aromatic organoarsenicals roxarsone (ROX) and p-arsanilic acid (ASA) are common feed additives for livestock and could be released into the environment via animal manure and agricultural runoff. To evaluate their environmental fate, the adsorption behavior of ROX and ASA was investigated with two common soil metal oxides, goethite (FeOOH) and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)), under different reactant loading, water pH and competing ion conditions. ROX and ASA exhibit essentially identical adsorption characteristics. FeOOH and Al(2)O(3) exhibit similar adsorption trends for both organoarsenicals; however, the adsorption efficiency on the surface site basis was about three times lower for Al(2)O(3) than for FeOOH. The adsorption reaction is favorable at neutral and acidic pH. Phosphate and natural organic matter significantly interfere with aromatic arsenical adsorption on both metal oxides, whereas sulfate and nitrate do not. Pre-adsorbed aromatic arsenicals can be quickly but not completely displaced by phosphate, indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism governing the adsorption process. The adsorption envelope was successfully modeled by a diffuse double layer surface complexation model, identifying the critical role of di-anionic organoarsenic species in the adsorption. Results of this research can help predict and control the mobility of aromatic arsenicals in the environment.

  19. Preparation and Properties of Microarc Oxidation Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings on Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microarc oxidation (MAO coatings were prepared on 2024-T4 aluminum alloy using pulsed bipolar power supply at different cathode current densities. The MAO ceramic coatings contained many crater-like micropores and a small number of microcracks. After the MAO coatings were formed, the coated samples were immersed into a water-based Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE dispersion. The micropores and microcracks on the surface of the MAO coatings were filled with PTFE dispersion for preparing MAO self-lubricating composite coatings. The microstructure and properties of MAO coatings and the wear resistance of microarc oxidation self-lubricating composite coatings were analyzed by SEM, laser confocal microscope, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Vickers hardness test, scratch test and ball-on-disc abrasive tests, respectively. The results revealed that the wear rates of the MAO coatings decreased significantly with an increase in cathode current density. Compared to the MAO coatings, the microarc oxidation self-lubricating composite coatings exhibited a lower friction coefficient and lower wear rates.

  20. Effect of ac electrodeposition conditions on the growth of high aspect ratio copper nanowires in porous aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerein, Nathan J; Haber, Joel A

    2005-09-22

    The effect of several deposition parameters on the uniformity of copper electrodeposition through the alumina barrier layer into porous aluminum oxide templates grown in sulfuric or oxalic acid was systematically investigated. A fractional factorial design of experiment was conducted to find suitable deposition conditions among the variables: frequency, voltage, pulsed or continuous deposition, electrolyte concentration, and barrier layer thinning voltage. Continuous ac sine wave deposition conditions yielded excellent uniformity of pore-filling but damaged the porous aluminum oxide templates when deposition was continued to grow bulk copper on the surface. Pulsed electrodeposition yielded comparable uniformity of pore-filling and no damage to the porous aluminum oxide templates, even when bulk copper was deposited on them. Further optimization of pulsed deposition conditions was accomplished by comparing square and sine waveforms and pulse polarity. Pulsed square waveforms produced better pore-filling than pulsed sine waveforms. For sine wave depositions, the oxidative/reductive pulse polarity was more efficient than the commonly used reductive/oxidative pulse polarity. For square wave depositions into sulfuric acid grown pores, the reductive/oxidative pulse polarity produces more uniform pore-filling, likely as a result of enhanced resonant tunneling through the barrier layer and reoxidation of copper in faster filling pores.

  1. Oxide and proton conductivity in aluminum-doped tricalcium oxy-silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras-Vazquez, J.M.; De la Torre, A.G.; Losilla, E.R.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dept. Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, Campus Teatinos, 29071-Malaga (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Aluminum doping in tricalcium silicate, Ca{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4})O, has been studied by high-resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. Two nominal series have been designed and studied. Oxygen-fixed Ca{sub 3-x/2}Al{sub x/2}(Si{sub 1-x/2}Al{sub x/2}O{sub 4})O series has been prepared as single-phase up to x = 0.03. However, oxygen-variable Ca{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4})O{sub 1-x/2}{open_square}{sub x/2} series has not been stabilized for any composition. The samples show oxide anion conductivity with a small p-type electronic contribution under oxidizing conditions. Typical total conductivities for these solids are 10{sup -} {sup 5}-10{sup -} {sup 4}S cm{sup -} {sup 1} at 1100 K. The oxide ion transference numbers are very high, {proportional_to} 0.98, under reducing conditions, i.e. dry 5%H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}/air gradient. The oxide ion transference numbers are slightly lower, {proportional_to} 0.91 under oxidizing conditions, i.e. dry O{sub 2}/air gradient. These compounds display a very important proton contribution to the overall conductivities under humidified atmospheres. The proton transference number ranges between 0.72 and 0.55 at 873 and 1023 K, respectively. (author)

  2. Growth Mechanism of γ-MnS Nanorod-Arrays by Hydrothermal Method on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianming; Liu, Weifeng; Lv, Yong; Yao, Lianzeng [Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydrothermal method is a general, low-cost and convenience method which was utilized for synthesis of nanomaterials. Our research group has reported that oriented MnS nanorods on anodic aluminum oxide template were synthesized under a hydrothermal condition and demonstrated the effect of precursor content on the morphology evolution of as-samples. In order to research the growth mechanism of the arrays, herein we synthesized MnS nanorod arrays by combination of anodic aluminum oxide template and hydrothermal method on different substrates. Through-hole anodic aluminum oxide templates were prepared using Al foil (99.999%) via a two-step anodization process as described in literature. To investigate the effect of different substrates on the morphology of the-products, different substrates including anodic aluminum oxide template (sample A), one-step anodization Al foil (sample B, which was prepared by first anodizing Al foil for 10h and then removing the alumina layer with the mixed acid (0.6 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 0.15 M H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), where the foil still kept the close-packed concave nano-pits consistently with the nanopole of anodic aluminum oxide template), Al foil (sample C, dipped in HNO{sub 3} solution and covered by a compact alumina layer), Si wafer (sample D) respectively were put into Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves of 20 mL capacity filled with 16 mL mixed solution consisting of 2 mol/L MnCl{sub 4} and 2 mol/L thiourea. We kept the reaction at 150 .deg. C for 20 h. When reactions completed the products were washed three times with distilled water and absolute ethanol, respectively. Then the products were dried in an oven at 60 .deg. C.

  3. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  4. Enhanced conductivity of reduced graphene oxide decorated with aluminium oxide nanoparticles by oxygen annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Roe, Martin

    2013-07-07

    A process involving the filtration of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion through an alumina membrane, followed by oxygen annealing to synthesize alumina nanoparticles exclusively at the edges of holes or vacancies in the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) plane, is used to prepare paper-like composites with a 21% enhanced electrical conductivity. Moreover, the rGO/alumina nanocomposites have a smaller band gap and hydrophilic properties.

  5. Nanostructured Metal Oxides And Mixed Metal Oxides, Methods Of Making These Nanoparticles, And Methods Of Their Use

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-04-11

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for nanoparticles, methods of making nanoparticles, methods of using the nanoparticles, and the like. Nanoparticles of the present disclosure can have a variety of morphologies, which may lead to their use in a variety of technologies and processes. Nanoparticles of the present may be used in sensors, optics, mechanics, circuits, and the like. In addition, nanoparticles of the present disclosure may be used in catalytic reactions, for CO oxidation, as super-capacitors, in hydrogen storage, and the like.

  6. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  7. Dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles in a AA2024 aluminum alloy by a high-energy ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, México (Mexico); López-Meléndez, C. [Universidad La Salle Chihuahua, Prol. Lomas de Majalca No. 11201, CP 31020, Chihuahua, México (Mexico); Martínez-Sánchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2024-SiC{sub NP} nanocomposite by mechanical milling process. • SiC nanoparticles improved mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2024 matrix. • A homogeneous distribution of SiC nanoparticles were observed in the matrix • Compressive and hardness properties of the composite are improved significantly. -- Abstract: Al{sub 2024} alloy was reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC{sub NP}), whose concentration was varied in the range from 0 to 5 wt.%; some composites were synthesized with the mechanical milling (MM) process. Structure and microstructure of the consolidated samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were investigated by compressive tests and hardness measurements. The microstructural evidence shows that SiC{sub NP} were homogeneously dispersed into the Al{sub 2024} alloy using high-energy MM after 2 h of processing. On the other hand, an increase of the mechanical properties (yield stress, maximum strength and hardness) was observed in the synthesized composites as a direct function of the SiC{sub NP} content. In this research several strengthening mechanisms were observed, but the main was the obstruction of dislocations movement by the addition of SiC{sub NP}.

  8. Nanoparticle Inhalation Increases Microvascular Oxidative Stress and Compromises Nitric Oxide Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of oxidative stress an...

  9. From iron coordination compounds to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various types, shapes and sizes of iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, preparation method and reaction conditions. The mixed valence trinuclear iron acetate, [Fe2IIIFeIIO(CH3COO6(H2O3]·2H2O (FeAc1, μ3-oxo trinuclear iron(III acetate, [Fe3O(CH3COO6(H2O3]NO3∙4H2O (FeAc2, iron furoate, [Fe3O(C4H3OCOO6(CH3OH3]NO3∙2CH3OH (FeF, iron chromium furoate, FeCr2O(C4H3OCOO6(CH3OH3]NO3∙2CH3OH (FeCrF, and an iron complex with an original macromolecular ligand (FePAZ were used as precursors for the corresponding oxide nanoparticles. Five series of nanoparticle samples were prepared employing either a classical thermal pathway (i.e., thermal decomposition in solution, solvothermal method, dry thermal decomposition/calcination or using a nonconventional energy source (i.e., microwave or ultrasonic treatment to convert precursors into iron oxides. The resulting materials were structurally characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The parameters were varied within each route to fine tune the size and shape of the formed nanoparticles.

  10. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, Samira [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jaleh, Babak [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, Colloge of Natural Science, Inha University, 402-751 Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were directly grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a facile microwave assistant method. • The effect of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was examined. • Increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. • The increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were compared using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea

  11. Oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles: A new theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Lupa, Dawid

    2016-05-01

    A general model of an oxidative dissolution of silver particle suspensions was developed that rigorously considers the bulk and surface solute transport. A two-step surface reaction scheme was proposed that comprises the formation of the silver oxide phase by direct oxidation and the acidic dissolution of this phase leading to silver ion release. By considering this, a complete set of equations is formulated describing oxygen and silver ion transport to and from particles' surfaces. These equations are solved in some limiting cases of nanoparticle dissolution in dilute suspensions. The obtained kinetic equations were used for the interpretation of experimental data pertinent to the dissolution kinetics of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. In these kinetic measurements the role of pH and bulk suspension concentration was quantitatively evaluated by using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). It was shown that the theoretical model adequately reflects the main features of the experimental results, especially the significant increase in the dissolution rate for lower pH. Also the presence of two kinetic regimes was quantitatively explained in terms of the decrease in the coverage of the fast dissolving oxide layer. The overall silver dissolution rate constants characterizing these two regimes were determined.

  12. Formation and characterization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaspell, Garry

    This dissertation contains two parts. The first part is focused on Laser Vaporization Controlled Condensation (LVCC). Silver nanoparticles of controlled size were synthesized by this method in order to produce a Surfaced Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) active material. We have investigated the effects of particle size on SERS enhancement and how the addition of halides can further increase the limits of detection. We have also explored using LVCC to synthesize cobalt oxide nanoparticles. This is significant since a simple chemical route doesn't currently exist. Finally, we have reported the synthesis of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate by this method using cobalt metal, oxygen and nitrogen as starting materials. The second part of this dissertation focuses on synthesizing transition metal doped titanium dioxide and zinc oxide by various novel sol-gel techniques for applications in spintronics. Spintronics is based on the concept of carrying information due to the relative spins of electrons. Utilizing spin up and spin down allows twice as much information to be carried on the flow of the electrons. One of the key requirements for a spintronic material is that it must exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). Thus, we synthesized 10% cobalt and iron doped titanium dioxide by a novel synthesis which displays RTFM. We have also explored synthesizing 5% cobalt doped zinc oxide by a room temperature process which also displays RTFM. Finally, RTFM 5% cobalt and iron doped zinc oxide were synthesized by a novel process involving microwave irradiation.

  13. Benzene Removal by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles were employed for the removal of benzene from water. The adsorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, and thermogravimetric analysis. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive removal of benzene and the effect of parameters such as pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage. The maximum removal of benzene was 61% with iron oxide impregnated CNTs at an adsorbent dosage 100 mg, shaking speed 200 rpm, contact time 2 hours, initial concentration 1 ppm, and pH 6. However, raw CNTs showed only 53% removal under same experimental conditions. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model was found well to describe the obtained data on benzene removal from water. Initial concentration was varied from 1 to 200 mg/L for isotherms study. Langmuir isotherm model was observed to best describe the adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacities were 987.58 mg/g and 517.27 mg/g for iron oxide impregnated CNTs and raw CNTs, respectively. Experimental results revealed that impregnation with iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increased the removal efficiency of CNTs.

  14. Oxidative Dissolution of Silver Nanoparticles by Chlorine: Implications to Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Rong, Hongyan; Miller, Christopher J; Waite, T David

    2016-04-05

    The kinetics of oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by chlorine is investigated in this work, with results showing that AgNPs are oxidized in the presence of chlorine at a much faster rate than observed in the presence of dioxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation of AgNPs by chlorine occurs in air-saturated solution in stoichiometric amounts with 2 mol of AgNPs oxidized for each mole of chlorine added. Dioxygen plays an important role in OCl(-)-mediated AgNP oxidation, especially at lower OCl(-) concentrations, with the mechanism shifting from stoichiometric oxidation of AgNPs by OCl(-) in the presence of dioxygen to catalytic removal of OCl(-) by AgNPs in the absence of dioxygen. These results suggest that the presence of chlorine will mitigate AgNP toxicity by forming less-reactive AgCl(s) following AgNP oxidation, although the disinfection efficiency of OCl(-) may not be significantly impacted by the presence of AgNPs because a chlorine-containing species is formed on OCl(-) decay that has significant oxidizing capacity. Our results further suggest that the antibacterial efficacy of nanosilver particles embedded on fabrics may be negated when treated with detergents containing strong oxidants, such as chlorine.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Sesbania grandiflora Leaf Extract as Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorna Prema Rajendran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this present study are to synthesize iron oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles from different concentrations of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract (5–20% using zinc nitrate and ferrous chloride as precursor materials and synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrometer, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and SEM. The results showed that synthesized zinc oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited UV-visible absorption peaks at 235 nm and 220 nm, respectively, which indicated that both nanoparticles were photosensitive and the XRD study confirmed that both nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. In addition, FTIR was also used to analyze the various functional groups present in the synthesized nanoparticles. The SEM results reveal that zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical in shape and having the particle size range of 15 to 35 nm whereas the iron oxide nanoparticles were nonspherical in shape with the size range of 25 to 60 nm. Application of synthesized nanoparticle on seafood effluent treatment was studied.

  16. Interaction Between Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles and Quartz Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirelis, Nikolaos P; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-11-17

    In this study, the influence of pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature on graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles attachment onto quartz sand were investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at three controlled temperatures (4, 12, and 25 °C) in solutions with different pH values (pH 4, 7, and 10), and ionic strengths (IS = 1.4, 6.4, and 21.4 mM), under static and dynamic conditions. The surface properties of GO nanoparticles and quartz sand were evaluated by electrophoretic mobility measurements. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential energy profiles were constructed for the experimental conditions, using measured zeta potentials. The experimental results showed that GO nanoparticles were very stable under the experimental conditions. Both temperature and pH did not play a significant role in the attachment of GO nanoparticles onto quartz sand. In contrast, IS was shown to influence attachment. The attachment of GO particles onto quartz sand increased significantly with increasing IS. The experimental data were fitted nicely with a Freundlich isotherm, and the attachment kinetics were satisfactorily described with a pseudo-second-order model, which implies that the quartz sand exhibited substantial surface heterogeneity and that GO retention was governed by chemisorption. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis revealed that the attachment process was nonspontaneous and endothermic, which may be associated with structural changes of the sand surfaces due to chemisorption. Therefore, secondary minimum interaction may not be the dominant mechanism for GO attachment onto the quartz sand under the experimental conditions.

  17. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin; Ondrake, Janet; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip. PMID:22163696

  18. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Cui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 µm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip.

  19. A conductometric indium oxide semiconducting nanoparticle enzymatic biosensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin; Ondrake, Janet; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I-V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4-12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5-20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip.

  20. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  1. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan.

  2. Low Temperature CO oxidation over Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Decorating Internal Structures of a Mesoporous Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Park, Eun Ji; Han, Sang Wook; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-01-01

    Using a chemical vapor deposition method with regulated sample temperatures under ambient pressure conditions, we were able to fully decorate the internal structure of a mesoporous Al2O3 bead (~1 mm in particle diameter) with iron oxide nanoparticles (with a mean lateral size of less than 1 nm). The iron oxide-decorated Al2O3 showed a high CO oxidation reactivity, even at room temperature. Very little deactivation of the CO oxidation activity was observed with increasing reaction time at ~100 °C. Additionally, this catalyst showed high CO oxidation activity, even after annealing at ~900 °C under atmospheric conditions (i.e., the structure of the catalysts could be maintained under very harsh treatment conditions). We show that our catalysts have potential for application as oxidation catalysts in industrial processes due to the simplicity of their fabrication process as well as the high and stable catalytic performance. PMID:28091561

  3. Biogenic terbium oxide nanoparticles as the vanguard against osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Sana; Khan, Salman; Ansary, Abu Ayoobul; Arshad, Mohd; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan H.; Khan, Mohd Sajid

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of inner transition metal nanoparticles via an ecofriendly route is quite difficult. This study, for the first time, reports synthesis of terbium oxide nanoparticles using fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. The biocompatible terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb2O3 NPs) were synthesized by incubating Tb4O7 with the biomass of fungus F. oxysporum. Multiple physical characterization techniques, such as UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, and zeta-potential were used to confirm the synthesis, purity, optical and surface characteristics, crystallinity, size, shape, distribution, and stability of the nanoemulsion of Tb2O3 NPs. The Tb2O3 NPs were found to inhibit the propagation of MG-63 and Saos-2 cell-lines (IC50 value of 0.102 μg/mL) and remained non-toxic up to a concentration of 0.373 μg/mL toward primary osteoblasts. Cell viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner upon exposure to 10 nm Tb2O3 NPs in the concentration range 0.023-0.373 μg/mL. Cell toxicity was evaluated by observing changes in cell morphology, cell viability, oxidative stress parameters, and FACS analysis. Morphological examinations of cells revealed cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. The level of ROS within the cells-an indicator of oxidative stress was significantly increased. The induction of apoptosis at concentrations ≤ IC50 was corroborated by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining (DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation). Flow-cytometric studies indicated that the response was dose dependent with a threshold effect.

  4. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahajuddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wahajuddin,1,2 Sumit Arora21Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, IndiaAbstract: A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite or Fe3O4 (magnetite particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to

  5. Characterization of tin dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Abruzzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTin dioxide (SnO2 is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. Nanostructures of this oxide exhibit greater activation efficiency given their larger effective surface. The present study presents results of the synthesis and characterization of tin dioxide under different conditions via oxidation of solid tin with nitric oxide. SnO2powder was characterized primarily by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, as well as complementary techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the established synthesis conditions were suitable for obtaining rutile tin dioxide nanoparticles with a tetragonal crystal structure.

  6. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Maheshkumar; B Sreedhar; B U Nair; A Dhathathreyan

    2012-09-01

    This work reports on the preparation of nanoclusters of manganese oxide using biotemplating techniques. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on quartz using cationic lipid [Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DOMA)] and mixed systems with neutral phospholipids dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a waterbased medium at room temperature. The Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show manganese oxide nanostructures that are composed of crystals or small clusters in the size range of 20-50 nm in diameter. Small angle XRD showed that template removal through calcining process results in nanostructures of the manganese oxide in sizes from 30 to 50 nm. Using these organized assemblies it is possible to control the nano and mesoscopic morphologies of particles and both rod-like and spherical particles can be synthesized.

  7. Radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cement associated with niobium oxide micro and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Boldrin MESTIERI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is composed of Portland Cement (PC and bismuth oxide (BO. Replacing BO for niobium oxide (NbO microparticles (Nbµ or nanoparticles (Nbη may improve radiopacity and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of the materials: 1 PC; 2 White MTA; 3 PC+30% Nbµ; 4 PC+30% Nbη. Material and Methods For the radiopacity test, specimens of the different materials were radiographed along an aluminum step-wedge. For cell culture assays, Saos-2 osteoblastic-cells (ATCC HTB-85 were used. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT assay, and bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Results The results demonstrated higher radiopacity for MTA, followed by Nbµ and Nbη, which had similar values. Cell culture analysis showed that PC and PC+NbO associations promoted greater cell viability than MTA. Conclusions It was concluded that the combination of PC+NbO is a potential alternative for composition of MTA.

  8. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  10. Adsorption kinetics of organophosphonic acids on plasma-modified oxide-covered aluminum surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, M; Thissen, P; Grundmeier, G

    2008-08-19

    Tailoring of oxide chemistry on aluminum by means of low-pressure water and argon plasma surface modification was performed to influence the kinetics of the self-assembly process of octadecylphosphonic acid monolayers. The plasma-induced surface chemistry was studied by in situ FTIR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). Ex situ IRRAS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of the adsorbed self-assembled monolayers. The plasma-induced variation of the hydroxide to oxide ratio led to different adsorption kinetics of the phosphonic acid from dilute ethanol solutions as measured by means of a quartz crystal microbalance. Water plasma treatment caused a significant increase in the density of surface hydroxyl groups in comparison to that of the argon-plasma-treated surface. The hydroxyl-rich surface led to significantly accelerated adsorption kinetics of the phosphonic acid with a time of monolayer formation of less than 1 min. On the contrary, decreasing the surface hydroxyl density slowed the adsorption kinetics.

  11. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material.

  12. Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga Reddy, E.; Karuppiah, J.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, porous γ-alumina support is developed on Al substrate using anodic oxidation process and copper catalyst particles are deposited homogeneously over anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface by electrodeposition method. We investigated the effect of electrodeposition time and hot water treatment (HWT) on the activity of catalysts for SRM reaction in the temperature range between 160 and 360 °C. The experimental results indicate that the SRM activity, CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME) selectivity's over Cu catalysts increased as the electrodeposition time increased from 30 to 120 s, further increment in deposition time of Cu have no significant effect on it. The rates of SRM conversion are found to be higher for the catalysts made from the supports obtained after HWT, which may be due to the enhancement in the surface area of AAO support. It is found that the SRM activity and CO2 selectivity strongly depended upon the free exposed copper sites available for methanol adsorption and reaction, and DME in products is mainly observed in the reaction temperature range between 300 and 350 °C and it is higher for the catalysts with low Cu content.

  13. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  14. Evaluation of cerium oxide coated Cu cermets as inert anodes for aluminum electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Cu/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} cermets were evaluated, with and without an in-situ deposited CEROX (TM; cerium oxide) coating, in 100 h laboratory A1 electrowinning tests. Bath ratio and current density were varied between tests and corrosion was determined by contamination of the aluminum and cryolite by cermet components (Cu, Fe, and Ni). Higher bath ratios of 1.5 to 1.6 led to less corrosion and thicker CEROX coatings. Lower current densities led to slightly less corrosion but much less oxidation of the Cu cermet substrate. At identical test conditions, the corrosion of the CEROX coated cermets was 1/7 that of an uncoated cermet. Corrosion was increased in CEROX coated cermets tested under unsaturated alumina conditions. The electrical conductivity of the CEROX coating was measured to be {approximately}0.2 ohm{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1}, resulting in a slight voltage penalty, depending on the thickness of the coating.

  15. Microarc Oxidation of the High-Silicon Aluminum AK12D Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kiseleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work is to study how the high-silicon aluminum AK12D alloy microstructure and MAO-process modes influence on characteristics (microhardness, porosity and thickness of the oxide layer of formed surface layer.Experimental methods of study:1 MAO processing of AK12D alloy disc-shaped samples. MAO modes features are concentration of electrolyte components – soluble water glass Na2SiO3 and potassium hydroxide (KOH. The content of two components both the soluble water glass and the potassium hydroxide was changed at once, with their concentration ratio remaining constant;2 metallographic analysis of AK12D alloy structure using an optical microscope «Olympus GX51»;3 image analysis of the system "alloy AK12D - MAO - layer" using a scanning electron microscope «JEOL JSM 6490LV»;4 hardness evaluation of the MAO-layers using a micro-hardness tester «Struers Duramin».The porosity, microhardness and thickness of MAO-layer formed on samples with different initial structures are analyzed in detail. Attention is paid to the influence of MAO process modes on the quality layer.It has been proved that the MAO processing allows reaching quality coverage with high microhardness values of 1200-1300HV and thickness up to 114 μm on high-silicon aluminum alloy. It has been found that the initial microstructure of alloy greatly affects the thickness of the MAO - layer. The paper explains the observed effect using the physical principles of MAO process and the nature of silicon particles distribution in the billet volume.It has been shown that increasing concentration of sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide in the electrolyte results in thicker coating and high microhardness.It has been revealed that high microhardness is observed in the thicker MAO-layers.Conclusions:1 The microstructure of aluminum AK12D alloy and concentration of electrolyte components - liquid glass Na2SiO3 and potassium hydroxide affect the quality of coating resulted from MAO

  16. Green light emission in aluminum oxide powders doped with different terbium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal B, L; Falcony, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, 07360 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Carmona T, S.; Murrieta, H.; Sanchez A, M. A. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez A, R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, C. M., E-mail: mariscal2005@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    Different emission intensities presented in aluminum oxide phosphors corresponding to different concentrations of doping performed with terbium are analyzed. The phosphors were synthesized by the evaporation technique and were characterized by photo and cathodoluminescence, X-ray diffraction and EDS techniques for different incorporation percentages of terbium as dopant; they show characteristic transitions in 494, 543, 587 and 622 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 3}, respectively when they are excited with λ{sub exc} = 380 nm wavelength at room temperature. The results of X-ray diffraction show the presence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases with peaks located at 2θ = 25.78, 35.34, 37.96, 43.56, 45.8, 52.74, 57.7, 61.5, 66.74, 68.44, 77.12 and 80.94, and the δ-Al{sub 2}O-3 phase 2θ = 32.82, 45.8, 61.36 and 66.74. These compounds were heat treated for two hours at 1100 degrees Celsius. EDS analyzes indicate that these compounds have close to 60% oxygen around of 40% aluminum in the presence of terbium as dopant which indicates a stoichiometry close to the expected one for alumina. (Author)

  17. Synthesis of aluminum nitride nanoparticles by a facile urea glass route and influence of urea/metal molar ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhifang; Wan, Yizao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xiong, Guangyao [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Guo, Ruisong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Luo, Honglin, E-mail: hlluo@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Attention toward nanosized aluminum nitride (AlN) was rapidly increasing due to its physical and chemical characteristics. In this work, nanocrystalline AlN particles were prepared via a simple urea glass route. The effect of the urea/metal molar ratio on the crystal structure and morphology of nanocrystalline AlN particles was studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results revealed that the morphology and the crystal structure of AlN nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the urea/metal ratio. Furthermore, a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and h-AlN was detected at the urea/metal molar ratio of 4 due to the inadequate urea content. With increasing the molar ratio, the pure h-AlN was obtained. In addition, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of AlN nanocrystalline were proposed.

  18. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Diamond Nanoparticles onto Al- and N-Polar Sputtered Aluminum Nitride Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yoshikawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic self-assembly of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs onto substrate surfaces (so-called nanodiamond seeding is a notable technique, enabling chemical vapor deposition (CVD of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on non-diamond substrates. In this study, we examine this technique onto differently polarized (either Al- or N-polar c-axis oriented sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN film surfaces. This investigation shows that Al-polar films, as compared to N-polar ones, obtain DNPs with higher density and more homogeneously on their surfaces. The origin of these differences in density and homogeneity is discussed based on the hydrolysis behavior of AlN surfaces in aqueous suspensions.

  19. Interactive effect of cerium and aluminum on the ignition point and the oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Pengyu [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025 (China)], E-mail: linpengyu2000@yahoo.com.cn; Zhou Hong; Li Wei; Li Wenping; Sun Na [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025 (China); Yang Rong [Public Mathematics Teaching and Research Center, College of Mathematics, Qianwei Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130012 (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper focused on the interactive effect of cerium (Ce) addition and aluminum (Al) content in magnesium alloy on ignition point and oxidation resistance. Ce content played an important role in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloy. Ignition point ascended with increasing Ce content. 0.25 wt% Ce content in Mg alloys could greatly improve tightness of the oxide film of Mg alloys. However, when Ce content in the alloy exceeded its solid solubility, ignition point descended. Furthermore, Al content in the alloy also influenced the ignition point. The higher the Al content was, the lower the ignition point.

  20. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. PMID:25374484

  1. Synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles by solution plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Genki; Hosokai, Sou; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles via a solution plasma, in which the effect of the electrolyte and electrolysis time on the morphology of the products was mainly examined. In the experiments, a copper wire as a cathode was immersed in an electrolysis solution of a K2CO3 with the concentration from 0.001 to 0.50 M or a citrate buffer (pH = 4.8), and was melted by the local-concentration of current. The results demonstrated that by using the K2CO3 solution, we obtained CuO nanoflowers with many sharp nanorods, the size of which decreased with decreasing the concentration of the solution. Spherical particles of copper with/without pores formed when the citrate buffer was used. The pores in the copper nanoparticles appeared when the applied voltage changed from 105 V to 130 V, due to the dissolution of Cu2O.

  2. Oxidative stress and genotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles in freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Daoud; Alarifi, Saud; Kumar, Sudhir; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the toxic effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organism is the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnology. However, little is known about the toxic mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola (L. luteola). This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by ZnONPs in freshwater snail L. luteola. ZnONPs (32 μg/ml) elicited a significant (psnail L. luteola may be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future.

  3. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  4. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  5. Study on the mechanism of antibacterial action of magnesium oxide nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO nanoparticles, with average size of 20 nm) have strong antibacterial activities against several important foodborne pathogens. Resazurin (a redox sensitive dye) microplate assay was used for measuring growth inhibition of bacteria treated with MgO nanoparticles. Th...

  6. Synthesis of nickel nanoparticles supported on metal oxides using electroless plating: controlling the dispersion and size of nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijie; Ge, Shaohui; Zhang, Minghui; Li, Wei; Tao, Keyi

    2009-02-15

    Nickel nanoparticles supported on metal oxides were prepared by a modified electroless nickel-plating method. The process and mechanism of electroless plating were studied by changing the active metal (Ag) loading, acidity, and surface area of metal oxides and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and H(2) chemisorption. The results showed that the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles was dependent on the interface reaction between the metal oxide and the plating solution or the active metal and the plating solution. The Ag loading and acidity of the metal oxide mainly affected the interface reaction to change the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles. The use of ultrasonic waves and microwaves and the change of solvents from water to ethylene glycol in the electroless plating could affect the dispersion and size of nickel nanoparticles.

  7. Preparation of self-assembled zinc oxide nanoparticles multilayer films under ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jung Mi; Kwon, Mi Hyang; Ko, Weon Bae

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and self-assembled on the reactive surface of a glass slide functionalized with (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane under ultrasonic irradiation. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by TEM, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The functionalized glass slide was soaked in an aqueous solution which dispersed zinc oxide nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation. Zinc oxide multilayer films grew up to several layers (up to 5 layers) depending on the immersion time. The self-assembled zinc oxide nanoparticles multilayer films were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and SEM. Ultrasonic irradiation was an efficient method to make multilayer films on the functionalized glass slide with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  8. Reduction of interface states by hydrogen treatment at the aluminum oxide/4H-SiC Si-face interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processes to form aluminum oxide as a gate insulator on the 4H-SiC Si-face are investigated to eliminate the interface state density (DIT and improve the mobility. Processes that do not involve the insertion or formation of SiO2 at the interface are preferential to eliminate traps that may be present in SiO2. Aluminum oxide was formed by atomic layer deposition with hydrogen plasma pretreatment followed by annealing in forming gas. Hydrogen treatment was effective to reduce DIT at the interface of aluminum oxide and SiC without a SiO2 interlayer. Optimization of the process conditions resulted in DIT for the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS capacitor of 1.7×1012 cm−2eV−1 at 0.2 eV, and the peak field-effect mobility of the MOS field-effect transistor (MOSFET was approximately 57 cm2V−1s−1.

  9. Preparation of Graphene Oxide Stabilized Nickel Nanoparticles with Thermal Effusivity Properties by Laser Ablation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly in a graphene oxide solution, using a laser ablation technique with different ablation times that ranged from 5 to 20 minutes. The results indicate that the nickel nanoparticle sizes inside the graphene oxide decreased, and the volume fraction for the nickel nanoparticles in the graphene oxide increased with an increasing ablation time. Further, using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the nickel nanoparticles in the graphene oxide demonstrate greater stability from possible agglomeration when the nanoparticle was capped with oxygen from the carboxyl group of the graphene oxide. The thermal effusivity of the graphene oxide and nickel nanoparticle graphene oxide composite was measured using a photoacoustic technique. The concentration of graphene oxide shifted from 0.05 mg/L to 2 mg/L, and the thermal effusivity increased from 0.153 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1 to 0.326 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1. In addition, the thermal effusivity of the nickel nanoparticles graphene oxide composite increased with an increase in the volume fraction of nickel nanoparticles from 0.1612 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1 to 0.228 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1.

  10. Developmental toxicity of intravenously injected zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinsoo; Yu, Wook-Joon; Song, Jeongah; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eun Ju; Han, Ji-Seok; Kim, Pilje; Jo, Eunhye; Eom, Ikchun; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Heyjin; Lee, Handule; Park, Juyoung; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2016-12-01

    Recent toxicity studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles by oral administration showed relatively low toxicity, which may be resulted from low bioavailability. So, the intrinsic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles needs to be evaluated in the target organs by intravenous injection for full systemic concentration of the administered dosage. Although the exposure chance of injection route is low compared to oral and/or inhalation route, it is important to see the toxicity with different exposure routes to get better risk management tool. In this study, the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on dams and fetuses were investigated in rats after intravenous injection (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) from gestation day 6 to 20. Two of 20 dams in the 20 mg/kg treatment group died during the treatment period. Hematological examination and serum biochemistry showed dose-dependent toxicity in treated dams. Histopathological analysis of treated dams revealed multifocal mixed cell infiltration and thrombosis in lung, tubular dilation in kidneys, and extramedullary hemopoiesis in liver. Total dead fetuses (post-implantation loss) were increased and the body weight of fetus was decreased in the 20 mg/kg treatment group. Statistical differences in corpora lutea, resorption, placental weight, morphological alterations including external, visceral and skeletal malformations were not observed in treated groups. Based on the data, lowest observed adverse effect level of injection route was suggested to be 5 mg/kg in dams and no observed adverse effect level was suggested to be 10 mg/kg in fetal developmental toxicity.

  11. Selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols using copper-manganese mixed oxide nanoparticles as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushown Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of copper-manganese (CuMn2 mixed oxide nanoparticles (Cu/Mn = 1:2 has been studied for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes using molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent. The CuMn2 mixed oxide showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with high selectivity (>99%. The complete conversion (100% of all the benzylic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes is achieved within a short reaction period at 102 °C. The catalytic performance is obtained to be dependent on the electronic and steric effects of the substituents present on the phenyl ring. Electron withdrawing and bulky groups attached to the phenyl ring required longer reaction time for a complete conversion of the benzylic alcohols.

  12. High-temperature tensile deformation behavior of aluminum oxide with and without an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James

    1998-12-01

    Ceramics are usually considered to be brittle, but under certain conditions some ceramics exhibit a large degree of ductility. They are fine-grained and exhibit superplastic behavior when deformed at high temperatures and low stresses. Whereas superplasticity gives enhanced ductility to metals, it may be the only method for imparting large plasticity to ceramics. Electric fields have been shown to increase ductility, reduce flow stress and reduce cavitation in the superplastic forming of 7475 Al and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Thus, the concurrent application of an electric field may give improved superplastic properties and increased plasticity to a marginally ductile ceramic such as aluminum oxide (alpha-alumina). Fine-grained alumina tensile specimens, formed by dry pressing and sintering a spray-dried powder, were tested in tension at high temperature with and without an electric field of 300 V/cm. Constant strain rate, strain rate cycling and stress relaxation tests were performed. The effects of an electric field on the ductility, flow stress, cavitation and parameters of the Weertman-Dorn deformation equation were measured. Without an electric field, the following deformation parameters were found: the stress exponent n = 2.2, the grain size exponent p = 1.9, the activation energy Q = 490 kJ/mol and the threshold stress sigmao ≈ 0 MPa, indicating structural superplasticity where grain boundary sliding is the predominant deformation mode and was likely accommodated by the motion of grain boundary dislocations. An electric field of 300 V/cm gave a Joule heating temperature increase of ˜30°C and caused the alumina to swell 5--25% (increasing with time), even while under no applied stress, thereby reducing its ductility and flow stress. After correcting for Joule heating and swelling there was still a significant flow stress reduction produced by the field and the following deformation parameters were found: n = 2.2, p = 1.9, Q = 950 kJ/mol and sigmao ≈ 0

  13. Spectral luminescent properties of bacteriochlorin and aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles as hydroxyapatite implant surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Maklygina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and the spectral research of unique coating as crystalline nanoparticles of IR photosensitizers were performed for the creation of hydroxyapatite implants with photobactericidal properties. It has been proved that by the interaction of nanoparticles covering implant with the polar solvent, which simulates the interaction of the implant with the biocomponents in vivo (fast proliferating and with immunocompetent cells, photosensitizers nanoparticles change the spectroscopic properties, becoming fluorescent and phototoxic. Thus, the developed coating based on crystalline photosensitizer nanoparticles with studied specific properties should have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect by the photodynamic treatment in the near implant area. This research opens the prospect of the local prevention of inflammatory and autoimmune reactions in the area of implantation. The results of the study suggest a promising this technology in order to create implants with photobactericidal properties.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  15. Shifts in oxidation states of cerium oxide nanoparticles detected inside intact hydrated cells and organelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, Craig J.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Mihai, Cosmin; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Gilles, Marry K.; Tyliszczak, T.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Orr, Galya

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been shown to induce diverse biological effects, ranging from toxic to beneficial. The beneficial effects have been attributed to the potential antioxidant activity of CNPs via certain redox reactions, depending on their oxidation state or Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio. However, this ratio is strongly dependent on the environment and age of the nanoparticles and it is unclear whether and how the complex intracellular environment impacts this ratio and the possible redox reactions of CNPs. To identify any changes in the oxidation state of CNPs in the intracellular environment and better understand their intracellular reactions, we directly quantified the oxidation states of CNPs outside and inside intact hydrated cells and organelles using correlated scanning transmission x-ray and super resolution fluorescence microscopies. By analyzing hundreds of small CNP aggregates, we detected a shift to a higher Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio in CNPs inside versus outside the cells, indicating a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment. We further found a similar ratio in the cytoplasm and in the lysosomes, indicating that the net reduction occurs earlier in the internalization pathway. Together with oxidative stress and toxicity measurements, our observations identify a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment, which is consistent with their involvement in potentially beneficial oxidation reactions, but also point to interactions that can negatively impact the health of cells.

  16. Stimulated low frequency Raman scattering in cupric oxide nanoparticles water suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyushkin, A. S.; Baranov, A. N.; Bulychev, N. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Kudryavtseva, A. D.; Strokov, M. A.; Tcherniega, N. V.; Zemskov, K. I.

    2017-04-01

    Cupric oxide nanoparticles with average size of 213.2 nm, were synthesized in acoustoplasma discharge for investigating their vibrational properties. The low-frequency acoustic mode in cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles has been studied by stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering (SLFRS). SLFRS conversion efficiency, threshold and frequency shift of the scattered light are measured.

  17. Precipitation of metal oxide nanoparticles using a miniemulsion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marion Winkelmann; Heike Petra Schuchmann

    2011-01-01

    A method to precipitate nanoparticles using a miniemulsion technique is described,in which miniemulsion droplets between 100 and 1000 nm in size serve as nanoreactors enabling both the control of particle formation and particle growth.The application ofminiemulsion droplets to synthesise nanoparticles comprises three advantages:first,the size of the precipitated particles is limited by the reactant concentration within the emulsion droplet; second,particle agglomeration is prevented as nanoparticle collision outside the nanoreactor is avoided; and third,easy technical scale up can be realized by increasing emulsion volume and thus the number of nanoreactors,while local conditions within the reactors are not changed.The miniemulsion technique is an easy scalable process which allows defined synthesis of particles by precipitation reactions.The miniemulsion technique involves first the preparation of a stable water-inoil miniemulsion by high pressure homogenisation.Whereas a water soluble reactant is provided within the aqueous droplets,another oil- as well as water-soluble reactant can be introduced to the emulsion after homogenisation.The precipitation reaction is induced by the diffusion of the second reactant into the emulsion droplet.Together with this contribution,a method is described and discussed which uses a high pressure homogenisation process to produce stable water-in-oil miniemulsions serving as a reaction medium to precipitate metal oxides.

  18. Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Yadav; Virendra Prasad; A A Kathe; Sheela Raj; Deepti Yadav; C Sundaramoorthy; N Vigneshwaran

    2006-11-01

    Nanotechnology, according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), is defined as utilization of structure with at least one dimension of nanometer size for the construction of materials, devices or systems with novel or significantly improved properties due to their nano-size. The nanostructures are capable of enhancing the physical properties of conventional textiles, in areas such as anti-microbial properties, water repellence, soil-resistance, anti-static, anti-infrared and flame-retardant properties, dyeability, colour fastness and strength of textile materials. In the present work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent. These nanoparticles, which have an average size of 40 nm, were coated on the bleached cotton fabrics (plain weave, 30 s count) using acrylic binder and functional properties of coated fabrics were studied. On an average of 75%, UV blocking was recorded for the cotton fabrics treated with 2% ZnO nanoparticles. Air permeability of the nano-ZnO coated fabrics was significantly higher than the control, hence the increased breathability. In case of nano-ZnO coated fabric, due to its nano-size and uniform distribution, friction was significantly lower than the bulk-ZnO coated fabric as studied by Instron® Automated Materials Testing System. Further studies are under way to evaluate wash fastness, antimicrobial properties, abrasion properties and fabric handle properties.

  19. Iron oxide nanoparticles in modern microbiology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinali, Ranmadugala; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Ghasemi, Younes; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-01-10

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are one of the most developed and used nanomaterials in biotechnology and microbiology. These particles have unique physicochemical properties, which make them unique among nanomaterials. Therefore, many experiments have been conducted to develop facile synthesis methods for these particles and to make them biocompatible. Various effects of IONs on microorganisms have been reported. Depending on the microbial strain and nanoparticle (NP) concentration, IONs can stimulate or inhibit microbial growth. Due to the superparamagnetic properties of IONs, these NPs have used as nano sources of heat for hyperthermia in infected tissues. Antibiotic-loaded IONs are used for targeted delivery of chemical therapy direct to the infected organ and IONs have been used as a dirigible carrier for more potent antimicrobial nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles. Magnetic NPs have been used for specific separation of pathogen and non-pathogen bacterial strains. Very recently, IONs were used as a novel tool for magnetic immobilization of microbial cells and process intensification in a biotechnological process. This review provides an overview of application of IONs in different microbial processes. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  20. Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomoin, Gennadiy [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Therrien, Joel [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Nayfeh, Munir [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2000-08-07

    We dispersed electrochemical etched silicon into a colloid of ultrasmall ultrabright Si nanoparticles. Direct imaging using transmission electron microscopy shows particles of {approx}1 nm in diameter, and infrared and electron photospectroscopy show that they are passivated with hydrogen. Under 350 nm excitation, the luminescence is dominated by an extremely strong blue band at 390 nm. We replace hydrogen by a high-quality ultrathin surface oxide cap by self-limiting oxidation in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Upon capping, the excitation efficiency drops, but only by a factor of 2, to an efficiency still two-fold larger than that of fluorescein. Although of slightly lower brightness, capped Si particles have superior biocompatability, an important property for biosensing applications. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Uptake and metabolism of iron oxide nanoparticles in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, Charlotte; Irrsack, Ellen; Koch, Michael; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used for various applications in biomedicine, for example as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, for cell tracking and for anti-tumor treatment. However, IONPs are also known for their toxic effects on cells and tissues which are at least in part caused by iron-mediated radical formation and oxidative stress. The potential toxicity of IONPs is especially important concerning the use of IONPs for neurobiological applications as alterations in brain iron homeostasis are strongly connected with human neurodegenerative diseases. Since IONPs are able to enter the brain, potential adverse consequences of an exposure of brain cells to IONPs have to be considered. This article describes the pathways that allow IONPs to enter the brain and summarizes the current knowledge on the uptake, the metabolism and the toxicity of IONPs for the different types of brain cells in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Oxidation of uranium nanoparticles produced via pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trelenberg, T W; Glade, S C; Tobin, J G; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V

    2005-12-07

    An experimental apparatus designed for the synthesis, via pulsed laser deposition, and analysis of metallic nanoparticles and thin films of plutonium and other actinides was tested on depleted uranium samples. Five nanosecond pulses from a Nd:YAG laser produced films of {approx}1600 {angstrom} thickness that were deposited showing an angular distribution typical thermal ablation. The films remained contiguous for many months in vacuum but blistered due to induced tensile stresses several days after exposure to air. The films were allowed to oxidize from the residual water vapor within the chamber (2 x 10{sup -10} Torr base pressure). The oxidation was monitored by in-situ analysis techniques including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and followed Langmuir kinetics.

  3. Formation of High-Purity Indium Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Application to Sensitive Detection of Ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Neha Bhardwaj; Manil Kukkar; Sharma, Amit L.; Ki-Hyun Kim; Akash Deep

    2015-01-01

    High-purity In2O3 nanoparticles were recovered from scrap indium tin oxide substrates in a stepwise process involving acidic leaching, liquid-liquid extraction with a phosphine oxide extractant, and combustion of the organic phase. The morphological and structural parameters of the recovered nanoparticles were investigated to support the formation of the desired products. These In2O3 nanoparticles were used for sensitive sensing of ammonia gas using a four-probe electrode device. The proposed...

  4. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette;

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of monodispersed 6 nm and <100 nm poly-dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles toward Daphnia magna was assessed using 48 h immobilization tests. CuSO4 was used as a reference. Four different exposure conditions were tested, to study whether the toxicity of the nanoparticle suspen...... model MINTEQ. These findings show that the acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles is governed by test water composition and the chemical species Cu2+....

  5. Coupling Graphene Sheets with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0002 Coupling Graphene Sheets with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics Kwang-Sup Lee HANNAM...SUBTITLE Coupling Graphene Sheets with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4010...Joint Project> Title “Coupling Graphene Sheets with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics ” August 13, 2015

  6. An in Situ Generated Palladium on Aluminum Oxide: Applications in Gram-Scale Matsuda-Heck Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Simon; Daukšaitė, Lauryna; Lucks, Sandra; Gu, Xiaoting; Brunner, Heiko

    2016-12-16

    In situ generated palladium on aluminum oxide provides an active catalytic system for Matsuda-Heck reactions in gram-scale. The novel catalyst proceeded through a significantly higher catalytic activity compared to the classical Pd/C system. Based on the high catalytic activity the first α,β,β-triarylation of methyl acrylate in good yields could be provided in one-step.

  7. Porous silicon carbide and aluminum oxide with unidirectional open porosity as model target materials for radioisotope beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Czapski, M; Tardivat, C; Stora, T; Bouville, F; Leloup, J; Luis, R Fernandes; Augusto, R Santos

    2013-01-01

    New silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) of a tailor-made microstructure were produced using the ice-templating technique, which permits controlled pore formation conditions within the material. These prototypes will serve to verify aging of the new advanced target materials under irradiation with proton beams. Before this, the evaluation of their mechanical integrity was made based on the energy deposition spectra produced by FLORA codes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  9. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Samira; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Jaleh, Babak; Park, Soo Jin

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe2O3 nanoparticles and GO/Fe2O3 composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe2O3 nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe2O3 morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe2O3 showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (ID/IG) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe2O3 and Fe2O3 were compared using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer and results revealed that the magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles are affected by the morphology.

  10. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guiyin, E-mail: gyfang@nju.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-12-14

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 Degree-Sign C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg{sup -1} and solidify at 56.86 Degree-Sign C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg{sup -1} when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  11. High temperature oxidation of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires composed of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, M; Brzozka, K; Lin, W S; Lin, H M; Tokarczyk, M; Borysiuk, J; Kowalski, G; Wasik, D

    2016-02-07

    This work describes an oxidation process of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires at temperatures between 100 °C and 800 °C. The studied nanomaterial was synthesized through a simple chemical reduction of iron trichloride in an external magnetic field under a constant flow of argon. The electron microscopy investigations allowed determining that the as-prepared nanowires were composed of self-assembled iron nanoparticles which were covered by a 3 nm thick oxide shell and separated from each other by a thin interface layer. Both these layers exhibited an amorphous or highly-disordered character which was traced by means of transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal oxidation was carried out under a constant flow of argon which contained the traces of oxygen. The first stage of process was related to slow transformations of amorphous Fe and amorphous iron oxides into crystalline phases and disappearance of interfaces between iron nanoparticles forming the studied nanomaterial (range: 25-300 °C). After that, the crystalline iron core and iron oxide shell became oxidized and signals for different compositions of iron oxide sheath were observed (range: 300-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. According to the thermal gravimetric analysis, the nanowires heated up to 800 °C under argon atmosphere gained 37% of mass with respect to their initial weight. The structure of the studied nanomaterial oxidized at 800 °C was mainly composed of α-Fe2O3 (∼ 93%). Moreover, iron nanowires treated above 600 °C lost their wire-like shape due to their shrinkage and collapse caused by the void coalescence.

  12. Liquid crystal alignment in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for LCD panel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chitsung; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chi-Yu; Pan, Ru-Pin; Fang, Weileun

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports the implementation and integration of a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) film and liquid crystal (LC) on an ITO-glass substrate for liquid crystal display (LCD) panel applications. An np-AAO layer with a nanopore array acts as the vertical alignment layer to easily and uniformly align the LC molecules. Moreover, the np-AAO nanoalignment layer provides outstanding material properties, such as being inorganic with good transmittance, and colorless on ITO-glass substrates. In this application, an LCD panel, with the LC on the np-AAO nanoalignment layer, is successfully implemented on an ITO-glass substrate, and its performance is demonstrated. The measurements show that the LCD panel, consisting of an ITO-glass substrate and an np-AAO layer, has a transmittance of 60-80%. In addition, the LCD panel switches from a black state to a bright state at 3 V(rms), with a response time of 62.5 ms. In summary, this paper demonstrates the alignment of LC on an np-AAO layer for LCD applications.

  13. Nanosecond laser ablation processes in aluminum-doped zinc-oxide for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteli, D., E-mail: david.canteli@ciemat.es [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Torres, I.; Gandia, J.J. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A study of the ablation of AZO thin films deposited at different temperature conditions with nanosecond UV laser light for photovoltaic devices has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold of AZO thin films was measured and related with the absorption coefficient of the films at the laser wavelength, showing a direct correspondence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A change in the material structure in the areas closest to the edges of laser grooves made in samples deposited at temperatures below 100 Degree-Sign C was observed and studied. - Abstract: Aiming to a future use in thin film solar modules, the processing of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films with good optoelectronic properties with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser has been studied. The ablation threshold fluence of the films has been determined and associated with the material properties. The ablation process has been optimized and grooves with good properties for photovoltaic devices have been obtained. The morphology of the ablated surfaces has been observed by confocal microscopy and its structure has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of ablation parameters like focus distance, pulse energy and repetition frequency in the groove morphology has been studied with special attention to the thermal effects on the material structure.

  14. Fabrication of diameter-modulated and ultrathin porous nanowires in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulka, Grzegorz D., E-mail: Sulka@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30060 Krakow (Poland); Brzozka, Agnieszka [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Liu, Lifeng [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2011-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > AAO templates with modulated pore diameter were fabricated by pulse anodization. > HA pulse duration tunes the shape of pores and the structure of AAO channels. > Au, Ag, Ni and Ag-Au diameter-modulated nanowires were synthetized. > Porous ultrathin Au nanowires were obtained by dealloying Ag-Au nanowires. - Abstract: Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with modulated pore diameter were synthesized by pulse anodization in 0.3 M sulfuric acid at 1 deg. C. For AAO growth, a typical combination of alternating mild anodizing (MA) and hard anodizing (HA) pulses with applied potential pulses of 25 V and 35 V was applied. The control of the duration of HA pulses will provide an interesting way to tune the shape of pores and the structure of AAO channels. It was found that a non-uniform length of HA segments in cross section of AAO is usually observed when the HA pulse duration is shorter than 1.2 s. The pulse anodization performed with longer HA pulses leads to the formation of AAO templates with periodically modulated pore diameter and nearly uniform length of segments. Various diameter-modulated metallic nanowires (Au, Ag, Ni and Ag-Au) were fabricated by electrodeposition in the pores of anodic alumina membranes. A typical average nanowire diameter was about 30 nm and 48 nm for MA and HA nanowire segments, respectively. After a successful dealloying silver from Ag-Au nanowires, porous ultrathin Au nanowires were obtained.

  15. Growth control of carbon nanotubes using by anodic aluminum oxide nano templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Won Seek; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template prepared in acid electrolyte possess regular and highly anisotropic porous structure with pore diameter range from five to several hundred nanometers, and with a density of pores ranging from 10(9) to 10(11) cm(-2). AAO can be used as microfilters and templates for the growth of CNTs and metal or semiconductor nanowires. Varying anodizing conditions such as temperature, electrolyte, applied voltage, anodizing and widening time, one can control the diameter, the length, and the density of pores. In this work, we deposited Al thin film by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method to fabricate AAO nano template and synthesized multi-well carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). AAO nano-porous templates with various pore sizes and depths were introduced to control the dimension and density of CNT arrays. The AAO nano template was synthesize on glass by two-step anodization technique. The average diameter and interpore distance of AAO nano template are about 65 nm and 82 nm. The pore density and AAO nano template thickness are about 2.1 x 10(10) pores/cm2 and 1 microm, respectively. Aligned CNTs on the AAO nano template were synthesized by MPECVD at 650 degrees C with the Ni catalyst layer. The length and diameter of CNTs were grown 2 microm and 50 nm, respectively.

  16. Ru nanostructure fabrication using an anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate and highly conformal Ru atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Son, Jong-Yeog; Kim, Hyungjun

    2008-01-30

    We fabricated metallic nanostructures directly on Si substrates through a hybrid nanoprocess combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a self-assembled anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplate. ALD Ru films with Ru(DMPD)(EtCp) as a precursor and O(2) as a reactant exhibited high purity and low resistivity with negligible nucleation delay and low roughness. These good growth characteristics resulted in the excellent conformality for nanometer-scale vias and trenches. Additionally, AAO nanotemplates were fabricated directly on Si and Ti/Si substrates through a multiple anodization process. AAO nanotemplates with various hole sizes (30-100 nm) and aspect ratios (2:1-20:1) were fabricated by controlling the anodizing process parameters. The barrier layers between AAO nanotemplates and Si substrates were completely removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using BCl(3) plasma. By combining the ALD Ru and the AAO nanotemplate, Ru nanostructures with controllable sizes and shapes were prepared on Si and Ti/Si substrates. The Ru nanowire array devices as a platform for sensor devices exhibited befitting properties of good ohmic contact and high surface/volume ratio.

  17. Atomic layer deposition as pore diameter adjustment tool for nanoporous aluminum oxide injection molding masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Rasilainen, Tiina; Puukilainen, Esa; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2008-05-06

    The wetting properties of polypropylene (PP) surfaces were modified by adjusting the dimensions of the surface nanostructure. The nanostructures were generated by injection molding with nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the mold insert. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of molybdenum nitride film was used to control the pore diameters of the AAO inserts. The original 50-nm pore diameter of AAO was adjusted by depositing films of thickness 5, 10, and 15 nm on AAO. Bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and ammonia were used as precursors in deposition. The resulting pore diameters in the nitride-coated AAO inserts were 40, 30, and 20 nm, respectively. Injection molding of PP was conducted with the coated inserts, as well as with the non-coated insert. Besides the pore diameter, the injection mold temperature was varied with temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 degrees C tested. Water contact angles of PP casts were measured and compared with theoretical contact angles calculated from Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories. The highest contact angle, 140 degrees , was observed for PP molded with the AAO mold insert with 30-nm pore diameter. The Cassie-Baxter theory showed better fit than the Wenzel theory to the experimental values. With the optimal AAO mask, the nanofeatures in the molded PP pieces were 100 nm high. In explanation of this finding, it is suggested that some sticking and stretching of the nanofeatures occurs during the molding. Increase in the mold temperature increased the contact angle.

  18. Facile design of ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide membranes for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Huang, Hao; Fan, Xingce; Hou, Xiangyu; Yin, Yin; Li, Wan; Si, Lifang; Nan, Haiyan; Wang, Huaiyu; Mei, Yongfeng; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are efficient templates for the fabrication of patterned nanostructures. Herein, a three-step etching method to control the morphology of AAO is described. The morphological evolution of the AAO during phosphoric acid etching is systematically investigated and a nonlinear growth mechanism during unsteady-state anodization is revealed. The thickness of the AAO can be quantitatively controlled from ∼100 nm to several micrometers while maintaining the tunablity of the pore diameter. The AAO membranes are robust and readily transferable to different types of substrates to prepare patterned plasmonic nanoarrays such as nanoislands, nanoclusters, ultra-small nanodots, and core–satellite superstructures. The localized surface plasmon resonance from these nanostructures can be easily tuned by adjusting the morphology of the AAO template. The custom AAO template provides a platform for the fabrication of low-cost and large-scale functional nanoarrays suitable for fundamental studies as well as applications including biochemical sensing, imaging, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics.

  19. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  20. NOM removal by adsorption and membrane filtration using heated aluminum oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenxiao; Kim, Jaeshin; Benjamin, Mark M

    2008-01-15

    Heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs) are a newly synthesized adsorbent with attractive properties for use in hybrid adsorption/membrane filtration systems. This study compared removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water by adsorption onto HAOPs with that by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) or coagulation with alum or ferric chloride (FeCl3); explored the overlap between the NOM molecules that preferentially adsorb to HAOPs and those that are removed by the more conventional approaches; and evaluated NOM removal and fouling in hybrid adsorbent/membrane systems. For equivalent molar doses of the trivalent metals, HAOPs remove more NOM, and NOM with higher SUVA254, than alum or FeCl3. Most of the HAOPs-nonadsorbable fraction of the NOM can be adsorbed by PAC; in fact, that fraction appears to be preferentially adsorbed compared to the average NOM in untreated water. Predeposition of the adsorbents on a microfiltration membrane improves system performance. For the water tested, at a flux of 100 L/m2-hr, predeposition of 11 mg/L PAC and 5 mg/L HAOPs (as Al3+) allowed the system to operate 5 times as long before the transmembrane pressure increased by 1 psi and to remove 10-20 times as much NOM as when no adsorbents were added.

  1. Electrically conducting polymer nanostructures confined in anodized aluminum oxide templates (AAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blaszczyk-Lezak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically or extrinsically conducting polymers are considered good candidates for replacement of metals in specific applications. In order to further expand their applications, it seems necessary to examine the influence of confinement effects on the electric properties of nanostructured conducting polymers in comparison to the bulk. The present study reports a novel way to fabricate and characterize high quality and controllable one-dimensional (1D polymer nanostructures with promising electrical properties, with the aid of two examples polyaniline (PANI and poly(vinylidene fluoride with multiwall carbon nanotubes (PVDF-MWCNT as representative of intrinsically and extrinsically conducting polymers, respectively. In this work, porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO templates have been used both as a nanoreactor to synthesize 1D PANI nanostructures by polymerization of the ANI monomer and as a nanomold to prepare 1D PVDFMWCNT nanorods by melt infiltration of the precursor PVDF-MWCNT film. The obtained polymer nanostructures were morphologically and chemically characterized by SEM and Confocal Raman Spectroscopy, respectively, and the electrical properties determined by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS in a non-destructive way. SEM study allowed to establish the final nanostructure of PANI and PVDF-MWCNT and confirmed, in both cases, the well-aligned and uniform rodlike polymer nanostructures. Confocal Raman Microscopy has been performed to study the formation of the conducting emeraldine salt of PANI through all the length of AAO nanocavities. Finally, the electrical conductivity of both types of polymer nanostructures was easily evaluated by means of Dielectric Spectroscopy.

  2. Iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis followed by superficial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitrache, F. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: fdumit@inflpr.ro; Morjan, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Alexandrescu, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ciupina, V. [' Ovidius' University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Prodan, G. [' Ovidius' University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Voicu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Fleaca, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Savoiu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Sandu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Popovici, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Soare, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-07-15

    Iron-based core-shell nanostructures were synthesized by laser pyrolysis in a two-steps procedure. In a first step, using a cross-flow configuration, the laser radiation was heating a gas phase mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl (vapors) entrained by an ethylene flow, which plays also the role of an energy transfer agent. Secondly, a carefully controlled in situ passivation of the freshly formed pyrophoric iron nanoparticles created a protective iron oxide shell. The produced nanoparticles (22 nm size diameters) with core-shell features were analyzed by TEM, XRD, SAED and Raman spectroscopy. Majoritary iron and gamma iron oxide/magnetite and minoritary carbon phases were identified. In laser pyrolysis experiments in which the reaction temperature was increased, the catalyzed homogeneous nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes in the gas phase was observed and is presented here for the first time.

  3. Iron iron oxide core shell nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis followed by superficial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Ciupina, V.; Prodan, G.; Voicu, I.; Fleaca, C.; Albu, L.; Savoiu, M.; Sandu, I.; Popovici, E.; Soare, I.

    2005-07-01

    Iron-based core-shell nanostructures were synthesized by laser pyrolysis in a two-steps procedure. In a first step, using a cross-flow configuration, the laser radiation was heating a gas phase mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl (vapors) entrained by an ethylene flow, which plays also the role of an energy transfer agent. Secondly, a carefully controlled in situ passivation of the freshly formed pyrophoric iron nanoparticles created a protective iron oxide shell. The produced nanoparticles (22 nm size diameters) with core-shell features were analyzed by TEM, XRD, SAED and Raman spectroscopy. Majoritary iron and gamma iron oxide/magnetite and minoritary carbon phases were identified. In laser pyrolysis experiments in which the reaction temperature was increased, the catalyzed homogeneous nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes in the gas phase was observed and is presented here for the first time.

  4. Long circulating reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient tumor targeting and multimodality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Shi, Sixiang; Feng, Liangzhu; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A.; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Goel, Shreya; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G.; Nickles, Robert J.; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Taihong; Cai, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification is one of the most widely used approaches to improve the solubility of inorganic nanoparticles, prevent their aggregation and prolong their in vivo blood circulation half-life. Herein, we developed double-PEGylated biocompatible reduced graphene oxide nanosheets anchored with iron oxide nanoparticles (RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG). The nanoconjugates exhibited a prolonged blood circulation half-life (~27.7 h) and remarkable tumor accumulation (>11 %ID g-1) via an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Due to the strong near-infrared absorbance and superparamagnetism of RGO-IONP-1stPEG-2ndPEG, multimodality imaging combining positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging was successfully achieved. The promising results suggest the great potential of these nanoconjugates for multi-dimensional and more accurate tumor diagnosis and therapy in the future.

  5. Influence of Camellia sinensis extract on Zinc Oxide nanoparticle green synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Luque, P. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Mota-González, M. L.; Olivas, A.

    2017-04-01

    This work addresses low cost, non-toxic green synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles prepared using different amounts of Camellia sinensis extract. The Synthesized material was studied and characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Zinc Oxide nanoparticles presented the desired Znsbnd O bond at 618 cm-1, demonstrated growth in a purely hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure, and, depending on the amount of extract used, they presented different size and shape homogeneity. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was studied. The photocatalytic degradation studies were done at a 1:1 M ratio of methylene blue to Zinc Oxide nanoparticles under UV light. The obtained results presented a better degradation rate than commercially available Zinc Oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Tribological Properties of WS2 Nanoparticles Lubricants on Aluminum-Silicon Alloy and Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A. AL-SAMARAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of nanometric tungsten disulphide (WS2 nanoparticles oil lubricants and its tribological performance with two hypereutectic Al-Si alloy and carbon steel are examined. These two oils are used to reduce wear and friction and to explore the actions via tribological pin-on-disk tests. The pin was made from hypereutectic Al-Si alloy on steel disk, taking into consideration the effect of loads (10, 20, 30 N and different speed (200, 300, 400 rpm. Oils with and without WS2 nanoparticles reveal the loss rate due to friction. The results show that WS2 nanoparticles oil-dispersed lubricants are capable of reducing wear, improved by a mechanism which was characterized not only by the viscosity of the WS2 nanoparticles suspensions but also the promotion of contact’s surface as combined anti-corrosion, as well as effective reduction of friction on the surface film. Therefore, a lubricant added to nanoparticles can protect the piston surface.

  7. Semitransparent polymer-based solar cells with aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Sebastian; Wilkens, Verena; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Nowak, Regina-Elisabeth; von Maydell, Karsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-01-14

    With the use of two transparent electrodes, organic polymer-fullerene solar cells are semitransparent and may be combined to parallel-connected multijunction devices or used for innovative applications like power-generating windows. A challenging issue is the optimization of the electrodes, to combine high transparency with adequate electric properties. In the present work, we study the potential of sputter-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide as an alternative to the widely used but relatively expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as cathode material in semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells. Concerning the anode, we utilized an insulator-metal-insulator structure based on ultrathin Au films embedded between two evaporated MoO3 layers, with the outer MoO3 film (capping layer) serving as a light coupling layer. The performance of the ITO-free semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells was systematically studied as dependent on the thickness of the capping layer and the active layer as well as the illumination direction. These variations were found to have strong impact on the obtained photocurrent densities. We performed optical simulations of the electric field distribution within the devices using the transfer-matrix method, to analyze the origin of the current density variations in detail and provide deep insight into the device physics. With the conventional absorber materials studied here, optimized ITO-free and semitransparent devices reached 2.0% power conversion efficiency and a maximum optical transmission of 60%, with the device concept being potentially transferable to other absorber materials.

  8. Facile and environmentally friendly solution-processed aluminum oxide dielectric for low-temperature, high-performance oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangying; Wang, Han; Xie, Fangyan; Chen, Jian; Cao, Hongtao; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2015-03-18

    We developed a facile and environmentally friendly solution-processed method for aluminum oxide (AlOx) dielectrics. The formation and properties of AlOx thin films under various annealing temperatures were intensively investigated by thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), impedance spectroscopy, and leakage current measurements. The sol-gel-derived AlOx thin film undergoes the decomposition of organic residuals and nitrate groups, as well as conversion of aluminum hydroxides to form aluminum oxide, as the annealing temperature increases. Finally, the AlOx film is used as gate dielectric for a variety of low-temperature solution-processed oxide TFTs. Above all, the In2O3 and InZnO TFTs exhibited high average mobilities of 57.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 10.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), as well as an on/off current ratio of ∼10(5) and low operating voltages of 4 V at a maximum processing temperature of 300 °C. Therefore, the solution-processable AlOx could be a promising candidate dielectric for low-cost, low-temperature, and high-performance oxide electronics.

  9. Crystal structure of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesized from ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krispin, Michael, E-mail: michael.krispin@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Ullrich, Aladin, E-mail: aladin.ullrich@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Horn, Siegfried, E-mail: horn@physik.uni-augsburg.de [University of Augsburg, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We have investigated the crystal structure of nanosized iron-oxide by X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the iron K-edge as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Iron-oxide nanoparticles were produced by thermal treatment of horse spleen ferritin molecules. The structure of these particles was compared to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowder references. The thermal treatment of a submonolayer film of ferritin molecules results in pure {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, while for films above a certain thickness {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} coexist, exhibiting two different crystallite sizes. TEM shows a characteristic particle diameter of {approx}7 nm for {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} resulting from thermal treatment of monolayers, consistent with the crystallite size of the {gamma}-phase as obtained from XRD measurements on multi-layered samples. XRD shows the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase to be characterized by a crystallite size of {approx}34 nm.

  10. Ammonia sensor and antibacterial activities of green zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaleel Basha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles was synthesized by alginate (A through a rapid and a facile step in the aqueous solution condition at room temperature. Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles was characterized by ATR-FTIR, TEM and XRD. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the A/ZnO NPs were encapsulated by the polymerized alginate. Their shape, structure and composition were assessed by SEM. TEM and XRD analysis indicated that the A/ZnO NPs give evidence of the crystalline nature of ZnO and hybrid NPs structure, which is suitable for ammonia gas sensor development. The controlled size of the A/ZnO NPs obtained using this innovative synthesis strategy minimizes the response time of 2–3 s to sense the ammonia gas significantly with a detection limit of 1 ppm were found at room temperature. The antibacterial tests revealed that the A/ZnO NPs exhibits a potent activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  11. Precipitation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana E. Romo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained directly, avoiding the calcination step, by precipitation at 70°C in bicontinuous microemulsions stabilized with a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, wt./wt. containing 0.7 M zinc nitrate aqueous solution. Two concentrations of aqueous solution of precipitating agent sodium hydroxide were used under different dosing times on microemulsion. Characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed us to identify particles with an acicular rod-like morphology and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure as small as 8.5 and 30 nm in average diameter and length, respectively. Productivities much higher than those typical in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via reverse microemulsions were obtained. Particle size was the same at the two studied sodium hydroxide concentrations, while it increases as dosing time of the precipitant agent increases. It is believed that the surfactant film on the microemulsion channels restricts the particle diameter growth.

  12. The effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation on the mean stress sensitivity of the fatigue life of the 6082 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, L.; Morgenstern, R.; Hockauf, K.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the mean stress influence on the high cycle fatigue behavior of the plasma electrolytic oxidized (PEO) 6082 aluminum alloy (AlSi1MgMn) is investigated. The present study is focused on the fatigue life time and the susceptibility of fatigue-induced cracking of the oxide coating and their dependence on the applied mean stress. Systematic work is done comparing conditions with and without PEO treatment, which have been tested using three different load ratios. For the uncoated substrate the cycles to failure show a significant dependence on the mean stress, which is typical for aluminum alloys. With increased load ratio and therefore increased mean stress, the fatigue strength decreases. The investigation confirms the well-known effect of PEO treatment on the fatigue life: The fatigue strength is significantly reduced by the PEO process, compared to the uncoated substrate. However, also the mean stress sensitivity of the fatigue performance is reduced. The fatigue limit is not influenced by an increasing mean stress for the PEO treated conditions. This effect is firstly shown in these findings and no explanation for this effect can be found in literature. Supposedly the internal compressive stresses and the micro-cracks in the oxide film have a direct influence on the crack initiation and growth from the oxide film through the interface and in the substrate. Contrary to these findings, the susceptibility of fatigue-induced cracking of the oxide coating is influenced by the load ratio. At tension-tension loading a large number of cracks, which grow partially just in the aluminum substrate, are present. With decreasing load ratio to alternating tension-compression stresses, the crack number and length increases and shattering of the oxide film is more pronounced due to the additional effective compressive part of the load cycle.

  13. Aluminum nanoparticles for plasmon-improved coupling of light into silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, T.F.; Uhrenfeldt, C.; Johansen, Britta

    2012-01-01

    -current generation is characterized. A blue shift of the photo-current response is demonstrated, substantially improving the relation between gains and losses compared to what is typically observed in similar schemes using Ag nanoparticles. Enhanced photo-current response is observed in diodes with Al particles......This paper investigates the improved photo-current response obtained by depositing Al nanoparticles on top of a Si diode. Well defined Al nanodiscs with a diameter and height of 100 nm are produced on the surface of a Si diode using electron-beam lithography, and the change in photo...... on the surface at all wavelengths larger than ≈465 nm, thereby minimizing the losses in the blue range usually reported with Ag nanoparticles on the surface...

  14. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles via sonochemical method and their characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Hassanjani-Roshan; Mohammad Reza Vaezi; Ali Shokuhfar; Zohreh Rajabali

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles was carried out via a sonochemical process. The process parameters such as temperature,sonication time and power of ultrasonication play important roles in the size and morphology of the final products. The iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. From transmission electron microscopy observations,the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is estimated to be significantly smaller than 19 nm. X-ray diffraction data of the powder after annealing provide direct evidence that the iron oxide was formed during the sonochemical process.

  15. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Manke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries in the medical, industrial, and consumer sectors. The unique physicochemical and electrical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NP make them highly desirable in a variety of applications. However, these novel properties of NP are fraught with concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities. Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP. Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed.

  16. Tuning the Synthesis of Manganese Oxides Nanoparticles for Efficient Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jingyuan; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Cuifeng; Ling, Huajuan; Yan, Feng; Zhong, Xia; Lu, Yuxiang; Shi, Jeffrey; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zongwen

    2017-01-01

    The liquid phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol is an important reaction for generating benzaldehyde and benzoic acid that are largely required in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The current production systems suffer from either low conversion or over oxidation. From the viewpoint of economy efficiency and environmental demand, we are aiming to develop new high-performance and cost-effective catalysts based on manganese oxides that can allow the green aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under mild conditions. It was found that the composition of the precursors has significant influence on the structure formation and surface property of the manganese oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the crystallinity of the resulting manganese nanoparticles was gradually improved upon increasing the calcination temperature; however, the specific surface area decreased obviously due to pore structure damage at higher calcination temperature. The sample calcined at the optimal temperature of 600 °C from the precursors without porogen was a Mn3O4-rich material with a small amount of Mn2O3, which could generate a significant amount of {O}_2- species on the surface that contributed to the high catalytic activity in the oxidation. Adding porogen with precursors during the synthesis, the obtained catalysts were mainly Mn2O3 crystalline, which showed relatively low activity in the oxidation. All prepared samples showed high selectivity for benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. The obtained catalysts are comparable to the commercial OMS-2 catalyst. The synthesis-structure-catalysis interaction has been addressed, which will help for the design of new high-performance selective oxidation catalysts.

  17. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation coating on 6061 aluminum alloy pre-treated by high-temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: sdj217@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li, Guolong, E-mail: lglysu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zou, Jie [China Aviation Industry Chengdu Engine (Group) Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610503 (China); Cai, Jingrui; He, Donglei; Ma, Haojie; Liu, Fangfei [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating on 6061 aluminum alloy that pre-treated by high-temperature oxidation (HTO). Microstructure, chemical and corrosion behaviors of the fabricated MAO ceramic coatings were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electrochemical corrosion tests. The results reveal that the pre-fabricated HTO film remarkably affects the formation of the MAO coating, leads to an enriched content of Mg, and decreases the compactness of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 6061 aluminum alloy has been significantly improved by treatments of HTO, normal MAO (NMAO) and HTO pre-treated MAO (HTO-MAO), and the NMAO coating exhibits the best corrosion performance. The content of Mg in HTO pre-fabricated film is remarkedly higher than that in the substrate, which greatly influences the formation of the MAO coating.

  18. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug delivery system in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu, A., E-mail: marcu@ifin.nipne.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Pop, S. [“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology, 99-101 Splaiul Independentei, 050096 Bucharest (Romania); Dumitrache, F. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mocanu, M.; Niculite, C.M.; Gherghiceanu, M. [“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology, 99-101 Splaiul Independentei, 050096 Bucharest (Romania); Lungu, C.P.; Fleaca, C. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ianchis, R. [National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Barbut, A.; Grigoriu, C.; Morjan, I. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2013-09-15

    Present work was focused on producing improved iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in breast cancer. Nanometric-sized iron oxide particles were synthesized by laser pyrolysis and were morphologically/structurally characterized. These new nanoparticles were compared with some commercial, chemically prepared iron oxide ones. Cytotoxicity and the anti-proliferation effects of nanoparticles were tested in vitro on the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Nanoparticles were further coated with the antracyclinic antibiotic Violamycine B1 and tested for the anti-tumor effect on MCF-7 cells. The nanoparticles produced by us seem more effective in vitro than the commercial ones, with respect to cellular uptake and VB1 delivery. Violamycine B1 bound on nanoparticles is as efficient as the free form, but is better delivered into tumor cells.

  19. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug delivery system in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, A.; Pop, S.; Dumitrache, F.; Mocanu, M.; Niculite, C. M.; Gherghiceanu, M.; Lungu, C. P.; Fleaca, C.; Ianchis, R.; Barbut, A.; Grigoriu, C.; Morjan, I.

    2013-09-01

    Present work was focused on producing improved iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in breast cancer. Nanometric-sized iron oxide particles were synthesized by laser pyrolysis and were morphologically/structurally characterized. These new nanoparticles were compared with some commercial, chemically prepared iron oxide ones. Cytotoxicity and the anti-proliferation effects of nanoparticles were tested in vitro on the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Nanoparticles were further coated with the antracyclinic antibiotic Violamycine B1 and tested for the anti-tumor effect on MCF-7 cells. The nanoparticles produced by us seem more effective in vitro than the commercial ones, with respect to cellular uptake and VB1 delivery. Violamycine B1 bound on nanoparticles is as efficient as the free form, but is better delivered into tumor cells.

  20. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  1. Tunability of Size and Magnetic Moment of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Forced Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Sutens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To utilize iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical applications, a sufficient magnetic moment is crucial. Since this magnetic moment is directly proportional to the size of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles, synthesis methods of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with tunable size are desirable. However, most existing protocols are plagued by several drawbacks. Presented here is a one-pot synthesis method resulting in monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a controllable size and magnetic moment using cost-effective reagents. The obtained nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR measurements. Furthermore, the influence of the size on the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles is analyzed by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. To emphasize the potential use in biomedical applications, magnetic heating experiments were performed.

  2. Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 μg mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

  3. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2017-04-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  4. Biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles synthesis using Tabernaemontana divaricate leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against urinary tract pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Rajiv, P; Salam, Hasna Abdul; Venckatesh, R

    2014-12-10

    This investigation explains the biosynthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles from an Indian medicinal plant by an eco-friendly method. The main objective of this study is to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles from Tabernaemontana divaricate leaves through a green chemistry approach. Highly stable, spherical copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using 50% concentration of Tabernaemontana leaf extract. Formation of copper oxide nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. All the analyses revealed that copper oxide nanoparticles were 48±4nm in size. Functional groups and chemical composition of copper oxide were also confirmed. Antimicrobial activity of biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles were investigated and maximum zone of inhibition was found in 50μg/ml copper oxide nanoparticles against urinary tract pathogen (Escherichia coli).

  5. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  6. Manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles: new findings and current controversies for the role of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Maedeh; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-12-01

    We synthesized manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles (diameter gold nanoparticles under hydrothermal conditions. In this green method Mn oxide is deposited on the gold nanoparticles. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these compounds in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant were studied. The results show that these compounds are good catalysts toward water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1.0 ± 0.1 (mmol O2/(mol Mn·s)). A comparison with other previously reported Mn oxides and important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of Mn oxides is also discussed.

  7. Gold nanoparticle catalyzed oxidation of alcohols - From biomass to commodity chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges that the chemical industry faces today is to become less dependent on fossil resources, and oil in particular. One way of addressing this challenge is to find ways to transform renewable resources into commodity chemicals. Renewable resources such as carbohydrates a...... that supported gold nanoparticles are highly active catalysts for oxidizing alcohols and aldehydes using oxygen as the oxidant. This perspective will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles in the oxidation of renewables....

  8. Synthesis and functionalisation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles including calcium oxide, gold, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were synthesised using a range of techniques including reduction, co-precipitation and spinning disc technology. SPIOs were primarily synthesised via a co-precipitation method using iron (II) chloride, iron (III) chloride and ammonia; a spinning disc reactor and gaseous ammonia were trialled successfully for scale up, producing spherical particles of 10-40 nm in diameter a...

  9. Direct observation of metal nanoparticles as heterogeneous nuclei for the condensation of supersaturated organic vapors: nucleation of size-selected aluminum nanoparticles in acetonitrile and n-hexane vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; El-Shall, M Samy

    2014-08-07

    This work reports the direct observation and separation of size-selected aluminum nanoparticles acting as heterogeneous nuclei for the condensation of supersaturated vapors of both polar and nonpolar molecules. In the experiment, we study the condensation of supersaturated acetonitrile and n-hexane vapors on charged and neutral Al nanoparticles by activation of the metal nanoparticles to act as heterogeneous nuclei for the condensation of the organic vapor. Aluminum seed nanoparticles with diameters of 1 and 2 nm are capable of acting as heterogeneous nuclei for the condensation of supersaturated acetonitrile and hexane vapors. The comparison between the Kelvin and Fletcher diameters indicates that for the heterogeneous nucleation of both acetonitrile and hexane vapors, particles are activated at significantly smaller sizes than predicted by the Kelvin equation. The activation of the Al nanoparticles occurs at nearly 40% and 65% of the onset of homogeneous nucleation of acetonitrile and hexane supersaturated vapors, respectively. The lower activation of the charged Al nanoparticles in acetonitrile vapor is due to the charge-dipole interaction which results in rapid condensation of the highly polar acetonitrile molecules on the charged Al nanoparticles. The charge-dipole interaction decreases with increasing the size of the Al nanoparticles and therefore at low supersaturations, most of the heterogeneous nucleation events are occurring on neutral nanoparticles. No sign effect has been observed for the condensation of the organic vapors on the positively and negatively charged Al nanoparticles. The present approach of generating metal nanoparticles by pulsed laser vaporization within a supersaturated organic vapor allows for efficient separation between nucleation and growth of the metal nanoparticles and, consequently controls the average particle size, particle density, and particle size distribution within the liquid droplets of the condensing vapor. Strong

  10. Effects of aluminum additions to gas atomized reaction synthesis produced oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, Alexander Lee

    The production of an aluminum containing ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy was investigated. The production method used in this study was gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). GARS was chosen over the previously commercial method of mechanical alloying (MA) process due to complications from this process. The alloy compositions was determined from three main components; corrosion resistance, dispersoid formation, and additional elements. A combination of Cr and Al were necessary in order to create a protective oxide in the steam atmosphere that the boiler tubing in the next generation of coal-fired power plants would be exposed to. Hf and Y were chosen as dispersoid forming elements due to their increased thermal stability and potential to avoid decreased strength caused by additions of Al to traditional ODS materials. W was used as an additive due to benefits as a strengthener as well as its benefits for creep rupture time. The final composition chosen for the alloy was Fe-16Cr-12Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.2Y at%. The aforementioned alloy, GA-1-198, was created through gas atomization with atomization gas of Ar-300ppm O2. The actual composition created was found to be Fe-15Cr-12.3Al-0.9W-0.24Hf-0.19Y at%. An additional alloy that was nominally the same without the inclusion of aluminum was created as a comparison for the effects on mechanical and corrosion properties. The actual composition of the comparison alloy, GA-1-204, was Fe-16Cr-0Al-0.9W-0.25Hf-0.24Y at%. An investigation on the processing parameters for these alloys was conducted on the GA-1-198 alloy. In order to predict the necessary amount of time for heat treatment, a diffusion study was used to find the diffusion rate of oxygen in cast alloys with similar composition. The diffusion rate was found to be similar to that of other GARS compositions that have been created without the inclusion of aluminum. The effect of heat treatment time was investigated with temperatures of 950°C, 1000

  11. Growth of porous type anodic oxide films at micro-areas on aluminum exposed by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: kiku@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Sakairi, Masatoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, Hideaki [Asahikawa National College of Technology, Syunkohdai, 2-2, 1-6, Asahikawa 071-8142 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Aluminum covered with pore-sealed anodic oxide films was irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove the oxide film at micro-areas. The specimen was re-anodized for long periods to examine the growth of porous anodic oxide films at the area where substrate had been exposed by measuring current variations and morphological changes in the oxide during the re-anodizing. The chemical dissolution resistance of the pore-sealed anodic oxide films in an oxalic acid solution was also examined by measuring time-variations in rest potentials during immersion. The resistance to chemical dissolution of the oxide film became higher with increasing pore-sealing time and showed higher values at lower solution temperatures. During potentiostatic re-anodizing at five 35-{mu}m wide and 4-mm long lines for 72 h after the film was removed the measured current was found to increase linearly with time. Semicircular columnar-shaped porous type anodic oxide was found to form during the re-anodizing at the laser-irradiated area, and was found to grow radially, thus resulting in an increase in the diameter. After long re-anodizing, the central and top parts of the oxide protruded along the longitudinal direction of the laser-irradiated area. The volume expansion during re-anodizing resulted in the formation of cracks, parallel to the lines, in the oxide film formed during the first anodizing.

  12. Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticle Catalysts Prepared by Galvanic Displacement into a Porous Si-Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Fu, Xin; Warther, David; Sailor, Michael J

    2017-02-21

    Porous silicon nanoparticles containing both Pd and iron oxide nanoparticles are prepared and studied as magnetically recoverable catalysts for organic reductions. The Pd nanoparticles are generated in situ by electroless deposition of Pd(NH3)4(2+), where the porous Si skeleton acts as both a template and as a reducing agent and the released ammonia ligands raise the local pH to exert control over the size of the Pd nanoparticles. The nanocomposites are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetization, and dynamic light scattering. The nanocomposite consists of a porous Si nanoparticle (150 nm mean diameter) containing ∼20 nm pores, uniformly decorated with a high loading of surfactant-free Pd nanoparticles (12 nm mean diameter) and superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (∼7 nm mean diameter). The reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by sodium borohydride is catalyzed by the nanocomposite, which is stable through the course of the reaction. Catalytic reduction of the organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B is also demonstrated. The conversion efficiency and catalytic activity are found to be superior to a commercial Pd/C catalyst compared under comparable reaction conditions. The composite catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture by applying an external magnetic field due to the existence of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the construct. The recovered particles retain their catalytic activity.

  13. Cytotoxic Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by MTT Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of applications, there is a serious lack of information on the impact of the nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The present study was done to determine the range of dangerous concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticle and their effects on mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods: Iron oxide nanoparticles with less than 20 nanometers diameter were encapsulated by a PEG-phospholipid. The suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was prepared using the culture media and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Results: MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle s. Royan B1 cells were treated with medium containing different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60µg/ml of the iron oxide nanoparticle. Cell viability was determined at 12 and 24 hours after treatment which showed significant decreases when concentration and time period increased. Conclusion: The main mechanism of nanoparticles action is still unknown, but in vivo and in vitro studies in different environments suggest that they are capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, they may have an effect on the concentration of intracellular calcium, activation of transcription factors, and changes in cytokine. The results of this study show that the higher concentration and duration of treatment of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles increase the rate of cell death.

  14. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using phycobilins of Anabaena variabilis NTSS17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangaraj Ramasamy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using phycobilins of Anabaena variabilis NTSS17. Methods: The cyanobacterial isolate was collected from paddy field and morphologically identified as Anabaena variabilis NTSS17, that produces a pigment i.e. phycobiliproteins. The biosynthesized zinc nanoparticles were characterized by different spectroscopic and analytical techniques such as UV-visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction which confirmed the formation of zinc nanoparticles. Results: Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was examined against Escherichia coli, Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The maximum zone of inhibition occurred at 5 mg/1000 mL concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions: Due to potent antimicrobial and intrinsic properties of zinc oxide, it can be actively used for biomedical applications.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States); Ormsbee, Lindell E. [University of Kentucky, Department of Civil Engineering (United States); Sedlak, David L. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Bhattacharyya, Dibakar, E-mail: db@engr.uky.edu [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH{sup Bullet }) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80-100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by NP surface generated OH{sup Bullet} were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  17. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Sedlak, David L.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2012-05-01

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH•) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H2O2 addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80-100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H2O2 by NP surface generated OH• were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H2O2, TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  18. Evaluation of Antiproliferative Potential of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on HeLa Human Cervical Tumor Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 nanoparticles as nanomaterials have promising biomedical applications. In this paper, the cytotoxicity induced by CONPs human cervical tumor cells was investigated. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the precipitation method. The nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa human cervical tumor cells in a dose dependent manner but did not showed to be cytotoxic as analyzed by MTT assay. The administrated treatment decreased the HeLa cell viability cells from 100% to 65% at the dose of 100 μg/mL.

  19. Potentiating effect of ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using brown alga: antimicrobial and anticancer activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRI VISHNU PRIYA RAMASWAMY; S NARENDHRAN; RAJESHWARI SIVARAJ

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities of biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles was assessed by well diffusion method. The anticancer activity of brown algae-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was determined by MTT assay against the cell line (MCF-7). Maximum activity was observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. Effective growth inhibition of cells was observed to be more than 93% in antibacterial activity. Thus, the results of the present study indicates that biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles can be used for several diseases, however, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  20. Effect of oxide nanoparticles on structural properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Shivani; Jaggi, Neena

    2016-03-01

    A simple chemical precipitation route is reported to partially decorate mutliwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with oxide nanoparticles in the present study. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to investigate the structural properties of MWCNTs composite with nickel, cuprous, zinc and tin oxides nanoparticles. Raman analysis confirms that, ZnO nanoparticles attached nanotubes show more ordering of graphene layers as compared to the others because of uniform dispersion of nanoparticles. It is investigated that, adopted route proved helpful to improve the structural properties of the nanotubes.

  1. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  2. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON DISACCHARIDE TEMPLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B ANILREDDY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharidetemplates. Interaction between iron sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase,followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution ofparticle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solventmedia, size, size distribution and crystallinity and it was found that when the negative value of thezeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with D100 = 275nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particlesize measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–VIS spectra values show that the template is completelyremoved from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks ofthe diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations ofour study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index,band gap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. Alarge negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, as theparticles remained discrete without agglomeration.

  3. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  4. The Addition of Aluminum Nanoparticles to Polypropylene Increases Its Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arranz-Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the thermal degradation kinetics of isotactic polypropylene (iPP and iPP with incorporated Al nanoparticles. The Friedman, Flynn-Wall–Ozawa (FWO, ASTM E698 and Coats-Redfern methods were used to calculate the activation energy of the samples from thermogravimetric data. The thermal stability of the iPP was improved by the introduction of the nanoparticles: the maximum decomposition temperature of the nanocomposite increased from 453 ºC to 457 ºC and the activation energy from 226 kJ/mol to 244 kJ/mol. The thermal degradation models of iPP can be described by “Contracting Sphere” model, whereas that to nanocomposite by Rn (n= 4.8 model (phase boundary reaction

  5. LSM-YSZ cathode with infiltrated cobalt oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, R.; Murata, K.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O. [Department of Chemistry, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Yamahara, K. [Mitsubihsi Chemical Corporation, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Imanishi, N.

    2009-06-15

    To improve the La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) -8 mol-%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were infiltrated into the cathode. Co-infiltration of these oxide particles drastically enhanced the cell performance between 800 and 600 C. The infiltrated CeO{sub 2} suppressed the aggregation of nanoparticle Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, resulting in the high catalytic activity of the nanoparticle Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} for oxygen reduction at intermediate temperatures. The anode-supported SOFC with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CeO{sub 2} co-infiltrated LSM-YSZ cathode at 700 C showed the high specific power density of 0.58 W cm{sup -2} at 0.7 V. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Magnesium Oxide Nanorods for Oxidation of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emayavaramban, P; Babu, S Ganesh; Karvembu, R; Kadirvelu, K; Dharmaraj, N

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide nanorods (Au-MgO) have been synthesised by a solution based chemical reduction method. Au-MgO nanorods were found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of alcohols with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium at room temperature. To find out the best reaction conditions for oxidation, optimization of catalyst quantity, solvent, mole equivalence of hydrogen peroxide were carried out. The scope of the reaction was extended to several aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, product yields were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectroscopy. Heterogeneity and reusability tests were performed. The use of water as a solvent and hydrogen peroxide as co-catalyst at room temperature makes the reaction interesting from sustainable development point of view.

  7. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure.

  8. Freshwater Sediment Characterization Factors of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yubing; Laratte, Bertrand; Ionescu, Rodica Elena

    2017-01-01

    Wide use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is likely to result in the eventually accumulation of ENPs in sediment. The benthic organisms living in sediments may suffer relatively high toxic effects of ENPs. This study has selected copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) as a research object. To consider the impacts of spatial heterogeneity on ENPs toxicity, the characterization factor (CF) derived from life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used as an indicator in this study. A nano-specific fate model has been used to calculate the freshwater sediment fate factor (FF) of nano-CuO. A literature survey of the nano-CuO toxicology values has been performed to calculate the effect factor (EF). Seventeen freshwater sediment CFs of nano-CuO are proposed as recommended values for subcontinental regions. The region most likely to be affected by nano-CuO is northern Australia (CF of 21.01·103 CTUe, comparative toxic units) and the least likely is northern Europe and northern Canada (CF of 8.55·103 CTUe). These sediment CFs for nano-CuO could be used in the future when evaluating the ecosystem impacts of products containing nano-CuO by LCA method.

  9. Temperature dependent rheological property of copper oxide nanoparticles suspension (nanofluid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Devdatta P; Das, Debendra K; Chukwu, Godwin A

    2006-04-01

    A nanofluid is the dispersion of metallic solid particles of nanometer size in a base fluid such as water or ethylene glycol. The presence of these nanoparticles affects the physical properties of a nanofluid via various factors including shear stress, particle loading, and temperature. In this paper the rheological behavior of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles of 29 nm average diameter dispersed in deionized (DI) water is investigated over a range of volumetric solids concentrations of 5 to 15% and various temperatures varying from 278-323 degrees K. These experiments showed that these nanofluids exhibited time-independent pseudoplastic and shear-thinning behavior. The suspension viscosities of nanofluids decrease exponentially with respect to the shear rate. Suspension viscosity follows the correlation in the form ln(mus) = A(1/T)-B, where constants A and B are the functions of volumetric concentrations. The calculated viscosities from the developed correlations and experimental values were found to be within +/- 10% of their values.

  10. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Walkey, Carl D.

    2014-11-10

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

  11. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles for Advanced Refrigerant Thermophysical Properties: Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Fadhilah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, refrigeration systems are important for industrial and domestic applications. The systems consume more electricity as compared to other appliances. The refrigeration systems have been investigated thoroughly in many ways to reduce the energy consumption. Hence, nanorefrigerant which is one kind of nanofluids has been introduced as a superior properties refrigerant that increased the heat transfer rate in the refrigeration system. Many types of materials could be used as the nanoparticles to be suspended into the conventional refrigerants. In this study, the effect of the suspended copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles into the 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a is investigated by using mathematical modeling. The investigation includes the thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and heat transfer rate of the nanorefrigerant in a tube of evaporator. The results show enhanced thermophysical properties of nanorefrigerant compared to the conventional refrigerant. These advanced thermophysical properties increased the heat transfer rate in the tube. The nanorefrigerant could be a potential working fluid to be used in the refrigeration system to increase the heat transfer characteristics and save the energy usage.

  12. Oxalate-assisted oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol in a bimetallic, zero-valent iron-aluminum/air/water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinhong; Wang, Hongwu; Ma, Luming

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of zero-valent iron and aluminum with oxygen produced reactive oxidants that can oxidize 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). However, oxidant yield without metal surface cleaning to dissolve the native oxide layer or in the absence of ligands was too low for practical applications. The addition of oxalate (ox) to dissolved oxygen-saturated solution of Fe(0)-Al(0) significantly increased oxidant yield because of the dissolution, pH buffer, and complexing characteristics of ox. Ox-enhanced reactive oxidant generation was affected by ox concentration and solution pH. The critical effect of ox dosing was confirmed with the reactive species of [Fe(II)(ox)0] and [Fe(II)(ox)2 (2-)]. Systematic studies on the effect of the initial and in situ solution pH revealed that 4-CP oxidation was controlled by the continuous release of dissolved Fe(2+) and Al(3+), their fate, and the activation mechanisms of O2 reduction. The degradation pathway of 4-CP in ox-enhanced Fe(0)-Al(0)/O2 may follow the 4-chlorocatechol pathway. The robustness of the ox-enhanced Al(0)-Fe(0)-O2 process was determined with one-time dosing of ox. Therefore, ox is an ideal additive to enhancing the Fe(0)-Al(0)/O2 system for the oxidative degradation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  13. The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg‒Al oxide) was investigated. Mg‒Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg‒Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg‒Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg‒Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg‒Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg‒Al oxide quantity.

  14. Photocatalytic study of organosilane-modified zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tăbăcaru Aurel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our recent studies, we have investigated the tunability of optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs through surface modification with organosilane surfactants. In the present paper, the effect of ZnO NPs modified with variable amount of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate (MPS surfactant was investigated toward the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB, using two different UV light sources emitting at 254 nm and 365 nm. While the maximum photodegradation efficiency of 63% was reached by ZnO NPs loaded with the highest concentration of MPS upon exposure at 254 nm, in the case of UV exposure at 365 nm an opposite photodegradation trend was observed. Actually, a significant photodegradation efficiency of 95% was recorded by the unmodified ZnO, followed by ZnO NPs modified with 2% MPS for which the photodegradation efficiency amounted to 80%, thus highlighting their best photocatalytic performance.

  15. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijayendra K.; Kuzmann, Erno; Sharma, Virender K.; Kumar, Arun; Oliveira, Aderbal C.

    2016-10-01

    Studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been extensively carried out. Since the earlier work on Mössbauer studies on SPIONs in 1970s, many biomedical applications and their uses in innovative methods to produce new materials with improved performance have appeared. Applications of SPIONs in environmental remediation are also forthcoming. Several different methods of synthesis and coating of the magnetic particles have been described in the literature, and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been an important tool in the characterization of these materials. It is quite possible that the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra might not be entirely correct because the possible presence of maghemite in the end product of SPIONs might not have been taken into consideration. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that covers a wide range of new technologies under development in nanoscale (1 to 100 nano meters) to produce new products and methodology.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles via Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for synthesizing copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles (NPs through electrospinning is reported. The approach is based on producing rough and discontinuous electrospun nanofibers from a precursor based on copper acetate salt and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer. Selectively removing the polymeric phase from the fibers produced highly rough CuO nanofibers, which were composed of NPs that are weakly held together in a one-dimensional (1D manner. Sonication in a suitable liquid under controlled conditions completely disintegrated the nanofibers into NPs, resulting in the formation of uniform CuO NPs suspension. Aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM showed that the obtained NPs are highly crystalline and nearly sphere-like with a diameter of 30 to 70 nm. Thus, electrospinning, which is a low cost and industrially scalable technique, can also be employed for economic and large scale synthesis of NPs.

  17. Hydrogen absorption in solid aluminum during high-temperature steam oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, L. A.; Gelman, B. G.; Zhukhovitskiy, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen is emitted by aluminum heated in a vacuum after high-temperature steam treatment. Wire samples are tested for this effect, showing dependence on surface area. Two different mechanisms of absorption are inferred, and reactions deduced.

  18. Preparation of Chromium Oxide Coatings on Aluminum Borate Whiskers by a Hydrothermal Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum borate whiskers (9Al2O32B2O3) can be used to reinforce aluminum alloys to produce light and strong composites. However, the adverse interfacial reactions between the whiskers and the aluminum alloys inhibit their practical uses; therefore, a protective coating is needed on whiskers. In this work, aluminum borate whiskers were coated with chromium-coating deposits in a hydrothermal solution containing CrCl3, Na2C4H4O6, NaPH2O2, and H3BO3. The presence of the impurity P in the hydrothermal deposits can be avoided by reducing the amount of NaPH2O2 in the coating solution. Thermodynamic analysis was used to discuss the behavior of ions in the coating process. The subsequent heating of the hydrothermal products in air at 800 ℃ yielded smooth Cr2O3 films with a thickness of 0.060.07 μm.

  19. Polymer-supported metals and metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sudipta [Thapar University, Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences (India); Guibal, E. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, Laboratoire Genie de l' Environnement Industriel, BPCI Group (France); Quignard, F. [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier-UMR 5253-CNRS-UMII-ENSCM-UMI, Materiaux Avances pour la Catalyse et la Sante (France); SenGupta, A. K., E-mail: arup.sengupta@lehigh.edu [Lehigh University, Environmental Engineering Program (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles exhibit unique properties in regard to sorption behaviors, magnetic activity, chemical reduction, ligand sequestration among others. To this end, attempts are being continuously made to take advantage of them in multitude of applications including separation, catalysis, environmental remediation, sensing, biomedical applications and others. However, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles lack chemical stability and mechanical strength. They exhibit extremely high pressure drop or head loss in fixed-bed column operation and are not suitable for any flow-through systems. Also, nanoparticles tend to aggregate; this phenomenon reduces their high surface area to volume ratio and subsequently reduces effectiveness. By appropriately dispersing metal and metal oxide nanoparticles into synthetic and naturally occurring polymers, many of the shortcomings can be overcome without compromising the parent properties of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the appropriate choice of the polymer host with specific functional groups may even lead to the enhancement of the properties of nanoparticles. The synthesis of hybrid materials involves two broad pathways: dispersing the nanoparticles (i) within pre-formed or commercially available polymers; and (ii) during the polymerization process. This review presents a broad coverage of nanoparticles and polymeric/biopolymeric host materials and the resulting properties of the hybrid composites. In addition, the review discusses the role of the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host functionalized polymer in harnessing the desirable properties of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for intended applications.

  20. Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced oxidation stability for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Na Rae; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Yung Jong; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-11-13

    In this work, we synthesized uniform Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles using a facile two-step process that consists of thermal decomposition and galvanic displacement methods. The core-shell structure of these nanoparticles was confirmed through characterization using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we investigated the oxidation stability of the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles in detail. Both qualitative and quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirm that the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have considerably higher oxidation stability than Cu nanoparticles. Finally, we formulated a conductive ink using the synthesized nanoparticles and coated it onto glass substrates. Following the sintering process, we compared the resistivity of the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with that of the Cu nanoparticles. The results of this study clearly show that the Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles can potentially be used as an alternative to Ag nanoparticles because of their superior oxidation stability and electrical properties.